Abstract

The year 2019 marks the 10th anniversary of the first report of ultrafast fiber laser mode-locked by graphene. This result has had an important impact on ultrafast laser optics and continues to offer new horizons. Herein, we mainly review the linear and nonlinear photonic properties of two-dimensional (2D) materials, as well as their nonlinear applications in efficient passive mode-locking devices and ultrafast fiber lasers. Initial works and significant progress in this field, as well as new insights and challenges of 2D materials for ultrafast fiber lasers, are reviewed and analyzed.

© 2019 Chinese Laser Press

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2019 (7)

T. Jiang, R. Miao, J. Zhao, Z. Xu, T. Zhou, K. Wei, J. You, X. Zheng, Z. Wang, and X. A. Cheng, “Electron-phonon coupling in topological insulator Bi2Se3 thin films with different substrates,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 17, 020005 (2019).
[Crossref]

J. He, L. Tao, H. Zhang, B. Zhou, and J. Li, “Emerging 2D materials beyond graphene for ultrashort pulse generation in fiber lasers,” Nanoscale 11, 2577–2593 (2019).
[Crossref]

N. Picqué and T. W. Hänsch, “Frequency comb spectroscopy,” Nat. Photonics 13, 146–157 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. Cui and X. Liu, “Revelation of the birth and extinction dynamics of solitons in SWNT-mode-locked fiber lasers,” Photon. Res. 7, 423–430 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. Wang, W. Huang, C. Wang, J. Guo, F. Zhang, Y. Song, Y. Ge, L. Wu, J. Liu, J. Li, and H. Zhang, “An all-optical, actively Q-switched fiber laser by an antimonene-based optical modulator,” Laser Photon. Rev. 13, 1800313 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. Wang, W. Huang, J. Zhao, H. Huang, C. Wang, F. Zhang, J. Liu, J. Li, M. Zhang, and H. Zhang, “A bismuthene-based multifunctional all-optical phase and intensity modulator enabled by photothermal effect,” J. Mater. Chem. C 7, 871–878 (2019).
[Crossref]

Q. Wu, S. Chen, Y. Wang, L. Wu, X. Jiang, F. Zhang, X. Jin, Q. Jiang, Z. Zheng, J. Li, M. Zhang, and H. Zhang, “MZI-based all-optical modulator using MXene Ti3C2Tx (T = F, O, or OH) deposited microfiber,” Adv. Mater. Technol. 4, 1800532 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (33)

Y. Wang, F. Zhang, X. Tang, X. Chen, Y. Chen, W. Huang, Z. Liang, L. Wu, Y. Ge, Y. Song, J. Liu, D. Zhang, J. Li, and H. Zhang, “All-optical phosphorene phase modulator with enhanced stability under ambient conditions,” Laser Photon. Rev. 12, 1800016 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Bogusławski, Y. Wang, H. Xue, X. Yang, D. Mao, X. Gan, Z. Ren, J. Zhao, Q. Dai, G. Soboń, J. Sotor, and Z. Sun, “Graphene actively mode-locked lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 28, 1801539 (2018).
[Crossref]

K.-J. Peng, C.-L. Wu, Y.-H. Lin, H.-Y. Wang, C.-H. Cheng, Y.-C. Chi, and G.-R. Lin, “Saturated evanescent-wave absorption of few-layer graphene-covered side-polished single-mode fiber for all-optical switching,” Nanophotonics 7, 207–215 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Ge, Z. Zhu, Y. Xu, Y. Chen, S. Chen, Z. Liang, Y. Song, Y. Zou, H. Zeng, S. Xu, H. Zhang, and D. Fan, “Broadband nonlinear photoresponse of 2D TiS2 for ultrashort pulse generation and all-optical thresholding devices,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6, 1701166 (2018).
[Crossref]

X. Yi, Q. F. Yang, K. Y. Yang, and K. Vahala, “Imaging soliton dynamics in optical microcavities,” Nat. Commun. 9, 3565 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Sotor, T. Martynkien, P. G. Schunemann, P. Mergo, L. Rutkowski, and G. Soboń, “All-fiber mid-infrared source tunable from 6 to 9  μm based on difference frequency generation in OP-GaP crystal,” Opt. Express 26, 11756–11763 (2018).
[Crossref]

P. Ryczkowski, M. Närhi, C. Billet, J. M. Merolla, G. Genty, and J. M. Dudley, “Real-time full-field characterization of transient dissipative soliton dynamics in a mode-locked laser,” Nat. Photonics 12, 221–227 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Peng, M. Sorokina, S. Sugavanam, N. Tarasov, D. V. Churkin, S. K. Turitsyn, and H. Zeng, “Real-time observation of dissipative soliton formation in nonlinear polarization rotation mode-locked fibre lasers,” Commun. Phys. 1, 20 (2018).
[Crossref]

X. Liu, X. Yao, and Y. Cui, “Real-time observation of the buildup of soliton molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 121, 023905 (2018).
[Crossref]

Z. C. Luo, M. Liu, A. P. Luo, and W. C. Xu, “Two-dimensional materials-decorated microfiber devices for pulse generation and shaping in fiber lasers,” Chin. Phys. B 27, 094215 (2018).
[Crossref]

K. Wu, B. Chen, X. Zhang, S. Zhang, C. Guo, C. Li, P. Xiao, J. Wang, L. Zhou, W. Zou, and J. Chen, “High-performance mode-locked and Q-switched fiber lasers based on novel 2D materials of topological insulators, transition metal dichalcogenides and black phosphorus: review and perspective (invited),” Opt. Commun. 406, 214–229 (2018).
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Y. Dong, S. Chertopalov, K. Maleski, B. Anasori, L. Hu, S. Bhattacharya, A. M. Rao, Y. Gogotsi, V. N. Mochalin, and R. Podila, “Saturable absorption in 2D Ti3C2 MXene thin films for passive photonic diodes,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 30, 1705714 (2018).
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T. Fan, Y. Zhou, M. Qiu, and H. Zhang, “Black phosphorus: a novel nanoplatform with potential in the field of bio-photonic nanomedicine,” J. Innov. Opt. Heal. Sci. 11, 1830003 (2018).
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Q.-Q. Yang, R.-T. Liu, C. Huang, Y.-F. Huang, L.-F. Gao, B. Sun, Z.-P. Huang, L. Zhang, C.-X. Hu, Z.-Q. Zhang, C.-L. Sun, Q. Wang, Y.-L. Tang, and H.-L. Zhang, “2D bismuthene fabricated via acid-intercalated exfoliation showing strong nonlinear near-infrared responses for mode-locking lasers,” Nanoscale 10, 21106–21115 (2018).
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R. Frisenda, E. Navarro-Moratalla, P. Gant, D. Perez De Lara, P. Jarillo-Herrero, R. V. Gorbachev, and A. Castellanos-Gomez, “Recent progress in the assembly of nanodevices and van der Waals heterostructures by deterministic placement of 2D materials,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 47, 53–68 (2018).
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W. Liu, Y.-N. Zhu, M. Liu, B. Wen, S. Fang, H. Teng, M. Lei, L.-M. Liu, and Z. Wei, “Optical properties and applications for MoS2-Sb2Te3-MoS2 heterostructure materials,” Photon. Res. 6, 220–227 (2018).
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B. G. B. Guo, “2D noncarbon materials-based nonlinear optical devices for ultrafast photonics [invited],” Chin. Opt. Lett. 16, 020004 (2018).
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H. Hao, Z. Xu, T. Jiang, K. Wei, H. Li, X. Zheng, K. Yin, J. You, C. Shen, and X. A. Cheng, “Visualized charge transfer processes in monolayer composition-graded WS2xSe2(1−x) lateral heterojunctions via ultrafast microscopy mapping,” Opt. Express 26, 15867–15886 (2018).
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D. Steinberg, J. Diego Zapata, E. A. Thoroh de Souza, and L. A. M. Saito, “Mechanically exfoliated graphite onto D-shaped optical fiber for femtosecond mode-locked erbium-doped fiber laser,” J. Lightwave Technol. 36, 1868–1874 (2018).
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L. Lu, Z. Liang, L. Wu, Y. Chen, Y. Song, S. C. Dhanabalan, J. S. Ponraj, B. Dong, Y. Xiang, F. Xing, D. Fan, and H. Zhang, “Few-layer bismuthene: sonochemical exfoliation, nonlinear optics and applications for ultrafast photonics with enhanced stability,” Laser Photon. Rev. 12, 1700221 (2018).
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Z. Qin, T. Hai, G. Xie, J. Ma, P. Yuan, L. Qian, L. Li, L. Zhao, and D. Shen, “Black phosphorus Q-switched and mode-locked mid-infrared Er:ZBLAN fiber laser at 3.5  μm wavelength,” Opt. Express 26, 8224–8231 (2018).
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C. A. Schäfer, H. Uehara, D. Konishi, S. Hattori, H. Matsukuma, M. Murakami, S. Shimizu, and S. Tokita, “Fluoride-fiber-based side-pump coupler for high-power fiber lasers at 2.8  μm,” Opt. Lett. 43, 2340–2343 (2018).
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J. Zhang, T. Jiang, T. Zhou, H. Ouyang, C. Zhang, Z. Xin, Z. Wang, and X. A. Cheng, “Saturated absorption of different layered Bi2Se3 films in the resonance zone [invited],” Photon. Res. 6, C8–C14 (2018).
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R. Lindberg, J. Bogusławski, I. Pasternak, A. Przewloka, F. Laurell, V. Pasiskevicius, and J. Sotor, “Mapping mode-locking regimes in a polarization-maintaining Er-doped fiber laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24, 1101709 (2018).
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M. Pawliszewska, A. Przewloka, and J. Sotor, “Stretched-pulse Ho-doped fiber laser mode-locked by graphene based saturable absorber,” Proc. SPIE 10512, 105121A (2018).
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W. Liu, M. Liu, Y. OuYang, H. Hou, G. Ma, M. Lei, and Z. Wei, “Tungsten diselenide for mode-locked erbium-doped fiber lasers with short pulse duration,” Nanotechnology 29, 174002 (2018).
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X. Jin, G. Hu, M. Zhang, Y. Hu, T. Albrow-Owen, R. C. T. Howe, T. C. Wu, Q. Wu, Z. Zheng, and T. Hasan, “102  fs pulse generation from a long-term stable, inkjet-printed black phosphorus-mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Express 26, 12506–12513 (2018).
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B. Guo, S. H. Wang, Z. X. Wu, Z. X. Wang, D. H. Wang, H. Huang, F. Zhang, Y. Q. Ge, and H. Zhang, “Sub-200  fs soliton mode-locked fiber laser based on bismuthene saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 26, 22750–22760 (2018).
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X. Jiang, S. Liu, W. Liang, S. Luo, Z. He, Y. Ge, H. Wang, R. Cao, F. Zhang, Q. Wen, J. Li, Q. Bao, D. Fan, and H. Zhang, “Broadband nonlinear photonics in few-layer MXene Ti3C2Tx (T = F, O, or OH),” Laser Photon. Rev. 12, 1700229 (2018).
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M. Liu, R. Tang, A.-P. Luo, W.-C. Xu, and Z.-C. Luo, “Graphene-decorated microfiber knot as a broadband resonator for ultrahigh repetition-rate pulse fiber lasers,” Photon. Res. 6, C1–C7 (2018).
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P. Yan, Z. Jiang, H. Chen, J. Yin, J. Lai, J. Wang, T. He, and J. Yang, “α-In2Se3 wideband optical modulator for pulsed fiber lasers,” Opt. Lett. 43, 4417–4420 (2018).
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J. Wang, Z. Jiang, H. Chen, J. Li, J. Yin, J. Wang, T. He, P. Yan, and S. Ruan, “High energy soliton pulse generation by a magnetron-sputtering-deposition-grown MoTe2 saturable absorber,” Photon. Res. 6, 535–541 (2018).
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J. Wang, J. Yin, T. He, and P. Yan, “Sb2Te3 mode-locked ultrafast fiber laser at 1.93  μm,” Chin. Phys. B 27, 084214 (2018).
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2017 (26)

J. Wang, Z. Jiang, H. Chen, J. Li, J. Yin, J. Wang, T. He, P. Yan, and S. Ruan, “Magnetron-sputtering deposited WTe2 for an ultrafast thulium-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 42, 5010–5013 (2017).
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M. Pawliszewska, Y. Ge, Z. Li, H. Zhang, and J. Sotor, “Fundamental and harmonic mode-locking at 2.1  μm with black phosphorus saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 25, 16916–16921 (2017).
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W. Liu, L. Pang, H. Han, M. Liu, M. Lei, S. Fang, H. Teng, and Z. Wei, “Tungsten disulfide saturable absorbers for 67  fs mode-locked erbium-doped fiber lasers,” Opt. Express 25, 2950–2959 (2017).
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Y. Song, Z. Liang, X. Jiang, Y. Chen, Z. Li, L. Lu, Y. Ge, K. Wang, J. Zheng, S. Lu, J. Ji, and H. Zhang, “Few-layer antimonene decorated microfiber: ultra-short pulse generation and all-optical thresholding with enhanced long term stability,” 2D Mater. 4, 045010 (2017).
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H. Chen, J. Yin, J. Yang, X. Zhang, M. Liu, Z. Jiang, J. Wang, Z. Sun, T. Guo, W. Liu, and P. Yan, “Transition-metal dichalcogenides heterostructure saturable absorbers for ultrafast photonics,” Opt. Lett. 42, 4279–4282 (2017).
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D. Na, K. Park, K.-H. Park, and Y.-W. Song, “Passivation of black phosphorus saturable absorbers for reliable pulse formation of fiber lasers,” Nanotechnology 28, 475207 (2017).
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P. Li, Y. Chen, T. Yang, Z. Wang, H. Lin, Y. Xu, L. Li, H. Mu, B. N. Shivananju, Y. Zhang, Q. Zhang, A. Pan, S. Li, D. Tang, B. Jia, H. Zhang, and Q. Bao, “Two-dimensional CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite nanosheets for ultrafast pulsed fiber lasers,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 9, 12759–12765 (2017).
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J. Lee, J. Koo, J. Lee, Y. M. Jhon, and J. H. Lee, “All-fiberized, femtosecond laser at 1912  nm using a bulk-like MoSe2 saturable absorber,” Opt. Mater. Express 7, 2968–2979 (2017).
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Y. Cui, F. Lu, and X. Liu, “Nonlinear saturable and polarization-induced absorption of rhenium disulfide,” Sci. Rep. 7, 40080 (2017).
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J. Du, M. Zhang, Z. Guo, J. Chen, X. Zhu, G. Hu, P. Peng, Z. Zheng, and H. Zhang, “Phosphorene quantum dot saturable absorbers for ultrafast fiber lasers,” Sci. Rep. 7, 42357 (2017).
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Y. I. Jhon, J. Koo, B. Anasori, M. Seo, J. H. Lee, Y. Gogotsi, and Y. M. Jhon, “Metallic MXene saturable absorber for femtosecond mode-locked lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 29, 1702496 (2017).
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M.-Y. Liu, Y. Huang, Q.-Y. Chen, Z.-Y. Li, C. Cao, and Y. He, “Strain and electric field tunable electronic structure of buckled bismuthene,” RSC Adv. 7, 39546–39555 (2017).
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G. Wang, K. Wang, B. M. Szydłowska, A. A. Baker-Murray, J. J. Wang, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, J. Wang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast nonlinear optical properties of a graphene saturable mirror in the 2  μm wavelength region,” Laser Photon. Rev. 11, 1700166 (2017).
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J. Zhao, Z. Xu, Y. Zang, Y. Gong, X. Zheng, K. He, X. A. Cheng, and T. Jiang, “Thickness-dependent carrier and phonon dynamics of topological insulator Bi2Te3 thin films,” Opt. Express 25, 14635–14643 (2017).
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X. Chen, G. Xu, X. Ren, Z. Li, X. Qi, K. Huang, H. Zhang, Z. Huang, and J. Zhong, “A black/red phosphorus hybrid as an electrode material for high-performance Li-ion batteries and supercapacitors,” J. Mater. Chem. A 5, 6581–6588 (2017).
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X. Liu, Q. Guo, and J. Qiu, “Emerging low-dimensional materials for nonlinear optics and ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 29, 1605886 (2017).
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F. Wang, “Two-dimensional materials for ultrafast lasers,” Chin. Phys. B 26, 034202 (2017).
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Z. Guo, S. Chen, Z. Wang, Z. Yang, F. Liu, Y. Xu, J. Wang, Y. Yi, H. Zhang, L. Liao, P. K. Chu, and X. F. Yu, “Metal-ion-modified black phosphorus with enhanced stability and transistor performance,” Adv. Mater. 29, 1703811 (2017).
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M. Pumera and Z. Sofer, “2D monoelemental arsenene, antimonene, and bismuthene: beyond black phosphorus,” Adv. Mater. 29, 1605299 (2017).
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T. Jiang, Y. Zang, H. Sun, X. Zheng, Y. Liu, Y. Gong, L. Fang, X. A. Cheng, and K. He, “Broadband high-responsivity photodetectors based on large-scale topological crystalline insulator SnTe ultrathin film grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5, 1600727 (2017).
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H. Sun, T. Jiang, Y. Zang, X. Zheng, Y. Gong, Y. Yan, Z. Xu, Y. Liu, L. Fang, and X. A. Cheng, “Broadband ultrafast photovoltaic detectors based on large-scale topological insulator Sb2Te3/STO heterostructures,” Nanoscale 9, 9325–9332 (2017).
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X. Ren, Z. Li, Z. Huang, D. Sang, H. Qiao, X. Qi, J. Li, J. Zhong, and H. Zhang, “Environmentally robust black phosphorus nanosheets in solution: application for self-powered photodetector,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 27, 1606834 (2017).
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T. Wang, Y. Guo, P. Wan, X. Sun, H. Zhang, Z. Yu, and X. Chen, “A flexible transparent colorimetric wrist strap sensor,” Nanoscale 9, 869–874 (2017).
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J. Zheng, X. Tang, Z. Yang, Z. Liang, Y. Chen, K. Wang, Y. Song, Y. Zhang, J. Ji, Y. Liu, D. Fan, and H. Zhang, “Few-layer phosphorene-decorated microfiber for all-optical thresholding and optical modulation,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5, 1700026 (2017).
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D. Li, H. Xue, M. Qi, Y. Wang, S. Aksimsek, N. Chekurov, W. Kim, C. Li, J. Riikonen, F. Ye, Q. Dai, Z. Ren, J. Bai, T. Hasan, H. Lipsanen, and Z. Sun, “Graphene actively Q-switched lasers,” 2D Mater. 4, 025095 (2017).
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J. Zheng, Z. Yang, C. Si, Z. Liang, X. Chen, R. Cao, Z. Guo, K. Wang, Y. Zhang, J. Ji, M. Zhang, D. Fan, and H. Zhang, “Black phosphorus based all-optical-signal-processing: toward high performances and enhanced stability,” ACS Photon. 4, 1466–1476 (2017).
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2016 (27)

T. Wang, Y. Guo, P. Wan, H. Zhang, X. Chen, and X. Sun, “Flexible transparent electronic gas sensors,” Small 12, 3748–3756 (2016).
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P. Guo, J. Xu, K. Gong, X. Shen, Y. Lu, Y. Qiu, J. Xu, Z. Zou, C. Wang, H. Yan, Y. Luo, A. Pan, H. Zhang, J. C. Ho, and K. M. Yu, “On-nanowire axial heterojunction design for high-performance photodetectors,” ACS Nano 10, 8474–8481 (2016).
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E. Aktürk, O. Ü. Aktürk, and S. Ciraci, “Single and bilayer bismuthene: stability at high temperature and mechanical and electronic properties,” Phys. Rev. B 94, 014115 (2016).
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L. Kong, Z. Qin, G. Xie, Z. Guo, H. Zhang, P. Yuan, and L. Qian, “Black phosphorus as broadband saturable absorber for pulsed lasers from 1  μm to 2.7  μm wavelength,” Laser Phys. Lett. 13, 045801 (2016).
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H. Yu, X. Zheng, K. Yin, X. A. Cheng, and T. Jiang, “Nanosecond passively Q-switched thulium/holmium-doped fiber laser based on black phosphorus nanoplatelets,” Opt. Mater. Express 6, 603–609 (2016).
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K. F. Mak and J. Shan, “Photonics and optoelectronics of 2D semiconductor transition metal dichalcogenides,” Nat. Photonics 10, 216–226 (2016).
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A. J. Fleisher, D. A. Long, Z. D. Reed, J. T. Hodges, and D. F. Plusquellic, “Coherent cavity-enhanced dual-comb spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 24, 10424–10434 (2016).
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L. Miao, J. Yi, Q. Wang, D. Feng, H. He, S. Lu, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, and S. Wen, “Broadband third order nonlinear optical responses of bismuth telluride nanosheets,” Opt. Mater. Express 6, 2244–2251 (2016).
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Q. Jiang, L. Xu, N. Chen, H. Zhang, L. Dai, and S. Wang, “Facile synthesis of black phosphorus: an efficient electrocatalyst for the oxygen evolving reaction,” Angew. Chem. (Int. Ed. Engl.) 55, 13849–13853 (2016).
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J. Liu, J. Liu, Z. Guo, H. Zhang, W. Ma, J. Wang, and L. Su, “Dual-wavelength Q-switched Er:SrF2 laser with a black phosphorus absorber in the mid-infrared region,” Opt. Express 24, 30289–30295 (2016).
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K. Wang, B. M. Szydlowska, G. Wang, X. Zhang, J. J. Wang, J. J. Magan, L. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, J. Wang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast nonlinear excitation dynamics of black phosphorus nanosheets from visible to mid-infrared,” ACS Nano 10, 6923–6932 (2016).
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Z. Liu, H. Mu, S. Xiao, R. Wang, Z. Wang, W. Wang, Y. Wang, X. Zhu, K. Lu, H. Zhang, S. T. Lee, Q. Bao, and W. Ma, “Pulsed lasers employing solution-processed plasmonic Cu3−xP colloidal nanocrystals,” Adv. Mater. 28, 3535–3542 (2016).
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Z. Wang, H. Mu, J. Yuan, C. Zhao, Q. Bao, and H. Zhang, “Graphene-Bi2Te3 heterostructure as broadband saturable absorber for ultra-short pulse generation in Er-doped and Yb-doped fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 23, 8800105 (2016).
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Y. Wang, H. Mu, X. Li, J. Yuan, J. Chen, S. Xiao, Q. Bao, Y. Gao, and J. He, “Observation of large nonlinear responses in a graphene-Bi2Te3 heterostructure at a telecommunication wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108, 221901 (2016).
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M. Kowalczyk, J. Bogusławski, R. Zybała, K. Mars, A. Mikuła, G. Soboń, and J. Sotor, “Sb2Te3-deposited D-shaped fiber as a saturable absorber for mode-locked Yb-doped fiber lasers,” Opt. Mater. Express 6, 2273–2282 (2016).
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S. Ko, J. Lee, J. Koo, B. S. Joo, M. Gu, and J. H. Lee, “Chemical wet etching of an optical fiber using a hydrogen fluoride-free solution for a saturable absorber based on the evanescent field interaction,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34, 3776–3784 (2016).
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M. C. Fischer, J. W. Wilson, F. E. Robles, and W. S. Warren, “Invited review article: pump-probe microscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 87, 031101 (2016).
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A. A. Latiff, M. F. M. Rusdi, M. B. Hisyam, H. Ahmad, and S. W. Harun, “Black phosphorus as a saturable absorber for generating mode-locked fiber laser in normal dispersion regime,” Proc. SPIE 10150, 101500U (2016).
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L. Gao, T. Zhu, Y. J. Li, W. Huang, and M. Liu, “Watt-level ultrafast fiber laser based on weak evanescent interaction with reduced graphene oxide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 28, 1245–1248 (2016).
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X. Liu, H. Yang, Y. Cui, G. Chen, Y. Yang, X. Wu, X. Yao, D. Han, X. Han, and C. Zeng, “Graphene-clad microfibre saturable absorber for ultrafast fibre lasers,” Sci. Rep. 6, 26024 (2016).
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J. Li, H. Luo, B. Zhai, R. Lu, Z. Guo, H. Zhang, and Y. Liu, “Black phosphorus: a two-dimension saturable absorption material for mid-infrared Q-switched and mode-locked fiber lasers,” Sci. Rep. 6, 30361 (2016).
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J. Sotor and G. Soboń, “24  fs and 3  nJ pulse generation from a simple, all polarization maintaining Er-doped fiber laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 13, 125102 (2016).
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G. Zhu, X. Zhu, F. Wang, S. Xu, Y. Li, X. Guo, K. Balakrishnan, R. A. Norwood, and N. Peyghambarian, “Graphene mode-locked fiber laser at 2.8  μm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 28, 7–10 (2016).
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Z. Qin, G. Xie, C. Zhao, S. Wen, P. Yuan, and L. Qian, “Mid-infrared mode-locked pulse generation with multilayer black phosphorus as saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 41, 56–59 (2016).
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J. Kim and Y. Song, “Ultralow-noise mode-locked fiber lasers and frequency combs: principles, status, and applications,” Adv. Opt. Photon. 8, 465–540 (2016).
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J. Koo, J. Park, J. Lee, Y. M. Jhon, and J. H. Lee, “Femtosecond harmonic mode-locking of a fiber laser at 3.27  GHz using a bulk-like, MoSe2-based saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 24, 10575–10589 (2016).
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W. Liu, L. Pang, H. Han, W. Tian, H. Chen, M. Lei, P. Yan, and Z. Wei, “70-fs mode-locked erbium-doped fiber laser with topological insulator,” Sci. Rep. 6, 19997 (2016).
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2015 (24)

Y. L. Qi, H. Liu, H. Cui, Y. Q. Huang, Q. Y. Ning, M. Liu, Z. C. Luo, A. P. Luo, and W. C. Xu, “Graphene-deposited microfiber photonic device for ultrahigh-repetition rate pulse generation in a fiber laser,” Opt. Express 23, 17720–17726 (2015).
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K. Wu, X. Zhang, J. Wang, and J. Chen, “463-MHz fundamental mode-locked fiber laser based on few-layer MoS2 saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 40, 1374–1377 (2015).
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H.-D. Xia, H.-P. Li, C.-Y. Lan, C. Li, G.-L. Deng, J.-F. Li, and Y. Liu, “Passive harmonic mode-locking of Er-doped fiber laser using CVD-grown few-layer MoS2 as a saturable absorber,” Chin. Phys. B 24, 084206 (2015).
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M. Jung, J. Lee, J. Park, J. Koo, Y. M. Jhon, and J. H. Lee, “Mode-locked, 1.94-μm, all-fiberized laser using WS2-based evanescent field interaction,” Opt. Express 23, 19996–20006 (2015).
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G. Soboń, J. Sotor, I. Pasternak, A. Krajewska, W. Strupinski, and K. M. Abramski, “Multilayer graphene-based saturable absorbers with scalable modulation depth for mode-locked Er- and Tm-doped fiber lasers,” Opt. Mater. Express 5, 2884–2894 (2015).
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G. Soboń, J. Sotor, I. Pasternak, A. Krajewska, W. Strupinski, and K. M. Abramski, “260  fs and 1  nJ pulse generation from a compact, mode-locked Tm-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Express 23, 31446–31451 (2015).
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J. Sotor, I. Pasternak, A. Krajewska, W. Strupinski, and G. Soboń, “Sub-90  fs a stretched-pulse mode-locked fiber laser based on a graphene saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 23, 27503–27508 (2015).
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G. Soboń, J. Sotor, I. Pasternak, A. Krajewska, W. Strupinski, and K. M. Abramski, “All-polarization maintaining, graphene-based femtosecond Tm-doped all-fiber laser,” Opt. Express 23, 9339–9346 (2015).
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D. Mao, S. Zhang, Y. Wang, X. Gan, W. Zhang, T. Mei, Y. Wang, Y. Wang, H. Zeng, and J. Zhao, “WS2 saturable absorber for dissipative soliton mode locking at 1.06 and 1.55  μm,” Opt. Express 23, 27509–27519 (2015).
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J. Sotor, G. Soboń, M. Kowalczyk, W. Macherzynski, P. Paletko, and K. M. Abramski, “Ultrafast thulium-doped fiber laser mode locked with black phosphorus,” Opt. Lett. 40, 3885–3888 (2015).
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Y. Chen, G. Jiang, S. Chen, Z. Guo, X. Yu, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, Q. Bao, S. Wen, D. Tang, and D. Fan, “Mechanically exfoliated black phosphorus as a new saturable absorber for both Q-switching and Mode-locking laser operation,” Opt. Express 23, 12823–12833 (2015).
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P. Yan, R. Lin, S. Ruan, A. Liu, and H. Chen, “A 2.95  GHz, femtosecond passive harmonic mode-locked fiber laser based on evanescent field interaction with topological insulator film,” Opt. Express 23, 154–164 (2015).
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L. Miao, Y. Jiang, S. Lu, B. Shi, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, and S. Wen, “Broadband ultrafast nonlinear optical response of few-layers graphene: toward the mid-infrared regime,” Photon. Res. 3, 214–219 (2015).
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H. Mu, Z. Wang, J. Yuan, S. Xiao, C. Chen, Y. Chen, Y. Chen, J. Song, Y. Wang, Y. Xue, H. Zhang, and Q. Bao, “Graphene-Bi2Te3 heterostructure as saturable absorber for short pulse generation,” ACS Photon. 2, 832–841 (2015).
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J. Sotor, G. Soboń, W. Macherzynski, P. Paletko, and K. M. Abramski, “Black phosphorus saturable absorber for ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 051108 (2015).
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H. Zhang, X. He, W. Lin, R. Wei, F. Zhang, X. Du, G. Dong, and J. Qiu, “Ultrafast saturable absorption in topological insulator Bi2SeTe2 nanosheets,” Opt. Express 23, 13376–13383 (2015).
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X. Zheng, Y. Zhang, R. Chen, X. A. Cheng, Z. Xu, and T. Jiang, “Z-scan measurement of the nonlinear refractive index of monolayer WS2,” Opt. Express 23, 15616–15623 (2015).
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V. Tran, R. Fei, and L. Yang, “Quasiparticle energies, excitons, and optical spectra of few-layer black phosphorus,” 2D Mater. 2, 044014 (2015).
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G. Soboń, “Mode-locking of fiber lasers using novel two-dimensional nanomaterials: graphene and topological insulators [invited],” Photon. Res. 3, A56–A63 (2015).
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Y. Jiang, L. Miao, G. Jiang, Y. Chen, X. Qi, X. Jiang, H. Zhang, and S. Wen, “Broadband and enhanced nonlinear optical response of MoS2/graphene nanocomposites for ultrafast photonics applications,” Sci. Rep. 5, 16372 (2015).
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Z. Huang, W. Han, H. Tang, L. Ren, D. S. Chander, X. Qi, and H. Zhang, “Photoelectrochemical-type sunlight photodetector based on MoS2/graphene heterostructure,” 2D Mater. 2, 035011 (2015).
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S. Bai, C. Sun, H. Yan, X. Sun, H. Zhang, L. Luo, X. Lei, P. Wan, and X. Chen, “Healable, transparent, room-temperature electronic sensors based on carbon nanotube network-coated polyelectrolyte multilayers,” Small 11, 5807–5813 (2015).
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P. Wan, X. Wen, C. Sun, B. K. Chandran, H. Zhang, X. Sun, and X. Chen, “Flexible transparent films based on nanocomposite networks of polyaniline and carbon nanotubes for high-performance gas sensing,” Small 11, 5409–5415 (2015).
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2014 (23)

G. Soboń, P. R. Kaczmarek, D. Sliwinska, J. Sotor, and K. M. Abramski, “High-power fiber-based femtosecond CPA system at 1560  nm,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 492–495 (2014).
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B. Fu, Y. Hua, X. Xiao, H. Zhu, Z. Sun, and C. Yang, “Broadband graphene saturable absorber for pulsed fiber lasers at 1, 1.5, and 2  μm,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 1100705 (2014).
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2013 (6)

Z. C. Luo, M. Liu, H. Liu, X. W. Zheng, A. P. Luo, C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, S. C. Wen, and W. C. Xu, “2  GHz passively harmonic mode-locked fiber laser by a microfiber-based topological insulator saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 38, 5212–5215 (2013).
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K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7, 9260–9267 (2013).
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X. Zhang and Y. Xie, “Recent advances in free-standing two-dimensional crystals with atomic thickness: design, assembly and transfer strategies,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 42, 8187–8199 (2013).
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2012 (9)

K. J. Koski, C. D. Wessells, B. W. Reed, J. J. Cha, D. Kong, and Y. Cui, “Chemical intercalation of zerovalent metals into 2D layered Bi2Se3 nanoribbons,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134, 13773–13779 (2012).
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M. Naguib, J. Come, B. Dyatkin, V. Presser, P.-L. Taberna, P. Simon, M. W. Barsoum, and Y. Gogotsi, “MXene: a promising transition metal carbide anode for lithium-ion batteries,” Electrochem. Commun. 16, 61–64 (2012).
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M. Zhang, E. J. R. Kelleher, F. Torrisi, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, D. Popa, F. Wang, A. C. Ferrari, S. V. Popov, and J. R. Taylor, “Tm-doped fiber laser mode-locked by graphene-polymer composite,” Opt. Express 20, 25077–25084 (2012).
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A. Martinez and S. Yamashita, “10  GHz fundamental mode fiber laser using a graphene saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 041118 (2012).
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G. Soboń, J. Sotor, and K. M. Abramski, “Passive harmonic mode-locking in Er-doped fiber laser based on graphene saturable absorber with repetition rates scalable to 2.22  GHz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 161109 (2012).
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2010 (8)

D. Popa, Z. Sun, F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, F. Wang, and A. C. Ferrari, “Sub 200  fs pulse generation from a graphene mode-locked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 203106 (2010).
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L. M. Zhao, D. Y. Tang, H. Zhang, X. Wu, Q. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Dissipative soliton operation of an ytterbium-doped fiber laser mode locked with atomic multilayer graphene,” Opt. Lett. 35, 3622–3624 (2010).
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Y. M. Chang, H. Kim, J. H. Lee, and Y.-W. Song, “Multilayered graphene efficiently formed by mechanical exfoliation for nonlinear saturable absorbers in fiber mode-locked lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 211102 (2010).
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2009 (3)

H. Zhang, C. Liu, X. Qi, X. Dai, Z. Fang, and S. Zhang, “Topological insulators in Bi2Se3, Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3 with a single Dirac cone on the surface,” Nat. Phys. 5, 438–442 (2009).
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Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3077–3083 (2009).
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H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Large energy mode locking of an erbium-doped fiber laser with atomic layer graphene,” Opt. Express 17, 17630–17635 (2009).
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2008 (1)

A. Reina, H. B. Son, L. Y. Jiao, B. Fan, M. S. Dresselhaus, Z. F. Liu, and J. Kong, “Transferring and identification of single- and few-layer graphene on arbitrary substrates,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112, 17741–17744 (2008).
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2007 (1)

A. K. Geim and K. S. Novoselov, “The rise of graphene,” Nat. Mater. 6, 183–191 (2007).
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2005 (1)

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, M. I. Katsnelson, I. V. Grigorieva, S. V. Dubonos, and A. A. Firsov, “Two-dimensional gas of massless Dirac fermions in graphene,” Nature 438, 197–200 (2005).
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1996 (1)

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J. Sotor, G. Soboń, M. Kowalczyk, W. Macherzynski, P. Paletko, and K. M. Abramski, “Ultrafast thulium-doped fiber laser mode locked with black phosphorus,” Opt. Lett. 40, 3885–3888 (2015).
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G. Soboń, J. Sotor, I. Pasternak, A. Krajewska, W. Strupinski, and K. M. Abramski, “Multilayer graphene-based saturable absorbers with scalable modulation depth for mode-locked Er- and Tm-doped fiber lasers,” Opt. Mater. Express 5, 2884–2894 (2015).
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Y. Wang, F. Zhang, X. Tang, X. Chen, Y. Chen, W. Huang, Z. Liang, L. Wu, Y. Ge, Y. Song, J. Liu, D. Zhang, J. Li, and H. Zhang, “All-optical phosphorene phase modulator with enhanced stability under ambient conditions,” Laser Photon. Rev. 12, 1800016 (2018).
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H. Zhang, X. He, W. Lin, R. Wei, F. Zhang, X. Du, G. Dong, and J. Qiu, “Ultrafast saturable absorption in topological insulator Bi2SeTe2 nanosheets,” Opt. Express 23, 13376–13383 (2015).
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Zhang, H.

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Y. Wang, W. Huang, C. Wang, J. Guo, F. Zhang, Y. Song, Y. Ge, L. Wu, J. Liu, J. Li, and H. Zhang, “An all-optical, actively Q-switched fiber laser by an antimonene-based optical modulator,” Laser Photon. Rev. 13, 1800313 (2019).
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Y. Wang, W. Huang, J. Zhao, H. Huang, C. Wang, F. Zhang, J. Liu, J. Li, M. Zhang, and H. Zhang, “A bismuthene-based multifunctional all-optical phase and intensity modulator enabled by photothermal effect,” J. Mater. Chem. C 7, 871–878 (2019).
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Q. Wu, S. Chen, Y. Wang, L. Wu, X. Jiang, F. Zhang, X. Jin, Q. Jiang, Z. Zheng, J. Li, M. Zhang, and H. Zhang, “MZI-based all-optical modulator using MXene Ti3C2Tx (T = F, O, or OH) deposited microfiber,” Adv. Mater. Technol. 4, 1800532 (2019).
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Y. Wang, F. Zhang, X. Tang, X. Chen, Y. Chen, W. Huang, Z. Liang, L. Wu, Y. Ge, Y. Song, J. Liu, D. Zhang, J. Li, and H. Zhang, “All-optical phosphorene phase modulator with enhanced stability under ambient conditions,” Laser Photon. Rev. 12, 1800016 (2018).
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Y. Ge, Z. Zhu, Y. Xu, Y. Chen, S. Chen, Z. Liang, Y. Song, Y. Zou, H. Zeng, S. Xu, H. Zhang, and D. Fan, “Broadband nonlinear photoresponse of 2D TiS2 for ultrashort pulse generation and all-optical thresholding devices,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6, 1701166 (2018).
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B. Guo, S. H. Wang, Z. X. Wu, Z. X. Wang, D. H. Wang, H. Huang, F. Zhang, Y. Q. Ge, and H. Zhang, “Sub-200  fs soliton mode-locked fiber laser based on bismuthene saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 26, 22750–22760 (2018).
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P. Li, Y. Chen, T. Yang, Z. Wang, H. Lin, Y. Xu, L. Li, H. Mu, B. N. Shivananju, Y. Zhang, Q. Zhang, A. Pan, S. Li, D. Tang, B. Jia, H. Zhang, and Q. Bao, “Two-dimensional CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite nanosheets for ultrafast pulsed fiber lasers,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 9, 12759–12765 (2017).
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Y. Song, Z. Liang, X. Jiang, Y. Chen, Z. Li, L. Lu, Y. Ge, K. Wang, J. Zheng, S. Lu, J. Ji, and H. Zhang, “Few-layer antimonene decorated microfiber: ultra-short pulse generation and all-optical thresholding with enhanced long term stability,” 2D Mater. 4, 045010 (2017).
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T. Wang, Y. Guo, P. Wan, X. Sun, H. Zhang, Z. Yu, and X. Chen, “A flexible transparent colorimetric wrist strap sensor,” Nanoscale 9, 869–874 (2017).
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J. Zheng, Z. Yang, C. Si, Z. Liang, X. Chen, R. Cao, Z. Guo, K. Wang, Y. Zhang, J. Ji, M. Zhang, D. Fan, and H. Zhang, “Black phosphorus based all-optical-signal-processing: toward high performances and enhanced stability,” ACS Photon. 4, 1466–1476 (2017).
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L. Miao, J. Yi, Q. Wang, D. Feng, H. He, S. Lu, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, and S. Wen, “Broadband third order nonlinear optical responses of bismuth telluride nanosheets,” Opt. Mater. Express 6, 2244–2251 (2016).
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H. Zhang, X. He, W. Lin, R. Wei, F. Zhang, X. Du, G. Dong, and J. Qiu, “Ultrafast saturable absorption in topological insulator Bi2SeTe2 nanosheets,” Opt. Express 23, 13376–13383 (2015).
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H. Mu, Z. Wang, J. Yuan, S. Xiao, C. Chen, Y. Chen, Y. Chen, J. Song, Y. Wang, Y. Xue, H. Zhang, and Q. Bao, “Graphene-Bi2Te3 heterostructure as saturable absorber for short pulse generation,” ACS Photon. 2, 832–841 (2015).
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Y. Chen, G. Jiang, S. Chen, Z. Guo, X. Yu, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, Q. Bao, S. Wen, D. Tang, and D. Fan, “Mechanically exfoliated black phosphorus as a new saturable absorber for both Q-switching and Mode-locking laser operation,” Opt. Express 23, 12823–12833 (2015).
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P. Wan, X. Wen, C. Sun, B. K. Chandran, H. Zhang, X. Sun, and X. Chen, “Flexible transparent films based on nanocomposite networks of polyaniline and carbon nanotubes for high-performance gas sensing,” Small 11, 5409–5415 (2015).
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S. Bai, C. Sun, H. Yan, X. Sun, H. Zhang, L. Luo, X. Lei, P. Wan, and X. Chen, “Healable, transparent, room-temperature electronic sensors based on carbon nanotube network-coated polyelectrolyte multilayers,” Small 11, 5807–5813 (2015).
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S. Chen, L. Miao, X. Chen, Y. Chen, C. Zhao, S. Datta, Y. Li, Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Liu, S. Wen, and D. Fan, “Few-layer topological insulator for all-optical signal processing using the nonlinear Kerr effect,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3, 1769–1778 (2015).
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H. Liu, A.-P. Luo, F.-Z. Wang, R. Tang, M. Liu, Z.-C. Luo, W.-C. Xu, C.-J. Zhao, and H. Zhang, “Femtosecond pulse erbium-doped fiber laser by a few-layer MoS2 saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 39, 4591–4594 (2014).
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H. Zhang, S. B. Lu, J. Zheng, J. Du, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) as a broadband saturable absorber for ultra-fast photonics,” Opt. Express 22, 7249–7260 (2014).
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K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7, 9260–9267 (2013).
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M. Chhowalla, H. S. Shin, G. Eda, L.-J. Li, K. P. Loh, and H. Zhang, “The chemistry of two-dimensional layered transition metal dichalcogenide nanosheets,” Nat. Chem. 5, 263–275 (2013).
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H. Zhang, S. Virally, Q. Bao, L. Kian Ping, S. Massar, N. Godbout, and P. Kockaert, “Z-scan measurement of the nonlinear refractive index of graphene,” Opt. Lett. 37, 1856–1858 (2012).
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L. M. Zhao, D. Y. Tang, H. Zhang, X. Wu, Q. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Dissipative soliton operation of an ytterbium-doped fiber laser mode locked with atomic multilayer graphene,” Opt. Lett. 35, 3622–3624 (2010).
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Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3077–3083 (2009).
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H. Zhang, C. Liu, X. Qi, X. Dai, Z. Fang, and S. Zhang, “Topological insulators in Bi2Se3, Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3 with a single Dirac cone on the surface,” Nat. Phys. 5, 438–442 (2009).
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Zhang, H.-L.

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K. Wang, B. M. Szydlowska, G. Wang, X. Zhang, J. J. Wang, J. J. Magan, L. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, J. Wang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast nonlinear excitation dynamics of black phosphorus nanosheets from visible to mid-infrared,” ACS Nano 10, 6923–6932 (2016).
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K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7, 9260–9267 (2013).
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Zhang, M.

Q. Wu, S. Chen, Y. Wang, L. Wu, X. Jiang, F. Zhang, X. Jin, Q. Jiang, Z. Zheng, J. Li, M. Zhang, and H. Zhang, “MZI-based all-optical modulator using MXene Ti3C2Tx (T = F, O, or OH) deposited microfiber,” Adv. Mater. Technol. 4, 1800532 (2019).
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Y. Wang, W. Huang, J. Zhao, H. Huang, C. Wang, F. Zhang, J. Liu, J. Li, M. Zhang, and H. Zhang, “A bismuthene-based multifunctional all-optical phase and intensity modulator enabled by photothermal effect,” J. Mater. Chem. C 7, 871–878 (2019).
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X. Jin, G. Hu, M. Zhang, Y. Hu, T. Albrow-Owen, R. C. T. Howe, T. C. Wu, Q. Wu, Z. Zheng, and T. Hasan, “102  fs pulse generation from a long-term stable, inkjet-printed black phosphorus-mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Express 26, 12506–12513 (2018).
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J. Zheng, Z. Yang, C. Si, Z. Liang, X. Chen, R. Cao, Z. Guo, K. Wang, Y. Zhang, J. Ji, M. Zhang, D. Fan, and H. Zhang, “Black phosphorus based all-optical-signal-processing: toward high performances and enhanced stability,” ACS Photon. 4, 1466–1476 (2017).
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H. Zhang, C. Liu, X. Qi, X. Dai, Z. Fang, and S. Zhang, “Topological insulators in Bi2Se3, Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3 with a single Dirac cone on the surface,” Nat. Phys. 5, 438–442 (2009).
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Zhang, W.

Zhang, X.

K. Wu, B. Chen, X. Zhang, S. Zhang, C. Guo, C. Li, P. Xiao, J. Wang, L. Zhou, W. Zou, and J. Chen, “High-performance mode-locked and Q-switched fiber lasers based on novel 2D materials of topological insulators, transition metal dichalcogenides and black phosphorus: review and perspective (invited),” Opt. Commun. 406, 214–229 (2018).
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L. Miao, J. Yi, Q. Wang, D. Feng, H. He, S. Lu, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, and S. Wen, “Broadband third order nonlinear optical responses of bismuth telluride nanosheets,” Opt. Mater. Express 6, 2244–2251 (2016).
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Z. Wang, H. Mu, J. Yuan, C. Zhao, Q. Bao, and H. Zhang, “Graphene-Bi2Te3 heterostructure as broadband saturable absorber for ultra-short pulse generation in Er-doped and Yb-doped fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 23, 8800105 (2016).
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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Fiber integration with 2D materials. (a)–(c) Transmission coupling; (d)–(g) evanescent-wave coupling; 2D materials are deposited or transferred on (a) fiber ends, (b) transparent plate, (c) reflection mirror, (d) tapered fiber, (e) side-polished fiber, (f) photonic crystal fiber, and (g) cladding-etched fiber.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. First demonstrations of UFLs mode-locked by 2D materials at different wavelengths.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. CVD-grown graphene mode-locked EDFL [10]. (a) Laser configuration; (b) output pulse train; (c) output laser spectrum; (d) autocorrelation trace. Reproduced with permission, Copyright 2009, Wiley-VCH.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Graphene mode-locked EDFL that delivers 24 fs pulses [125]. (a) Laser configuration; (b) optical spectrum; (c) autocorrelation trace; (d) measured RF spectrum. Reproduced with permission. Copyright 2016, IOP Publishing.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Hundred gigahertz repetition rate graphene mode-locked UFLs [137]. (a) Laser configuration; (b) graphene microfiber knot filter; (c) laser spectrum at 1 μm; (d) laser spectrum at 1.5 μm; (e) autocorrelation trace at 1 μm; (f) autocorrelation trace at 1.5 μm. Reproduced with permission. Copyright 2018, OSA Publishing.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Highly stable UFLs mode-locked by 2D materials. (a)–(c) Laser spectra; (d)–(f) measured RF spectra. (a) and (d), Ref. [146]; reproduced with permission; copyright 2018, OSA Publishing. (b) and (e), Ref. [148]; reproduced with permission; copyright 2017, OSA Publishing. (c) and (f), Ref. [128]; reproduced with permission; copyright 2018, IOP Publishing.

Tables (4)

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Table 1. 2D Material Family for UFLsa,b

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Table 2. UFLs Mode-Locked by 2D Materials with Short Pulse Widths

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Table 3. UFLs Mode-Locked by 2D Materials with High Repetition Rates

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Table 4. Highly Stable UFLs Mode-Locked by 2D Materials

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