Abstract

Full-color displays based on micro light-emitting diodes (μLEDs) can be fabricated on monolithic epitaxial wafers. Nanoring (NR) structures were fabricated on a green LED epitaxial wafer; the color of NR-μLEDs was tuned from green to blue through strain relaxation. An Al2O3 layer was deposited on the sidewall of NR-μLEDs, which improved the photoluminescence intensity by 143.7%. Coupling with the exposed multiple quantum wells through nonradiative resonant energy transfer, red quantum dots were printed to NR-μLEDs for a full-color display. To further improve the color purity of the red light, a distributed Bragg reflector is developed to reuse the excitation light.

© 2019 Chinese Laser Press

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References

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2018 (4)

T. Z. Wu, C.-W. Sher, Y. Lin, C.-F. Lee, S. J. Liang, Y. J. Lu, S.-W. Huang Chen, W. J. Guo, H.-C. Kuo, and Z. Chen, “Mini-LED and micro-LED: promising candidates for the next generation display technology,” Appl. Sci. 8, 1557 (2018).
[Crossref]

L. L. Zheng, Z. Q. Guo, W. Yan, Y. Lin, Y. J. Lu, H. C. Kuo, Z. Chen, L. H. Zhu, T. Z. Wu, and Y. L. Gao, “Research on a camera-based microscopic imaging system to inspect the surface luminance of the micro-LED array,” IEEE Access 6, 51329–51336 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. S. Wong, D. Hwang, A. I. Alhassan, C. Lee, R. Ley, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “High efficiency of III-nitride micro-light-emitting diodes by sidewall passivation using atomic layer deposition,” Opt. Express 26, 21324–21331 (2018).
[Crossref]

H. Sun, M. K. Shakfa, M. M. Muhammed, B. Janjua, K.-H. Li, R. Lin, T. K. Ng, I. S. Roqan, B. S. Ooi, and X. Li, “Surface-passivated AlGaN nanowires for enhanced luminescence of ultraviolet light emitting diodes,” ACS Photon. 5, 964–970 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (7)

C. Y. Liu, T. P. Chen, J. K. Huang, T. N. Lin, C. Y. Huang, X. L. Li, H. C. Kuo, J. L. Shen, and C. Y. Chang, “Enhanced color-conversion efficiency of hybrid nanostructured-cavities InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes consisting of nontoxic InP quantum dots,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 23, 2000607 (2017).
[Crossref]

H.-W. Chen, J.-H. Lee, B.-Y. Lin, S. Chen, and S.-T. Wu, “Liquid crystal display and organic light-emitting diode display: present status and future perspectives,” Light Sci. Appl. 7, 17168 (2017).
[Crossref]

B. Corbett, R. Loi, W. D. Zhou, D. Liu, and Z. Q. Ma, “Transfer print techniques for heterogeneous integration of photonic components,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 52, 1–17 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. W. Wang, K. B. Hong, Y. L. Tsai, C. H. Teng, A. J. Tzou, Y. C. Chu, P. T. Lee, P. C. Ku, C. C. Lin, and H. C. Kuo, “Wavelength tunable InGaN/GaN nano-ring LEDs via nano-sphere lithography,” Sci. Rep. 7, 42962 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Y. Lin, C. W. Sher, D. H. Hsieh, X. Y. Chen, H. M. P. Chen, T. M. Chen, K. M. Lau, C. H. Chen, C. C. Lin, and H. C. Kuo, “Optical cross-talk reduction in a quantum-dot-based full-color micro-light-emitting-diode display by a lithographic-fabricated photoresist mold,” Photon. Res. 5, 411–416 (2017).
[Crossref]

F. Olivier, S. Tirano, L. Dupre, B. Aventurier, C. Largeron, and F. Templier, “Influence of size-reduction on the performances of GaN-based micro-LEDs for display application,” J. Lumin. 191, 112–116 (2017).
[Crossref]

D. Hwang, A. Mughal, C. D. Pynn, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Sustained high external quantum efficiency in ultrasmall blue III-nitride micro-LEDs,” Appl. Phys. Express 10, 032101 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (3)

F. Templier, “GaN-based emissive microdisplays: a very promising technology for compact, ultra-high brightness display systems,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 24, 669–675 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z. Zhuang, X. Guo, B. Liu, F. Hu, Y. Li, T. Tao, J. Dai, T. Zhi, Z. Xie, P. Chen, D. Chen, H. Ge, X. Wang, M. Xiao, Y. Shi, Y. Zheng, and R. Zhang, “High color rendering index hybrid III-nitride/nanocrystals white light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 26, 36–43 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Zhao, T. K. Ng, R. T. ElAfandy, A. Prabaswara, G. B. Consiglio, I. A. Ajia, I. S. Roqan, B. Janjua, C. Shen, J. Eid, A. Y. Alyamani, M. M. El-Desouki, and B. S. Ooi, “Droop-free, reliable, and high-power InGaN/GaN nanowire light emitting diodes for monolithic metal-optoelectronics,” Nano Lett. 16, 4616–4623 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (3)

K. H. Lee, C. Y. Han, H. D. Kang, H. Ko, C. Lee, J. Lee, N. Myoung, S. Y. Yim, and H. Yang, “Highly efficient, color-reproducible full-color electroluminescent devices based on red/green/blue quantum dot-mixed multilayer,” ACS Nano 9, 10941–10949 (2015).
[Crossref]

W. J. Chen, G. H. Hu, J. L. Lin, J. L. Jiang, M. G. Liu, Y. B. Yang, G. W. Hu, Y. Lin, Z. S. Wu, Y. Liu, and B. J. Zhang, “High-performance, single-pyramid micro light-emitting diode with leakage current confinement layer,” Appl. Phys. Express 8, 032102 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. V. Han, H. Y. Lin, C. C. Lin, W. C. Chong, J. R. Li, K. J. Chen, P. C. Yu, T. M. Chen, H. M. Chen, K. M. Lau, and H. C. Kuo, “Resonant-enhanced full-color emission of quantum-dot-based micro LED display technology,” Opt. Express 23, 32504–32515 (2015).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

Y. Shirasaki, G. J. Supran, M. G. Bawendi, and V. Bulovic, “Emergence of colloidal quantum-dot light-emitting technologies,” Nat. Photonics 7, 13–23 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. X. Jiang and J. Y. Lin, “Nitride micro-LEDs and beyond--a decade progress review,” Opt. Express 21, A475–A484 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Smith, B. Liu, J. Bai, and T. Wang, “Hybrid III-nitride/organic semiconductor nanostructure with high efficiency nonradiative energy transfer for white light emitters,” Nano Lett. 13, 3042–3047 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

K. J. Chen, H. C. Chen, K. A. Tsai, C. C. Lin, H. H. Tsai, S. H. Chien, B. S. Cheng, Y. J. Hsu, M. H. Shih, C. H. Tsai, H. H. Shih, and H. C. Kuo, “Resonant-enhanced full-color emission of quantum-dot-based display technology using a pulsed spray method,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22, 5138–5143 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

Q. Wang, J. Bai, Y. P. Gong, and T. Wang, “Influence of strain relaxation on the optical properties of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well nanorods,” J. Phys. D 44, 395102 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. J. Rindermann, G. Pozina, B. Monemar, L. Hultman, H. Amano, and P. G. Lagoudakis, “Dependence of resonance energy transfer on exciton dimensionality,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 236805 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

S. Chanyawadee, P. G. Lagoudakis, R. T. Harley, M. D. B. Charlton, D. V. Talapin, H. W. Huang, and C. H. Lin, “Increased color-conversion efficiency in hybrid light-emitting diodes utilizing non-radiative energy transfer,” Adv. Mater. 22, 602–606 (2010).
[Crossref]

Q. Dai, Q. F. Shan, J. Wang, S. Chhajed, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Crawford, D. D. Koleske, M. H. Kim, and Y. Park, “Carrier recombination mechanisms and efficiency droop in GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 133507 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

J. H. Ryou, P. D. Yoder, J. P. Liu, Z. Lochner, H. Kim, S. Choi, H. J. Kim, and R. D. Dupuis, “Control of quantum-confined Stark effect in InGaN-based quantum wells,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 1080–1091 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

S. Chanyawadee, P. G. Lagoudakis, R. T. Harley, D. G. Lidzey, and M. Henini, “Nonradiative exciton energy transfer in hybrid organic-inorganic heterostructures,” Phys. Rev. B 77, 193402 (2008).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

S. Kos, M. Achermann, V. I. Klimov, and D. L. Smith, “Different regimes of Forster-type energy transfer between an epitaxial quantum well and a proximal monolayer of semiconductor nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 205309 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

M. Achermann, M. A. Petruska, S. Kos, D. L. Smith, D. D. Koleske, and V. I. Klimov, “Energy-transfer pumping of semiconductor nanocrystals using an epitaxial quantum well,” Nature 429, 642–646 (2004).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

B. P. Maliwal, Z. Gryczynski, and J. R. Lakowicz, “Long-wavelength long-lifetime luminophores,” Anal. Chem. 73, 4277–4285 (2001).
[Crossref]

Achermann, M.

S. Kos, M. Achermann, V. I. Klimov, and D. L. Smith, “Different regimes of Forster-type energy transfer between an epitaxial quantum well and a proximal monolayer of semiconductor nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 205309 (2005).
[Crossref]

M. Achermann, M. A. Petruska, S. Kos, D. L. Smith, D. D. Koleske, and V. I. Klimov, “Energy-transfer pumping of semiconductor nanocrystals using an epitaxial quantum well,” Nature 429, 642–646 (2004).
[Crossref]

Ajia, I. A.

C. Zhao, T. K. Ng, R. T. ElAfandy, A. Prabaswara, G. B. Consiglio, I. A. Ajia, I. S. Roqan, B. Janjua, C. Shen, J. Eid, A. Y. Alyamani, M. M. El-Desouki, and B. S. Ooi, “Droop-free, reliable, and high-power InGaN/GaN nanowire light emitting diodes for monolithic metal-optoelectronics,” Nano Lett. 16, 4616–4623 (2016).
[Crossref]

Alhassan, A. I.

Alyamani, A. Y.

C. Zhao, T. K. Ng, R. T. ElAfandy, A. Prabaswara, G. B. Consiglio, I. A. Ajia, I. S. Roqan, B. Janjua, C. Shen, J. Eid, A. Y. Alyamani, M. M. El-Desouki, and B. S. Ooi, “Droop-free, reliable, and high-power InGaN/GaN nanowire light emitting diodes for monolithic metal-optoelectronics,” Nano Lett. 16, 4616–4623 (2016).
[Crossref]

Amano, H.

J. J. Rindermann, G. Pozina, B. Monemar, L. Hultman, H. Amano, and P. G. Lagoudakis, “Dependence of resonance energy transfer on exciton dimensionality,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 236805 (2011).
[Crossref]

Aventurier, B.

F. Olivier, S. Tirano, L. Dupre, B. Aventurier, C. Largeron, and F. Templier, “Influence of size-reduction on the performances of GaN-based micro-LEDs for display application,” J. Lumin. 191, 112–116 (2017).
[Crossref]

Bai, J.

R. Smith, B. Liu, J. Bai, and T. Wang, “Hybrid III-nitride/organic semiconductor nanostructure with high efficiency nonradiative energy transfer for white light emitters,” Nano Lett. 13, 3042–3047 (2013).
[Crossref]

Q. Wang, J. Bai, Y. P. Gong, and T. Wang, “Influence of strain relaxation on the optical properties of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well nanorods,” J. Phys. D 44, 395102 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bawendi, M. G.

Y. Shirasaki, G. J. Supran, M. G. Bawendi, and V. Bulovic, “Emergence of colloidal quantum-dot light-emitting technologies,” Nat. Photonics 7, 13–23 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bulovic, V.

Y. Shirasaki, G. J. Supran, M. G. Bawendi, and V. Bulovic, “Emergence of colloidal quantum-dot light-emitting technologies,” Nat. Photonics 7, 13–23 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chang, C. Y.

C. Y. Liu, T. P. Chen, J. K. Huang, T. N. Lin, C. Y. Huang, X. L. Li, H. C. Kuo, J. L. Shen, and C. Y. Chang, “Enhanced color-conversion efficiency of hybrid nanostructured-cavities InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes consisting of nontoxic InP quantum dots,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 23, 2000607 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chanyawadee, S.

S. Chanyawadee, P. G. Lagoudakis, R. T. Harley, M. D. B. Charlton, D. V. Talapin, H. W. Huang, and C. H. Lin, “Increased color-conversion efficiency in hybrid light-emitting diodes utilizing non-radiative energy transfer,” Adv. Mater. 22, 602–606 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Chanyawadee, P. G. Lagoudakis, R. T. Harley, D. G. Lidzey, and M. Henini, “Nonradiative exciton energy transfer in hybrid organic-inorganic heterostructures,” Phys. Rev. B 77, 193402 (2008).
[Crossref]

Charlton, M. D. B.

S. Chanyawadee, P. G. Lagoudakis, R. T. Harley, M. D. B. Charlton, D. V. Talapin, H. W. Huang, and C. H. Lin, “Increased color-conversion efficiency in hybrid light-emitting diodes utilizing non-radiative energy transfer,” Adv. Mater. 22, 602–606 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chen, C. H.

Chen, D.

Z. Zhuang, X. Guo, B. Liu, F. Hu, Y. Li, T. Tao, J. Dai, T. Zhi, Z. Xie, P. Chen, D. Chen, H. Ge, X. Wang, M. Xiao, Y. Shi, Y. Zheng, and R. Zhang, “High color rendering index hybrid III-nitride/nanocrystals white light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 26, 36–43 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chen, H. C.

K. J. Chen, H. C. Chen, K. A. Tsai, C. C. Lin, H. H. Tsai, S. H. Chien, B. S. Cheng, Y. J. Hsu, M. H. Shih, C. H. Tsai, H. H. Shih, and H. C. Kuo, “Resonant-enhanced full-color emission of quantum-dot-based display technology using a pulsed spray method,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22, 5138–5143 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chen, H. M.

Chen, H. M. P.

Chen, H.-W.

H.-W. Chen, J.-H. Lee, B.-Y. Lin, S. Chen, and S.-T. Wu, “Liquid crystal display and organic light-emitting diode display: present status and future perspectives,” Light Sci. Appl. 7, 17168 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chen, K. J.

H. V. Han, H. Y. Lin, C. C. Lin, W. C. Chong, J. R. Li, K. J. Chen, P. C. Yu, T. M. Chen, H. M. Chen, K. M. Lau, and H. C. Kuo, “Resonant-enhanced full-color emission of quantum-dot-based micro LED display technology,” Opt. Express 23, 32504–32515 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. J. Chen, H. C. Chen, K. A. Tsai, C. C. Lin, H. H. Tsai, S. H. Chien, B. S. Cheng, Y. J. Hsu, M. H. Shih, C. H. Tsai, H. H. Shih, and H. C. Kuo, “Resonant-enhanced full-color emission of quantum-dot-based display technology using a pulsed spray method,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22, 5138–5143 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chen, P.

Z. Zhuang, X. Guo, B. Liu, F. Hu, Y. Li, T. Tao, J. Dai, T. Zhi, Z. Xie, P. Chen, D. Chen, H. Ge, X. Wang, M. Xiao, Y. Shi, Y. Zheng, and R. Zhang, “High color rendering index hybrid III-nitride/nanocrystals white light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 26, 36–43 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chen, S.

H.-W. Chen, J.-H. Lee, B.-Y. Lin, S. Chen, and S.-T. Wu, “Liquid crystal display and organic light-emitting diode display: present status and future perspectives,” Light Sci. Appl. 7, 17168 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chen, T. M.

Chen, T. P.

C. Y. Liu, T. P. Chen, J. K. Huang, T. N. Lin, C. Y. Huang, X. L. Li, H. C. Kuo, J. L. Shen, and C. Y. Chang, “Enhanced color-conversion efficiency of hybrid nanostructured-cavities InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes consisting of nontoxic InP quantum dots,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 23, 2000607 (2017).
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Chen, W. J.

W. J. Chen, G. H. Hu, J. L. Lin, J. L. Jiang, M. G. Liu, Y. B. Yang, G. W. Hu, Y. Lin, Z. S. Wu, Y. Liu, and B. J. Zhang, “High-performance, single-pyramid micro light-emitting diode with leakage current confinement layer,” Appl. Phys. Express 8, 032102 (2015).
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Chen, X. Y.

Chen, Z.

T. Z. Wu, C.-W. Sher, Y. Lin, C.-F. Lee, S. J. Liang, Y. J. Lu, S.-W. Huang Chen, W. J. Guo, H.-C. Kuo, and Z. Chen, “Mini-LED and micro-LED: promising candidates for the next generation display technology,” Appl. Sci. 8, 1557 (2018).
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L. L. Zheng, Z. Q. Guo, W. Yan, Y. Lin, Y. J. Lu, H. C. Kuo, Z. Chen, L. H. Zhu, T. Z. Wu, and Y. L. Gao, “Research on a camera-based microscopic imaging system to inspect the surface luminance of the micro-LED array,” IEEE Access 6, 51329–51336 (2018).
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Cheng, B. S.

K. J. Chen, H. C. Chen, K. A. Tsai, C. C. Lin, H. H. Tsai, S. H. Chien, B. S. Cheng, Y. J. Hsu, M. H. Shih, C. H. Tsai, H. H. Shih, and H. C. Kuo, “Resonant-enhanced full-color emission of quantum-dot-based display technology using a pulsed spray method,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22, 5138–5143 (2012).
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Q. Dai, Q. F. Shan, J. Wang, S. Chhajed, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Crawford, D. D. Koleske, M. H. Kim, and Y. Park, “Carrier recombination mechanisms and efficiency droop in GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 133507 (2010).
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K. J. Chen, H. C. Chen, K. A. Tsai, C. C. Lin, H. H. Tsai, S. H. Chien, B. S. Cheng, Y. J. Hsu, M. H. Shih, C. H. Tsai, H. H. Shih, and H. C. Kuo, “Resonant-enhanced full-color emission of quantum-dot-based display technology using a pulsed spray method,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22, 5138–5143 (2012).
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Cho, J.

Q. Dai, Q. F. Shan, J. Wang, S. Chhajed, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Crawford, D. D. Koleske, M. H. Kim, and Y. Park, “Carrier recombination mechanisms and efficiency droop in GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 133507 (2010).
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J. H. Ryou, P. D. Yoder, J. P. Liu, Z. Lochner, H. Kim, S. Choi, H. J. Kim, and R. D. Dupuis, “Control of quantum-confined Stark effect in InGaN-based quantum wells,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 1080–1091 (2009).
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Chong, W. C.

Chu, Y. C.

S. W. Wang, K. B. Hong, Y. L. Tsai, C. H. Teng, A. J. Tzou, Y. C. Chu, P. T. Lee, P. C. Ku, C. C. Lin, and H. C. Kuo, “Wavelength tunable InGaN/GaN nano-ring LEDs via nano-sphere lithography,” Sci. Rep. 7, 42962 (2017).
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C. Zhao, T. K. Ng, R. T. ElAfandy, A. Prabaswara, G. B. Consiglio, I. A. Ajia, I. S. Roqan, B. Janjua, C. Shen, J. Eid, A. Y. Alyamani, M. M. El-Desouki, and B. S. Ooi, “Droop-free, reliable, and high-power InGaN/GaN nanowire light emitting diodes for monolithic metal-optoelectronics,” Nano Lett. 16, 4616–4623 (2016).
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B. Corbett, R. Loi, W. D. Zhou, D. Liu, and Z. Q. Ma, “Transfer print techniques for heterogeneous integration of photonic components,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 52, 1–17 (2017).
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Q. Dai, Q. F. Shan, J. Wang, S. Chhajed, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Crawford, D. D. Koleske, M. H. Kim, and Y. Park, “Carrier recombination mechanisms and efficiency droop in GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 133507 (2010).
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Dai, J.

Z. Zhuang, X. Guo, B. Liu, F. Hu, Y. Li, T. Tao, J. Dai, T. Zhi, Z. Xie, P. Chen, D. Chen, H. Ge, X. Wang, M. Xiao, Y. Shi, Y. Zheng, and R. Zhang, “High color rendering index hybrid III-nitride/nanocrystals white light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 26, 36–43 (2016).
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Q. Dai, Q. F. Shan, J. Wang, S. Chhajed, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Crawford, D. D. Koleske, M. H. Kim, and Y. Park, “Carrier recombination mechanisms and efficiency droop in GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 133507 (2010).
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M. S. Wong, D. Hwang, A. I. Alhassan, C. Lee, R. Ley, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “High efficiency of III-nitride micro-light-emitting diodes by sidewall passivation using atomic layer deposition,” Opt. Express 26, 21324–21331 (2018).
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D. Hwang, A. Mughal, C. D. Pynn, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Sustained high external quantum efficiency in ultrasmall blue III-nitride micro-LEDs,” Appl. Phys. Express 10, 032101 (2017).
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F. Olivier, S. Tirano, L. Dupre, B. Aventurier, C. Largeron, and F. Templier, “Influence of size-reduction on the performances of GaN-based micro-LEDs for display application,” J. Lumin. 191, 112–116 (2017).
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J. H. Ryou, P. D. Yoder, J. P. Liu, Z. Lochner, H. Kim, S. Choi, H. J. Kim, and R. D. Dupuis, “Control of quantum-confined Stark effect in InGaN-based quantum wells,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 1080–1091 (2009).
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C. Zhao, T. K. Ng, R. T. ElAfandy, A. Prabaswara, G. B. Consiglio, I. A. Ajia, I. S. Roqan, B. Janjua, C. Shen, J. Eid, A. Y. Alyamani, M. M. El-Desouki, and B. S. Ooi, “Droop-free, reliable, and high-power InGaN/GaN nanowire light emitting diodes for monolithic metal-optoelectronics,” Nano Lett. 16, 4616–4623 (2016).
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C. Zhao, T. K. Ng, R. T. ElAfandy, A. Prabaswara, G. B. Consiglio, I. A. Ajia, I. S. Roqan, B. Janjua, C. Shen, J. Eid, A. Y. Alyamani, M. M. El-Desouki, and B. S. Ooi, “Droop-free, reliable, and high-power InGaN/GaN nanowire light emitting diodes for monolithic metal-optoelectronics,” Nano Lett. 16, 4616–4623 (2016).
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C. Zhao, T. K. Ng, R. T. ElAfandy, A. Prabaswara, G. B. Consiglio, I. A. Ajia, I. S. Roqan, B. Janjua, C. Shen, J. Eid, A. Y. Alyamani, M. M. El-Desouki, and B. S. Ooi, “Droop-free, reliable, and high-power InGaN/GaN nanowire light emitting diodes for monolithic metal-optoelectronics,” Nano Lett. 16, 4616–4623 (2016).
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L. L. Zheng, Z. Q. Guo, W. Yan, Y. Lin, Y. J. Lu, H. C. Kuo, Z. Chen, L. H. Zhu, T. Z. Wu, and Y. L. Gao, “Research on a camera-based microscopic imaging system to inspect the surface luminance of the micro-LED array,” IEEE Access 6, 51329–51336 (2018).
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Z. Zhuang, X. Guo, B. Liu, F. Hu, Y. Li, T. Tao, J. Dai, T. Zhi, Z. Xie, P. Chen, D. Chen, H. Ge, X. Wang, M. Xiao, Y. Shi, Y. Zheng, and R. Zhang, “High color rendering index hybrid III-nitride/nanocrystals white light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 26, 36–43 (2016).
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Q. Wang, J. Bai, Y. P. Gong, and T. Wang, “Influence of strain relaxation on the optical properties of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well nanorods,” J. Phys. D 44, 395102 (2011).
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B. P. Maliwal, Z. Gryczynski, and J. R. Lakowicz, “Long-wavelength long-lifetime luminophores,” Anal. Chem. 73, 4277–4285 (2001).
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T. Z. Wu, C.-W. Sher, Y. Lin, C.-F. Lee, S. J. Liang, Y. J. Lu, S.-W. Huang Chen, W. J. Guo, H.-C. Kuo, and Z. Chen, “Mini-LED and micro-LED: promising candidates for the next generation display technology,” Appl. Sci. 8, 1557 (2018).
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Z. Zhuang, X. Guo, B. Liu, F. Hu, Y. Li, T. Tao, J. Dai, T. Zhi, Z. Xie, P. Chen, D. Chen, H. Ge, X. Wang, M. Xiao, Y. Shi, Y. Zheng, and R. Zhang, “High color rendering index hybrid III-nitride/nanocrystals white light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 26, 36–43 (2016).
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L. L. Zheng, Z. Q. Guo, W. Yan, Y. Lin, Y. J. Lu, H. C. Kuo, Z. Chen, L. H. Zhu, T. Z. Wu, and Y. L. Gao, “Research on a camera-based microscopic imaging system to inspect the surface luminance of the micro-LED array,” IEEE Access 6, 51329–51336 (2018).
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K. H. Lee, C. Y. Han, H. D. Kang, H. Ko, C. Lee, J. Lee, N. Myoung, S. Y. Yim, and H. Yang, “Highly efficient, color-reproducible full-color electroluminescent devices based on red/green/blue quantum dot-mixed multilayer,” ACS Nano 9, 10941–10949 (2015).
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Han, H. V.

Harley, R. T.

S. Chanyawadee, P. G. Lagoudakis, R. T. Harley, M. D. B. Charlton, D. V. Talapin, H. W. Huang, and C. H. Lin, “Increased color-conversion efficiency in hybrid light-emitting diodes utilizing non-radiative energy transfer,” Adv. Mater. 22, 602–606 (2010).
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S. Chanyawadee, P. G. Lagoudakis, R. T. Harley, D. G. Lidzey, and M. Henini, “Nonradiative exciton energy transfer in hybrid organic-inorganic heterostructures,” Phys. Rev. B 77, 193402 (2008).
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Henini, M.

S. Chanyawadee, P. G. Lagoudakis, R. T. Harley, D. G. Lidzey, and M. Henini, “Nonradiative exciton energy transfer in hybrid organic-inorganic heterostructures,” Phys. Rev. B 77, 193402 (2008).
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S. W. Wang, K. B. Hong, Y. L. Tsai, C. H. Teng, A. J. Tzou, Y. C. Chu, P. T. Lee, P. C. Ku, C. C. Lin, and H. C. Kuo, “Wavelength tunable InGaN/GaN nano-ring LEDs via nano-sphere lithography,” Sci. Rep. 7, 42962 (2017).
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Hsieh, D. H.

Hsu, Y. J.

K. J. Chen, H. C. Chen, K. A. Tsai, C. C. Lin, H. H. Tsai, S. H. Chien, B. S. Cheng, Y. J. Hsu, M. H. Shih, C. H. Tsai, H. H. Shih, and H. C. Kuo, “Resonant-enhanced full-color emission of quantum-dot-based display technology using a pulsed spray method,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22, 5138–5143 (2012).
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Z. Zhuang, X. Guo, B. Liu, F. Hu, Y. Li, T. Tao, J. Dai, T. Zhi, Z. Xie, P. Chen, D. Chen, H. Ge, X. Wang, M. Xiao, Y. Shi, Y. Zheng, and R. Zhang, “High color rendering index hybrid III-nitride/nanocrystals white light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 26, 36–43 (2016).
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Hu, G. H.

W. J. Chen, G. H. Hu, J. L. Lin, J. L. Jiang, M. G. Liu, Y. B. Yang, G. W. Hu, Y. Lin, Z. S. Wu, Y. Liu, and B. J. Zhang, “High-performance, single-pyramid micro light-emitting diode with leakage current confinement layer,” Appl. Phys. Express 8, 032102 (2015).
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W. J. Chen, G. H. Hu, J. L. Lin, J. L. Jiang, M. G. Liu, Y. B. Yang, G. W. Hu, Y. Lin, Z. S. Wu, Y. Liu, and B. J. Zhang, “High-performance, single-pyramid micro light-emitting diode with leakage current confinement layer,” Appl. Phys. Express 8, 032102 (2015).
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C. Y. Liu, T. P. Chen, J. K. Huang, T. N. Lin, C. Y. Huang, X. L. Li, H. C. Kuo, J. L. Shen, and C. Y. Chang, “Enhanced color-conversion efficiency of hybrid nanostructured-cavities InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes consisting of nontoxic InP quantum dots,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 23, 2000607 (2017).
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Huang, H. W.

S. Chanyawadee, P. G. Lagoudakis, R. T. Harley, M. D. B. Charlton, D. V. Talapin, H. W. Huang, and C. H. Lin, “Increased color-conversion efficiency in hybrid light-emitting diodes utilizing non-radiative energy transfer,” Adv. Mater. 22, 602–606 (2010).
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Huang, J. K.

C. Y. Liu, T. P. Chen, J. K. Huang, T. N. Lin, C. Y. Huang, X. L. Li, H. C. Kuo, J. L. Shen, and C. Y. Chang, “Enhanced color-conversion efficiency of hybrid nanostructured-cavities InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes consisting of nontoxic InP quantum dots,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 23, 2000607 (2017).
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Huang Chen, S.-W.

T. Z. Wu, C.-W. Sher, Y. Lin, C.-F. Lee, S. J. Liang, Y. J. Lu, S.-W. Huang Chen, W. J. Guo, H.-C. Kuo, and Z. Chen, “Mini-LED and micro-LED: promising candidates for the next generation display technology,” Appl. Sci. 8, 1557 (2018).
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J. J. Rindermann, G. Pozina, B. Monemar, L. Hultman, H. Amano, and P. G. Lagoudakis, “Dependence of resonance energy transfer on exciton dimensionality,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 236805 (2011).
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Hwang, D.

M. S. Wong, D. Hwang, A. I. Alhassan, C. Lee, R. Ley, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “High efficiency of III-nitride micro-light-emitting diodes by sidewall passivation using atomic layer deposition,” Opt. Express 26, 21324–21331 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. Hwang, A. Mughal, C. D. Pynn, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Sustained high external quantum efficiency in ultrasmall blue III-nitride micro-LEDs,” Appl. Phys. Express 10, 032101 (2017).
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H. Sun, M. K. Shakfa, M. M. Muhammed, B. Janjua, K.-H. Li, R. Lin, T. K. Ng, I. S. Roqan, B. S. Ooi, and X. Li, “Surface-passivated AlGaN nanowires for enhanced luminescence of ultraviolet light emitting diodes,” ACS Photon. 5, 964–970 (2018).
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C. Zhao, T. K. Ng, R. T. ElAfandy, A. Prabaswara, G. B. Consiglio, I. A. Ajia, I. S. Roqan, B. Janjua, C. Shen, J. Eid, A. Y. Alyamani, M. M. El-Desouki, and B. S. Ooi, “Droop-free, reliable, and high-power InGaN/GaN nanowire light emitting diodes for monolithic metal-optoelectronics,” Nano Lett. 16, 4616–4623 (2016).
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Jiang, H. X.

Jiang, J. L.

W. J. Chen, G. H. Hu, J. L. Lin, J. L. Jiang, M. G. Liu, Y. B. Yang, G. W. Hu, Y. Lin, Z. S. Wu, Y. Liu, and B. J. Zhang, “High-performance, single-pyramid micro light-emitting diode with leakage current confinement layer,” Appl. Phys. Express 8, 032102 (2015).
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Kang, H. D.

K. H. Lee, C. Y. Han, H. D. Kang, H. Ko, C. Lee, J. Lee, N. Myoung, S. Y. Yim, and H. Yang, “Highly efficient, color-reproducible full-color electroluminescent devices based on red/green/blue quantum dot-mixed multilayer,” ACS Nano 9, 10941–10949 (2015).
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Kim, H.

J. H. Ryou, P. D. Yoder, J. P. Liu, Z. Lochner, H. Kim, S. Choi, H. J. Kim, and R. D. Dupuis, “Control of quantum-confined Stark effect in InGaN-based quantum wells,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 1080–1091 (2009).
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Kim, H. J.

J. H. Ryou, P. D. Yoder, J. P. Liu, Z. Lochner, H. Kim, S. Choi, H. J. Kim, and R. D. Dupuis, “Control of quantum-confined Stark effect in InGaN-based quantum wells,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 1080–1091 (2009).
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Kim, M. H.

Q. Dai, Q. F. Shan, J. Wang, S. Chhajed, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Crawford, D. D. Koleske, M. H. Kim, and Y. Park, “Carrier recombination mechanisms and efficiency droop in GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 133507 (2010).
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Klimov, V. I.

S. Kos, M. Achermann, V. I. Klimov, and D. L. Smith, “Different regimes of Forster-type energy transfer between an epitaxial quantum well and a proximal monolayer of semiconductor nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 205309 (2005).
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M. Achermann, M. A. Petruska, S. Kos, D. L. Smith, D. D. Koleske, and V. I. Klimov, “Energy-transfer pumping of semiconductor nanocrystals using an epitaxial quantum well,” Nature 429, 642–646 (2004).
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Ko, H.

K. H. Lee, C. Y. Han, H. D. Kang, H. Ko, C. Lee, J. Lee, N. Myoung, S. Y. Yim, and H. Yang, “Highly efficient, color-reproducible full-color electroluminescent devices based on red/green/blue quantum dot-mixed multilayer,” ACS Nano 9, 10941–10949 (2015).
[Crossref]

Koleske, D. D.

Q. Dai, Q. F. Shan, J. Wang, S. Chhajed, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Crawford, D. D. Koleske, M. H. Kim, and Y. Park, “Carrier recombination mechanisms and efficiency droop in GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 133507 (2010).
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M. Achermann, M. A. Petruska, S. Kos, D. L. Smith, D. D. Koleske, and V. I. Klimov, “Energy-transfer pumping of semiconductor nanocrystals using an epitaxial quantum well,” Nature 429, 642–646 (2004).
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Kos, S.

S. Kos, M. Achermann, V. I. Klimov, and D. L. Smith, “Different regimes of Forster-type energy transfer between an epitaxial quantum well and a proximal monolayer of semiconductor nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 205309 (2005).
[Crossref]

M. Achermann, M. A. Petruska, S. Kos, D. L. Smith, D. D. Koleske, and V. I. Klimov, “Energy-transfer pumping of semiconductor nanocrystals using an epitaxial quantum well,” Nature 429, 642–646 (2004).
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Ku, P. C.

S. W. Wang, K. B. Hong, Y. L. Tsai, C. H. Teng, A. J. Tzou, Y. C. Chu, P. T. Lee, P. C. Ku, C. C. Lin, and H. C. Kuo, “Wavelength tunable InGaN/GaN nano-ring LEDs via nano-sphere lithography,” Sci. Rep. 7, 42962 (2017).
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Kuo, H. C.

L. L. Zheng, Z. Q. Guo, W. Yan, Y. Lin, Y. J. Lu, H. C. Kuo, Z. Chen, L. H. Zhu, T. Z. Wu, and Y. L. Gao, “Research on a camera-based microscopic imaging system to inspect the surface luminance of the micro-LED array,” IEEE Access 6, 51329–51336 (2018).
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S. W. Wang, K. B. Hong, Y. L. Tsai, C. H. Teng, A. J. Tzou, Y. C. Chu, P. T. Lee, P. C. Ku, C. C. Lin, and H. C. Kuo, “Wavelength tunable InGaN/GaN nano-ring LEDs via nano-sphere lithography,” Sci. Rep. 7, 42962 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Y. Liu, T. P. Chen, J. K. Huang, T. N. Lin, C. Y. Huang, X. L. Li, H. C. Kuo, J. L. Shen, and C. Y. Chang, “Enhanced color-conversion efficiency of hybrid nanostructured-cavities InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes consisting of nontoxic InP quantum dots,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 23, 2000607 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Y. Lin, C. W. Sher, D. H. Hsieh, X. Y. Chen, H. M. P. Chen, T. M. Chen, K. M. Lau, C. H. Chen, C. C. Lin, and H. C. Kuo, “Optical cross-talk reduction in a quantum-dot-based full-color micro-light-emitting-diode display by a lithographic-fabricated photoresist mold,” Photon. Res. 5, 411–416 (2017).
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H. V. Han, H. Y. Lin, C. C. Lin, W. C. Chong, J. R. Li, K. J. Chen, P. C. Yu, T. M. Chen, H. M. Chen, K. M. Lau, and H. C. Kuo, “Resonant-enhanced full-color emission of quantum-dot-based micro LED display technology,” Opt. Express 23, 32504–32515 (2015).
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K. J. Chen, H. C. Chen, K. A. Tsai, C. C. Lin, H. H. Tsai, S. H. Chien, B. S. Cheng, Y. J. Hsu, M. H. Shih, C. H. Tsai, H. H. Shih, and H. C. Kuo, “Resonant-enhanced full-color emission of quantum-dot-based display technology using a pulsed spray method,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22, 5138–5143 (2012).
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Kuo, H.-C.

T. Z. Wu, C.-W. Sher, Y. Lin, C.-F. Lee, S. J. Liang, Y. J. Lu, S.-W. Huang Chen, W. J. Guo, H.-C. Kuo, and Z. Chen, “Mini-LED and micro-LED: promising candidates for the next generation display technology,” Appl. Sci. 8, 1557 (2018).
[Crossref]

Lagoudakis, P. G.

J. J. Rindermann, G. Pozina, B. Monemar, L. Hultman, H. Amano, and P. G. Lagoudakis, “Dependence of resonance energy transfer on exciton dimensionality,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 236805 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Chanyawadee, P. G. Lagoudakis, R. T. Harley, M. D. B. Charlton, D. V. Talapin, H. W. Huang, and C. H. Lin, “Increased color-conversion efficiency in hybrid light-emitting diodes utilizing non-radiative energy transfer,” Adv. Mater. 22, 602–606 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Chanyawadee, P. G. Lagoudakis, R. T. Harley, D. G. Lidzey, and M. Henini, “Nonradiative exciton energy transfer in hybrid organic-inorganic heterostructures,” Phys. Rev. B 77, 193402 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lakowicz, J. R.

B. P. Maliwal, Z. Gryczynski, and J. R. Lakowicz, “Long-wavelength long-lifetime luminophores,” Anal. Chem. 73, 4277–4285 (2001).
[Crossref]

Largeron, C.

F. Olivier, S. Tirano, L. Dupre, B. Aventurier, C. Largeron, and F. Templier, “Influence of size-reduction on the performances of GaN-based micro-LEDs for display application,” J. Lumin. 191, 112–116 (2017).
[Crossref]

Lau, K. M.

Lee, C.

M. S. Wong, D. Hwang, A. I. Alhassan, C. Lee, R. Ley, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “High efficiency of III-nitride micro-light-emitting diodes by sidewall passivation using atomic layer deposition,” Opt. Express 26, 21324–21331 (2018).
[Crossref]

K. H. Lee, C. Y. Han, H. D. Kang, H. Ko, C. Lee, J. Lee, N. Myoung, S. Y. Yim, and H. Yang, “Highly efficient, color-reproducible full-color electroluminescent devices based on red/green/blue quantum dot-mixed multilayer,” ACS Nano 9, 10941–10949 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lee, C.-F.

T. Z. Wu, C.-W. Sher, Y. Lin, C.-F. Lee, S. J. Liang, Y. J. Lu, S.-W. Huang Chen, W. J. Guo, H.-C. Kuo, and Z. Chen, “Mini-LED and micro-LED: promising candidates for the next generation display technology,” Appl. Sci. 8, 1557 (2018).
[Crossref]

Lee, J.

K. H. Lee, C. Y. Han, H. D. Kang, H. Ko, C. Lee, J. Lee, N. Myoung, S. Y. Yim, and H. Yang, “Highly efficient, color-reproducible full-color electroluminescent devices based on red/green/blue quantum dot-mixed multilayer,” ACS Nano 9, 10941–10949 (2015).
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K. J. Chen, H. C. Chen, K. A. Tsai, C. C. Lin, H. H. Tsai, S. H. Chien, B. S. Cheng, Y. J. Hsu, M. H. Shih, C. H. Tsai, H. H. Shih, and H. C. Kuo, “Resonant-enhanced full-color emission of quantum-dot-based display technology using a pulsed spray method,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22, 5138–5143 (2012).
[Crossref]

Tsai, Y. L.

S. W. Wang, K. B. Hong, Y. L. Tsai, C. H. Teng, A. J. Tzou, Y. C. Chu, P. T. Lee, P. C. Ku, C. C. Lin, and H. C. Kuo, “Wavelength tunable InGaN/GaN nano-ring LEDs via nano-sphere lithography,” Sci. Rep. 7, 42962 (2017).
[Crossref]

Tzou, A. J.

S. W. Wang, K. B. Hong, Y. L. Tsai, C. H. Teng, A. J. Tzou, Y. C. Chu, P. T. Lee, P. C. Ku, C. C. Lin, and H. C. Kuo, “Wavelength tunable InGaN/GaN nano-ring LEDs via nano-sphere lithography,” Sci. Rep. 7, 42962 (2017).
[Crossref]

Wang, J.

Q. Dai, Q. F. Shan, J. Wang, S. Chhajed, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Crawford, D. D. Koleske, M. H. Kim, and Y. Park, “Carrier recombination mechanisms and efficiency droop in GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 133507 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wang, Q.

Q. Wang, J. Bai, Y. P. Gong, and T. Wang, “Influence of strain relaxation on the optical properties of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well nanorods,” J. Phys. D 44, 395102 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wang, S. W.

S. W. Wang, K. B. Hong, Y. L. Tsai, C. H. Teng, A. J. Tzou, Y. C. Chu, P. T. Lee, P. C. Ku, C. C. Lin, and H. C. Kuo, “Wavelength tunable InGaN/GaN nano-ring LEDs via nano-sphere lithography,” Sci. Rep. 7, 42962 (2017).
[Crossref]

Wang, T.

R. Smith, B. Liu, J. Bai, and T. Wang, “Hybrid III-nitride/organic semiconductor nanostructure with high efficiency nonradiative energy transfer for white light emitters,” Nano Lett. 13, 3042–3047 (2013).
[Crossref]

Q. Wang, J. Bai, Y. P. Gong, and T. Wang, “Influence of strain relaxation on the optical properties of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well nanorods,” J. Phys. D 44, 395102 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wang, X.

Z. Zhuang, X. Guo, B. Liu, F. Hu, Y. Li, T. Tao, J. Dai, T. Zhi, Z. Xie, P. Chen, D. Chen, H. Ge, X. Wang, M. Xiao, Y. Shi, Y. Zheng, and R. Zhang, “High color rendering index hybrid III-nitride/nanocrystals white light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 26, 36–43 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wong, M. S.

Wu, S.-T.

H.-W. Chen, J.-H. Lee, B.-Y. Lin, S. Chen, and S.-T. Wu, “Liquid crystal display and organic light-emitting diode display: present status and future perspectives,” Light Sci. Appl. 7, 17168 (2017).
[Crossref]

Wu, T. Z.

T. Z. Wu, C.-W. Sher, Y. Lin, C.-F. Lee, S. J. Liang, Y. J. Lu, S.-W. Huang Chen, W. J. Guo, H.-C. Kuo, and Z. Chen, “Mini-LED and micro-LED: promising candidates for the next generation display technology,” Appl. Sci. 8, 1557 (2018).
[Crossref]

L. L. Zheng, Z. Q. Guo, W. Yan, Y. Lin, Y. J. Lu, H. C. Kuo, Z. Chen, L. H. Zhu, T. Z. Wu, and Y. L. Gao, “Research on a camera-based microscopic imaging system to inspect the surface luminance of the micro-LED array,” IEEE Access 6, 51329–51336 (2018).
[Crossref]

Wu, Z. S.

W. J. Chen, G. H. Hu, J. L. Lin, J. L. Jiang, M. G. Liu, Y. B. Yang, G. W. Hu, Y. Lin, Z. S. Wu, Y. Liu, and B. J. Zhang, “High-performance, single-pyramid micro light-emitting diode with leakage current confinement layer,” Appl. Phys. Express 8, 032102 (2015).
[Crossref]

Xiao, M.

Z. Zhuang, X. Guo, B. Liu, F. Hu, Y. Li, T. Tao, J. Dai, T. Zhi, Z. Xie, P. Chen, D. Chen, H. Ge, X. Wang, M. Xiao, Y. Shi, Y. Zheng, and R. Zhang, “High color rendering index hybrid III-nitride/nanocrystals white light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 26, 36–43 (2016).
[Crossref]

Xie, Z.

Z. Zhuang, X. Guo, B. Liu, F. Hu, Y. Li, T. Tao, J. Dai, T. Zhi, Z. Xie, P. Chen, D. Chen, H. Ge, X. Wang, M. Xiao, Y. Shi, Y. Zheng, and R. Zhang, “High color rendering index hybrid III-nitride/nanocrystals white light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 26, 36–43 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yan, W.

L. L. Zheng, Z. Q. Guo, W. Yan, Y. Lin, Y. J. Lu, H. C. Kuo, Z. Chen, L. H. Zhu, T. Z. Wu, and Y. L. Gao, “Research on a camera-based microscopic imaging system to inspect the surface luminance of the micro-LED array,” IEEE Access 6, 51329–51336 (2018).
[Crossref]

Yang, H.

K. H. Lee, C. Y. Han, H. D. Kang, H. Ko, C. Lee, J. Lee, N. Myoung, S. Y. Yim, and H. Yang, “Highly efficient, color-reproducible full-color electroluminescent devices based on red/green/blue quantum dot-mixed multilayer,” ACS Nano 9, 10941–10949 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yang, Y. B.

W. J. Chen, G. H. Hu, J. L. Lin, J. L. Jiang, M. G. Liu, Y. B. Yang, G. W. Hu, Y. Lin, Z. S. Wu, Y. Liu, and B. J. Zhang, “High-performance, single-pyramid micro light-emitting diode with leakage current confinement layer,” Appl. Phys. Express 8, 032102 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yim, S. Y.

K. H. Lee, C. Y. Han, H. D. Kang, H. Ko, C. Lee, J. Lee, N. Myoung, S. Y. Yim, and H. Yang, “Highly efficient, color-reproducible full-color electroluminescent devices based on red/green/blue quantum dot-mixed multilayer,” ACS Nano 9, 10941–10949 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yoder, P. D.

J. H. Ryou, P. D. Yoder, J. P. Liu, Z. Lochner, H. Kim, S. Choi, H. J. Kim, and R. D. Dupuis, “Control of quantum-confined Stark effect in InGaN-based quantum wells,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 1080–1091 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yu, P. C.

Zhang, B. J.

W. J. Chen, G. H. Hu, J. L. Lin, J. L. Jiang, M. G. Liu, Y. B. Yang, G. W. Hu, Y. Lin, Z. S. Wu, Y. Liu, and B. J. Zhang, “High-performance, single-pyramid micro light-emitting diode with leakage current confinement layer,” Appl. Phys. Express 8, 032102 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhang, R.

Z. Zhuang, X. Guo, B. Liu, F. Hu, Y. Li, T. Tao, J. Dai, T. Zhi, Z. Xie, P. Chen, D. Chen, H. Ge, X. Wang, M. Xiao, Y. Shi, Y. Zheng, and R. Zhang, “High color rendering index hybrid III-nitride/nanocrystals white light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 26, 36–43 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhao, C.

C. Zhao, T. K. Ng, R. T. ElAfandy, A. Prabaswara, G. B. Consiglio, I. A. Ajia, I. S. Roqan, B. Janjua, C. Shen, J. Eid, A. Y. Alyamani, M. M. El-Desouki, and B. S. Ooi, “Droop-free, reliable, and high-power InGaN/GaN nanowire light emitting diodes for monolithic metal-optoelectronics,” Nano Lett. 16, 4616–4623 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zheng, L. L.

L. L. Zheng, Z. Q. Guo, W. Yan, Y. Lin, Y. J. Lu, H. C. Kuo, Z. Chen, L. H. Zhu, T. Z. Wu, and Y. L. Gao, “Research on a camera-based microscopic imaging system to inspect the surface luminance of the micro-LED array,” IEEE Access 6, 51329–51336 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zheng, Y.

Z. Zhuang, X. Guo, B. Liu, F. Hu, Y. Li, T. Tao, J. Dai, T. Zhi, Z. Xie, P. Chen, D. Chen, H. Ge, X. Wang, M. Xiao, Y. Shi, Y. Zheng, and R. Zhang, “High color rendering index hybrid III-nitride/nanocrystals white light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 26, 36–43 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhi, T.

Z. Zhuang, X. Guo, B. Liu, F. Hu, Y. Li, T. Tao, J. Dai, T. Zhi, Z. Xie, P. Chen, D. Chen, H. Ge, X. Wang, M. Xiao, Y. Shi, Y. Zheng, and R. Zhang, “High color rendering index hybrid III-nitride/nanocrystals white light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 26, 36–43 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhou, W. D.

B. Corbett, R. Loi, W. D. Zhou, D. Liu, and Z. Q. Ma, “Transfer print techniques for heterogeneous integration of photonic components,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 52, 1–17 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhu, L. H.

L. L. Zheng, Z. Q. Guo, W. Yan, Y. Lin, Y. J. Lu, H. C. Kuo, Z. Chen, L. H. Zhu, T. Z. Wu, and Y. L. Gao, “Research on a camera-based microscopic imaging system to inspect the surface luminance of the micro-LED array,” IEEE Access 6, 51329–51336 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zhuang, Z.

Z. Zhuang, X. Guo, B. Liu, F. Hu, Y. Li, T. Tao, J. Dai, T. Zhi, Z. Xie, P. Chen, D. Chen, H. Ge, X. Wang, M. Xiao, Y. Shi, Y. Zheng, and R. Zhang, “High color rendering index hybrid III-nitride/nanocrystals white light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 26, 36–43 (2016).
[Crossref]

ACS Nano (1)

K. H. Lee, C. Y. Han, H. D. Kang, H. Ko, C. Lee, J. Lee, N. Myoung, S. Y. Yim, and H. Yang, “Highly efficient, color-reproducible full-color electroluminescent devices based on red/green/blue quantum dot-mixed multilayer,” ACS Nano 9, 10941–10949 (2015).
[Crossref]

ACS Photon. (1)

H. Sun, M. K. Shakfa, M. M. Muhammed, B. Janjua, K.-H. Li, R. Lin, T. K. Ng, I. S. Roqan, B. S. Ooi, and X. Li, “Surface-passivated AlGaN nanowires for enhanced luminescence of ultraviolet light emitting diodes,” ACS Photon. 5, 964–970 (2018).
[Crossref]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (2)

Z. Zhuang, X. Guo, B. Liu, F. Hu, Y. Li, T. Tao, J. Dai, T. Zhi, Z. Xie, P. Chen, D. Chen, H. Ge, X. Wang, M. Xiao, Y. Shi, Y. Zheng, and R. Zhang, “High color rendering index hybrid III-nitride/nanocrystals white light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 26, 36–43 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. J. Chen, H. C. Chen, K. A. Tsai, C. C. Lin, H. H. Tsai, S. H. Chien, B. S. Cheng, Y. J. Hsu, M. H. Shih, C. H. Tsai, H. H. Shih, and H. C. Kuo, “Resonant-enhanced full-color emission of quantum-dot-based display technology using a pulsed spray method,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22, 5138–5143 (2012).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater. (1)

S. Chanyawadee, P. G. Lagoudakis, R. T. Harley, M. D. B. Charlton, D. V. Talapin, H. W. Huang, and C. H. Lin, “Increased color-conversion efficiency in hybrid light-emitting diodes utilizing non-radiative energy transfer,” Adv. Mater. 22, 602–606 (2010).
[Crossref]

Anal. Chem. (1)

B. P. Maliwal, Z. Gryczynski, and J. R. Lakowicz, “Long-wavelength long-lifetime luminophores,” Anal. Chem. 73, 4277–4285 (2001).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Express (2)

D. Hwang, A. Mughal, C. D. Pynn, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Sustained high external quantum efficiency in ultrasmall blue III-nitride micro-LEDs,” Appl. Phys. Express 10, 032101 (2017).
[Crossref]

W. J. Chen, G. H. Hu, J. L. Lin, J. L. Jiang, M. G. Liu, Y. B. Yang, G. W. Hu, Y. Lin, Z. S. Wu, Y. Liu, and B. J. Zhang, “High-performance, single-pyramid micro light-emitting diode with leakage current confinement layer,” Appl. Phys. Express 8, 032102 (2015).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

Q. Dai, Q. F. Shan, J. Wang, S. Chhajed, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Crawford, D. D. Koleske, M. H. Kim, and Y. Park, “Carrier recombination mechanisms and efficiency droop in GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 133507 (2010).
[Crossref]

Appl. Sci. (1)

T. Z. Wu, C.-W. Sher, Y. Lin, C.-F. Lee, S. J. Liang, Y. J. Lu, S.-W. Huang Chen, W. J. Guo, H.-C. Kuo, and Z. Chen, “Mini-LED and micro-LED: promising candidates for the next generation display technology,” Appl. Sci. 8, 1557 (2018).
[Crossref]

IEEE Access (1)

L. L. Zheng, Z. Q. Guo, W. Yan, Y. Lin, Y. J. Lu, H. C. Kuo, Z. Chen, L. H. Zhu, T. Z. Wu, and Y. L. Gao, “Research on a camera-based microscopic imaging system to inspect the surface luminance of the micro-LED array,” IEEE Access 6, 51329–51336 (2018).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (2)

J. H. Ryou, P. D. Yoder, J. P. Liu, Z. Lochner, H. Kim, S. Choi, H. J. Kim, and R. D. Dupuis, “Control of quantum-confined Stark effect in InGaN-based quantum wells,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 1080–1091 (2009).
[Crossref]

C. Y. Liu, T. P. Chen, J. K. Huang, T. N. Lin, C. Y. Huang, X. L. Li, H. C. Kuo, J. L. Shen, and C. Y. Chang, “Enhanced color-conversion efficiency of hybrid nanostructured-cavities InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes consisting of nontoxic InP quantum dots,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 23, 2000607 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Lumin. (1)

F. Olivier, S. Tirano, L. Dupre, B. Aventurier, C. Largeron, and F. Templier, “Influence of size-reduction on the performances of GaN-based micro-LEDs for display application,” J. Lumin. 191, 112–116 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. D (1)

Q. Wang, J. Bai, Y. P. Gong, and T. Wang, “Influence of strain relaxation on the optical properties of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well nanorods,” J. Phys. D 44, 395102 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Soc. Inf. Disp. (1)

F. Templier, “GaN-based emissive microdisplays: a very promising technology for compact, ultra-high brightness display systems,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 24, 669–675 (2016).
[Crossref]

Light Sci. Appl. (1)

H.-W. Chen, J.-H. Lee, B.-Y. Lin, S. Chen, and S.-T. Wu, “Liquid crystal display and organic light-emitting diode display: present status and future perspectives,” Light Sci. Appl. 7, 17168 (2017).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (2)

C. Zhao, T. K. Ng, R. T. ElAfandy, A. Prabaswara, G. B. Consiglio, I. A. Ajia, I. S. Roqan, B. Janjua, C. Shen, J. Eid, A. Y. Alyamani, M. M. El-Desouki, and B. S. Ooi, “Droop-free, reliable, and high-power InGaN/GaN nanowire light emitting diodes for monolithic metal-optoelectronics,” Nano Lett. 16, 4616–4623 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. Smith, B. Liu, J. Bai, and T. Wang, “Hybrid III-nitride/organic semiconductor nanostructure with high efficiency nonradiative energy transfer for white light emitters,” Nano Lett. 13, 3042–3047 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (1)

Y. Shirasaki, G. J. Supran, M. G. Bawendi, and V. Bulovic, “Emergence of colloidal quantum-dot light-emitting technologies,” Nat. Photonics 7, 13–23 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

M. Achermann, M. A. Petruska, S. Kos, D. L. Smith, D. D. Koleske, and V. I. Klimov, “Energy-transfer pumping of semiconductor nanocrystals using an epitaxial quantum well,” Nature 429, 642–646 (2004).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (3)

Photon. Res. (1)

Phys. Rev. B (2)

S. Chanyawadee, P. G. Lagoudakis, R. T. Harley, D. G. Lidzey, and M. Henini, “Nonradiative exciton energy transfer in hybrid organic-inorganic heterostructures,” Phys. Rev. B 77, 193402 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. Kos, M. Achermann, V. I. Klimov, and D. L. Smith, “Different regimes of Forster-type energy transfer between an epitaxial quantum well and a proximal monolayer of semiconductor nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 205309 (2005).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

J. J. Rindermann, G. Pozina, B. Monemar, L. Hultman, H. Amano, and P. G. Lagoudakis, “Dependence of resonance energy transfer on exciton dimensionality,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 236805 (2011).
[Crossref]

Prog. Quantum Electron. (1)

B. Corbett, R. Loi, W. D. Zhou, D. Liu, and Z. Q. Ma, “Transfer print techniques for heterogeneous integration of photonic components,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 52, 1–17 (2017).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (1)

S. W. Wang, K. B. Hong, Y. L. Tsai, C. H. Teng, A. J. Tzou, Y. C. Chu, P. T. Lee, P. C. Ku, C. C. Lin, and H. C. Kuo, “Wavelength tunable InGaN/GaN nano-ring LEDs via nano-sphere lithography,” Sci. Rep. 7, 42962 (2017).
[Crossref]

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) Epitaxial wafer; (b) three subpixels of a green μLED, a blue NR-μLED, and a red QD-NR-μLED; (c) deposition of TCO film and pn electrodes; (d) covering DBR filter; (e) full-color display panel composed of the proposed hybrid QD-NR-μLEDs; (f) cross-sectional view of a single RGB pixel.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) PL emission spectra of NR-μLEDs with and without ALD passivation; (b) TD-TRPL curves of NR-μLEDs with and without ALD passivation at 15 K and 300 K, respectively.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) FLOM image of patterns printed by red QDs on a glass by using the latest SIJ printing system (the inset depicts minimum linewidth); (b) AFM image of deposited QDs.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Absorption curve of red QDs and electroluminescence (EL) spectrum of blue NR-μLEDs (inset depicts a schematic configuration of spraying red QDs on blue NR-μLEDs using the SIJ printing system).
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. (a) SEM image of RGB pixel array (top view); (b) SEM image of NR-μLED with 30° tilt angle; (c) TEM image of the contact area between MQWs and QDs; (d) TEM image of 1 nm Al2O3 deposited on the sidewall of an NR-μLED through ALD.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. (a) Without ALD passivation, TRPL curves of NR-μLEDs with and without red QDs; (b) with 1-nm ALD passivation, TRPL curves of NR-μLEDs with and without red QDs.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Reflectance spectrum of the DBR.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. (a) EL spectra of RGB hybrid QD-NR-μLEDs; (b) color gamut of RGB hybrid QD-NR-μLEDs, NTSC, and Rec. 2020.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I(t)=α1exp(tτr)+α2exp(tτnr),
kMQW=kr+knr.
khybrid=kr+knr+kET.
ηET=kETkET+kMQW.

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