Abstract

Temporal and spatial resonant modes are always possessed in physical systems with energy oscillation. In ultrafast fiber lasers, enormous progress has been made toward controlling the interactions of many longitudinal modes, which results in temporally mode-locked pulses. Recently, optical vortex beams have been extensively investigated due to their quantized orbital angular momentum, spatially donut-like intensity, and spiral phase front. In this paper, we have demonstrated the first to our knowledge observation of optical vortex mode switching and their corresponding pulse evolution dynamics in a narrow-linewidth mode-locked fiber laser. The spatial mode switching is achieved by incorporating a dual-resonant acousto-optic mode converter in the vortex mode-locked fiber laser. The vortex mode-switching dynamics have four stages, including quiet-down, relaxation oscillation, quasi mode-locking, and energy recovery prior to the stable mode-locking of another vortex mode. The evolution dynamics of the wavelength shifting during the switching process are observed via the time-stretch dispersion Fourier transform method. The spatial mode competition through optical nonlinearity induces energy fluctuation on the time scale of ultrashort pulses, which plays an essential role in the mode-switching dynamic process. The results have great implications in the study of spatial mode-locking mechanisms and ultrashort laser applications.

© 2020 Chinese Laser Press

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2019 (13)

U. Teğin, E. Kakkava, B. Rahmani, D. Psaltis, and C. Moser, “Spatiotemporal self-similar fiber laser,” Optica 6, 1412–1415 (2019).
[Crossref]

T. Mayteevarunyoo, B. A. Malomed, and D. V. Skryabin, “Spatiotemporal dissipative solitons and vortices in a multi-transverse-mode fiber laser,” Opt. Express 27, 37364–37373 (2019).
[Crossref]

U. Teğin, B. Rahmani, E. Kakkava, N. Borhani, C. Moser, and D. Psaltis, “Controlling spatiotemporal nonlinearities in multimode fibers with deep neural networks,” APL Photon. 5, 030804 (2019).
[Crossref]

X. Liu and Y. Cui, “Revealing the behavior of soliton buildup in a mode-locked laser,” Adv. Photon. 1, 016003 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. Cui and X. Liu, “Revelation of the birth and extinction dynamics of solitons in SWNT-mode-locked fiber lasers,” Photon. Res. 7, 423–430 (2019).
[Crossref]

X. Liu and M. Pang, “Revealing the buildup dynamics of harmonic mode-locking states in ultrafast lasers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 13, 1800333 (2019).
[Crossref]

X. Liu, D. Popa, and N. Akhmediev, “Revealing the transition dynamics from Q switching to mode locking in a soliton laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 123, 093901 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. Li, L. Huang, H. Han, L. Gao, Y. Cao, Y. Gong, W. Zhang, F. Gao, I. P. Ikechukwu, and T. Zhu, “Acousto-optic tunable ultrafast laser with vector-mode-coupling-induced polarization conversion,” Photon. Res. 7, 798–805 (2019).
[Crossref]

M. A. Yavorsky, D. V. Vikulin, E. V. Barshak, B. P. Lapin, and C. N. Alexeyev, “Revised model of acousto-optic interaction in optical fibers endowed with a flexural wave,” Opt. Lett. 44, 598–601 (2019).
[Crossref]

J. Zou, H. Wang, W. Li, T. Du, B. Xu, N. Chen, Z. Cai, and Z. Luo, “Visible-wavelength all-fiber vortex laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 31, 1487–1490 (2019).
[Crossref]

J. Zou, Z. Kang, R. Wang, H. Wang, J. Liu, C. Dong, X. Jiang, B. Xu, Z. Cai, G. Qin, H. Zhang, and Z. Luo, “Green/red pulsed vortex-beam oscillations in all-fiber lasers with visible-resonance gold nanorods,” Nanoscale 11, 15991–16000 (2019).
[Crossref]

Z. Qin, G. Xie, H. Gu, T. Hai, P. Yuan, J. Ma, and L. Qian, “Mode-locked 2.8-μm fluoride fiber laser: from soliton to breathing pulse,” Adv. Photon. 1, 065001 (2019).
[Crossref]

J. Lu, Y. Dai, Q. Li, Y. Zhang, C. Wang, F. Pang, T. Wang, and X. Zeng, “Fiber nanogratings induced by femtosecond pulse laser direct writing for in-line polarizer,” Nanoscale 11, 908–914 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (8)

R. Li, J. Zou, W. Li, K. Wang, T. Du, H. Wang, X. Sun, Z. Xiao, H. Fu, and Z. Luo, “Ultrawide-space and controllable soliton molecules in a narrow-linewidth mode-locked fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 30, 1423–1426 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Shen, G. Ren, Y. Yang, S. Yao, Y. Wu, Y. Jiang, Y. Xu, W. Jin, and S. Jian, “Switchable narrow linewidth fiber laser with LP11 transverse mode output,” Opt. Laser Technol. 98, 1–6 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Lu, L. Meng, F. Shi, X. Liu, Z. Luo, P. Yan, L. Huang, F. Pang, T. Wang, X. Zeng, and P. Zhou, “Dynamic mode-switchable optical vortex beams using acousto-optic mode converter,” Opt. Lett. 43, 5841–5844 (2018).
[Crossref]

H. Qin, X. Xiao, P. Wang, and C. Yang, “Observation of soliton molecules in a spatiotemporal mode-locked multimode fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 43, 1982–1985 (2018).
[Crossref]

R. Chen, F. Sun, J. Yao, J. Wang, H. Min, A. Wang, and Q. Zhan, “Mode locked all-fiber laser generating optical vortex pulses with tunable repetition rate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112, 261103 (2018).
[Crossref]

L. G. Wright, Z. M. Ziegler, P. M. Lushnikov, Z. Zhu, M. A. Eftekhar, D. N. Christodoulides, and F. W. Wise, “Multimode nonlinear fiber optics: massively parallel numerical solver, tutorial, and outlook,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24, 5100516 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Peng and H. Zeng, “Build-Up of dissipative optical soliton molecules via diverse soliton interactions,” Laser Photon. Rev. 12, 1800009 (2018).
[Crossref]

P. Ryczkowski, M. Närhi, C. Billet, J.-M. Merolla, G. Genty, and J. M. Dudley, “Real-time full-field characterization of transient dissipative soliton dynamics in a mode-locked laser,” Nat. Photonics 12, 221–227 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (5)

S. V. Smirnov, S. Sugavanam, O. A. Gorbunov, and D. V. Churkin, “Generation of spatio-temporal extreme events in noise-like pulses NPE mode-locked fibre laser,” Opt. Express 25, 23122–23127 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Guo, M. Karpov, E. Lucas, A. Kordts, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, G. Lichachev, V. E. Lobanov, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Universal dynamics and deterministic switching of dissipative Kerr solitons in optical microresonators,” Nat. Phys. 13, 94–102 (2017).
[Crossref]

B. Li, S. W. Huang, Y. Li, C. W. Wong, and K. K. Y. Wong, “Panoramic-reconstruction temporal imaging for seamless measurements of slowly-evolved femtosecond pulse dynamics,” Nat. Commun. 8, 61 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. G. Wright, D. N. Christodoulides, and F. W. Wise, “Spatiotemporal mode-locking in multimode fiber lasers,” Science 358, 94–97 (2017).
[Crossref]

Z. Li, J. Peng, Q. Li, Y. Gao, J. Li, and Q. Cao, “Generation of picosecond vortex beam in a self-mode-locked Nd:YVO4 laser,” Optoelectron. Lett. 13, 188–191 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (2)

2015 (4)

A. Chong, L. Wright, and F. Wise, “Ultrafast fiber lasers based on self-similar pulse evolution: a review of current progress,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 78, 113901 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. F. J. Runge, N. G. R. Broderick, and M. Erkintalo, “Observation of soliton explosions in a passively mode-locked fiber laser,” Optica 2, 36–39 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. G. Wright, D. N. Christodoulides, and F. W. Wise, “Controllable spatiotemporal nonlinear effects in multimode fibres,” Nat. Photonics 9, 306–310 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Yan, P. Gregg, E. Karimi, A. Rubano, L. Marrucci, R. Boyd, and S. Ramachandran, “Q-plate enabled spectrally diverse orbital-angular-momentum conversion for stimulated emission depletion microscopy,” Optica 2, 900–903 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

2013 (3)

W. H. Renninger and F. W. Wise, “Optical solitons in graded-index multimode fibres,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1719 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. J. Richardson, J. M. Fini, and L. E. Nelson, “Space-division multiplexing in optical fibres,” Nat. Photonics 7, 354–362 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Ramachandran and P. Kristensen, “Optical vortices in fibers,” Nanophotonics 2, 455–474 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

J. Wang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6, 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

M. Padgett and R. Bowman, “Tweezers with a twist,” Nat. Photonics 5, 343–348 (2011).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

K. Goda, K. K. Tsia, and B. Jalali, “Serial time-encoded amplified imaging for real-time observation of fast dynamic phenomena,” Nature 458, 1145–1149 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

P. Z. Dashti, F. Alhassen, and H. P. Lee, “Transfer of orbital angular momentum between acoustic and optical vortices in optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 043064 (2006).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

D. G. Grier, “A revolution in optical manipulation,” Nature 424, 810–816 (2003).
[Crossref]

2001 (2)

S. Kawata, H. B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and K. Takada, “Finer features for functional microdevices,” Nature 412, 697–698 (2001).
[Crossref]

A. Mair, A. Vaziri, G. Weihs, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement of the orbital angular momentum states of photons,” Nature 412, 313–316 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (2)

J. Denschlag, J. Simsarian, D. Feder, C. W. Clark, L. Collins, J. Cubizolles, L. Deng, E. W. Hagley, K. Helmerson, and W. P. Reinhardt, “Generating solitons by phase engineering of a Bose-Einstein condensate,” Science 287, 97–101 (2000).
[Crossref]

H. R. Stuart, “Dispersive multiplexing in multimode optical fiber,” Science 289, 281–283 (2000).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

Ahmed, N.

J. Wang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6, 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Akhmediev, N.

X. Liu, D. Popa, and N. Akhmediev, “Revealing the transition dynamics from Q switching to mode locking in a soliton laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 123, 093901 (2019).
[Crossref]

Alexeyev, C. N.

Alhassen, F.

P. Z. Dashti, F. Alhassen, and H. P. Lee, “Transfer of orbital angular momentum between acoustic and optical vortices in optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 043064 (2006).
[Crossref]

Barshak, E. V.

Billet, C.

P. Ryczkowski, M. Närhi, C. Billet, J.-M. Merolla, G. Genty, and J. M. Dudley, “Real-time full-field characterization of transient dissipative soliton dynamics in a mode-locked laser,” Nat. Photonics 12, 221–227 (2018).
[Crossref]

Borhani, N.

U. Teğin, B. Rahmani, E. Kakkava, N. Borhani, C. Moser, and D. Psaltis, “Controlling spatiotemporal nonlinearities in multimode fibers with deep neural networks,” APL Photon. 5, 030804 (2019).
[Crossref]

Bowman, R.

M. Padgett and R. Bowman, “Tweezers with a twist,” Nat. Photonics 5, 343–348 (2011).
[Crossref]

Boyd, R.

Brabec, T.

Broderick, N. G. R.

Cai, Z.

J. Zou, H. Wang, W. Li, T. Du, B. Xu, N. Chen, Z. Cai, and Z. Luo, “Visible-wavelength all-fiber vortex laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 31, 1487–1490 (2019).
[Crossref]

J. Zou, Z. Kang, R. Wang, H. Wang, J. Liu, C. Dong, X. Jiang, B. Xu, Z. Cai, G. Qin, H. Zhang, and Z. Luo, “Green/red pulsed vortex-beam oscillations in all-fiber lasers with visible-resonance gold nanorods,” Nanoscale 11, 15991–16000 (2019).
[Crossref]

Cao, Q.

Z. Li, J. Peng, Q. Li, Y. Gao, J. Li, and Q. Cao, “Generation of picosecond vortex beam in a self-mode-locked Nd:YVO4 laser,” Optoelectron. Lett. 13, 188–191 (2017).
[Crossref]

Cao, Y.

Chen, N.

J. Zou, H. Wang, W. Li, T. Du, B. Xu, N. Chen, Z. Cai, and Z. Luo, “Visible-wavelength all-fiber vortex laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 31, 1487–1490 (2019).
[Crossref]

Chen, R.

R. Chen, F. Sun, J. Yao, J. Wang, H. Min, A. Wang, and Q. Zhan, “Mode locked all-fiber laser generating optical vortex pulses with tunable repetition rate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112, 261103 (2018).
[Crossref]

Chong, A.

A. Chong, L. Wright, and F. Wise, “Ultrafast fiber lasers based on self-similar pulse evolution: a review of current progress,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 78, 113901 (2015).
[Crossref]

Christodoulides, D. N.

L. G. Wright, Z. M. Ziegler, P. M. Lushnikov, Z. Zhu, M. A. Eftekhar, D. N. Christodoulides, and F. W. Wise, “Multimode nonlinear fiber optics: massively parallel numerical solver, tutorial, and outlook,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24, 5100516 (2018).
[Crossref]

L. G. Wright, D. N. Christodoulides, and F. W. Wise, “Spatiotemporal mode-locking in multimode fiber lasers,” Science 358, 94–97 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. G. Wright, D. N. Christodoulides, and F. W. Wise, “Controllable spatiotemporal nonlinear effects in multimode fibres,” Nat. Photonics 9, 306–310 (2015).
[Crossref]

Churkin, D. V.

Clark, C. W.

J. Denschlag, J. Simsarian, D. Feder, C. W. Clark, L. Collins, J. Cubizolles, L. Deng, E. W. Hagley, K. Helmerson, and W. P. Reinhardt, “Generating solitons by phase engineering of a Bose-Einstein condensate,” Science 287, 97–101 (2000).
[Crossref]

Collins, L.

J. Denschlag, J. Simsarian, D. Feder, C. W. Clark, L. Collins, J. Cubizolles, L. Deng, E. W. Hagley, K. Helmerson, and W. P. Reinhardt, “Generating solitons by phase engineering of a Bose-Einstein condensate,” Science 287, 97–101 (2000).
[Crossref]

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R. Chen, F. Sun, J. Yao, J. Wang, H. Min, A. Wang, and Q. Zhan, “Mode locked all-fiber laser generating optical vortex pulses with tunable repetition rate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112, 261103 (2018).
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H. R. Stuart, “Dispersive multiplexing in multimode optical fiber,” Science 289, 281–283 (2000).
[Crossref]

L. G. Wright, D. N. Christodoulides, and F. W. Wise, “Spatiotemporal mode-locking in multimode fiber lasers,” Science 358, 94–97 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Denschlag, J. Simsarian, D. Feder, C. W. Clark, L. Collins, J. Cubizolles, L. Deng, E. W. Hagley, K. Helmerson, and W. P. Reinhardt, “Generating solitons by phase engineering of a Bose-Einstein condensate,” Science 287, 97–101 (2000).
[Crossref]

Other (2)

J. Wang and A. E. Willner, “Twisted communications using orbital angular momentum (Tutorial Talk),” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (online) (2016), paper Th1H.5.

J. Lu, L. Meng, F. Shi, and X. Zeng, “A mode-locked fiber laser with switchable high-order modes using intracavity acousto-optic mode converter,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (2019), paper W3C.3.

Supplementary Material (5)

NameDescription
» Visualization 1       The video shows the mode switching process of LP01-LP11a with stable mode locking states before and after spatial mode switching.
» Visualization 2       The video shows the mode switching process of LP01-LP11b with stable mode locking states before and after spatial mode switching.
» Visualization 3       The video shows the mode switching process of LP11a-LP11b with stable mode locking states before and after spatial mode switching.
» Visualization 4       The video shows the mode switching process between OAM+1 and OAM-1.
» Visualization 5       The video shows the spectrum evolution of mode switching process from OAM+1 to OAM0 via TS-DFT method.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Diagram of an AOMC and the simulation of the switching mechanism based on optical and acoustic birefringence. (a) The schematic diagram of the dual-resonant AOMC and the mode-switching mechanism. (b) The setup of an AOMC component. (c) The schematic diagram of the fiber end face. (d) The simulation of beat lengths between the LP01 mode and LP11a/b modes with different ellipticities of the fiber core. The straight lines and dash lines represent the beat lengths from the LP01 mode to the LP11a and LP11b modes, respectively. (e) The Δλ shifts with the decrease of ellipticity of fiber core. The inset figure shows the wavelength separation in the transmission spectrum of a dual-resonant AOMC.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) Transmission spectra of the AOMC with two different applied signal frequencies of 726 kHz and 742 kHz. (b) The frequency shift performance of the applied dual-resonant AOMC.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Experimental setup and results of spatial mode switching in a mode-locked fiber laser. (a) The schematic diagram of the spatial mode switching fiber laser setup. OSA, optical spectrum analyzer; WDM, wavelength-division multiplexer; PC, polarization controller; MS, mode stripper. The stable ML with three different mode states: (b) OAM0, (c) OAM+1, and (d) OAM1. The results include laser spectra, pulse trains, and RF signals (see spatial mode-switching processes of LP01LP11a, LP01LP11b, LP11aLP11b, and OAM+1OAM1 in Visualization 1, Visualization 2, Visualization 3, and Visualization 4, respectively).
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Output results of the mode-switching mode-locked fiber laser. (a) The mode patterns recorded by a CCD include the (a1) mode intensity pattern and (a2) interference pattern of the OAM0 mode; (a3), (a4) LP11 mode intensity patterns, (a5), (a6) donut mode patterns; and (a7), (a8) interference patterns of the OAM+1 and OAM1 modes. (b) The real-time pulse shapes of three OAM modes. (c) The slope efficiencies of the mode-locked fiber laser with three OAM mode states.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Real-time information of mode-switching dynamics. (a) The real-time information of the whole mode-switching dynamic process among three vortex modes (OAM0, OAM1, and OAM+1). The detailed information of the strike regions named as (b) I, II and (c) IIIVI.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Experimental observation of vortex mode switching from the OAM+1 mode to the OAM0 mode via the TS-DFT method. (a) The energy envelope evolution of the DFT signal. (b) The whole spectrum evolution of the vortex mode-switching dynamics with closeup pictures of (b1) initial ML, (b2) laser spikes, and (b3) wavelength shift. Comparisons of DFT signals and optical spectra of the (c1) OAM+1 mode and (c2) OAM0 mode (see the dynamic single-shot spectrum evolution in Visualization 5).

Equations (6)

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ε0(x,y)ε0(xux,yuy),
ux=u0cos(Kzfnt)·cosβ·ei2πΛs,uy=u0cos(Kzfnt)·sinβ·ei2πΛl.
δεg=[δεgxδεgy]=[ncoK2ux·xncoK2uy·y],δεp=εco2pKu0(001000100)sin(Kzfnt).
Ka/bπλε0μ0ncoE01*(x,y)·δε^·E11a/b(x,y)dxdy.
LP11a(rot)=TM01HE21odd(TE01+HE21even),LP11b(rot)=TM01HE21odd+(TE01+HE21even).
LP11a(adj)=TM01HE21oddiTE01iHE21even=OAM1,LP11b(adj)=TM01HE21odd+iTE01+iHE21even=OAM+1.

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