Abstract

Red-green-blue (RGB) full-color micro light-emitting diodes (μ-LEDs) fabricated from semipolar (20-21) wafers, with a quantum-dot photoresist color-conversion layer, were demonstrated. The semipolar (20-21) InGaN/GaN μ-LEDs were fabricated on large (4 in.) patterned sapphire substrates by orientation-controlled epitaxy. The semipolar μ-LEDs showed a 3.2 nm peak wavelength shift and a 14.7% efficiency droop under 200  A/cm2 injected current density, indicating significant amelioration of the quantum-confined Stark effect. Because of the semipolar μ-LEDs’ emission-wavelength stability, the RGB pixel showed little color shift with current density and achieved a wide color gamut (114.4% NTSC space and 85.4% Rec. 2020).

© 2020 Chinese Laser Press

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References

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2019 (7)

K. Ding, V. Avrutin, N. Izyumskaya, U. Ozgur, and H. Morkoc, “Micro-LEDs, a manufacturability perspective,” Appl. Sci. 9, 1206 (2019).
[Crossref]

C.-H. Lin, A. Verma, C.-Y. Kang, Y.-M. Pai, T.-Y. Chen, J.-J. Yang, C.-W. Sher, Y.-Z. Yang, P.-T. Lee, C.-C. Lin, Y.-C. Wu, S. K. Sharma, T. Wu, S.-R. Chung, and H.-C. Kuo, “Hybrid-type white LEDs based on inorganic halide perovskite QDs: candidates for wide color gamut display backlights,” Photon. Res. 7, 579–585 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. Huang, G. Tan, F. Gou, M. C. Li, S. L. Lee, and S. T. Wu, “Prospects and challenges of mini-LED and micro-LED displays,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 27, 387–401 (2019).
[Crossref]

F. Gou, E.-L. Hsiang, G. Tan, P.-T. Chou, Y.-L. Li, Y.-F. Lan, and S.-T. Wu, “Angular color shift of micro-LED displays,” Opt. Express 27, A746–A757 (2019).
[Crossref]

F. Gou, E.-L. Hsiang, G. Tan, Y.-F. Lan, C.-Y. Tsai, and S.-T. Wu, “High performance color-converted micro-LED displays,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 27, 199–206 (2019).
[Crossref]

J. Song, J. Choi, C. Zhang, Z. Deng, Y. Xie, and J. Han, “Elimination of stacking faults in semipolar GaN and light-emitting diodes grown on sapphire,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 11, 33140–33146 (2019).
[Crossref]

S.-W. Huang Chen, C.-C. Shen, T. Wu, Z.-Y. Liao, L.-F. Chen, J.-R. Zhou, C.-F. Lee, C.-H. Lin, C.-C. Lin, C.-W. Sher, P.-T. Lee, A.-J. Tzou, Z. Chen, and H.-C. Kuo, “Full-color monolithic hybrid quantum dot nanoring micro light-emitting diodes with improved efficiency using atomic layer deposition and nonradiative resonant energy transfer,” Photon. Res. 7, 416–422 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (4)

H. Keum, Y. Jiang, J. K. Park, J. C. Flanagan, M. Shim, and S. Kim, “Photoresist contact patterning of quantum dot films,” ACS Nano 12, 10024–10031 (2018).
[Crossref]

T. Wu, C.-W. Sher, Y. Lin, C.-F. Lee, S. Liang, Y. Lu, S.-W. H. Chen, W. Guo, H.-C. Kuo, and Z. Chen, “Mini-LED and micro-LED: promising candidates for the next generation display technology,” Appl. Sci. 8, 1557 (2018).
[Crossref]

G. J. Tan, Y. G. Huang, M. C. Li, S. L. Lee, and S. T. Wu, “High dynamic range liquid crystal displays with a mini-LED backlight,” Opt. Express 26, 16572–16584 (2018).
[Crossref]

L. Zhang, F. Ou, W. C. Chong, Y. Chen, and Q. Li, “Wafer-scale monolithic hybrid integration of Si-based IC and III-V epi-layers--a mass manufacturable approach for active matrix micro-LED micro-displays,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 26, 137–145 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (3)

J. Song, J. Choi, K. L. Xiong, Y. J. Xie, J. J. Cha, and J. Han, “Semipolar (2021) GaN and InGaN light-emitting diodes grown on sapphire,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 9, 14088–14092 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. S. Cok, M. Meitl, R. Rotzoll, G. Melnik, A. Fecioru, A. J. Trindade, B. Raymond, S. Bonafede, D. Gomez, T. Moore, C. Prevatte, E. Radauscher, S. Goodwin, P. Hines, and C. A. Bower, “Inorganic light-emitting diode displays using micro-transfer printing,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 25, 589–609 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. W. Chen, J. He, and S. T. Wu, “Recent advances on quantum-dot-enhanced liquid-crystal displays,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 23, 1900611 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (2)

J.-S. Park, J. Kyhm, H. H. Kim, S. Jeong, J. Kang, S.-E. Lee, K.-T. Lee, K. Park, N. Barange, J. Han, J. D. Song, W. K. Choi, and I. K. Han, “Alternative patterning process for realization of large-area, full-color, active quantum dot display,” Nano Lett. 16, 6946–6953 (2016).
[Crossref]

B. Leung, D. Wang, Y.-S. Kuo, and J. Han, “Complete orientational access for semipolar GaN devices on sapphire,” Phys. Status Solidi B 253, 23–35 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (2)

H.-V. Han, H.-Y. Lin, C.-C. Lin, W.-C. Chong, J.-R. Li, K.-J. Chen, P. Yu, T.-M. Chen, H.-M. Chen, K.-M. Lau, and H.-C. Kuo, “Resonant-enhanced full-color emission of quantum-dot-based micro LED display technology,” Opt. Express 23, 32504–32515 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Piprek, F. Roemer, and B. Witzigmann, “On the uncertainty of the Auger recombination coefficient extracted from InGaN/GaN light-emitting diode efficiency droop measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 101101 (2015).
[Crossref]

2013 (4)

D. F. Feezell, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Semipolar (202¯1¯) InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes for high-efficiency solid-state lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 9, 190–198 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z. J. Liu, W. C. Chong, K. M. Wong, and K. M. Lau, “360 PPI flip-chip mounted active matrix addressable light emitting diode on silicon (LEDoS) micro-displays,” J. Disp. Technol. 9, 490–496 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Erdem and H. V. Demir, “Color science of nanocrystal quantum dots for lighting and displays,” Nanophotonics 2, 57–81 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Jia, T. Yu, H. Lu, C. Zhong, Y. Sun, Y. Tong, and G. Zhang, “Performance improvement of GaN-based LEDs with step stage InGaN/GaN strain relief layers in GaN-based blue LEDs,” Opt. Express 21, 8444–8449 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

V. Marinov, O. Swenson, R. Miller, F. Sarwar, Y. Atanasov, M. Semler, and S. Datta, “Laser-enabled advanced packaging of ultrathin bare dice in flexible substrates,” IEEE Trans. Compon. Packag. Technol. 2, 569–577 (2012).
[Crossref]

E. Kioupakis, Q. Yan, and C. G. Van de Walle, “Interplay of polarization fields and Auger recombination in the efficiency droop of nitride light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 231107 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

H.-S. Kim, E. Brueckner, J. Song, Y. Li, S. Kim, C. Lu, J. Sulkin, K. Choquette, Y. Huang, R. G. Nuzzo, and J. A. Rogers, “Unusual strategies for using indium gallium nitride grown on silicon (111) for solid-state lighting,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108, 10072–10077 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (4)

J. Piprek, “Efficiency droop in nitride-based light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi A 207, 2217–2225 (2010).
[Crossref]

S.-C. Ling, T.-C. Lu, S.-P. Chang, J.-R. Chen, H.-C. Kuo, and S.-C. Wang, “Low efficiency droop in blue-green m-plane InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 231101 (2010).
[Crossref]

P.-C. Tsai, Y.-K. Su, W.-R. Chen, and C.-Y. Huang, “Enhanced luminescence efficiency of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells by a strain relief layer and proper Si doping,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49, 04DG07 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Masui, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and U. K. Mishra, “Nonpolar and semipolar III-nitride light-emitting diodes: achievements and challenges,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 57, 88–100 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

S. H. Yen, M. C. Tsai, M. L. Tsai, Y. J. Shen, T. C. Hsu, and Y. K. Kuo, “Theoretical investigation of Auger recombination on internal quantum efficiency of blue light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. A 97, 705–708 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. Tyagi, F. Wu, E. C. Young, A. Chakraborty, H. Ohta, R. Bhat, K. Fujito, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and J. S. Speck, “Partial strain relaxation via misfit dislocation generation at heterointerfaces in (Al, In)GaN epitaxial layers grown on semipolar (112¯2) GaN free standing substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 251905 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

Z. Gong, E. Gu, S. R. Jin, D. Massoubre, B. Guilhabert, H. X. Zhang, M. D. Dawson, V. Poher, G. T. Kennedy, P. M. W. French, and M. A. A. Neil, “Efficient flip-chip InGaN micro-pixellated light-emitting diode arrays: promising candidates for micro-displays and colour conversion,” J. Phys. D 41, 094002 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (3)

M.-H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 183507 (2007).
[Crossref]

H. Sato, A. Tyagi, H. Zhong, N. Fellows, R. B. Chung, M. Saito, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “High power and high efficiency green light emitting diode on free-standing semipolar (112¯2) bulk GaN substrate,” Phys. Status Solidi (RRL) 1, 162–164 (2007).
[Crossref]

Y. C. Shen, G. O. Mueller, S. Watanabe, N. F. Gardner, A. Munkholm, and M. R. Krames, “Auger recombination in InGaN measured by photoluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 141101 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (3)

R. Lu, Q. Hong, Z. Ge, and S.-T. Wu, “Color shift reduction of a multi-domain IPS-LCD using RGB-LED backlight,” Opt. Express 14, 6243–6252 (2006).
[Crossref]

M. Achermann, M. A. Petruska, D. D. Koleske, M. H. Crawford, and V. I. Klimov, “Nanocrystal-based light-emitting diodes utilizing high-efficiency nonradiative energy transfer for color conversion,” Nano Lett. 6, 1396–1400 (2006).
[Crossref]

Y. J. Lee, J. M. Hwang, T. C. Hsu, M. H. Hsieh, M. J. Jou, B. J. Lee, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Enhancing the output power of GaN-based LEDs grown on wet-etched patterned sapphire substrates,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 18, 1152–1154 (2006).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

C. Y. Lai, T. M. Hsu, W. H. Chang, K. U. Tseng, C. M. Lee, C. C. Chuo, and J. I. Chyi, “Direct measurement of piezoelectric field in In0.23Ga0.77N/GaN multiple quantum wells by electrotransmission spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 531–533 (2002).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

T. Takeuchi, C. Wetzel, S. Yamaguchi, H. Sakai, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, Y. Kaneko, S. Nakagawa, Y. Yamaoka, and N. Yamada, “Determination of piezoelectric fields in strained GaInN quantum wells using the quantum-confined Stark effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1691–1693 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

T. Takeuchi, S. Sota, M. Katsuragawa, M. Komori, H. Takeuchi, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Quantum-confined stark effect due to piezoelectric fields in GaInN strained quantum wells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, L382–L385 (1997).
[Crossref]

1995 (2)

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B. Gil, O. Briot, and R. L. Aulombard, “Valence-band physics and the optical properties of GaN epilayers grown onto sapphire with wurtzite symmetry,” Phys. Rev. B 52, R17028 (1995).
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M. Meitl, E. Radauscher, S. Bonafede, D. Gomez, T. Moore, C. Prevatte, B. Raymond, B. Fisher, K. Ghosal, and A. Fecioru, “Passive matrix displays with transfer-printed microscale inorganic LEDs,” in SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (Wiley, 2016), pp. 743–746.

Bower, C. A.

R. S. Cok, M. Meitl, R. Rotzoll, G. Melnik, A. Fecioru, A. J. Trindade, B. Raymond, S. Bonafede, D. Gomez, T. Moore, C. Prevatte, E. Radauscher, S. Goodwin, P. Hines, and C. A. Bower, “Inorganic light-emitting diode displays using micro-transfer printing,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 25, 589–609 (2017).
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B. Gil, O. Briot, and R. L. Aulombard, “Valence-band physics and the optical properties of GaN epilayers grown onto sapphire with wurtzite symmetry,” Phys. Rev. B 52, R17028 (1995).
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H.-S. Kim, E. Brueckner, J. Song, Y. Li, S. Kim, C. Lu, J. Sulkin, K. Choquette, Y. Huang, R. G. Nuzzo, and J. A. Rogers, “Unusual strategies for using indium gallium nitride grown on silicon (111) for solid-state lighting,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108, 10072–10077 (2011).
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J. Song, J. Choi, K. L. Xiong, Y. J. Xie, J. J. Cha, and J. Han, “Semipolar (2021) GaN and InGaN light-emitting diodes grown on sapphire,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 9, 14088–14092 (2017).
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A. Tyagi, F. Wu, E. C. Young, A. Chakraborty, H. Ohta, R. Bhat, K. Fujito, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and J. S. Speck, “Partial strain relaxation via misfit dislocation generation at heterointerfaces in (Al, In)GaN epitaxial layers grown on semipolar (112¯2) GaN free standing substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 251905 (2009).
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S.-C. Ling, T.-C. Lu, S.-P. Chang, J.-R. Chen, H.-C. Kuo, and S.-C. Wang, “Low efficiency droop in blue-green m-plane InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 231101 (2010).
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C. Y. Lai, T. M. Hsu, W. H. Chang, K. U. Tseng, C. M. Lee, C. C. Chuo, and J. I. Chyi, “Direct measurement of piezoelectric field in In0.23Ga0.77N/GaN multiple quantum wells by electrotransmission spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 531–533 (2002).
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J.-Y. Lien, C.-J. Chen, R.-K. Chiang, and S.-L. Wang, “Patternable color-conversion films based on thick-shell quantum dots,” in SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (Wiley, 2017), pp. 558–561.

Chen, H. W.

H. W. Chen, J. He, and S. T. Wu, “Recent advances on quantum-dot-enhanced liquid-crystal displays,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 23, 1900611 (2017).
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Chen, H.-M.

Chen, J.-R.

S.-C. Ling, T.-C. Lu, S.-P. Chang, J.-R. Chen, H.-C. Kuo, and S.-C. Wang, “Low efficiency droop in blue-green m-plane InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 231101 (2010).
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Chen, K.-J.

Chen, L.-F.

Chen, S.-W. H.

T. Wu, C.-W. Sher, Y. Lin, C.-F. Lee, S. Liang, Y. Lu, S.-W. H. Chen, W. Guo, H.-C. Kuo, and Z. Chen, “Mini-LED and micro-LED: promising candidates for the next generation display technology,” Appl. Sci. 8, 1557 (2018).
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Chen, T.-M.

Chen, T.-Y.

Chen, W.-R.

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Chen, Z.

Chiang, R.-K.

J.-Y. Lien, C.-J. Chen, R.-K. Chiang, and S.-L. Wang, “Patternable color-conversion films based on thick-shell quantum dots,” in SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (Wiley, 2017), pp. 558–561.

Choi, J.

J. Song, J. Choi, C. Zhang, Z. Deng, Y. Xie, and J. Han, “Elimination of stacking faults in semipolar GaN and light-emitting diodes grown on sapphire,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 11, 33140–33146 (2019).
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J. Song, J. Choi, K. L. Xiong, Y. J. Xie, J. J. Cha, and J. Han, “Semipolar (2021) GaN and InGaN light-emitting diodes grown on sapphire,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 9, 14088–14092 (2017).
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Choi, W. K.

J.-S. Park, J. Kyhm, H. H. Kim, S. Jeong, J. Kang, S.-E. Lee, K.-T. Lee, K. Park, N. Barange, J. Han, J. D. Song, W. K. Choi, and I. K. Han, “Alternative patterning process for realization of large-area, full-color, active quantum dot display,” Nano Lett. 16, 6946–6953 (2016).
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Chong, W. C.

L. Zhang, F. Ou, W. C. Chong, Y. Chen, and Q. Li, “Wafer-scale monolithic hybrid integration of Si-based IC and III-V epi-layers--a mass manufacturable approach for active matrix micro-LED micro-displays,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 26, 137–145 (2018).
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Z. J. Liu, W. C. Chong, K. M. Wong, and K. M. Lau, “360 PPI flip-chip mounted active matrix addressable light emitting diode on silicon (LEDoS) micro-displays,” J. Disp. Technol. 9, 490–496 (2013).
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Chou, P.-T.

Chung, R. B.

H. Sato, A. Tyagi, H. Zhong, N. Fellows, R. B. Chung, M. Saito, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “High power and high efficiency green light emitting diode on free-standing semipolar (112¯2) bulk GaN substrate,” Phys. Status Solidi (RRL) 1, 162–164 (2007).
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Chung, S.-R.

Chuo, C. C.

C. Y. Lai, T. M. Hsu, W. H. Chang, K. U. Tseng, C. M. Lee, C. C. Chuo, and J. I. Chyi, “Direct measurement of piezoelectric field in In0.23Ga0.77N/GaN multiple quantum wells by electrotransmission spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 531–533 (2002).
[Crossref]

Chyi, J. I.

C. Y. Lai, T. M. Hsu, W. H. Chang, K. U. Tseng, C. M. Lee, C. C. Chuo, and J. I. Chyi, “Direct measurement of piezoelectric field in In0.23Ga0.77N/GaN multiple quantum wells by electrotransmission spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 531–533 (2002).
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R. S. Cok, M. Meitl, R. Rotzoll, G. Melnik, A. Fecioru, A. J. Trindade, B. Raymond, S. Bonafede, D. Gomez, T. Moore, C. Prevatte, E. Radauscher, S. Goodwin, P. Hines, and C. A. Bower, “Inorganic light-emitting diode displays using micro-transfer printing,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 25, 589–609 (2017).
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M. Achermann, M. A. Petruska, D. D. Koleske, M. H. Crawford, and V. I. Klimov, “Nanocrystal-based light-emitting diodes utilizing high-efficiency nonradiative energy transfer for color conversion,” Nano Lett. 6, 1396–1400 (2006).
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M.-H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 183507 (2007).
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Z. Gong, E. Gu, S. R. Jin, D. Massoubre, B. Guilhabert, H. X. Zhang, M. D. Dawson, V. Poher, G. T. Kennedy, P. M. W. French, and M. A. A. Neil, “Efficient flip-chip InGaN micro-pixellated light-emitting diode arrays: promising candidates for micro-displays and colour conversion,” J. Phys. D 41, 094002 (2008).
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T. Erdem and H. V. Demir, “Color science of nanocrystal quantum dots for lighting and displays,” Nanophotonics 2, 57–81 (2013).
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D. F. Feezell, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Semipolar (202¯1¯) InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes for high-efficiency solid-state lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 9, 190–198 (2013).
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H. Masui, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and U. K. Mishra, “Nonpolar and semipolar III-nitride light-emitting diodes: achievements and challenges,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 57, 88–100 (2010).
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A. Tyagi, F. Wu, E. C. Young, A. Chakraborty, H. Ohta, R. Bhat, K. Fujito, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and J. S. Speck, “Partial strain relaxation via misfit dislocation generation at heterointerfaces in (Al, In)GaN epitaxial layers grown on semipolar (112¯2) GaN free standing substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 251905 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. Sato, A. Tyagi, H. Zhong, N. Fellows, R. B. Chung, M. Saito, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “High power and high efficiency green light emitting diode on free-standing semipolar (112¯2) bulk GaN substrate,” Phys. Status Solidi (RRL) 1, 162–164 (2007).
[Crossref]

Deng, Z.

J. Song, J. Choi, C. Zhang, Z. Deng, Y. Xie, and J. Han, “Elimination of stacking faults in semipolar GaN and light-emitting diodes grown on sapphire,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 11, 33140–33146 (2019).
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Ding, K.

K. Ding, V. Avrutin, N. Izyumskaya, U. Ozgur, and H. Morkoc, “Micro-LEDs, a manufacturability perspective,” Appl. Sci. 9, 1206 (2019).
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T. Erdem and H. V. Demir, “Color science of nanocrystal quantum dots for lighting and displays,” Nanophotonics 2, 57–81 (2013).
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R. S. Cok, M. Meitl, R. Rotzoll, G. Melnik, A. Fecioru, A. J. Trindade, B. Raymond, S. Bonafede, D. Gomez, T. Moore, C. Prevatte, E. Radauscher, S. Goodwin, P. Hines, and C. A. Bower, “Inorganic light-emitting diode displays using micro-transfer printing,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 25, 589–609 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Meitl, E. Radauscher, S. Bonafede, D. Gomez, T. Moore, C. Prevatte, B. Raymond, B. Fisher, K. Ghosal, and A. Fecioru, “Passive matrix displays with transfer-printed microscale inorganic LEDs,” in SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (Wiley, 2016), pp. 743–746.

Feezell, D. F.

D. F. Feezell, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Semipolar (202¯1¯) InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes for high-efficiency solid-state lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 9, 190–198 (2013).
[Crossref]

Fellows, N.

H. Sato, A. Tyagi, H. Zhong, N. Fellows, R. B. Chung, M. Saito, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “High power and high efficiency green light emitting diode on free-standing semipolar (112¯2) bulk GaN substrate,” Phys. Status Solidi (RRL) 1, 162–164 (2007).
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Fisher, B.

M. Meitl, E. Radauscher, S. Bonafede, D. Gomez, T. Moore, C. Prevatte, B. Raymond, B. Fisher, K. Ghosal, and A. Fecioru, “Passive matrix displays with transfer-printed microscale inorganic LEDs,” in SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (Wiley, 2016), pp. 743–746.

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Z. Gong, E. Gu, S. R. Jin, D. Massoubre, B. Guilhabert, H. X. Zhang, M. D. Dawson, V. Poher, G. T. Kennedy, P. M. W. French, and M. A. A. Neil, “Efficient flip-chip InGaN micro-pixellated light-emitting diode arrays: promising candidates for micro-displays and colour conversion,” J. Phys. D 41, 094002 (2008).
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Fujito, K.

A. Tyagi, F. Wu, E. C. Young, A. Chakraborty, H. Ohta, R. Bhat, K. Fujito, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and J. S. Speck, “Partial strain relaxation via misfit dislocation generation at heterointerfaces in (Al, In)GaN epitaxial layers grown on semipolar (112¯2) GaN free standing substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 251905 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. Sato, A. Tyagi, H. Zhong, N. Fellows, R. B. Chung, M. Saito, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “High power and high efficiency green light emitting diode on free-standing semipolar (112¯2) bulk GaN substrate,” Phys. Status Solidi (RRL) 1, 162–164 (2007).
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Gardner, N. F.

Y. C. Shen, G. O. Mueller, S. Watanabe, N. F. Gardner, A. Munkholm, and M. R. Krames, “Auger recombination in InGaN measured by photoluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 141101 (2007).
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Ge, Z.

Ghosal, K.

M. Meitl, E. Radauscher, S. Bonafede, D. Gomez, T. Moore, C. Prevatte, B. Raymond, B. Fisher, K. Ghosal, and A. Fecioru, “Passive matrix displays with transfer-printed microscale inorganic LEDs,” in SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (Wiley, 2016), pp. 743–746.

Gil, B.

B. Gil, O. Briot, and R. L. Aulombard, “Valence-band physics and the optical properties of GaN epilayers grown onto sapphire with wurtzite symmetry,” Phys. Rev. B 52, R17028 (1995).
[Crossref]

Gomez, D.

R. S. Cok, M. Meitl, R. Rotzoll, G. Melnik, A. Fecioru, A. J. Trindade, B. Raymond, S. Bonafede, D. Gomez, T. Moore, C. Prevatte, E. Radauscher, S. Goodwin, P. Hines, and C. A. Bower, “Inorganic light-emitting diode displays using micro-transfer printing,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 25, 589–609 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Meitl, E. Radauscher, S. Bonafede, D. Gomez, T. Moore, C. Prevatte, B. Raymond, B. Fisher, K. Ghosal, and A. Fecioru, “Passive matrix displays with transfer-printed microscale inorganic LEDs,” in SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (Wiley, 2016), pp. 743–746.

Gong, Z.

Z. Gong, E. Gu, S. R. Jin, D. Massoubre, B. Guilhabert, H. X. Zhang, M. D. Dawson, V. Poher, G. T. Kennedy, P. M. W. French, and M. A. A. Neil, “Efficient flip-chip InGaN micro-pixellated light-emitting diode arrays: promising candidates for micro-displays and colour conversion,” J. Phys. D 41, 094002 (2008).
[Crossref]

Goodwin, S.

R. S. Cok, M. Meitl, R. Rotzoll, G. Melnik, A. Fecioru, A. J. Trindade, B. Raymond, S. Bonafede, D. Gomez, T. Moore, C. Prevatte, E. Radauscher, S. Goodwin, P. Hines, and C. A. Bower, “Inorganic light-emitting diode displays using micro-transfer printing,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 25, 589–609 (2017).
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Gou, F.

Y. Huang, G. Tan, F. Gou, M. C. Li, S. L. Lee, and S. T. Wu, “Prospects and challenges of mini-LED and micro-LED displays,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 27, 387–401 (2019).
[Crossref]

F. Gou, E.-L. Hsiang, G. Tan, Y.-F. Lan, C.-Y. Tsai, and S.-T. Wu, “High performance color-converted micro-LED displays,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 27, 199–206 (2019).
[Crossref]

F. Gou, E.-L. Hsiang, G. Tan, P.-T. Chou, Y.-L. Li, Y.-F. Lan, and S.-T. Wu, “Angular color shift of micro-LED displays,” Opt. Express 27, A746–A757 (2019).
[Crossref]

Gu, E.

Z. Gong, E. Gu, S. R. Jin, D. Massoubre, B. Guilhabert, H. X. Zhang, M. D. Dawson, V. Poher, G. T. Kennedy, P. M. W. French, and M. A. A. Neil, “Efficient flip-chip InGaN micro-pixellated light-emitting diode arrays: promising candidates for micro-displays and colour conversion,” J. Phys. D 41, 094002 (2008).
[Crossref]

Guilhabert, B.

Z. Gong, E. Gu, S. R. Jin, D. Massoubre, B. Guilhabert, H. X. Zhang, M. D. Dawson, V. Poher, G. T. Kennedy, P. M. W. French, and M. A. A. Neil, “Efficient flip-chip InGaN micro-pixellated light-emitting diode arrays: promising candidates for micro-displays and colour conversion,” J. Phys. D 41, 094002 (2008).
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Guo, W.

T. Wu, C.-W. Sher, Y. Lin, C.-F. Lee, S. Liang, Y. Lu, S.-W. H. Chen, W. Guo, H.-C. Kuo, and Z. Chen, “Mini-LED and micro-LED: promising candidates for the next generation display technology,” Appl. Sci. 8, 1557 (2018).
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Han, H.-V.

Han, I. K.

J.-S. Park, J. Kyhm, H. H. Kim, S. Jeong, J. Kang, S.-E. Lee, K.-T. Lee, K. Park, N. Barange, J. Han, J. D. Song, W. K. Choi, and I. K. Han, “Alternative patterning process for realization of large-area, full-color, active quantum dot display,” Nano Lett. 16, 6946–6953 (2016).
[Crossref]

Han, J.

J. Song, J. Choi, C. Zhang, Z. Deng, Y. Xie, and J. Han, “Elimination of stacking faults in semipolar GaN and light-emitting diodes grown on sapphire,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 11, 33140–33146 (2019).
[Crossref]

J. Song, J. Choi, K. L. Xiong, Y. J. Xie, J. J. Cha, and J. Han, “Semipolar (2021) GaN and InGaN light-emitting diodes grown on sapphire,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 9, 14088–14092 (2017).
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B. Leung, D. Wang, Y.-S. Kuo, and J. Han, “Complete orientational access for semipolar GaN devices on sapphire,” Phys. Status Solidi B 253, 23–35 (2016).
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J.-S. Park, J. Kyhm, H. H. Kim, S. Jeong, J. Kang, S.-E. Lee, K.-T. Lee, K. Park, N. Barange, J. Han, J. D. Song, W. K. Choi, and I. K. Han, “Alternative patterning process for realization of large-area, full-color, active quantum dot display,” Nano Lett. 16, 6946–6953 (2016).
[Crossref]

He, J.

H. W. Chen, J. He, and S. T. Wu, “Recent advances on quantum-dot-enhanced liquid-crystal displays,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 23, 1900611 (2017).
[Crossref]

Hines, P.

R. S. Cok, M. Meitl, R. Rotzoll, G. Melnik, A. Fecioru, A. J. Trindade, B. Raymond, S. Bonafede, D. Gomez, T. Moore, C. Prevatte, E. Radauscher, S. Goodwin, P. Hines, and C. A. Bower, “Inorganic light-emitting diode displays using micro-transfer printing,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 25, 589–609 (2017).
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Hong, Q.

Hsiang, E.-L.

F. Gou, E.-L. Hsiang, G. Tan, Y.-F. Lan, C.-Y. Tsai, and S.-T. Wu, “High performance color-converted micro-LED displays,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 27, 199–206 (2019).
[Crossref]

F. Gou, E.-L. Hsiang, G. Tan, P.-T. Chou, Y.-L. Li, Y.-F. Lan, and S.-T. Wu, “Angular color shift of micro-LED displays,” Opt. Express 27, A746–A757 (2019).
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Hsieh, M. H.

Y. J. Lee, J. M. Hwang, T. C. Hsu, M. H. Hsieh, M. J. Jou, B. J. Lee, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Enhancing the output power of GaN-based LEDs grown on wet-etched patterned sapphire substrates,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 18, 1152–1154 (2006).
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T. Takeuchi, C. Wetzel, S. Yamaguchi, H. Sakai, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, Y. Kaneko, S. Nakagawa, Y. Yamaoka, and N. Yamada, “Determination of piezoelectric fields in strained GaInN quantum wells using the quantum-confined Stark effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1691–1693 (1998).
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Yang, Y.-Z.

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Yu, T.

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J. Song, J. Choi, C. Zhang, Z. Deng, Y. Xie, and J. Han, “Elimination of stacking faults in semipolar GaN and light-emitting diodes grown on sapphire,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 11, 33140–33146 (2019).
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ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces (2)

J. Song, J. Choi, C. Zhang, Z. Deng, Y. Xie, and J. Han, “Elimination of stacking faults in semipolar GaN and light-emitting diodes grown on sapphire,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 11, 33140–33146 (2019).
[Crossref]

J. Song, J. Choi, K. L. Xiong, Y. J. Xie, J. J. Cha, and J. Han, “Semipolar (2021) GaN and InGaN light-emitting diodes grown on sapphire,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 9, 14088–14092 (2017).
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ACS Nano (1)

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Process flow for the fabrication of a full-color RGB pixel array. (a) μ-LED array process. (b) Black PR matrices and p-electrode metal lines. (c) Red, green, and blue (transparent) pixel lithography process. (d) Color pixel bonding.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) Schematic diagram of the semipolar GaN grown on a patterned sapphire substrate. (b) Photograph of a 4 in. wafer of SF-free (20-21) InGaN/GaN LED grown on a patterned sapphire substrate. (c) Top-view microscopy image of SF-free (20-21) InGaN/GaN LED grown on a patterned sapphire substrate. (d) Cross-sectional SEM image of (20-21) GaN grown on a patterned sapphire substrate by orientation-controlled epitaxy.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) J-V curve of semipolar μ-LEDs, with image of lighting from device. (b) Electroluminescence spectrum of semipolar μ-LED with increasing applied current density. (c) Experimental data and simulation curves for normalized external quantum efficiency of semipolar and c-plane μ-LEDs. (d) Simulated electron current density throughout whole semipolar and c-plane μ-LED structures at 20  A/cm2 and 200  A/cm2 forward current density.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a) Fluorescence microscopy image of RGB pixel. (b) Overlap relationship between blue μ-LED electroluminescence emission and absorption of quantum-dot photoresist. (c) Electroluminescence spectra of red and green pixels. (d) Electroluminescence microscope image of RGB pixels.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Peak wavelengths of c-plane and semipolar μ-LEDs in range 1 to 200  A/cm2 current density.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Color gamut of RGB pixel assembly from c-plane μ-LED and QDPR under various current densities in (a) CIE 1931 and (b) CIE 1976. Color gamut of RGB pixel assembly from semipolar μ-LED and QDPR under various current densities in (c) CIE 1931 and (d) CIE 1976.

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