Abstract

The record power conversion efficiency of small-area perovskite solar cells has impressively exceeded 25%. For commercial application, a large-area device is the necessary next step. Recently, significant progress has been achieved in fabricating efficient large-area perovskite solar cells. In this review, we will summarize recent achievements in large-area perovskite solar cells including the deposition methods as well as growth control of the large-area, high-quality perovskite layer and also the charge transport layer. Finally, we will give our insight into large-area perovskite solar cells.

© 2020 Chinese Laser Press

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2020 (2)

M. A. Green, E. D. Dunlop, J. H. Ebinger, M. Yoshita, N. Kopidakis, and A. W. Y. Ho-Baillie, “Solar cell efficiency tables (version 55),” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 28, 3–15 (2020).
[Crossref]

C. Liang, K. M. Muhammed Salim, P. Li, Z. Wang, T. M. Koh, H. Gu, B. Wu, J. Xia, Z. Zhang, K. Wang, T. Liu, Q. Wei, S. Wang, Y. Tang, G. Shao, Y. Song, N. Mathews, and G. Xing, “Controlling films structure by regulating 2D Ruddlesden-Popper perovskite formation enthalpy for efficient and stable tri-cation perovskite solar cells,” J. Mater. Chem. A 8, 5874–5881 (2020).

2019 (17)

L. Qiu, S. He, Y. Jiang, D.-Y. Son, L. K. Ono, Z. Liu, T. Kim, T. Bouloumis, S. Kazaoui, and Y. Qi, “Hybrid chemical vapor deposition enables scalable and stable Cs-FA mixed cation perovskite solar modules with a designated area of 91.8 cm2 approaching 10% efficiency,” J. Mater. Chem. A 7, 6920–6929 (2019).
[Crossref]

C. Liang, D. Zhao, P. Li, B. Wu, H. Gu, J. Zhang, T. W. Goh, S. Chen, Y. Chen, Z. Sha, G. Shao, T. C. Sumb, and G. Xing, “Simultaneously boost diffusion length and stability of perovskite for high performance solar cells,” Nano Energy 59, 721–729 (2019).
[Crossref]

X. Ren, L. Xie, W. B. Kim, D. G. Lee, H. S. Jung, and S. F. Liu, “Chemical bath deposition of co-doped TiO2 electron transport layer for hysteresis-suppressed high-efficiency planar perovskite solar cells,” Sol. RRL 3, 1900176 (2019).
[Crossref]

L. Qiu, Z. Liu, L. K. Ono, Y. Jiang, D.-Y. Son, Z. Hawash, S. He, and Y. Qi, “Scalable fabrication of stable high efficiency perovskite solar cells and modules utilizing room temperature sputtered SnO2 electron transport layer,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 29, 1806779 (2019).
[Crossref]

S. K. Karunakaran, G. M. Arumugam, W. Yang, S. Ge, S. N. Khan, X. Lin, and G. Yang, “Recent progress in inkjet-printed solar cells,” J. Mater. Chem. A 7, 13873–13902 (2019).
[Crossref]

J.-E. Kim, S.-S. Kim, C. Zuo, M. Gao, D. Vak, and D.-Y. Kim, “Humidity-tolerant roll-to-roll fabrication of perovskite solar cells via polymer-additive- assisted hot slot die deposition,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 29, 1809194 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. Y. Kim, T.-Y. Yang, R. Suhonen, M. Välimäki, T. Maaninen, A. Kemppainen, N. J. Jeon, and J. Seo, “Gravure-printed flexible perovskite solar cells: toward roll-to-roll manufacturing,” Adv. Sci. 6, 1802094 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhao, Q. Ye, Z. Chu, F. Gao, X. Zhang, and J. You, “Recent progress in high-efficiency planar-structure perovskite solar cells,” Energy Environ. Mater. 2, 93–106 (2019).
[Crossref]

H. S. Jung, G. S. Han, N.-G. Park, and M. J. Ko, “Flexible perovskite solar cells,” Joule 3, 1850–1880 (2019).
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Y. Deng, C. H. V. Brackle, X. Dai, J. Zhao, B. Chen, and J. Huang, “Tailoring solvent coordination for high-speed, room-temperature blading of perovskite photovoltaic films,” Sci. Adv. 5, eaax7537 (2019).
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Q. Jiang, Y. Zhao, X. Zhang, X. Yang, Y. Chen, Z. Chu, Q. Ye, X. Li, Z. Yin, and J. You, “Surface passivation of perovskite film for efficient solar cells,” Nat. Photonics 13, 460–466 (2019).
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Q. Ye, Y. Zhao, S. Mu, P. Gao, X. Zhang, and J. You, “Stabilizing the black phase of cesium lead halide inorganic perovskite for efficient solar cells,” Sci. China Chem. 62, 810–821 (2019).
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F. Gao, Y. Zhao, X. Zhang, and J. You, “Recent progresses on defect passivation toward efficient perovskite solar cells,” Adv. Energy Mater. 10, 1902650 (2019).
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N.-G. Park, “Research direction toward scalable, stable, and high efficiency perovskite solar cells,” Adv. Energy Mater. 10, 1903106 (2019).
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B. Cao, L. Yang, S. Jiang, H. Lin, N. Wang, and X. Li, “Flexible quintuple cation perovskite solar cells with high efficiency,” J. Mater. Chem. A 7, 4960–4970 (2019).
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E. H. Jung, N. J. Jeon, E. Y. Park, C. S. Moon, T. J. Shin, T.-Y. Yang, J. H. Noh, and J. Seo, “Efficient, stable and scalable perovskite solar cells using poly(3-hexylthiophene),” Nature 567, 511–515 (2019).
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Y. Wang, T. Wu, J. Barbaud, W. Kong, D. Cui, H. Chen, X. Yang, and L. Han, “Stabilizing heterostructures of soft perovskite semiconductors,” Science 365, 687–691 (2019).
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2018 (19)

W. Chen, Y. Wu, J. Fan, A. B. Djurišić, F. Liu, H. W. Tam, A. Ng, C. Surya, W. K. Chan, D. Wang, and Z.-B. He, “Understanding the doping effect on NiO: toward high-performance inverted perovskite solar cells,” Adv. Energy Mater. 8, 1703519 (2018).
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T. Bu, J. Li, F. Zheng, W. Chen, X. Wen, Z. Ku, Y. Peng, J. Zhong, Y.-B. Cheng, and F. Huang, “Universal passivation strategy to slot-die printed SnO2 for hysteresis-free efficient flexible perovskite solar module,” Nat. Commun. 9, 4609 (2018).
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J.-W. Lee, D.-K. Lee, D.-N. Jeong, and N.-G. Park, “Control of crystal growth toward scalable fabrication of perovskite solar cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 29, 1807047 (2018).
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D. H. Kim, J. B. Whitaker, Z. Li, M. F. A. M. van Hest, and K. Zhu, “Outlook and challenges of perovskite solar cells toward terawatt-scale photovoltaic module technology,” Joule 2, 1437–1451 (2018).
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J. B. Whitaker, D. H. Kim, B. W. Larson, F. Zhang, J. J. Berry, M. F. A. M. van Hest, and K. Zhu, “Scalable slot-die coating of high performance perovskite solar cells,” Sustain. Energy Fuels 2, 2442–2449 (2018).
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Y. Deng, X. Zheng, Y. Bai, Q. Wang, J. Zhao, and J. Huang, “Surfactant-controlled ink drying enables high-speed deposition of perovskite films for efficient photovoltaic modules,” Nat. Energy 3, 560–566 (2018).
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Y. Chen, L. Zhang, Y. Zhang, H. Gao, and H. Yan, “Large-area perovskite solar cells – a review of recent progress and issues,” RSC Adv. 8, 10489–10508 (2018).
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C. Zuo, D. Vak, D. Angmo, L. Ding, and M. Gao, “One-step roll-to-roll air processed high efficiency perovskite solar cells,” Nano Energy 46, 185–192 (2018).
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F. D. Giacomo, S. Shanmugam, H. Fledderus, B. J. Bruijnaers, W. J. Verhees, M. S. Dorenkamper, S. C. Veenstra, W. Qiu, R. Gehlhaar, and T. Merckx, “Up-scalable sheet-to-sheet production of high efficiency perovskite module and solar cells on 6-in. substrate using slot die coating,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 181, 53–59 (2018).
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N. Jeon, H. Na, E. Jung, T.-Y. Yang, Y. Lee, G. Kim, H.-W. Shin, S. Seok, J. Lee, and J. Seo, “A fluorene-terminated hole-transporting material for highly efficient and stable perovskite solar cells,” Nat. Energy 3, 682–689 (2018).
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M. Park, W. Cho, G. Lee, S. C. Hong, M.-C. Kim, J. Yoon, N. Ahn, and M. Choi, “Highly reproducible large-area perovskite solar cell fabrication via continuous megasonic spray coating of CH3NH3PbI3,” Small 15, 1804005 (2018).
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Z. Liu, L. Qiu, E. J. J. Perez, Z. Hawash, T. Kim, Y. Jiang, Z. Wu, S. R. Raga, L. K. Ono, S. F. Liu, and Y. Qi, “Gas-solid reaction based over one-micrometer thick stable perovskite films for efficient solar cells and modules,” Nat. Commun. 9, 3880 (2018).
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Y. Rong, Y. Hu, A. Mei, H. Tan, M. I. Saidaminov, S. Il Seok, M. D. McGehee, E. H. Sargent, and H. Han, “Challenges for commercializing perovskite solar cells,” Science 361, eaat8235 (2018).
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C. Liang, P. Li, H. Gu, Y. Zhang, F. Li, Y. Song, G. Shao, N. Mathews, and G. Xing, “One-step inkjet printed perovskite in air for efficient light harvesting,” Sol. RRL 2, 1700217 (2018).
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P. Li, C. Liang, B. Bao, Y. Li, X. Hu, Y. Wang, Y. Zhang, F. Li, G. Shao, and Y. Song, “Inkjet manipulated homogeneous large size perovskite grains for efficient and large-area perovskite solar cells,” Nano Energy 46, 203–211 (2018).
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B. Dou, J. B. Whitaker, K. Bruening, D. T. Moore, L. M. Wheeler, J. Ryter, N. J. Breslin, J. J. Berry, S. M. Garner, and F. Barnes, “Roll-to-roll printing of perovskite solar cells,” ACS Energy Lett. 3, 2558–2565 (2018).
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J. Sun, J. Lu, B. Li, L. Jiang, A. S. R. Chesman, A. D. Scully, T. R. Gengenbach, Y.-B. Cheng, and J. J. Jasieniak, “Inverted perovskite solar cells with high fill-factors featuring chemical bath deposited mesoporous NiO hole transporting layers,” Nano Energy 49, 163–171 (2018).
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C. Liang, D. Zhao, Y. Li, X. Li, S. Peng, G. Shao, and G. Xing, “Ruddlesden–Popper perovskite for stable solar cells,” Energy Environ. Mater. 1, 221–231 (2018).
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P. Li, Y. Zhang, C. Liang, G. Xing, X. Liu, F. Li, X. Liu, X. Hu, G. Shao, and Y. Song, “Phase pure 2D perovskite for high-performance 2D-3D heterostructured perovskite solar cells,” Adv. Mater. 30, 1805323 (2018).
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2017 (14)

J. Feng, Z. Yang, D. Yang, X. Ren, X. Zhu, Z. Jin, W. Zi, Q. Wei, and S. F. Liu, “E-beam evaporated Nb2O5 as an effective electron transport layer for large flexible perovskite solar cells,” Nano Energy 36, 1–8 (2017).
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C. Liang, Z. Wu, P. Li, J. Fan, Y. Zhang, and G. Shao, “Making high-quality CTLs is as important as making high-quality perovskite films to achieve efficient and stable PSCs,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 391, 337–341 (2017).
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G. Fu, L. Hou, Y. Wang, X. Liu, J. Wang, H. Li, Y. Cui, D. Liu, X. Li, and S. Yang, “Efficiency enhancement in planar CH3NH3PbI3–xClx perovskite solar cells by processing with bidentate halogenated additives,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 165, 36–44 (2017).
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Y. Hu, S. Si, A. Mei, Y. Rong, H. Liu, X. Li, and H. Han, “Stable large-area (10 × 10  cm2) printable mesoscopic perovskite module exceeding 10% efficiency,” Sol. RRL 1, 1600019 (2017).
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G. Li, Y. Jiang, S. Deng, A. Tam, P. Xu, M. Wong, and H.-S. Kwok, “Overcoming the limitations of sputtered nickel oxide for high-efficiency and large-area perovskite solar cells,” Adv. Sci. 4, 1700463 (2017).
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T. Bu, X. Liu, Y. Zhou, J. Yi, X. Huang, L. Luo, J. Xiao, Z. Ku, Y. Peng, F. Huang, Y.-B. Cheng, and J. Zhong, “Novel quadruple-cation absorber for universal hysteresis elimination for high efficiency and stable perovskite solar cells,” Energy Environ. Sci. 10, 2509–2515 (2017).
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H.-C. Liao, P. Guo, C.-P. Hsu, M. Lin, B. Wang, L. Zeng, W. Huang, C. M. M. Soe, W.-F. Su, M. J. Bedzyk, M. R. Wasielewski, A. Facchetti, R. P. H. Chang, M. G. Kanatzidis, and T. J. Marks, “Enhanced efficiency of hot-cast large-area planar perovskite solar cells/modules having controlled chloride incorporation,” Adv. Energy Mater. 7, 1601660 (2017).
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M. Yang, Z. Li, M. O. Reese, O. G. Reid, D. H. Kim, S. Siol, T. R. Klein, Y. Yan, J. J. Berry, M. F. A. M. van Hest, and K. Zhu, “Perovskite ink with wide processing window for scalable high-efficiency solar cells,” Nat. Energy 2, 17038 (2017).
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H. Chen, F. Ye, W. Tang, J. He, M. Yin, Y. Wang, F. Xie, E. Bi, X. Yang, M. Grätzel, and L. Han, “A solvent- and vacuum-free route to large-area perovskite films for efficient solar modules,” Nature 550, 92–95 (2017).
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W. S. Yang, B.-W. Park, E. H. Jung, N. J. Jeon, Y. C. Kim, D. Uk Lee, S. S. Shin, J. Seo, E. K. Kim, J. H. Noh, and S. Il Seok, “Iodide management in formamidinium-lead-halide-based perovskite layers for efficient solar cells,” Science 356, 1376–1379 (2017).
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H. Tan, A. Jain, O. Voznyy, X. Lan, F. P. G. de Arquer, J. Z. Fan, R. Q. Bermudez, M. Yuan, B. Zhang, Y. Zhao, F. Fan, P. Li, L. N. Quan, Y. Zhao, Z.-H. Lu, Z. Yang, S. Hoogland, and E. H. Sargent, “Efficient and stable solution-processed planar perovskite solar cells via contact passivation,” Science 355, 722–726 (2017).
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Q. Jiang, Z. Chu, P. Wang, X. Yang, H. Liu, Y. Wang, Z. Yin, J. Wu, X. Zhang, and J. You, “Planar-structure perovskite solar cells with efficiency beyond 21%,” Adv. Mater. 29, 1703852 (2017).
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T. Qin, W. Huang, J.-E. Kim, D. Vak, C. Forsyth, C. R. McNeill, and Y.-B. Cheng, “Amorphous hole-transporting layer in slot-die coated perovskite solar cells,” Nano Energy 31, 210–217 (2017).
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G. Grancini, C. Roldán-Carmona, I. Zimmermann, E. Mosconi, X. Lee, D. Martineau, S. Narbey, F. Oswald, F. De Angelis, M. Graetzel, and M. K. Nazeeruddin, “One-year stable perovskite solar cells by 2D/3D interface engineering,” Nat. Commun. 8, 15684 (2017).
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2016 (6)

D. Bi, C. Yi, J. Luo, J. D. Decoppet, F. Zhang, S. Zakeeruddin, X. Li, A. Hagfeldt, and M. Gratzel, “Polymer-templated nucleation and crystal growth of perovskite films for solar cells with efficiency greater than 21%,” Nat. Energy 1, 16142 (2016).
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J. G. Tait, S. Manghooli, W. Qiu, L. Rakocevic, L. Kootstra, M. Jaysankar, C. A. Massede la Huerta, U. W. Paetzold, R. Gehlhaar, D. Cheyns, P. Heremans, and J. Poortmans, “Rapid composition screening for perovskite photovoltaics via concurrently pumped ultrasonic spray coating,” J. Mater. Chem. A 4, 3792–3797 (2016).
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W. Qiu, T. Merckx, M. Jaysankar, C. Masse de la Huerta, L. Rakocevic, W. Zhang, U. W. Paetzold, R. Gehlhaar, L. Froyen, J. Poortmans, D. Cheyns, H. J. Snaith, and P. Heremans, “Pinhole-free perovskite films for efficient solar modules,” Energy Environ. Sci. 9, 484–489 (2016).
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A. Priyadarshi, L. J. Haur, P. Murray, D. Fu, S. Kulkarni, G. Xing, T. C. Sum, N. Mathews, and S. G. Mhaisalkar, “A large area (70 cm2) monolithic perovskite solar module with a high efficiency and stability,” Energy Environ. Sci. 9, 3687–3692 (2016).
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J. H. Heo, M. H. Lee, M. H. Jang, and S. H. Im, “Highly efficient CH3NH3PbI3-xClx mixed halide perovskite solar cells prepared by re-dissolution and crystal grain growth via spray coating,” J. Mater. Chem. A 4, 17636–17642 (2016).
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X. Li, D. Bi, C. Yi, J.-D. Décoppet, J. Luo, S. M. Zakeeruddin, A. Hagfeldt, and M. Grätzel, “A vacuum flash-assisted solution process for high-efficiency large-area perovskite solar cells,” Science 353, 58–62 (2016).
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2015 (7)

M. Yang, Y. Zhou, Y. Zeng, C.-S. Jiang, N. P. Padture, and K. Zhu, “Square-centimeter solution-processed planar CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite solar cells with efficiency exceeding 15%,” Adv. Mater. 27, 6363–6370 (2015).
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K. Hwang, Y.-S. Jung, Y.-J. Heo, F. H. Scholes, S. E. Watkins, J. Subbiah, D. J. Jones, D.-Y. Kim, and D. Vak, “Toward large scale roll-to-roll production of fully printed perovskite solar cells,” Adv. Mater. 27, 1241–1247 (2015).
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N. J. Jeon, J. H. Noh, W. S. Yang, Y. C. Kim, S. Ryu, J. Seo, and S. Il Seok, “Compositional engineering of perovskite materials for high-performance solar cells,” Nature 517, 476–480 (2015).
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Z. Yang, C.-C. Chueh, F. Zuo, J. H. Kim, P.-W. Liang, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “High-performance fully printable perovskite solar cells via blade-coating technique under the ambient condition,” Adv. Energy Mater. 5, 1500328 (2015).
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Y. Deng, E. Peng, Y. Shao, Z. Xiao, Q. Dong, and J. Huang, “Scalable fabrication of efficient organolead trihalide perovskite solar cells with doctor-bladed active layers,” Energy Environ. Sci. 8, 1544–1550 (2015).
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W. Chen, Y. Wu, Y. Yue, J. Liu, W. Zhang, X. Yang, H. Chen, E. Bi, I. Ashraful, M. Grätzel, and L. Han, “Efficient and stable large-area perovskite solar cells with inorganic charge extraction layers,” Science 350, 944–948 (2015).
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W. Yang, J. Noh, N. Jeon, Y. Kim, S. Ryu, J. Seo, and S. Seok, “High-performance photovoltaic perovskite layers fabricated through intramolecular exchange,” Science 348, 1234–1237 (2015).
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2014 (6)

D. Vak, K. Hwang, A. Faulks, Y.-S. Jung, N. Clark, D.-Y. Kim, G. J. Wilson, and S. E. Watkins, “3D printer based slot-die coater as a lab-to-fab translation tool for solution-processed solar cells,” Adv. Energy Mater. 5, 1401539 (2014).
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A. T. Barrows, A. J. Pearson, C. K. Kwak, A. D. F. Dunbar, A. R. Buckley, and D. G. Lidzey, “Efficient planar heterojunction mixed-halide perovskite solar cells deposited via spray-deposition,” Energy Environ. Sci. 7, 2944–2950 (2014).
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Y. Wu, A. Islam, X. Yang, C. Qin, J. Liu, K. Zhang, W. Peng, and L. Han, “Retarding the crystallization of PbI2 for highly reproducible planar-structured perovskite solar cells via sequential deposition,” Energy Environ. Sci. 7, 2934–2938 (2014).
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N. J. Jeon, J. H. Noh, Y. C. Kim, W. S. Yang, S. Ryu, and S. I. Seok, “Solvent engineering for high-performance inorganic-organic hybrid perovskite solar cells,” Nat. Mater. 13, 897–903 (2014).
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A. Mei, X. Li, L. Liu, Z. Ku, T. Liu, Y. Rong, M. Xu, M. Hu, J. Chen, Y. Yang, M. Grätzel, and H. Han, “A hole-conductor-free, fully printable mesoscopic perovskite solar cell with high stability,” Science 345, 295–298 (2014).
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P.-W. Liang, C.-Y. Liao, C.-C. Chueh, F. Zuo, S. T. Williams, X.-K. Xin, J. Lin, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Additive enhanced crystallization of solution-processed perovskite for highly efficient planar-heterojunction solar cells,” Adv. Mater. 26, 3748–3754 (2014).
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2013 (1)

O. A. Basaran, H. Gao, and P. P. Bhat, “Nonstandard inkjets,” Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. 45, 85–113 (2013).
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2012 (2)

H. Kim, C. Lee, J. H. Im, K. Lee, T. Moehl, A. Marchioro, S. Moon, R. Humphry-Baker, J. Yum, J. Moser, M. Gratzel, and N. Park, “Lead iodide perovskite sensitized all-solid-state submicron thin film mesoscopic solar cell with efficiency exceeding 9%,” Sci. Rep. 2, 591 (2012).
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M. M. Lee, J. Teuscher, T. Miyasaka, T. N. Murakami, and H. J. Snaith, “Efficient hybrid solar cells based on meso-superstructured organometal halide perovskites,” Science 338, 643–647 (2012).
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2009 (1)

K. Kojima, Y. Teshima, T. Shirai, and T. Miyasaka, “Organometal halide perovskites as visible-light sensitizers for photovoltaic cells,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131, 6050–6051 (2009).
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Ahn, N.

M. Park, W. Cho, G. Lee, S. C. Hong, M.-C. Kim, J. Yoon, N. Ahn, and M. Choi, “Highly reproducible large-area perovskite solar cell fabrication via continuous megasonic spray coating of CH3NH3PbI3,” Small 15, 1804005 (2018).
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Angmo, D.

C. Zuo, D. Vak, D. Angmo, L. Ding, and M. Gao, “One-step roll-to-roll air processed high efficiency perovskite solar cells,” Nano Energy 46, 185–192 (2018).
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Arumugam, G. M.

S. K. Karunakaran, G. M. Arumugam, W. Yang, S. Ge, S. N. Khan, X. Lin, and G. Yang, “Recent progress in inkjet-printed solar cells,” J. Mater. Chem. A 7, 13873–13902 (2019).
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Ashraful, I.

W. Chen, Y. Wu, Y. Yue, J. Liu, W. Zhang, X. Yang, H. Chen, E. Bi, I. Ashraful, M. Grätzel, and L. Han, “Efficient and stable large-area perovskite solar cells with inorganic charge extraction layers,” Science 350, 944–948 (2015).
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Bai, Y.

Y. Deng, X. Zheng, Y. Bai, Q. Wang, J. Zhao, and J. Huang, “Surfactant-controlled ink drying enables high-speed deposition of perovskite films for efficient photovoltaic modules,” Nat. Energy 3, 560–566 (2018).
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Bao, B.

P. Li, C. Liang, B. Bao, Y. Li, X. Hu, Y. Wang, Y. Zhang, F. Li, G. Shao, and Y. Song, “Inkjet manipulated homogeneous large size perovskite grains for efficient and large-area perovskite solar cells,” Nano Energy 46, 203–211 (2018).
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Barbaud, J.

Y. Wang, T. Wu, J. Barbaud, W. Kong, D. Cui, H. Chen, X. Yang, and L. Han, “Stabilizing heterostructures of soft perovskite semiconductors,” Science 365, 687–691 (2019).
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Barnes, F.

B. Dou, J. B. Whitaker, K. Bruening, D. T. Moore, L. M. Wheeler, J. Ryter, N. J. Breslin, J. J. Berry, S. M. Garner, and F. Barnes, “Roll-to-roll printing of perovskite solar cells,” ACS Energy Lett. 3, 2558–2565 (2018).
[Crossref]

Barrows, A. T.

A. T. Barrows, A. J. Pearson, C. K. Kwak, A. D. F. Dunbar, A. R. Buckley, and D. G. Lidzey, “Efficient planar heterojunction mixed-halide perovskite solar cells deposited via spray-deposition,” Energy Environ. Sci. 7, 2944–2950 (2014).
[Crossref]

Basaran, O. A.

O. A. Basaran, H. Gao, and P. P. Bhat, “Nonstandard inkjets,” Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. 45, 85–113 (2013).
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Bedzyk, M. J.

H.-C. Liao, P. Guo, C.-P. Hsu, M. Lin, B. Wang, L. Zeng, W. Huang, C. M. M. Soe, W.-F. Su, M. J. Bedzyk, M. R. Wasielewski, A. Facchetti, R. P. H. Chang, M. G. Kanatzidis, and T. J. Marks, “Enhanced efficiency of hot-cast large-area planar perovskite solar cells/modules having controlled chloride incorporation,” Adv. Energy Mater. 7, 1601660 (2017).
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Bermudez, R. Q.

H. Tan, A. Jain, O. Voznyy, X. Lan, F. P. G. de Arquer, J. Z. Fan, R. Q. Bermudez, M. Yuan, B. Zhang, Y. Zhao, F. Fan, P. Li, L. N. Quan, Y. Zhao, Z.-H. Lu, Z. Yang, S. Hoogland, and E. H. Sargent, “Efficient and stable solution-processed planar perovskite solar cells via contact passivation,” Science 355, 722–726 (2017).
[Crossref]

Berry, J. J.

J. B. Whitaker, D. H. Kim, B. W. Larson, F. Zhang, J. J. Berry, M. F. A. M. van Hest, and K. Zhu, “Scalable slot-die coating of high performance perovskite solar cells,” Sustain. Energy Fuels 2, 2442–2449 (2018).
[Crossref]

B. Dou, J. B. Whitaker, K. Bruening, D. T. Moore, L. M. Wheeler, J. Ryter, N. J. Breslin, J. J. Berry, S. M. Garner, and F. Barnes, “Roll-to-roll printing of perovskite solar cells,” ACS Energy Lett. 3, 2558–2565 (2018).
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M. Yang, Z. Li, M. O. Reese, O. G. Reid, D. H. Kim, S. Siol, T. R. Klein, Y. Yan, J. J. Berry, M. F. A. M. van Hest, and K. Zhu, “Perovskite ink with wide processing window for scalable high-efficiency solar cells,” Nat. Energy 2, 17038 (2017).
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Bhat, P. P.

O. A. Basaran, H. Gao, and P. P. Bhat, “Nonstandard inkjets,” Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. 45, 85–113 (2013).
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Bi, D.

D. Bi, C. Yi, J. Luo, J. D. Decoppet, F. Zhang, S. Zakeeruddin, X. Li, A. Hagfeldt, and M. Gratzel, “Polymer-templated nucleation and crystal growth of perovskite films for solar cells with efficiency greater than 21%,” Nat. Energy 1, 16142 (2016).
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X. Li, D. Bi, C. Yi, J.-D. Décoppet, J. Luo, S. M. Zakeeruddin, A. Hagfeldt, and M. Grätzel, “A vacuum flash-assisted solution process for high-efficiency large-area perovskite solar cells,” Science 353, 58–62 (2016).
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Bi, E.

H. Chen, F. Ye, W. Tang, J. He, M. Yin, Y. Wang, F. Xie, E. Bi, X. Yang, M. Grätzel, and L. Han, “A solvent- and vacuum-free route to large-area perovskite films for efficient solar modules,” Nature 550, 92–95 (2017).
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W. Chen, Y. Wu, Y. Yue, J. Liu, W. Zhang, X. Yang, H. Chen, E. Bi, I. Ashraful, M. Grätzel, and L. Han, “Efficient and stable large-area perovskite solar cells with inorganic charge extraction layers,” Science 350, 944–948 (2015).
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Bouloumis, T.

L. Qiu, S. He, Y. Jiang, D.-Y. Son, L. K. Ono, Z. Liu, T. Kim, T. Bouloumis, S. Kazaoui, and Y. Qi, “Hybrid chemical vapor deposition enables scalable and stable Cs-FA mixed cation perovskite solar modules with a designated area of 91.8 cm2 approaching 10% efficiency,” J. Mater. Chem. A 7, 6920–6929 (2019).
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Brackle, C. H. V.

Y. Deng, C. H. V. Brackle, X. Dai, J. Zhao, B. Chen, and J. Huang, “Tailoring solvent coordination for high-speed, room-temperature blading of perovskite photovoltaic films,” Sci. Adv. 5, eaax7537 (2019).
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Breslin, N. J.

B. Dou, J. B. Whitaker, K. Bruening, D. T. Moore, L. M. Wheeler, J. Ryter, N. J. Breslin, J. J. Berry, S. M. Garner, and F. Barnes, “Roll-to-roll printing of perovskite solar cells,” ACS Energy Lett. 3, 2558–2565 (2018).
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Bruening, K.

B. Dou, J. B. Whitaker, K. Bruening, D. T. Moore, L. M. Wheeler, J. Ryter, N. J. Breslin, J. J. Berry, S. M. Garner, and F. Barnes, “Roll-to-roll printing of perovskite solar cells,” ACS Energy Lett. 3, 2558–2565 (2018).
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Bruijnaers, B. J.

F. D. Giacomo, S. Shanmugam, H. Fledderus, B. J. Bruijnaers, W. J. Verhees, M. S. Dorenkamper, S. C. Veenstra, W. Qiu, R. Gehlhaar, and T. Merckx, “Up-scalable sheet-to-sheet production of high efficiency perovskite module and solar cells on 6-in. substrate using slot die coating,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 181, 53–59 (2018).
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W. S. Yang, B.-W. Park, E. H. Jung, N. J. Jeon, Y. C. Kim, D. Uk Lee, S. S. Shin, J. Seo, E. K. Kim, J. H. Noh, and S. Il Seok, “Iodide management in formamidinium-lead-halide-based perovskite layers for efficient solar cells,” Science 356, 1376–1379 (2017).
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W. Chen, Y. Wu, Y. Yue, J. Liu, W. Zhang, X. Yang, H. Chen, E. Bi, I. Ashraful, M. Grätzel, and L. Han, “Efficient and stable large-area perovskite solar cells with inorganic charge extraction layers,” Science 350, 944–948 (2015).
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H. Tan, A. Jain, O. Voznyy, X. Lan, F. P. G. de Arquer, J. Z. Fan, R. Q. Bermudez, M. Yuan, B. Zhang, Y. Zhao, F. Fan, P. Li, L. N. Quan, Y. Zhao, Z.-H. Lu, Z. Yang, S. Hoogland, and E. H. Sargent, “Efficient and stable solution-processed planar perovskite solar cells via contact passivation,” Science 355, 722–726 (2017).
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Small (1)

M. Park, W. Cho, G. Lee, S. C. Hong, M.-C. Kim, J. Yoon, N. Ahn, and M. Choi, “Highly reproducible large-area perovskite solar cell fabrication via continuous megasonic spray coating of CH3NH3PbI3,” Small 15, 1804005 (2018).
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Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells (2)

F. D. Giacomo, S. Shanmugam, H. Fledderus, B. J. Bruijnaers, W. J. Verhees, M. S. Dorenkamper, S. C. Veenstra, W. Qiu, R. Gehlhaar, and T. Merckx, “Up-scalable sheet-to-sheet production of high efficiency perovskite module and solar cells on 6-in. substrate using slot die coating,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 181, 53–59 (2018).
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G. Fu, L. Hou, Y. Wang, X. Liu, J. Wang, H. Li, Y. Cui, D. Liu, X. Li, and S. Yang, “Efficiency enhancement in planar CH3NH3PbI3–xClx perovskite solar cells by processing with bidentate halogenated additives,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 165, 36–44 (2017).
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Sol. RRL (3)

Y. Hu, S. Si, A. Mei, Y. Rong, H. Liu, X. Li, and H. Han, “Stable large-area (10 × 10  cm2) printable mesoscopic perovskite module exceeding 10% efficiency,” Sol. RRL 1, 1600019 (2017).
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X. Ren, L. Xie, W. B. Kim, D. G. Lee, H. S. Jung, and S. F. Liu, “Chemical bath deposition of co-doped TiO2 electron transport layer for hysteresis-suppressed high-efficiency planar perovskite solar cells,” Sol. RRL 3, 1900176 (2019).
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C. Liang, P. Li, H. Gu, Y. Zhang, F. Li, Y. Song, G. Shao, N. Mathews, and G. Xing, “One-step inkjet printed perovskite in air for efficient light harvesting,” Sol. RRL 2, 1700217 (2018).
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Sustain. Energy Fuels (1)

J. B. Whitaker, D. H. Kim, B. W. Larson, F. Zhang, J. J. Berry, M. F. A. M. van Hest, and K. Zhu, “Scalable slot-die coating of high performance perovskite solar cells,” Sustain. Energy Fuels 2, 2442–2449 (2018).
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Figures (12)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) One-step deposited perovskite films. (b) Two-step deposited perovskite films. (c) J-V curve of the best large cell endowed with anti-reflection film. (d) J-V curve of the PSCs in large size of 1  cm2 measured under reverse and forward scan under one-sun condition. (a), (b) Reproduced with permission [26], Copyright 2018, Royal Society of Chemistry. (c) Reproduced with permission [17], Copyright 2015, American Association for the Advancement Science. (d) Reproduced with permission [19], Copyright 2017, Nature Publishing Group.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) Schematic illustration for the blade coating of perovskite film in the Landau–Levich mode. (b) The perovskite film’s thickness as a function of blade-coating speed by coating a 1 mol/L MAPbI3/DMF solution on a 145°C preheated substrate. (c) Schematic illustration for N2-knife-assisted blade coating of perovskite films. (d) Schematic illustration showing the drying of ink into a perovskite/intermediate film and full crystallization of a perovskite film. VNCS, volatile noncoordinating solvent; NVCS, nonvolatile coordinating solvent. (a) Reproduced with permission [21], Copyright 2018, Nature Publishing Group. (b)–(d) Reproduced with permission [29], Copyright 2019, American Association for the Advancement Science.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) Schematic illustration of the key steps involved in slot-die coating of perovskite thin films. (b) and (c) Schematic drawing of a module and J-V curve of an organometal halide perovskite solar cell, respectively. (d) The slot-die coating process for preparing CH3NH3PbI3 films. (e) and (f) 15.24 cm × 15.24 cm perovskite module and I-V curve, respectively. (a) Reproduced with permission [30], Copyright 2018, Royal Society of Chemistry. (b) and (c) Reproduced with permission [31], Copyright 2014, Wiley. (d) Reproduced with permission [33], Copyright 2018, Elsevier. (e) and (f) Reproduced with permission [34], Copyright 2018, Elsevier.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a) Schematic of concurrently pumped ultrasonic spray coating for perovskite precursor deposition. (b) A spray-coated four-cell module (3.8  cm2) from the 75% (molar fraction) PbAc2 with PbCl2. (c) and (d) Schematic representation of the megasonic spray-coating process and J-V curves of perovskite solar cells, respectively. (a) and (b) Reproduced with permission [35], Copyright 2016, Royal Society of Chemistry. (c) and (d) Reproduced with permission [38], Copyright 2018, Wiley.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Schematic diagrams for the two main inkjet-printing methods: (a) continuous inkjet printing (CIJ); (b) drop-on-demand (DOD) inkjet printing. (c) 10  cm×10  cm device and (d) 10  cm×5  cm device. (e) Schematic illustration of PSC fabrication through inkjet printing with vacuum annealing. (f) J–V curves of PSCs on inkjet printing with active area 2.02  cm2. (a) and (b) Reproduced with permission [40], Copyright 2019, Wiley. (c) and (d) Reproduced with permission [41], Copyright 2016, Royal Society of Chemistry. (e) Reproduced with permission [42], Copyright 2018, Wiley. (f) Reproduced with permission [43], Copyright 2018, Elsevier.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. (a)–(c) Roll-to-roll processing setup for continuous preparation of perovskite solar cells. (a) Reproduced with permission [34], Copyright 2018, Elsevier. (b) Reproduced with permission [44], Copyright 2019, Wiley. (c) Reproduced with permission [45], Copyright 2019, Wiley.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. (a) Schematic illustration of vacuum-flash-assisted solution processing (VASP). (b) Surface scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of the perovskite films fabricated by the conventional process and vacuum-assisted solution process. (c) Diagram of the pressure-processing method for the deposition of perovskite films. (d) Surface SEM images of the perovskite films fabricated by the pressure-processing method and spin coating. (a) and (b) Reproduced with permission [20], Copyright 2015, Royal Society of Chemistry. (c) and (d) Reproduced with permission [46], Copyright 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. Evolution of the best reported lab-cell (0.1  cm2) efficiencies and large-area (1.0  cm2) device efficiencies. Reproduced with permission [47], Copyright 2018, American Association for the Advancement of Science.
Fig. 9.
Fig. 9. SEM images of (a) surfaces and (b) cross-sections of perovskite films prepared with different solvents, respectively. Reproduced with permission [29], Copyright 2018, American Association for the Advancement of Science.
Fig. 10.
Fig. 10. (a) Morphological characterization of perovskite MAPbI3 films with different amounts of Cl incorporation by optical microscopy (top row), SEM (middle row), and atomic force microscope (AFM) (bottom row). (b) Top-view SEM images of perovskite films prepared with different excess amounts of MACl using blade-coating (top row) and spin-coating (bottom row) methods. (c) Photograph of the 1.1 μm thick MAPbI3 (Cl) film on a 5  cm×5  cm substrate, 12.0  cm2 six-cell perovskite solar module, and J–V curve of the 5  cm×5  cm perovskite module with an active area of 12.0  cm2. (d) Schematic illustration of perovskite film nucleation/crystallization from solvent bathing. (a) Reproduced with permission [51], Copyright 2016, Wiley. (b) Reproduced with permission [52], Copyright 2017, Nature Publishing Group. (c) Reproduced with permission [53], Copyright 2018, Nature Publishing Group. (d) Reproduced with permission [54], Copyright 2015, Wiley.
Fig. 11.
Fig. 11. (a)–(d) Top-view SEM images of perovskite films made with different amounts PbCl2 in the mixed lead source. (e) The crystal grain size and pinhole area in the perovskite films as a function of PbCl2 fraction. (f) XRD patterns and UV-Vis spectra, and (g)–(i) SEM images of FAMA/CsFAMA/KCsFAMA perovskite films, respectively. (j) Optical image of a 10  cm×10  cm HCVD Cs0.1FA0.9PbI2.9Br0.1-based solar module. (k) J-V curve of the champion solar module (14 subcells in series). (a)–(e) Reproduced with permission [55], Copyright 2016, Royal Society of Chemistry. (f)–(i) Reproduced with permission [56], Copyright 2017, Royal Society of Chemistry. (j) and (k) Reproduced with permission [57], Copyright 2019, Royal Society of Chemistry.
Fig. 12.
Fig. 12. (a) Scheme of the cell configuration highlighting the doped charge carrier extraction layers. (b) J–V curve of the best large cell endowed with antireflection film. (c) Comparison of the Bifluo-OMeTAD molecule (upper) and Spiro-OMeTAD (Merck) molecule. (d) J-V curve of PSCs with HTLs Bifluo-OMeTAD and Spiro-OMeTAD. (e) The structure of using P3HT as the HTL and structure of the interface between the P3HT and WBH. (f) I-V curves of solar modules formed by depositing the P3HT layer using bar-coating (purple) and spin-coating (orange) methods. (g) The DFT simulation of GO and Cl-GO. (h) PL spectra and TRPL spectra for different films. (a) and (b) Reproduced with permission [19], Copyright 2017, Wiley. (c) and (d) Reproduced with permission [74], Copyright 2017, Nature Publishing Group. (e) and (f) Reproduced with permission [75], Copyright 2019, Nature Publishing Group. (g) and (h) Reproduced with permission [76], Copyright 2019, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

Tables (2)

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Table 1. Photovoltaic Performance of Perovskite Solar Cells Prepared by Different Methods

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Table 2. Photovoltaic Performance of Perovskite Solar Cells Prepared by Using Different Materials as Additives for Perovskite Layers

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