Abstract

We investigated the nonlinear optical properties of ReSe2. First, we measured the nonlinear absorption coefficient and the nonlinear refractive index of a ReSe2 thin film using open-aperture (OA) and closed-aperture (CA) Z-scan techniques. ReSe2 was shown to possess both saturable absorption and self-defocusing properties. The nonlinear absorption coefficient of ReSe2 was measured to be (5.67±0.35)×103  cm/GW, and its nonlinear refractive index was (2.81±0.13)×102  cm2/GW at 1560 nm. Next, a fiberized saturable absorber (SA) based on ReSe2 was fabricated with a side-polished fiber platform and was tested as an ultrafast mode-locker capable of producing femtosecond pulses operating at a wavelength of 1560 nm. The estimated modulation depth and saturation power are 3.9% and 42  W, respectively, for the transverse electric mode, while they are 2.4% and 53  W for the transverse magnetic mode. Using the prepared SA, stable soliton pulses with a temporal width of 862  fs were produced from an erbium-doped fiber ring cavity. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first demonstration of using a ReSe2-based SA for femtosecond mode-locked pulse generation.

© 2019 Chinese Laser Press

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2019 (2)

Y. I. Jhon, J. Lee, M. Seo, J. H. Lee, and Y. M. Jhon, “van der Waals layered tin selenide as highly nonlinear ultrafast saturable absorber,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 7, 1801745 (2019).
[Crossref]

C. Li, Y. Leng, and J. Huo, “ReSe2 as a saturable absorber in a Tm-doped yttrium lithium fluoride (Tm:YLF) pulse laser,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 17, 011402 (2019).

2018 (15)

K. Niu, R. Sun, Q. Chen, B. Man, and H. Zhang, “Passively mode-locked Er-doped fiber laser based on SnS2 nanosheets as a saturable absorber,” Photon. Res. 6, 72–76 (2018).
[Crossref]

L. Du, G. Jiang, L. Miao, B. Huang, J. Yi, C. Zhao, and S. Wen, “Few-layer rhenium diselenide: an ambient-stable nonlinear optical modulator,” Opt. Mater. Express 8, 926–935 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, H. Chen, Z. Jiang, J. Yin, J. Wang, M. Zhang, T. He, J. Li, P. Yan, and S. Ruan, “Mode-locked thulium-doped fiber laser with chemical vapor deposited molybdenum ditelluride,” Opt. Lett. 43, 1998–2001 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, Z. Jiang, H. Chen, J. Li, J. Yin, J. Wang, T. He, P. Yan, and S. Ruan, “High energy soliton pulse generation by a magnetron-sputtering-deposition-grown MoTe2 saturable absorber,” Photon. Res. 6, 535–541 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Lee, Y. Kim, K. Lee, and J. H. Lee, “Femtosecond mode-locking of a fiber laser using a CoSb3-skutterudite-based saturable absorber [Invited],” Photon. Res. 6, C36–C43 (2018).
[Crossref]

X. Jiang, S. Liu, W. Liang, S. Luo, Z. He, Y. Ge, H. Wang, R. Cao, F. Zhang, Q. Wen, J. Li, Q. Bao, D. Fan, and H. Zhang, “Broadband nonlinear photonics in few-layer MXene Ti3C2Tx (T=F, O, or OH),” Laser Photon. Rev. 12, 1700229 (2018).
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D. Mao, X. Cui, X. Gan, M. Li, W. Zhang, H. Lu, and J. Zhao, “Passively Q-switched and mode-locked fiber laser based on an ReS2 saturable absorber,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24, 1100406 (2018).
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X. Xu, M. Jiang, D. Li, R. Wang, Z. Ren, and J. Bai, “Passive Q-switching based on ReS2 saturable absorber in Er-doped fiber laser at 1532  nm,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 50, 39 (2018).
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Z. Li, N. Dong, Y. Zhang, J. Wang, H. Yu, and F. Chen, “Invited article: mode-locked waveguide lasers modulated by rhenium diselenide as a new saturable absorber,” APL Photon. 3, 080802 (2018).
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C. Li, Y. Leng, and J. Huo, “Diode-pumped solid-state Q-switched laser with rhenium diselenide as saturable absorber,” Appl. Sci. 8, 1753 (2018).
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Y. I. Jhon, J. Lee, Y. M. Jhon, and J. H. Lee, “Topological insulators for mode-locking of 2-μm fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24, 1102208 (2018).
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Y. Ge, Z. Zhu, Y. Xu, Y. Chen, S. Chen, Z. Liang, Y. Song, Y. Zou, H. Zeng, S. Xu, H. Zhang, and D. Fan, “Broadband nonlinear photoresponse of 2D TiS2 for ultrashort pulse generation and all-optical thresholding devices,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6, 1701166 (2018).
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X. Jiang, L. Zhang, S. Liu, Y. Zhang, Z. He, W. Li, F. Zhang, Y. Shi, W. Lü, Y. Li, Q. Wen, J. Li, J. Feng, S. Ruan, Y.-J. Zeng, X. Zhu, Y. Lu, and H. Zhang, “Ultrathin metal-organic framework: an emerging broadband nonlinear optical material for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6, 1800561 (2018).
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S. Jiang, Z. Zhang, N. Zhang, Y. Huan, Y. Gong, M. Sun, J. Shi, C. Xie, P. Yang, Q. Fang, H. Li, L. Tong, D. Xie, L. Gu, P. Liu, and Y. Zhang, “Application of chemical vapor-deposited monolayer ReSe2 in the electrocatalytic hydrogen evolution reaction,” Nano Res. 11, 1787–1797 (2018).
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K. Wu, B. Chen, X. Zhang, S. Zhang, C. Guo, C. Li, P. Xiao, J. Wang, L. Zhou, W. Zou, and J. Chen, “High-performance mode-locked and Q-switched fiber lasers based on novel 2D materials of topological insulators, transition metal dichalcogenides and black phosphorus: review and perspective (invited),” Opt. Commun. 406, 214–229 (2018).
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2017 (13)

F. Qi, X. Wang, B. Zheng, Y. Chen, B. Yu, J. Zhou, J. He, P. Li, W. Zhang, and Y. Li, “Self-assembled chrysanthemum-like microspheres constructed by few-layer ReSe2 nanosheets as a highly efficient and stable electrocatalyst for hydrogen evolution reaction,” Electrochim. Acta 224, 593–599 (2017).
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P. Hu, M. Jia, Y. Zuo, and L. He, “A silica/PVA adhesive hybrid material with high transparency, thermostability and mechanical strength,” RSC Adv. 7, 2450–2459 (2017).
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X. Zhang, Y. Zhou, and J. Zhang, “In-situ reduced graphene oxide-polyvinyl alcohol composite coatings as protective layers on magnesium substrates,” Prog. Nat. Sci. 27, 326–328 (2017).
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J. Lee, B.-K. Yu, Y. I. Jhon, J. Koo, S. J. Kim, Y. M. Jhon, and J. H. Lee, “Filled skutterudites for broadband saturable absorbers,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5, 1700096 (2017).
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Y. Cui, F. Lu, and X. Liu, “Nonlinear saturable and polarization induced absorption of rhenium disulfide,” Sci. Rep. 7, 40080 (2017).
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F. Lu, “Passively harmonic mode-locked fiber laser based on ReS2 saturable absorber,” Mod. Phys. Lett. B 31, 1750206 (2017).
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S. J. Varma, J. Kumar, Y. Li, K. Layne, J. Wu, C. Liang, Y. Nakanishi, A. Aliyan, W. Yang, P. M. Ajayan, and J. Thomas, “2D TiS2 layers: a superior nonlinear optical limiting material,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5, 1700713 (2017).
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Y. I. Jhon, J. Koo, B. Anasori, M. Seo, J. H. Lee, Y. Gogotsi, and Y. M. Jhon, “Metallic MXene saturable absorber for femtosecond mode-locked lasers,” Adv. Mater. 29, 1702496 (2017).
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R. I. Woodward, R. T. Murray, C. F. Phelan, R. E. P. de Oliveira, T. H. Runcorn, E. J. R. Kelleher, S. Li, E. C. de Oliveira, G. J. M. Fechine, G. Eda, and C. J. S. de Matos, “Characterization of the second- and third-order nonlinear optical susceptibilities of monolayer MoS2 using multiphoton microscopy,” 2D Mater. 4, 011006 (2017).
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H. Yang, H. Jussila, A. Autere, H.-P. Komsa, G. Ye, X. Chen, T. Hasan, and Z. Sun, “Optical waveplates based on birefringence of anisotropic two-dimensional layered materials,” ACS Photon. 4, 3023–3030 (2017).
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J. Lee, J. Koo, J. Lee, Y. M. Jhon, and J. H. Lee, “All-fiberized, femtosecond laser at 1912 nm using a bulk-like MoSe2 saturable absorber,” Opt. Mater. Express 7, 2968–2979 (2017).
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X. Su, H. Nie, Y. Wang, G. Li, B. Yan, B. Zhang, K. Yang, and J. He, “Few-layered ReS2 as saturable absorber for 2.8  μm solid state laser,” Opt. Lett. 42, 3502–3505 (2017).
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J. Wang, Z. Jiang, H. Chen, J. Li, J. Yin, J. Wang, T. He, P. Yan, and S. Ruan, “Magnetron-sputtering deposited WTe2 for an ultrafast thulium-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 42, 5010–5013 (2017).
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2016 (7)

C. M. Corbet, S. S. Sonde, E. Tutuc, and S. K. Banerjee, “Improved contact resistance in ReSe2 thin film field-effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108, 162104 (2016).
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D. Mao, X. She, B. Du, D. Yang, W. Zhang, K. Song, X. Cui, B. Jiang, T. Peng, and J. Zhao, “Erbium-doped fiber laser passively mode locked with few-layer WSe2/MoSe2 nanosheets,” Sci. Rep. 6, 23583 (2016).
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D. Mao, B. Du, D. Yang, S. Zhang, Y. Wang, W. Zhang, X. She, H. Cheng, H. Zeng, and J. Zhao, “Nonlinear saturable absorption of liquid-exfoliated molybdenum/tungsten ditelluride nanosheets,” Small 12, 1489–1497 (2016).
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J. Koo, Y. I. Jhon, J. Park, J. Lee, Y. M. Jhon, and J. H. Lee, “Near-infrared saturable absorption of defective bulk-structured WTe2 for femtosecond laser mode-locking,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 26, 7454–7461 (2016).
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J. Koo, J. Park, J. Lee, Y. M. Jhon, and J. H. Lee, “Femtosecond harmonic mode-locking of a fiber laser at 3.27 GHz using a bulk-like, MoSe2-based saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 24, 10575–10589 (2016).
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S. Ko, J. Lee, J. Koo, B. S. Joo, M. Gu, and J. H. Lee, “Chemical wet etching of an optical fiber using a hydrogen fluoride-free solution for a saturable absorber based on the evanescent field interaction,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34, 3776–3784 (2016).
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S. Bikorimana, P. Lama, A. Walser, R. Dorsinville, S. Anghel, A. Mitioglu, A. Micu, and L. Kulyuk, “Nonlinear optical responses in two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenide multilayer: WS2, WSe2, MoS2 and Mo0.5W0.5S2,” Opt. Express 24, 20685–20695 (2016).
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2015 (16)

J. Jeon, J. Lee, and J. H. Lee, “Numerical study on the minimum modulation depth of a saturable absorber for stable fiber laser mode locking,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 32, 31–37 (2015).
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S. H. Kassani, R. Khazaeinezhad, H. Jeong, T. Nazari, D.-I. Yeom, and K. Oh, “All-fiber Er-doped Q-switched laser based on tungsten disulfide saturable absorber,” Opt. Mater. Express 5, 373–379 (2015).
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K. Wu, X. Zhang, J. Wang, and J. Chen, “463-MHz fundamental mode-locked fiber laser based on few-layer MoS2 saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 40, 1374–1377 (2015).
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G. Wang, S. Zhang, X. Zhang, L. Zhang, Y. Cheng, D. Fox, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, W. J. Blau, and J. Wang, “Tunable nonlinear refractive index of two-dimensional MoS2, WS2, and MoSe2 nanosheet dispersions [Invited],” Photon. Res. 3, A51–A55 (2015).
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S. B. Lu, L. L. Miao, Z. N. Guo, X. Qi, C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, and D. Y. Fan, “Broadband nonlinear optical response in multi-layer black phosphorus: an emerging infrared and mid-infrared optical material,” Opt. Express 23, 11183–11194 (2015).
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Y. Chen, G. Jiang, S. Chen, Z. Guo, X. Yu, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, Q. Bao, S. Wen, D. Tang, and D. Fan, “Mechanically exfoliated black phosphorus as a new saturable absorber for both Q-switching and mode-locking laser operation,” Opt. Express 23, 12823–12833 (2015).
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X. Zheng, Y. Zhang, R. Chen, X. Cheng, Z. Xu, and T. Jiang, “Z-scan measurement of the nonlinear refractive index of monolayer WS2,” Opt. Express 23, 15616–15623 (2015).
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H.-X. Zhong, S. Gao, J.-J. Shi, and L. Yang, “Quasiparticle band gaps, excitonic effects, and anisotropic optical properties of the monolayer distorted 1T diamond-chain structures ReS2 and ReSe2,” Phys. Rev. B 92, 115438 (2015).
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R. I. Woodward and E. J. R. Kelleher, “2D saturable absorber for fibre lasers,” Appl. Sci. 5, 1440–1456 (2015).
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K. Park, J. Lee, Y. T. Lee, W.-K. Choi, J. H. Lee, and Y.-W. Song, “Black phosphorus saturable absorber for ultrafast mode-locked pulse laser via evanescent field interaction,” Ann. Phys. 527, 770–776 (2015).
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M. Zhang, R. C. T. Howe, R. I. Woodward, E. J. R. Kelleher, F. Torrisi, G. Hu, S. V. Popov, J. R. Taylor, and T. Hasan, “Solution processed MoS2-PVA composite for sub-bandgap mode-locking of a wideband tunable ultrafast Er:fiber laser,” Nano Res. 8, 1522–1534 (2015).
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M. Zhang, G. Hu, G. Hu, R. C. T. Howe, L. Chen, Z. Zheng, and T. Hasan, “Yb- and Er-doped fiber laser Q-switched with an optically uniform, broadband WS2 saturable absorber,” Sci. Rep. 5, 17482 (2015).
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D. Mao, Y. Wang, C. Ma, L. Han, B. Jiang, X. Gan, S. Hua, W. Zhang, T. Mei, and J. Zhao, “WS2 mode-locked ultrafast fiber laser,” Sci. Rep. 5, 7965 (2015).
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S. Yang, C. Wang, H. Sahin, H. Chen, Y. Li, S.-S. Li, A. Suslu, F. M. Peeters, Q. Liu, J. Li, and S. Tongay, “Tuning the optical, magnetic, and electrical properties of ReSe2 by nanoscale strain engineering,” Nano Lett. 15, 1660–1666 (2015).
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H. Zhao, J. Wu, H. Zhong, Q. Guo, X. Wang, F. Xia, L. Yang, P. Tan, and H. Wang, “Interlayer interactions in anisotropic atomically thin rhenium diselenide,” Nano Res. 8, 3651–3661 (2015).
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S. Zhang, N. Dong, N. McEvoy, M. O’Brien, S. Winters, N. C. Berner, C. Yim, Y. Li, X. Zhang, Z. Chen, L. Zhang, G. S. Duesberg, and J. Wang, “Direct observation of degenerate two-photon absorption and its saturation in WS2 and MoS2 monolayer and few-layer films,” ACS Nano 9, 7142–7150 (2015).
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2014 (13)

R. Wang, H.-C. Chien, J. Kumar, N. Kumar, H.-Y. Chiu, and H. Zhao, “Third-harmonic generation in ultrathin films of MoS2,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6, 314–318 (2014).
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S. Wang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, A. Wang, M. Zhao, Y. Chen, L. Mei, and J. Wang, “Broadband few-layer MoS2 saturable absorber,” Adv. Mater. 26, 3538–3544 (2014).
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K. Wang, Y. Feng, C. Chang, J. Zhan, C. Wang, Q. Zhao, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, W. J. Blau, and J. Wang, “Broadband ultrafast nonlinear absorption and nonlinear refraction of layered molybdenum dichalcogenide semiconductors,” Nanoscale 6, 10530–10535 (2014).
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S. Yang, S. Tongay, Y. Li, Q. Yue, J.-B. Xia, S.-S. Li, J. Li, and S.-H. Wei, “Layer-dependent electrical and optoelectronic responses of ReSe2 nanosheet transistors,” Nanoscale 6, 7226–7231 (2014).
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X.-D. Wang, Z.-C. Luo, H. Liu, M. Liu, A.-P. Luo, and W.-C. Xu, “Microfiber-based gold nanorods as saturable absorber for femtosecond pulse generation in a fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 161107 (2014).
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D. Wolverson, S. Crampin, A. S. Kazemi, A. Ilie, and S. J. Bending, “Raman spectra of monolayer, few-layer, and bulk ReSe2: an anisotropic layered semiconductor,” ACS Nano 8, 11154–11164 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. I. Woodward, E. J. R. Kelleher, R. C. T. Howe, G. Hu, F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, S. V. Popov, and J. R. Taylor, “Tunable Q-switched fiber laser based on saturable edge-state absorption in few-layer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2),” Opt. Express 22, 31113–31122 (2014).
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J. Sotor, G. Sobon, W. Macherzynski, P. Paletko, K. Grodecki, and K. M. Abramski, “Mode-locking in Er-doped fiber laser based on mechanically exfoliated Sb2Te3 saturable absorber,” Opt. Mater. Express 4, 1–6 (2014).
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J. Lee, J. Koo, Y. M. Jhon, and J. H. Lee, “A femtosecond pulse erbium fiber laser incorporating a saturable absorber based on bulk-structured Bi2Te3 topological insulator,” Opt. Express 22, 6165–6173 (2014).
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H. Liu, X.-W. Zheng, M. Liu, N. Zhao, A.-P. Luo, Z.-C. Luo, W.-C. Xu, H. Zhang, C.-J. Zhao, and S.-C. Wen, “Femtosecond pulse generation from a topological insulator mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Express 22, 6868–6873 (2014).
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H. Zhang, S. B. Lu, J. Zheng, J. Du, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) as a broadband saturable absorber for ultra-fast photonics,” Opt. Express 22, 7249–7260 (2014).
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D. Fan, C. Mou, X. Bai, S. Wang, N. Chen, and X. Zeng, “Passively Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser using evanescent field interaction with gold-nanosphere based saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 22, 18537–18542 (2014).
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X. Fu, J. Qian, X. Qiao, P. Tan, and Z. Peng, “Nonlinear saturable absorption of vertically stood WS2 nanoplates,” Opt. Lett. 39, 6450–6453 (2014).
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2013 (4)

D.-S. Tsai, K.-K. Liu, D.-H. Lien, M.-L. Tsai, C.-F. Kang, C.-A. Lin, L.-J. Li, and J.-H. He, “Few-layer MoS2 with high broadband photogain and fast optical switching for use in harsh environments,” ACS Nano 7, 3905–3911 (2013).
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K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7, 9260–9267 (2013).
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N. Kumar, S. Najmaei, Q. Cui, F. Ceballos, P. M. Ajayan, J. Lou, and H. Zhao, “Second harmonic microscopy of monolayer MoS2,” Phys. Rev. B 87, 161403 (2013).
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Y. Chen, C. Zhao, H. Huang, S. Chen, P. Tang, Z. Wang, S. Lu, H. Zhang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Self-assembled topological insulator: Bi2Se3 membrane as a passive Q-switcher in an erbium-doped fiber laser,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31, 2857–2863 (2013).
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2012 (1)

Q. H. Wang, K. Kalantar-Zadeh, A. Kis, J. N. Coleman, and M. S. Strano, “Electronics and optoelectronics of two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7, 699–712 (2012).
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2010 (4)

E. Hendry, P. J. Hale, J. Moger, A. K. Savchenko, and S. A. Mikhailov, “Coherent nonlinear optical response of graphene,” Phy. Rev. Lett. 105, 097401 (2010).
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Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4, 803–810 (2010).
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Y.-W. Song, S.-Y. Jang, W.-S. Han, and M.-K. Bae, “Graphene mode-lockers for fiber lasers functioned with evanescent field interaction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 051122 (2010).
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K. P. Loh, Q. Bao, G. Eda, and M. Chhowalla, “Graphene oxide as a chemically tunable platform for optical applications,” Nat. Chem. 2, 1015–1024 (2010).
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2009 (1)

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yang, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3077–3083 (2009).
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2007 (1)

2006 (1)

K. P. Loh, H. Zhang, W. Z. Chen, and W. Ji, “Templated deposition of MoS2 nanotubules using single source precursor and studies of their optical limiting properties,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110, 1235–1239 (2006).
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2004 (1)

1999 (1)

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S. M. J. Kelly, “Characteristic sideband instability of periodically amplified average soliton,” Electron. Lett. 28, 806–807 (1992).
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Abramski, K. M.

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S. J. Varma, J. Kumar, Y. Li, K. Layne, J. Wu, C. Liang, Y. Nakanishi, A. Aliyan, W. Yang, P. M. Ajayan, and J. Thomas, “2D TiS2 layers: a superior nonlinear optical limiting material,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5, 1700713 (2017).
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N. Kumar, S. Najmaei, Q. Cui, F. Ceballos, P. M. Ajayan, J. Lou, and H. Zhao, “Second harmonic microscopy of monolayer MoS2,” Phys. Rev. B 87, 161403 (2013).
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Aliyan, A.

S. J. Varma, J. Kumar, Y. Li, K. Layne, J. Wu, C. Liang, Y. Nakanishi, A. Aliyan, W. Yang, P. M. Ajayan, and J. Thomas, “2D TiS2 layers: a superior nonlinear optical limiting material,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5, 1700713 (2017).
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Anasori, B.

Y. I. Jhon, J. Koo, B. Anasori, M. Seo, J. H. Lee, Y. Gogotsi, and Y. M. Jhon, “Metallic MXene saturable absorber for femtosecond mode-locked lasers,” Adv. Mater. 29, 1702496 (2017).
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Anghel, S.

Autere, A.

H. Yang, H. Jussila, A. Autere, H.-P. Komsa, G. Ye, X. Chen, T. Hasan, and Z. Sun, “Optical waveplates based on birefringence of anisotropic two-dimensional layered materials,” ACS Photon. 4, 3023–3030 (2017).
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Bae, M.-K.

Y.-W. Song, S.-Y. Jang, W.-S. Han, and M.-K. Bae, “Graphene mode-lockers for fiber lasers functioned with evanescent field interaction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 051122 (2010).
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X. Xu, M. Jiang, D. Li, R. Wang, Z. Ren, and J. Bai, “Passive Q-switching based on ReS2 saturable absorber in Er-doped fiber laser at 1532  nm,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 50, 39 (2018).
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Bai, X.

Banerjee, S. K.

C. M. Corbet, S. S. Sonde, E. Tutuc, and S. K. Banerjee, “Improved contact resistance in ReSe2 thin film field-effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108, 162104 (2016).
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Bao, Q.

X. Jiang, S. Liu, W. Liang, S. Luo, Z. He, Y. Ge, H. Wang, R. Cao, F. Zhang, Q. Wen, J. Li, Q. Bao, D. Fan, and H. Zhang, “Broadband nonlinear photonics in few-layer MXene Ti3C2Tx (T=F, O, or OH),” Laser Photon. Rev. 12, 1700229 (2018).
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Y. Chen, G. Jiang, S. Chen, Z. Guo, X. Yu, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, Q. Bao, S. Wen, D. Tang, and D. Fan, “Mechanically exfoliated black phosphorus as a new saturable absorber for both Q-switching and mode-locking laser operation,” Opt. Express 23, 12823–12833 (2015).
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K. P. Loh, Q. Bao, G. Eda, and M. Chhowalla, “Graphene oxide as a chemically tunable platform for optical applications,” Nat. Chem. 2, 1015–1024 (2010).
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Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yang, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3077–3083 (2009).
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Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4, 803–810 (2010).
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D. Wolverson, S. Crampin, A. S. Kazemi, A. Ilie, and S. J. Bending, “Raman spectra of monolayer, few-layer, and bulk ReSe2: an anisotropic layered semiconductor,” ACS Nano 8, 11154–11164 (2014).
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F. Bernard, H. Zhang, S. P. Gorza, and P. Emplit, “Towards mode-locked fiber laser using topological insulators,” in Nonlinear Photonics, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper NTh1A.5.

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S. Zhang, N. Dong, N. McEvoy, M. O’Brien, S. Winters, N. C. Berner, C. Yim, Y. Li, X. Zhang, Z. Chen, L. Zhang, G. S. Duesberg, and J. Wang, “Direct observation of degenerate two-photon absorption and its saturation in WS2 and MoS2 monolayer and few-layer films,” ACS Nano 9, 7142–7150 (2015).
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Bikorimana, S.

Blau, W. J.

G. Wang, S. Zhang, X. Zhang, L. Zhang, Y. Cheng, D. Fox, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, W. J. Blau, and J. Wang, “Tunable nonlinear refractive index of two-dimensional MoS2, WS2, and MoSe2 nanosheet dispersions [Invited],” Photon. Res. 3, A51–A55 (2015).
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K. Wang, Y. Feng, C. Chang, J. Zhan, C. Wang, Q. Zhao, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, W. J. Blau, and J. Wang, “Broadband ultrafast nonlinear absorption and nonlinear refraction of layered molybdenum dichalcogenide semiconductors,” Nanoscale 6, 10530–10535 (2014).
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K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7, 9260–9267 (2013).
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Bonaccorso, F.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4, 803–810 (2010).
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Cao, R.

X. Jiang, S. Liu, W. Liang, S. Luo, Z. He, Y. Ge, H. Wang, R. Cao, F. Zhang, Q. Wen, J. Li, Q. Bao, D. Fan, and H. Zhang, “Broadband nonlinear photonics in few-layer MXene Ti3C2Tx (T=F, O, or OH),” Laser Photon. Rev. 12, 1700229 (2018).
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Ceballos, F.

N. Kumar, S. Najmaei, Q. Cui, F. Ceballos, P. M. Ajayan, J. Lou, and H. Zhao, “Second harmonic microscopy of monolayer MoS2,” Phys. Rev. B 87, 161403 (2013).
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Chang, C.

K. Wang, Y. Feng, C. Chang, J. Zhan, C. Wang, Q. Zhao, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, W. J. Blau, and J. Wang, “Broadband ultrafast nonlinear absorption and nonlinear refraction of layered molybdenum dichalcogenide semiconductors,” Nanoscale 6, 10530–10535 (2014).
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H. Yang, H. Jussila, A. Autere, H.-P. Komsa, G. Ye, X. Chen, T. Hasan, and Z. Sun, “Optical waveplates based on birefringence of anisotropic two-dimensional layered materials,” ACS Photon. 4, 3023–3030 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yang, K.

Yang, L.

H. Zhao, J. Wu, H. Zhong, Q. Guo, X. Wang, F. Xia, L. Yang, P. Tan, and H. Wang, “Interlayer interactions in anisotropic atomically thin rhenium diselenide,” Nano Res. 8, 3651–3661 (2015).
[Crossref]

H.-X. Zhong, S. Gao, J.-J. Shi, and L. Yang, “Quasiparticle band gaps, excitonic effects, and anisotropic optical properties of the monolayer distorted 1T diamond-chain structures ReS2 and ReSe2,” Phys. Rev. B 92, 115438 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yang, P.

S. Jiang, Z. Zhang, N. Zhang, Y. Huan, Y. Gong, M. Sun, J. Shi, C. Xie, P. Yang, Q. Fang, H. Li, L. Tong, D. Xie, L. Gu, P. Liu, and Y. Zhang, “Application of chemical vapor-deposited monolayer ReSe2 in the electrocatalytic hydrogen evolution reaction,” Nano Res. 11, 1787–1797 (2018).
[Crossref]

Yang, S.

S. Yang, C. Wang, H. Sahin, H. Chen, Y. Li, S.-S. Li, A. Suslu, F. M. Peeters, Q. Liu, J. Li, and S. Tongay, “Tuning the optical, magnetic, and electrical properties of ReSe2 by nanoscale strain engineering,” Nano Lett. 15, 1660–1666 (2015).
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S. Yang, S. Tongay, Y. Li, Q. Yue, J.-B. Xia, S.-S. Li, J. Li, and S.-H. Wei, “Layer-dependent electrical and optoelectronic responses of ReSe2 nanosheet transistors,” Nanoscale 6, 7226–7231 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yang, W.

S. J. Varma, J. Kumar, Y. Li, K. Layne, J. Wu, C. Liang, Y. Nakanishi, A. Aliyan, W. Yang, P. M. Ajayan, and J. Thomas, “2D TiS2 layers: a superior nonlinear optical limiting material,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5, 1700713 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yang, Y.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yang, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ye, G.

H. Yang, H. Jussila, A. Autere, H.-P. Komsa, G. Ye, X. Chen, T. Hasan, and Z. Sun, “Optical waveplates based on birefringence of anisotropic two-dimensional layered materials,” ACS Photon. 4, 3023–3030 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yeom, D.-I.

Yi, J.

Yim, C.

S. Zhang, N. Dong, N. McEvoy, M. O’Brien, S. Winters, N. C. Berner, C. Yim, Y. Li, X. Zhang, Z. Chen, L. Zhang, G. S. Duesberg, and J. Wang, “Direct observation of degenerate two-photon absorption and its saturation in WS2 and MoS2 monolayer and few-layer films,” ACS Nano 9, 7142–7150 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yin, J.

Yu, B.

F. Qi, X. Wang, B. Zheng, Y. Chen, B. Yu, J. Zhou, J. He, P. Li, W. Zhang, and Y. Li, “Self-assembled chrysanthemum-like microspheres constructed by few-layer ReSe2 nanosheets as a highly efficient and stable electrocatalyst for hydrogen evolution reaction,” Electrochim. Acta 224, 593–599 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yu, B.-K.

J. Lee, B.-K. Yu, Y. I. Jhon, J. Koo, S. J. Kim, Y. M. Jhon, and J. H. Lee, “Filled skutterudites for broadband saturable absorbers,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5, 1700096 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yu, H.

Z. Li, N. Dong, Y. Zhang, J. Wang, H. Yu, and F. Chen, “Invited article: mode-locked waveguide lasers modulated by rhenium diselenide as a new saturable absorber,” APL Photon. 3, 080802 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Wang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, A. Wang, M. Zhao, Y. Chen, L. Mei, and J. Wang, “Broadband few-layer MoS2 saturable absorber,” Adv. Mater. 26, 3538–3544 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yu, X.

Yue, Q.

S. Yang, S. Tongay, Y. Li, Q. Yue, J.-B. Xia, S.-S. Li, J. Li, and S.-H. Wei, “Layer-dependent electrical and optoelectronic responses of ReSe2 nanosheet transistors,” Nanoscale 6, 7226–7231 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zeng, H.

Y. Ge, Z. Zhu, Y. Xu, Y. Chen, S. Chen, Z. Liang, Y. Song, Y. Zou, H. Zeng, S. Xu, H. Zhang, and D. Fan, “Broadband nonlinear photoresponse of 2D TiS2 for ultrashort pulse generation and all-optical thresholding devices,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6, 1701166 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. Mao, B. Du, D. Yang, S. Zhang, Y. Wang, W. Zhang, X. She, H. Cheng, H. Zeng, and J. Zhao, “Nonlinear saturable absorption of liquid-exfoliated molybdenum/tungsten ditelluride nanosheets,” Small 12, 1489–1497 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zeng, X.

Zeng, Y.-J.

X. Jiang, L. Zhang, S. Liu, Y. Zhang, Z. He, W. Li, F. Zhang, Y. Shi, W. Lü, Y. Li, Q. Wen, J. Li, J. Feng, S. Ruan, Y.-J. Zeng, X. Zhu, Y. Lu, and H. Zhang, “Ultrathin metal-organic framework: an emerging broadband nonlinear optical material for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6, 1800561 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zhan, J.

K. Wang, Y. Feng, C. Chang, J. Zhan, C. Wang, Q. Zhao, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, W. J. Blau, and J. Wang, “Broadband ultrafast nonlinear absorption and nonlinear refraction of layered molybdenum dichalcogenide semiconductors,” Nanoscale 6, 10530–10535 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhang, B.

Zhang, F.

X. Jiang, L. Zhang, S. Liu, Y. Zhang, Z. He, W. Li, F. Zhang, Y. Shi, W. Lü, Y. Li, Q. Wen, J. Li, J. Feng, S. Ruan, Y.-J. Zeng, X. Zhu, Y. Lu, and H. Zhang, “Ultrathin metal-organic framework: an emerging broadband nonlinear optical material for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6, 1800561 (2018).
[Crossref]

X. Jiang, S. Liu, W. Liang, S. Luo, Z. He, Y. Ge, H. Wang, R. Cao, F. Zhang, Q. Wen, J. Li, Q. Bao, D. Fan, and H. Zhang, “Broadband nonlinear photonics in few-layer MXene Ti3C2Tx (T=F, O, or OH),” Laser Photon. Rev. 12, 1700229 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zhang, H.

X. Jiang, S. Liu, W. Liang, S. Luo, Z. He, Y. Ge, H. Wang, R. Cao, F. Zhang, Q. Wen, J. Li, Q. Bao, D. Fan, and H. Zhang, “Broadband nonlinear photonics in few-layer MXene Ti3C2Tx (T=F, O, or OH),” Laser Photon. Rev. 12, 1700229 (2018).
[Crossref]

X. Jiang, L. Zhang, S. Liu, Y. Zhang, Z. He, W. Li, F. Zhang, Y. Shi, W. Lü, Y. Li, Q. Wen, J. Li, J. Feng, S. Ruan, Y.-J. Zeng, X. Zhu, Y. Lu, and H. Zhang, “Ultrathin metal-organic framework: an emerging broadband nonlinear optical material for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6, 1800561 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Ge, Z. Zhu, Y. Xu, Y. Chen, S. Chen, Z. Liang, Y. Song, Y. Zou, H. Zeng, S. Xu, H. Zhang, and D. Fan, “Broadband nonlinear photoresponse of 2D TiS2 for ultrashort pulse generation and all-optical thresholding devices,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6, 1701166 (2018).
[Crossref]

K. Niu, R. Sun, Q. Chen, B. Man, and H. Zhang, “Passively mode-locked Er-doped fiber laser based on SnS2 nanosheets as a saturable absorber,” Photon. Res. 6, 72–76 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, G. Jiang, S. Chen, Z. Guo, X. Yu, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, Q. Bao, S. Wen, D. Tang, and D. Fan, “Mechanically exfoliated black phosphorus as a new saturable absorber for both Q-switching and mode-locking laser operation,” Opt. Express 23, 12823–12833 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. B. Lu, L. L. Miao, Z. N. Guo, X. Qi, C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, and D. Y. Fan, “Broadband nonlinear optical response in multi-layer black phosphorus: an emerging infrared and mid-infrared optical material,” Opt. Express 23, 11183–11194 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. Wang, S. Zhang, X. Zhang, L. Zhang, Y. Cheng, D. Fox, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, W. J. Blau, and J. Wang, “Tunable nonlinear refractive index of two-dimensional MoS2, WS2, and MoSe2 nanosheet dispersions [Invited],” Photon. Res. 3, A51–A55 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Liu, X.-W. Zheng, M. Liu, N. Zhao, A.-P. Luo, Z.-C. Luo, W.-C. Xu, H. Zhang, C.-J. Zhao, and S.-C. Wen, “Femtosecond pulse generation from a topological insulator mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Express 22, 6868–6873 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, S. B. Lu, J. Zheng, J. Du, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) as a broadband saturable absorber for ultra-fast photonics,” Opt. Express 22, 7249–7260 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Wang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, A. Wang, M. Zhao, Y. Chen, L. Mei, and J. Wang, “Broadband few-layer MoS2 saturable absorber,” Adv. Mater. 26, 3538–3544 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7, 9260–9267 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, C. Zhao, H. Huang, S. Chen, P. Tang, Z. Wang, S. Lu, H. Zhang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Self-assembled topological insulator: Bi2Se3 membrane as a passive Q-switcher in an erbium-doped fiber laser,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31, 2857–2863 (2013).
[Crossref]

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yang, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

K. P. Loh, H. Zhang, W. Z. Chen, and W. Ji, “Templated deposition of MoS2 nanotubules using single source precursor and studies of their optical limiting properties,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110, 1235–1239 (2006).
[Crossref]

F. Bernard, H. Zhang, S. P. Gorza, and P. Emplit, “Towards mode-locked fiber laser using topological insulators,” in Nonlinear Photonics, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper NTh1A.5.

Zhang, J.

X. Zhang, Y. Zhou, and J. Zhang, “In-situ reduced graphene oxide-polyvinyl alcohol composite coatings as protective layers on magnesium substrates,” Prog. Nat. Sci. 27, 326–328 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhang, L.

X. Jiang, L. Zhang, S. Liu, Y. Zhang, Z. He, W. Li, F. Zhang, Y. Shi, W. Lü, Y. Li, Q. Wen, J. Li, J. Feng, S. Ruan, Y.-J. Zeng, X. Zhu, Y. Lu, and H. Zhang, “Ultrathin metal-organic framework: an emerging broadband nonlinear optical material for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6, 1800561 (2018).
[Crossref]

G. Wang, S. Zhang, X. Zhang, L. Zhang, Y. Cheng, D. Fox, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, W. J. Blau, and J. Wang, “Tunable nonlinear refractive index of two-dimensional MoS2, WS2, and MoSe2 nanosheet dispersions [Invited],” Photon. Res. 3, A51–A55 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Zhang, N. Dong, N. McEvoy, M. O’Brien, S. Winters, N. C. Berner, C. Yim, Y. Li, X. Zhang, Z. Chen, L. Zhang, G. S. Duesberg, and J. Wang, “Direct observation of degenerate two-photon absorption and its saturation in WS2 and MoS2 monolayer and few-layer films,” ACS Nano 9, 7142–7150 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. Wang, Y. Feng, C. Chang, J. Zhan, C. Wang, Q. Zhao, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, W. J. Blau, and J. Wang, “Broadband ultrafast nonlinear absorption and nonlinear refraction of layered molybdenum dichalcogenide semiconductors,” Nanoscale 6, 10530–10535 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7, 9260–9267 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhang, M.

J. Wang, H. Chen, Z. Jiang, J. Yin, J. Wang, M. Zhang, T. He, J. Li, P. Yan, and S. Ruan, “Mode-locked thulium-doped fiber laser with chemical vapor deposited molybdenum ditelluride,” Opt. Lett. 43, 1998–2001 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Zhang, R. C. T. Howe, R. I. Woodward, E. J. R. Kelleher, F. Torrisi, G. Hu, S. V. Popov, J. R. Taylor, and T. Hasan, “Solution processed MoS2-PVA composite for sub-bandgap mode-locking of a wideband tunable ultrafast Er:fiber laser,” Nano Res. 8, 1522–1534 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Zhang, G. Hu, G. Hu, R. C. T. Howe, L. Chen, Z. Zheng, and T. Hasan, “Yb- and Er-doped fiber laser Q-switched with an optically uniform, broadband WS2 saturable absorber,” Sci. Rep. 5, 17482 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhang, N.

S. Jiang, Z. Zhang, N. Zhang, Y. Huan, Y. Gong, M. Sun, J. Shi, C. Xie, P. Yang, Q. Fang, H. Li, L. Tong, D. Xie, L. Gu, P. Liu, and Y. Zhang, “Application of chemical vapor-deposited monolayer ReSe2 in the electrocatalytic hydrogen evolution reaction,” Nano Res. 11, 1787–1797 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zhang, S.

K. Wu, B. Chen, X. Zhang, S. Zhang, C. Guo, C. Li, P. Xiao, J. Wang, L. Zhou, W. Zou, and J. Chen, “High-performance mode-locked and Q-switched fiber lasers based on novel 2D materials of topological insulators, transition metal dichalcogenides and black phosphorus: review and perspective (invited),” Opt. Commun. 406, 214–229 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. Mao, B. Du, D. Yang, S. Zhang, Y. Wang, W. Zhang, X. She, H. Cheng, H. Zeng, and J. Zhao, “Nonlinear saturable absorption of liquid-exfoliated molybdenum/tungsten ditelluride nanosheets,” Small 12, 1489–1497 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Zhang, N. Dong, N. McEvoy, M. O’Brien, S. Winters, N. C. Berner, C. Yim, Y. Li, X. Zhang, Z. Chen, L. Zhang, G. S. Duesberg, and J. Wang, “Direct observation of degenerate two-photon absorption and its saturation in WS2 and MoS2 monolayer and few-layer films,” ACS Nano 9, 7142–7150 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. Wang, S. Zhang, X. Zhang, L. Zhang, Y. Cheng, D. Fox, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, W. J. Blau, and J. Wang, “Tunable nonlinear refractive index of two-dimensional MoS2, WS2, and MoSe2 nanosheet dispersions [Invited],” Photon. Res. 3, A51–A55 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhang, W.

D. Mao, X. Cui, X. Gan, M. Li, W. Zhang, H. Lu, and J. Zhao, “Passively Q-switched and mode-locked fiber laser based on an ReS2 saturable absorber,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24, 1100406 (2018).
[Crossref]

F. Qi, X. Wang, B. Zheng, Y. Chen, B. Yu, J. Zhou, J. He, P. Li, W. Zhang, and Y. Li, “Self-assembled chrysanthemum-like microspheres constructed by few-layer ReSe2 nanosheets as a highly efficient and stable electrocatalyst for hydrogen evolution reaction,” Electrochim. Acta 224, 593–599 (2017).
[Crossref]

D. Mao, B. Du, D. Yang, S. Zhang, Y. Wang, W. Zhang, X. She, H. Cheng, H. Zeng, and J. Zhao, “Nonlinear saturable absorption of liquid-exfoliated molybdenum/tungsten ditelluride nanosheets,” Small 12, 1489–1497 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Mao, X. She, B. Du, D. Yang, W. Zhang, K. Song, X. Cui, B. Jiang, T. Peng, and J. Zhao, “Erbium-doped fiber laser passively mode locked with few-layer WSe2/MoSe2 nanosheets,” Sci. Rep. 6, 23583 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Mao, Y. Wang, C. Ma, L. Han, B. Jiang, X. Gan, S. Hua, W. Zhang, T. Mei, and J. Zhao, “WS2 mode-locked ultrafast fiber laser,” Sci. Rep. 5, 7965 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.

K. Wu, B. Chen, X. Zhang, S. Zhang, C. Guo, C. Li, P. Xiao, J. Wang, L. Zhou, W. Zou, and J. Chen, “High-performance mode-locked and Q-switched fiber lasers based on novel 2D materials of topological insulators, transition metal dichalcogenides and black phosphorus: review and perspective (invited),” Opt. Commun. 406, 214–229 (2018).
[Crossref]

X. Zhang, Y. Zhou, and J. Zhang, “In-situ reduced graphene oxide-polyvinyl alcohol composite coatings as protective layers on magnesium substrates,” Prog. Nat. Sci. 27, 326–328 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Zhang, N. Dong, N. McEvoy, M. O’Brien, S. Winters, N. C. Berner, C. Yim, Y. Li, X. Zhang, Z. Chen, L. Zhang, G. S. Duesberg, and J. Wang, “Direct observation of degenerate two-photon absorption and its saturation in WS2 and MoS2 monolayer and few-layer films,” ACS Nano 9, 7142–7150 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. Wang, S. Zhang, X. Zhang, L. Zhang, Y. Cheng, D. Fox, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, W. J. Blau, and J. Wang, “Tunable nonlinear refractive index of two-dimensional MoS2, WS2, and MoSe2 nanosheet dispersions [Invited],” Photon. Res. 3, A51–A55 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. Wu, X. Zhang, J. Wang, and J. Chen, “463-MHz fundamental mode-locked fiber laser based on few-layer MoS2 saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 40, 1374–1377 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7, 9260–9267 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y.

S. Jiang, Z. Zhang, N. Zhang, Y. Huan, Y. Gong, M. Sun, J. Shi, C. Xie, P. Yang, Q. Fang, H. Li, L. Tong, D. Xie, L. Gu, P. Liu, and Y. Zhang, “Application of chemical vapor-deposited monolayer ReSe2 in the electrocatalytic hydrogen evolution reaction,” Nano Res. 11, 1787–1797 (2018).
[Crossref]

X. Jiang, L. Zhang, S. Liu, Y. Zhang, Z. He, W. Li, F. Zhang, Y. Shi, W. Lü, Y. Li, Q. Wen, J. Li, J. Feng, S. Ruan, Y.-J. Zeng, X. Zhu, Y. Lu, and H. Zhang, “Ultrathin metal-organic framework: an emerging broadband nonlinear optical material for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6, 1800561 (2018).
[Crossref]

Z. Li, N. Dong, Y. Zhang, J. Wang, H. Yu, and F. Chen, “Invited article: mode-locked waveguide lasers modulated by rhenium diselenide as a new saturable absorber,” APL Photon. 3, 080802 (2018).
[Crossref]

X. Zheng, Y. Zhang, R. Chen, X. Cheng, Z. Xu, and T. Jiang, “Z-scan measurement of the nonlinear refractive index of monolayer WS2,” Opt. Express 23, 15616–15623 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Z.

S. Jiang, Z. Zhang, N. Zhang, Y. Huan, Y. Gong, M. Sun, J. Shi, C. Xie, P. Yang, Q. Fang, H. Li, L. Tong, D. Xie, L. Gu, P. Liu, and Y. Zhang, “Application of chemical vapor-deposited monolayer ReSe2 in the electrocatalytic hydrogen evolution reaction,” Nano Res. 11, 1787–1797 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zhao, C.

Zhao, C. J.

Zhao, C.-J.

Zhao, H.

H. Zhao, J. Wu, H. Zhong, Q. Guo, X. Wang, F. Xia, L. Yang, P. Tan, and H. Wang, “Interlayer interactions in anisotropic atomically thin rhenium diselenide,” Nano Res. 8, 3651–3661 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Wang, H.-C. Chien, J. Kumar, N. Kumar, H.-Y. Chiu, and H. Zhao, “Third-harmonic generation in ultrathin films of MoS2,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6, 314–318 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. Kumar, S. Najmaei, Q. Cui, F. Ceballos, P. M. Ajayan, J. Lou, and H. Zhao, “Second harmonic microscopy of monolayer MoS2,” Phys. Rev. B 87, 161403 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhao, J.

D. Mao, X. Cui, X. Gan, M. Li, W. Zhang, H. Lu, and J. Zhao, “Passively Q-switched and mode-locked fiber laser based on an ReS2 saturable absorber,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24, 1100406 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. Mao, B. Du, D. Yang, S. Zhang, Y. Wang, W. Zhang, X. She, H. Cheng, H. Zeng, and J. Zhao, “Nonlinear saturable absorption of liquid-exfoliated molybdenum/tungsten ditelluride nanosheets,” Small 12, 1489–1497 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Mao, X. She, B. Du, D. Yang, W. Zhang, K. Song, X. Cui, B. Jiang, T. Peng, and J. Zhao, “Erbium-doped fiber laser passively mode locked with few-layer WSe2/MoSe2 nanosheets,” Sci. Rep. 6, 23583 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Mao, Y. Wang, C. Ma, L. Han, B. Jiang, X. Gan, S. Hua, W. Zhang, T. Mei, and J. Zhao, “WS2 mode-locked ultrafast fiber laser,” Sci. Rep. 5, 7965 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhao, M.

S. Wang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, A. Wang, M. Zhao, Y. Chen, L. Mei, and J. Wang, “Broadband few-layer MoS2 saturable absorber,” Adv. Mater. 26, 3538–3544 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhao, N.

Zhao, Q.

K. Wang, Y. Feng, C. Chang, J. Zhan, C. Wang, Q. Zhao, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, W. J. Blau, and J. Wang, “Broadband ultrafast nonlinear absorption and nonlinear refraction of layered molybdenum dichalcogenide semiconductors,” Nanoscale 6, 10530–10535 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7, 9260–9267 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zheng, B.

F. Qi, X. Wang, B. Zheng, Y. Chen, B. Yu, J. Zhou, J. He, P. Li, W. Zhang, and Y. Li, “Self-assembled chrysanthemum-like microspheres constructed by few-layer ReSe2 nanosheets as a highly efficient and stable electrocatalyst for hydrogen evolution reaction,” Electrochim. Acta 224, 593–599 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zheng, J.

Zheng, X.

Zheng, X.-W.

Zheng, Z.

M. Zhang, G. Hu, G. Hu, R. C. T. Howe, L. Chen, Z. Zheng, and T. Hasan, “Yb- and Er-doped fiber laser Q-switched with an optically uniform, broadband WS2 saturable absorber,” Sci. Rep. 5, 17482 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhong, H.

H. Zhao, J. Wu, H. Zhong, Q. Guo, X. Wang, F. Xia, L. Yang, P. Tan, and H. Wang, “Interlayer interactions in anisotropic atomically thin rhenium diselenide,” Nano Res. 8, 3651–3661 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhong, H.-X.

H.-X. Zhong, S. Gao, J.-J. Shi, and L. Yang, “Quasiparticle band gaps, excitonic effects, and anisotropic optical properties of the monolayer distorted 1T diamond-chain structures ReS2 and ReSe2,” Phys. Rev. B 92, 115438 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhou, J.

F. Qi, X. Wang, B. Zheng, Y. Chen, B. Yu, J. Zhou, J. He, P. Li, W. Zhang, and Y. Li, “Self-assembled chrysanthemum-like microspheres constructed by few-layer ReSe2 nanosheets as a highly efficient and stable electrocatalyst for hydrogen evolution reaction,” Electrochim. Acta 224, 593–599 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhou, L.

K. Wu, B. Chen, X. Zhang, S. Zhang, C. Guo, C. Li, P. Xiao, J. Wang, L. Zhou, W. Zou, and J. Chen, “High-performance mode-locked and Q-switched fiber lasers based on novel 2D materials of topological insulators, transition metal dichalcogenides and black phosphorus: review and perspective (invited),” Opt. Commun. 406, 214–229 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zhou, Y.

X. Zhang, Y. Zhou, and J. Zhang, “In-situ reduced graphene oxide-polyvinyl alcohol composite coatings as protective layers on magnesium substrates,” Prog. Nat. Sci. 27, 326–328 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhu, X.

X. Jiang, L. Zhang, S. Liu, Y. Zhang, Z. He, W. Li, F. Zhang, Y. Shi, W. Lü, Y. Li, Q. Wen, J. Li, J. Feng, S. Ruan, Y.-J. Zeng, X. Zhu, Y. Lu, and H. Zhang, “Ultrathin metal-organic framework: an emerging broadband nonlinear optical material for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6, 1800561 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zhu, Z.

Y. Ge, Z. Zhu, Y. Xu, Y. Chen, S. Chen, Z. Liang, Y. Song, Y. Zou, H. Zeng, S. Xu, H. Zhang, and D. Fan, “Broadband nonlinear photoresponse of 2D TiS2 for ultrashort pulse generation and all-optical thresholding devices,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6, 1701166 (2018).
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Figures (10)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) SEM image and (b) EDS spectrum of the prepared ReSe2 particles.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) AFM image and (b) line profile of the ReSe2 thin film.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. XPS spectra of the prepared ReSe2/PVA thin film in the (a) Re 4f region, (b) Se 3d region, and (c) C 1s region.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a) Measured Raman spectrum of the ReSe2/PVA thin film. (b) Linear optical absorption spectrum of the ReSe2/PVA composite.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. (a) Schematic diagram of the Z-scan measurement setup at 1560 nm. BS: beam splitter. (b) Z-scan results for the ReSe2 film using open-aperture (OA) and closed-aperture (CA) Z scan.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. (a) Schematic of our prepared ReSe2/PVA-deposited side-polished fiber. (b) Measurement setup for nonlinear transmission curves of the ReSe2/PVA-based SA at 1560 nm.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Nonlinear transmission curves of the ReSe2/PVA-deposited side-polished fiber: (a) the transverse electric (TE) mode and (b) the transverse magnetic (TM) mode.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. Experimental configuration of our mode-locked fiber laser.
Fig. 9.
Fig. 9. (a) Optical spectrum and (b) an oscilloscope trace of the output pulses. Inset: oscilloscope trace for a narrow span. (c) An oscilloscope trace of the output pulses over a large time scale.
Fig. 10.
Fig. 10. (a) Autocorrelation trace and (b) electrical spectrum of the output pulses. Inset: electrical spectrum for a span of 1 GHz.

Tables (2)

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Table 1. Comparison of Nonlinear Optical Parameters for a Range of TMDCs that Were Measured with the Z-Scan Technique

Tables Icon

Table 2. Performance Comparison between the Present Work and Previously Demonstrated Mode-Locked Erbium-Doped Fiber Lasers Incorporating Other Saturable Absorption Materials

Equations (3)

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T(z)=n=0(βI0Leff)n/(1+z2/z02)n(n+1)3/21βI0Leff/23/2(1+z2/z02),
T(z)=114z/z0(1+z2/z02)2ΔΦ+4(1+z2/z02)3ΔΦ2,
T(I)=1ΔT·exp(IIsat)Tns,