Abstract

Ultra-intense femtosecond vortex pulses can provide an opportunity to investigate the new phenomena with orbital angular momentum (OAM) involved in extreme cases. This paper reports a high gain optical vortex amplifier for intense femtosecond vortex pulses generation. Traditional regeneration amplifiers can offer high gain for Gaussian mode pulses but cannot amplify optical vortex pulses while maintaining the phase singularity because of mode competition. Here, we present a regeneration amplifier with a ring-shaped pump. By controlling the radius of the pump, the system can realize the motivation of the Laguerre–Gaussian [LG0,1(1)] mode and the suppression of the Gaussian mode. Without seeds, the amplifier has a donut-shaped output containing two opposite OAM states simultaneously, as our prediction by simulation. If seeded by a pulse of a topologic charge of 1 or 1, the system will output an amplified LG0,1(1) mode pulse with the same topologic charge as the seed. To our knowledge, this amplifier can offer the highest gain as 1.45×106 for optical vortex amplification. Finally, we obtain a 1.8 mJ, 51 fs compressed optical vortex seeded from a 2 nJ optical vortex.

© 2020 Chinese Laser Press

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2020 (1)

2019 (3)

E. Stegenburgs, A. Bertoncini, A. Trichili, M. S. Alias, T. K. Ng, M. Alouini, C. Liberale, and B. S. Ooi, “Near-infrared OAM communication using 3D-printed microscale spiral phase plates,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 57, 65–69 (2019).
[Crossref]

L. Rego, K. M. Dorney, N. J. Brooks, Q. L. Nguyen, C. Liao, J. San Román, D. E. Couch, A. Liu, E. Pisanty, M. Lewenstein, L. Plaja, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and C. Hernández-García, “Generation of extreme-ultraviolet beams with time-varying orbital angular momentum,” Science 364, eaaw9486 (2019).
[Crossref]

N. Li, J. Huang, B. Xu, Y. Cai, J. Lu, L. Zhan, Z. Luo, H. Xu, Z. Cai, and W. Cai, “Direct generation of an ultrafast vortex beam in a CVD-graphene-based passively mode-locked Pr:LiYF4 visible laser,” Photon. Res. 7, 1209–1213 (2019).
[Crossref]

2017 (5)

D. Pengel, S. Kerbstadt, D. Johannmeyer, L. Englert, T. Bayer, and M. Wollenhaupt, “Electron vortices in femtosecond multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 053003 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Leblanc, A. Denoeud, L. Chopineau, G. Mennerat, P. Martin, and F. Quéré, “Plasma holograms for ultrahigh-intensity optics,” Nat. Phys. 13, 440–443 (2017).
[Crossref]

D. Gauthier, P. R. Ribič, G. Adhikary, A. Camper, C. Chappuis, R. Cucini, L. F. DiMauro, G. Dovillaire, F. Frassetto, R. Géneaux, P. Miotti, L. Poletto, B. Ressel, C. Spezzani, M. Stupar, T. Ruchon, and G. De Ninno, “Tunable orbital angular momentum in high-harmonic generation,” Nat. Commun. 8, 14971 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Tan, C. Zhou, A. Shirakakwa, K. Ueda, and J. Li, “Vortex Ti:sapphire laser by using an intracavity spot-defect spatial filter,” Opt. Laser Technol. 96, 76–80 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Rothhardt, S. Hädrich, J. C. Delagnes, E. Cormier, and J. Limpert, “High average power near-infrared few-cycle lasers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 11, 1700043 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (5)

X. Chen, C. Chang, Z. Lin, P. Ding, and J. Pu, “High-energy nanosecond optical vortex output from Nd:YAG amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 28, 1271–1274 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, X. Xu, J. Xu, and J. Wang, “Self-mode-locked Laguerre–Gaussian beam with staged topological charge by thermal-optical field coupling,” Opt. Express 24, 5514–5522 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Lin, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, “Generation of intense femtosecond optical vortex pulses with blazed-phase grating in chirped-pulse amplification system of Ti:sapphire laser,” Appl. Phys. B 122, 280 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, “Advances in communications using optical vortices,” Photon. Res. 4, B14–B28 (2016).
[Crossref]

F. Courvoisier, R. Stoian, and A. Couairon, “Ultrafast laser micro- and nano-processing with nondiffracting and curved beams,” Opt. Laser Technol. 80, 125–137 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (8)

C. Liu, Z. Guo, Y. Li, X. Wang, and S. Qu, “Manipulating ellipsoidal micro-particles by femtosecond vortex tweezers,” J. Opt. 17, 035402 (2015).
[Crossref]

N. Eckerskorn, R. Bowman, R. A. Kirian, S. Awel, M. Wiedorn, J. Küpper, M. J. Padgett, H. N. Chapman, and A. V. Rode, “Optically induced forces imposed in an optical funnel on a stream of particles in air or vacuum,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 4, 064001 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Chen, B. Wei, W. Ji, S. Ge, W. Hu, F. Xu, V. Chigrinov, and Y. Lu, “Arbitrary and reconfigurable optical vortex generation: a high-efficiency technique using director-varying liquid crystal fork gratings,” Photon. Res. 3, 133–139 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photon. 7, 66–106 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Lei, M. Zhang, Y. Li, P. Jia, G. N. Liu, X. Xu, Z. Li, C. Min, J. Lin, C. Yu, H. Niu, and X. Yuan, “Massive individual orbital angular momentum channels for multiplexing enabled by Dammann gratings,” Light Sci. Appl. 4, e257 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. J. Kim and J. W. Kim, “Direct generation of an optical vortex beam in a single-frequency Nd:YVO4 laser,” Opt. Lett. 40, 399–402 (2015).
[Crossref]

W. S. Brocklesby, “Progress in high average power ultrafast lasers,” Eur. Phys. J. Spec. Top. 224, 2529–2543 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. J. Kim and J. W. Kim, “Direct generation of an optical vortex beam in a single-frequency Nd:YVO4 laser,” Opt. Lett. 40, 399–402 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (3)

2013 (2)

B. Wetzel, C. Xie, P. Lacourt, J. M. Dudley, and F. Courvoisier, “Femtosecond laser fabrication of micro and nano-disks in single layer graphene using vortex Bessel beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 241111 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. W. Kim and W. A. Clarkson, “Selective generation of Laguerre–Gaussian (LG0n) mode output in a diode-laser pumped Nd:YAG laser,” Opt. Commun. 296, 109–112 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

K. Yamane, Y. Toda, and R. Morita, “Ultrashort optical-vortex pulse generation in few-cycle regime,” Opt. Express 20, 18986–18993 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. Naidoo, K. Aït-Ameur, M. Brunel, and A. Forbes, “Intra-cavity generation of superpositions of Laguerre–Gaussian beams,” Appl. Phys. B 106, 683–690 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhao, Z. Wang, H. Yu, S. Zhuang, H. Zhang, X. Xu, J. Xu, X. Xu, and J. Wang, “Direct generation of optical vortex pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 031113 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

2010 (5)

2009 (2)

2008 (3)

2007 (2)

Z. Guo, S. Qu, and S. Liu, “Generating optical vortex with computer-generated hologram fabricated inside glass by femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Commun. 273, 286–289 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. Okida, T. Omatsu, M. Itoh, and T. Yatagai, “Direct generation of high power Laguerre–Gaussian output from a diode-pumped Nd:YVO4 1.3-μm bounce laser,” Opt. Express 15, 7616–7622 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

K. J. Moh, X. C. Yuan, D. Y. Tang, W. C. Cheong, L. S. Zhang, D. K. Y. Low, X. Peng, H. B. Niu, and Z. Y. Lin, “Generation of femtosecond optical vortices using a single refractive optical element,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 091103 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

I. G. Mariyenko, J. Strohaber, and C. J. Uiterwaal, “Creation of optical vortices in femtosecond pulses,” Opt. Express 13, 7599–7608 (2005).
[Crossref]

M. Wei, W. Shiao, and Y. Lin, “Adjustable generation of bottle and hollow beams using an axicon,” Opt. Commun. 248, 7–14 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

K. Bezuhanov, A. Dreischuh, G. G. Paulus, M. G. Schatzel, and H. Walther, “Vortices in femtosecond laser fields,” Opt. Lett 29, 1942–1944 (2004).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

S. Backus, C. G. Durfee, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “High power ultrafast lasers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 1207–1223 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (2)

A. Rundquist, C. Durfee, Z. Chang, G. Taft, E. Zeek, S. Backus, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, I. Christov, and V. Stoev, “Ultrafast laser and amplifier sources,” Appl. Phys. B 65, 161–174 (1997).
[Crossref]

A. Berzanskis, A. Matijosius, A. Piskarskas, V. Smilgevicius, and A. Stabinis, “Conversion of topological charge of optical vortices in a parametric frequency converter,” Opt. Commun. 140, 273–276 (1997).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre–Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45, 8185–8189 (1992).
[Crossref]

1985 (1)

D. Strickl and G. Mourou, “Compression of amplified chirped optical pulses,” Opt. Commun. 56, 219–221 (1985).
[Crossref]

Adhikary, G.

D. Gauthier, P. R. Ribič, G. Adhikary, A. Camper, C. Chappuis, R. Cucini, L. F. DiMauro, G. Dovillaire, F. Frassetto, R. Géneaux, P. Miotti, L. Poletto, B. Ressel, C. Spezzani, M. Stupar, T. Ruchon, and G. De Ninno, “Tunable orbital angular momentum in high-harmonic generation,” Nat. Commun. 8, 14971 (2017).
[Crossref]

Ahmed, N.

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photon. 7, 66–106 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, J. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, B. Shamee, A. E. Willner, K. Birnbaum, J. Choi, B. Erkmen, S. Dolinar, and M. Tur, “25.6-bit/s/Hz spectral efficiency using 16-QAM signals over pol-muxed multiple orbital-angular-momentum modes,” in IEEE Photonic Society 24th Annual Meeting (2011), Vol. 58, pp. 587–588.

Ait-Ameur, K.

Aït-Ameur, K.

D. Naidoo, K. Aït-Ameur, M. Brunel, and A. Forbes, “Intra-cavity generation of superpositions of Laguerre–Gaussian beams,” Appl. Phys. B 106, 683–690 (2012).
[Crossref]

Alias, M. S.

E. Stegenburgs, A. Bertoncini, A. Trichili, M. S. Alias, T. K. Ng, M. Alouini, C. Liberale, and B. S. Ooi, “Near-infrared OAM communication using 3D-printed microscale spiral phase plates,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 57, 65–69 (2019).
[Crossref]

Allen, L.

S. Franke-Arnold, L. Allen, and M. Padgett, “Advances in optical angular momentum,” Laser Photon. Rev. 2, 299–313 (2008).
[Crossref]

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre–Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45, 8185–8189 (1992).
[Crossref]

Alouini, M.

E. Stegenburgs, A. Bertoncini, A. Trichili, M. S. Alias, T. K. Ng, M. Alouini, C. Liberale, and B. S. Ooi, “Near-infrared OAM communication using 3D-printed microscale spiral phase plates,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 57, 65–69 (2019).
[Crossref]

Ando, T.

Aoki, N.

Ashrafi, N.

Ashrafi, S.

Awel, S.

N. Eckerskorn, R. Bowman, R. A. Kirian, S. Awel, M. Wiedorn, J. Küpper, M. J. Padgett, H. N. Chapman, and A. V. Rode, “Optically induced forces imposed in an optical funnel on a stream of particles in air or vacuum,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 4, 064001 (2015).
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Backus, S.

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J. Wang, J. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, B. Shamee, A. E. Willner, K. Birnbaum, J. Choi, B. Erkmen, S. Dolinar, and M. Tur, “25.6-bit/s/Hz spectral efficiency using 16-QAM signals over pol-muxed multiple orbital-angular-momentum modes,” in IEEE Photonic Society 24th Annual Meeting (2011), Vol. 58, pp. 587–588.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Evolution of an optical vortex seed with l=1 in a conventional RA and the amplification number kn=4n3.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Setup of the proposed RA. QW, quarter-wave plate; QP, Q-plate; OC, optical coupling system; M, plane mirror; CM, concave mirror, R=1  m; PM, fold mirror, R=0.9  m; PC, Pock cell; BE, beam expander; P, polarizer; PL, pump lens, f=30  cm; CA, convex axicon, base angle of 0.5°; Ti:S, Ti:sapphire, length of 25.4 mm.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Simulations of laser oscillations from noises with the different ring-shaped pump radii. Expansion ratios are (a) 4, (b) 3.5, and (c) 3.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Simulation of vortex amplification with different seed energies.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. (a) Ring-shaped pump on one of the Ti:S surfaces, (b) the donut-shaped output from the unseeded RA, (c) the phase structure of our Dammann vortex grating, (d) the corresponding far-field with parallel illumination, and (e) the measured far-field illuminated by the output of the unseeded RA.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Recorded spatial intensities of the seed with l=1: (a) the seed focused by a cylindrical lens, (b) the output spatial intensity distribution, and (c) the far-field distribution after Dammann vortex grating.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Recorded spatial intensities of the seed with l=1: (a) the seed focused by a cylindrical lens, (b) the output spatial intensity distribution, and (c) the far-field distribution after Dammann vortex grating.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. (a) Spatial cross-section intensity of the amplified LG0,1 vortex: the average from the different orientations (black line) and theoretical fitting (dashed red line); (b) the spectral intensity and phase of the amplified LG0,1 pulse; (c) the temporal intensity and phase of the amplified LG0,1 pulse (black and blue lines) and the temporal intensity of corresponding Fourier-transform-limited pulse (red line).

Equations (1)

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ρp,l=E|LGp,lLGp,l|EE|ELGp,l|LGp,l,

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