Abstract

Polarization manipulation is a significant issue for artificial modulation of the electromagnetic (EM) wave, but general mechanisms all suffer the restriction of inherent symmetric properties between opposite handedness. Herein, a strategy to independently and arbitrarily manipulate the EM wave with orthogonal circular polarizations based on a metasurface is proposed, which effectually breaks through traditional symmetrical characteristics between orthogonal handedness. By synthesizing the propagation phase and geometric phase, the appropriate Jones matrix is calculated to obtain independent wavefront manipulation of EM waves with opposite circular polarizations. Two transmissive ultra-thin meta-deflectors are proposed to demonstrate the asymmetrical refraction of transmitted circularly polarized waves in the microwave region. Simulated transmitted phase front and measured far-field intensity distributions are in excellent agreement, indicating that the transmitted wave with different polarizations can be refracted into arbitrary and independent directions within a wide frequency band (relative bandwidth of 25%). The results presented in this paper provide more freedom for the manipulation of EM waves, and motivate the realizations of various polarization-independent properties for all frequency spectra.

© 2019 Chinese Laser Press

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References

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  27. X. Ding, F. Monticone, K. Zhang, L. Zhang, D. Gao, S. N. Burokur, A. Lustrac, Q. Wu, C. Qiu, and A. Alù, “Ultrathin Pancharatnam-Berry metasurface with maximal cross-polarization efficiency,” Adv. Mater. 27, 1195–1200 (2015).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  29. J. He, X. Wang, D. Hu, J. Ye, S. Feng, Q. Kan, and Y. Zhang, “Generation and evolution of the terahertz vortex beam,” Opt. Express 21, 20230–20239 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  30. W. Luo, S. Sun, H.-X. Xu, Q. He, and L. Zhou, “Transmissive ultrathin Pancharatnam-Berry metasurfaces with nearly 100% efficiency,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 7, 044033 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  31. H. Xu, H. Liu, X. Ling, Y. Sun, and F. Yuan, “Broadband vortex beam generation using multimode Pancharatnam-Berry metasurface,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 65, 7378–7382 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  32. J. Zeng, L. Li, X. Yang, and J. Gao, “Generating and separating twisted light by gradient-rotation split-ring antenna metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 16, 3101–3108 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  33. K. Zhang, Y. Yuan, D. Zhang, X. Ding, B. Ratni, S. N. Burokur, M. Lu, K. Tang, and Q. Wu, “Phase-engineered metalenses to generate converging and non-diffractive vortex beam carrying orbital angular momentum in microwave region,” Opt. Express 26, 1351–1360 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  34. A. Arbabi, Y. Horie, M. Bagheri, and A. Faraon, “Dielectric metasurfaces for complete control of phase and polarization with subwavelength spatial resolution and high transmission,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10, 937–943 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  35. S. M. Kamali, E. Arbabi, A. Arbabi, Y. Horie, M. Faraji-Dana, and A. Faraon, “Angle-multiplexed metasurfaces: encoding independent wavefronts in a single metasurface under different illumination angles,” Phys. Rev. X 7, 041056 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  36. M. Khorasaninejad, A. Ambrosio, P. Kanhaiya, and F. Capasso, “Broadband and chiral binary dielectric meta-holograms,” Sci. Adv. 2, e1501258 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  37. D. Wen, F. Yue, G. Li, G. Zheng, K. Chan, S. Chen, M. Chen, K. F. Li, P. W. H. Wong, K. W. Cheah, E. Y. B. Pun, S. Zhang, and X. Chen, “Helicity multiplexed broadband metasurface holograms,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8241 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  38. Z. Wang, X. Ding, K. Zhang, B. Ratni, S. N. Burokur, X. Gu, and Q. Wu, “Huygens metasurface holograms with the modulation of focal energy distribution,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6, 1800121 (2018).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  40. B. Wang, F. Dong, H. Feng, D. Yang, Z. Song, L. Xu, W. Chu, Q. Gong, and Y. Li, “Rochon-prism-like planar circularly polarized beam splitters based on dielectric metasurfaces,” ACS Photon. 5, 1660–1664 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  41. R. C. Devlin, A. Ambrosio, N. A. Rubin, J. P. B. Mueller, and F. Capasso, “Arbitrary spin-to-orbital angular momentum conversion of light,” Science 358, 896–901 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  42. S. Fu, T. Wang, Z. Zhang, Y. Zhai, and C. Gao, “Selective acquisition of multiple states on hybrid Poincare sphere,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110, 191102 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  43. T. Cai, S. Tang, G. Wang, H. Xu, S. Sun, Q. He, and L. Zhou, “High-performance bifunctional metasurfaces in transmission and reflection geometries,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5, 1600506 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  44. H. Zhang, X. Zhang, Q. Xu, C. Tian, Q. Wang, Y. Xu, Y. Li, J. Gu, Z. Tian, C. Ouyang, X. Zhang, C. Hu, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “High-efficiency dielectric metasurfaces for polarization-dependent terahertz wavefront manipulation,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6, 1700773 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  45. N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334, 333–337 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  46. Y. Li, X. Li, M. Pu, Z. Zhao, X. Ma, Y. Wang, and X. Luo, “Achromatic flat optical components via compensation between structure and material dispersions,” Sci. Rep. 6, 19885 (2016).
    [Crossref]

2018 (7)

H. Xu, S. Tang, C. Sun, L. Li, H. Liu, X. Yang, F. Yuan, and Y. Sun, “High-efficiency broadband polarization-independent superscatterer using conformal metasurfaces,” Photon. Res. 6, 782–788 (2018).
[Crossref]

B. Ratni, A. de Lustrac, G.-P. Piau, and S. N. Burokur, “A reconfigurable meta-mirror for wavefronts control: applications to microwave antennas,” Opt. Express 26, 2613–2624 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. Nemati, Q. Wang, M. Hong, and J. Teng, “Tunable and reconfigurable metasurfaces and metadevices,” Opto-Electron. Adv. 1, 180009 (2018).
[Crossref]

Z. Zhang, D. Wen, C. Zhang, M. Chen, W. Wang, S. Chen, and X. Chen, “Multifunctional light sword metasurface lens,” ACS Photon. 5, 1794–1799 (2018).
[Crossref]

K. Zhang, Y. Yuan, D. Zhang, X. Ding, B. Ratni, S. N. Burokur, M. Lu, K. Tang, and Q. Wu, “Phase-engineered metalenses to generate converging and non-diffractive vortex beam carrying orbital angular momentum in microwave region,” Opt. Express 26, 1351–1360 (2018).
[Crossref]

Z. Wang, X. Ding, K. Zhang, B. Ratni, S. N. Burokur, X. Gu, and Q. Wu, “Huygens metasurface holograms with the modulation of focal energy distribution,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6, 1800121 (2018).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, X. Zhang, Q. Xu, C. Tian, Q. Wang, Y. Xu, Y. Li, J. Gu, Z. Tian, C. Ouyang, X. Zhang, C. Hu, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “High-efficiency dielectric metasurfaces for polarization-dependent terahertz wavefront manipulation,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6, 1700773 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (13)

S. M. Kamali, E. Arbabi, A. Arbabi, Y. Horie, M. Faraji-Dana, and A. Faraon, “Angle-multiplexed metasurfaces: encoding independent wavefronts in a single metasurface under different illumination angles,” Phys. Rev. X 7, 041056 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. P. B. Mueller, N. A. Rubin, R. C. Devlin, B. Groever, and F. Capasso, “Metasurface polarization optics: independent phase control of arbitrary orthogonal states of polarization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 113901 (2017).
[Crossref]

B. Wang, F. Dong, H. Feng, D. Yang, Z. Song, L. Xu, W. Chu, Q. Gong, and Y. Li, “Rochon-prism-like planar circularly polarized beam splitters based on dielectric metasurfaces,” ACS Photon. 5, 1660–1664 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. C. Devlin, A. Ambrosio, N. A. Rubin, J. P. B. Mueller, and F. Capasso, “Arbitrary spin-to-orbital angular momentum conversion of light,” Science 358, 896–901 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Fu, T. Wang, Z. Zhang, Y. Zhai, and C. Gao, “Selective acquisition of multiple states on hybrid Poincare sphere,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110, 191102 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. Cai, S. Tang, G. Wang, H. Xu, S. Sun, Q. He, and L. Zhou, “High-performance bifunctional metasurfaces in transmission and reflection geometries,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5, 1600506 (2017).
[Crossref]

W. Luo, S. Sun, H.-X. Xu, Q. He, and L. Zhou, “Transmissive ultrathin Pancharatnam-Berry metasurfaces with nearly 100% efficiency,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 7, 044033 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Xu, H. Liu, X. Ling, Y. Sun, and F. Yuan, “Broadband vortex beam generation using multimode Pancharatnam-Berry metasurface,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 65, 7378–7382 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. L. N. Chen, L. J. Jiang, and W. E. I. Sha, “Ultrathin complementary metasurface for orbital angular momentum generation at microwave frequencies,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 65, 396–400 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Yang, G. Li, G. Cao, Z. Zhao, F. Yu, X. Chen, and W. Lu, “Polarization-independent metalens constructed of antennas without rotational invariance,” Opt. Lett. 42, 3996–3999 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Boroviks, R. A. Deshpande, N. A. Mortensen, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Multifunctional metamirror: polarization splitting and focusing,” ACS Photon. 5, 1648–1653 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, X. Wang, H. Shao, Z. Hu, G. Zheng, and F. Zhang, “Peak modulation in multicavity-coupled graphene-based waveguide system,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 12, 9 (2017).
[Crossref]

D. Sell, J. Yang, S. Doshay, and J. A. Fan, “Periodic dielectric metasurfaces with high-efficiency, multiwavelength functionalities,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5, 1700645 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (7)

H. Xu, G. Wang, T. Cai, J. Xiao, and Y. Zhuang, “Tunable Pancharatnam-Berry metasurface for dynamical and high-efficiency anomalous reflection,” Opt. Express 24, 27836–27848 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. C. Wu, W. Y. Tsai, W. T. Chen, Y. W. Huang, T. Y. Chen, J. W. Chen, C. Y. Liao, C. H. Chu, G. Sun, and D. P. Tsai, “Versatile polarization generation with an aluminum plasmonic metasurface,” Nano Lett. 17, 445–452 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Xu and J. Xiao, “Design of a compact and integrated TM-rotated/TE-through polarization beam splitter for silicon-based slot waveguides,” Appl. Opt. 55, 611–618 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Zeng, L. Li, X. Yang, and J. Gao, “Generating and separating twisted light by gradient-rotation split-ring antenna metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 16, 3101–3108 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Khorasaninejad, A. Ambrosio, P. Kanhaiya, and F. Capasso, “Broadband and chiral binary dielectric meta-holograms,” Sci. Adv. 2, e1501258 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Lin, A. L. Holsteen, E. Maguid, G. Wetzstein, P. G. Kik, E. Hasman, and M. L. Brongersma, “Photonic multitasking interleaved Si nanoantenna phased array,” Nano Lett. 16, 7671–7676 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Li, X. Li, M. Pu, Z. Zhao, X. Ma, Y. Wang, and X. Luo, “Achromatic flat optical components via compensation between structure and material dispersions,” Sci. Rep. 6, 19885 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (7)

D. Wen, F. Yue, G. Li, G. Zheng, K. Chan, S. Chen, M. Chen, K. F. Li, P. W. H. Wong, K. W. Cheah, E. Y. B. Pun, S. Zhang, and X. Chen, “Helicity multiplexed broadband metasurface holograms,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8241 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Arbabi, Y. Horie, M. Bagheri, and A. Faraon, “Dielectric metasurfaces for complete control of phase and polarization with subwavelength spatial resolution and high transmission,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10, 937–943 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Wang, L. Zhang, Y. Gu, M. Q. Mehmood, Y. Gong, A. Srivastava, L. Jian, T. Venkatesan, C. Qiu, and M. Hong, “Switchable ultrathin quarter-wave plate in terahertz using active phase-change metasurface,” Sci. Rep. 5, 15020 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Chen, M. Chen, M. Q. Mehmood, D. Wen, F. Yue, C. W. Qiu, and S. Zhang, “Longitudinal multifoci metalens for circularly polarized light,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3, 1201–1206 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Ding, F. Monticone, K. Zhang, L. Zhang, D. Gao, S. N. Burokur, A. Lustrac, Q. Wu, C. Qiu, and A. Alù, “Ultrathin Pancharatnam-Berry metasurface with maximal cross-polarization efficiency,” Adv. Mater. 27, 1195–1200 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Sun and J. Li, “Terahertz wave polarization splitter using full band-gap photonic crystals,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 36, 255–261 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Cai, G. M. Wang, X. F. Zhang, J. G. Liang, Y. Q. Zhuang, D. Liu, and H. X. Xu, “Ultra-thin polarization beam splitter using 2-D transmissive phase gradient metasurface,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 63, 5629–5636 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

H. F. Ma, G. Z. Wang, W. X. Jiang, and T. J. Cui, “Independent control of differently-polarized waves using anisotropic gradient-index metamaterials,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6337 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Khorasaninejad and K. B. Crozier, “Silicon nanofin grating as a miniature chirality-distinguishing beam-splitter,” Nat. Commun. 5, 5386 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

X. Zhang, Z. Tian, W. Yue, J. Gu, S. Zhang, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Broadband terahertz wave deflection based on C-shape complex metamaterials with phase discontinuities,” Adv. Mater. 25, 4567–4572 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Xu, C. Gu, B. Hou, Y. Lai, J. Li, and H. Chen, “Broadband asymmetric waveguiding of light without polarization limitations,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2561 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. He, X. Wang, D. Hu, J. Ye, S. Feng, Q. Kan, and Y. Zhang, “Generation and evolution of the terahertz vortex beam,” Opt. Express 21, 20230–20239 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

Y. Zhao, M. A. Belkin, and A. Alu, “Twisted optical metamaterials for planarized ultrathin broadband circular polarizers,” Nat. Commun. 3, 870 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Mutlu, A. E. Akosman, G. Kurt, M. Gokkavas, and E. Ozbay, “Experimental realization of a high-contrast grating based broadband quarter-wave plate,” Opt. Express 20, 27966–27973 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334, 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

2003 (1)

E. Hasman, V. Kleiner, G. Biener, and A. Niv, “Polarization dependent focusing lens by use of quantized Pancharatnam-Berry phase diffractive optics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 328–330 (2003).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

T. Sato, K. Shiraishi, K. Tsuchida, and S. Kawakami, “Laminated polarization splitter with a large split angle,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 2633–2634 (1992).
[Crossref]

Aieta, F.

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334, 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref]

Akosman, A. E.

Alu, A.

Y. Zhao, M. A. Belkin, and A. Alu, “Twisted optical metamaterials for planarized ultrathin broadband circular polarizers,” Nat. Commun. 3, 870 (2012).
[Crossref]

Alù, A.

X. Ding, F. Monticone, K. Zhang, L. Zhang, D. Gao, S. N. Burokur, A. Lustrac, Q. Wu, C. Qiu, and A. Alù, “Ultrathin Pancharatnam-Berry metasurface with maximal cross-polarization efficiency,” Adv. Mater. 27, 1195–1200 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ambrosio, A.

R. C. Devlin, A. Ambrosio, N. A. Rubin, J. P. B. Mueller, and F. Capasso, “Arbitrary spin-to-orbital angular momentum conversion of light,” Science 358, 896–901 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Khorasaninejad, A. Ambrosio, P. Kanhaiya, and F. Capasso, “Broadband and chiral binary dielectric meta-holograms,” Sci. Adv. 2, e1501258 (2016).
[Crossref]

Arbabi, A.

S. M. Kamali, E. Arbabi, A. Arbabi, Y. Horie, M. Faraji-Dana, and A. Faraon, “Angle-multiplexed metasurfaces: encoding independent wavefronts in a single metasurface under different illumination angles,” Phys. Rev. X 7, 041056 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Arbabi, Y. Horie, M. Bagheri, and A. Faraon, “Dielectric metasurfaces for complete control of phase and polarization with subwavelength spatial resolution and high transmission,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10, 937–943 (2015).
[Crossref]

Arbabi, E.

S. M. Kamali, E. Arbabi, A. Arbabi, Y. Horie, M. Faraji-Dana, and A. Faraon, “Angle-multiplexed metasurfaces: encoding independent wavefronts in a single metasurface under different illumination angles,” Phys. Rev. X 7, 041056 (2017).
[Crossref]

Bagheri, M.

A. Arbabi, Y. Horie, M. Bagheri, and A. Faraon, “Dielectric metasurfaces for complete control of phase and polarization with subwavelength spatial resolution and high transmission,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10, 937–943 (2015).
[Crossref]

Belkin, M. A.

Y. Zhao, M. A. Belkin, and A. Alu, “Twisted optical metamaterials for planarized ultrathin broadband circular polarizers,” Nat. Commun. 3, 870 (2012).
[Crossref]

Biener, G.

E. Hasman, V. Kleiner, G. Biener, and A. Niv, “Polarization dependent focusing lens by use of quantized Pancharatnam-Berry phase diffractive optics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 328–330 (2003).
[Crossref]

Born, M.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics: Electromagnetic Theory of Propagation, Interference and Diffraction of Light (Elsevier, 2013).

Boroviks, S.

S. Boroviks, R. A. Deshpande, N. A. Mortensen, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Multifunctional metamirror: polarization splitting and focusing,” ACS Photon. 5, 1648–1653 (2017).
[Crossref]

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

S. Boroviks, R. A. Deshpande, N. A. Mortensen, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Multifunctional metamirror: polarization splitting and focusing,” ACS Photon. 5, 1648–1653 (2017).
[Crossref]

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N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334, 333–337 (2011).
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M. L. N. Chen, L. J. Jiang, and W. E. I. Sha, “Ultrathin complementary metasurface for orbital angular momentum generation at microwave frequencies,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 65, 396–400 (2017).
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Z. Zhang, D. Wen, C. Zhang, M. Chen, W. Wang, S. Chen, and X. Chen, “Multifunctional light sword metasurface lens,” ACS Photon. 5, 1794–1799 (2018).
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D. Wen, F. Yue, G. Li, G. Zheng, K. Chan, S. Chen, M. Chen, K. F. Li, P. W. H. Wong, K. W. Cheah, E. Y. B. Pun, S. Zhang, and X. Chen, “Helicity multiplexed broadband metasurface holograms,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8241 (2015).
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P. C. Wu, W. Y. Tsai, W. T. Chen, Y. W. Huang, T. Y. Chen, J. W. Chen, C. Y. Liao, C. H. Chu, G. Sun, and D. P. Tsai, “Versatile polarization generation with an aluminum plasmonic metasurface,” Nano Lett. 17, 445–452 (2016).
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P. C. Wu, W. Y. Tsai, W. T. Chen, Y. W. Huang, T. Y. Chen, J. W. Chen, C. Y. Liao, C. H. Chu, G. Sun, and D. P. Tsai, “Versatile polarization generation with an aluminum plasmonic metasurface,” Nano Lett. 17, 445–452 (2016).
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Z. Zhang, D. Wen, C. Zhang, M. Chen, W. Wang, S. Chen, and X. Chen, “Multifunctional light sword metasurface lens,” ACS Photon. 5, 1794–1799 (2018).
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H. Yang, G. Li, G. Cao, Z. Zhao, F. Yu, X. Chen, and W. Lu, “Polarization-independent metalens constructed of antennas without rotational invariance,” Opt. Lett. 42, 3996–3999 (2017).
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X. Chen, M. Chen, M. Q. Mehmood, D. Wen, F. Yue, C. W. Qiu, and S. Zhang, “Longitudinal multifoci metalens for circularly polarized light,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3, 1201–1206 (2015).
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D. Wen, F. Yue, G. Li, G. Zheng, K. Chan, S. Chen, M. Chen, K. F. Li, P. W. H. Wong, K. W. Cheah, E. Y. B. Pun, S. Zhang, and X. Chen, “Helicity multiplexed broadband metasurface holograms,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8241 (2015).
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B. Wang, F. Dong, H. Feng, D. Yang, Z. Song, L. Xu, W. Chu, Q. Gong, and Y. Li, “Rochon-prism-like planar circularly polarized beam splitters based on dielectric metasurfaces,” ACS Photon. 5, 1660–1664 (2017).
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M. Khorasaninejad and K. B. Crozier, “Silicon nanofin grating as a miniature chirality-distinguishing beam-splitter,” Nat. Commun. 5, 5386 (2014).
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H. F. Ma, G. Z. Wang, W. X. Jiang, and T. J. Cui, “Independent control of differently-polarized waves using anisotropic gradient-index metamaterials,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6337 (2014).
[Crossref]

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Deshpande, R. A.

S. Boroviks, R. A. Deshpande, N. A. Mortensen, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Multifunctional metamirror: polarization splitting and focusing,” ACS Photon. 5, 1648–1653 (2017).
[Crossref]

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R. C. Devlin, A. Ambrosio, N. A. Rubin, J. P. B. Mueller, and F. Capasso, “Arbitrary spin-to-orbital angular momentum conversion of light,” Science 358, 896–901 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. P. B. Mueller, N. A. Rubin, R. C. Devlin, B. Groever, and F. Capasso, “Metasurface polarization optics: independent phase control of arbitrary orthogonal states of polarization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 113901 (2017).
[Crossref]

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Z. Wang, X. Ding, K. Zhang, B. Ratni, S. N. Burokur, X. Gu, and Q. Wu, “Huygens metasurface holograms with the modulation of focal energy distribution,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6, 1800121 (2018).
[Crossref]

K. Zhang, Y. Yuan, D. Zhang, X. Ding, B. Ratni, S. N. Burokur, M. Lu, K. Tang, and Q. Wu, “Phase-engineered metalenses to generate converging and non-diffractive vortex beam carrying orbital angular momentum in microwave region,” Opt. Express 26, 1351–1360 (2018).
[Crossref]

X. Ding, F. Monticone, K. Zhang, L. Zhang, D. Gao, S. N. Burokur, A. Lustrac, Q. Wu, C. Qiu, and A. Alù, “Ultrathin Pancharatnam-Berry metasurface with maximal cross-polarization efficiency,” Adv. Mater. 27, 1195–1200 (2015).
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B. Wang, F. Dong, H. Feng, D. Yang, Z. Song, L. Xu, W. Chu, Q. Gong, and Y. Li, “Rochon-prism-like planar circularly polarized beam splitters based on dielectric metasurfaces,” ACS Photon. 5, 1660–1664 (2017).
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B. Wang, F. Dong, H. Feng, D. Yang, Z. Song, L. Xu, W. Chu, Q. Gong, and Y. Li, “Rochon-prism-like planar circularly polarized beam splitters based on dielectric metasurfaces,” ACS Photon. 5, 1660–1664 (2017).
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J. Zeng, L. Li, X. Yang, and J. Gao, “Generating and separating twisted light by gradient-rotation split-ring antenna metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 16, 3101–3108 (2016).
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B. Wang, F. Dong, H. Feng, D. Yang, Z. Song, L. Xu, W. Chu, Q. Gong, and Y. Li, “Rochon-prism-like planar circularly polarized beam splitters based on dielectric metasurfaces,” ACS Photon. 5, 1660–1664 (2017).
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D. Wang, L. Zhang, Y. Gu, M. Q. Mehmood, Y. Gong, A. Srivastava, L. Jian, T. Venkatesan, C. Qiu, and M. Hong, “Switchable ultrathin quarter-wave plate in terahertz using active phase-change metasurface,” Sci. Rep. 5, 15020 (2015).
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J. P. B. Mueller, N. A. Rubin, R. C. Devlin, B. Groever, and F. Capasso, “Metasurface polarization optics: independent phase control of arbitrary orthogonal states of polarization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 113901 (2017).
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Y. Xu, C. Gu, B. Hou, Y. Lai, J. Li, and H. Chen, “Broadband asymmetric waveguiding of light without polarization limitations,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2561 (2013).
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D. Wang, L. Zhang, Y. Gu, M. Q. Mehmood, Y. Gong, A. Srivastava, L. Jian, T. Venkatesan, C. Qiu, and M. Hong, “Switchable ultrathin quarter-wave plate in terahertz using active phase-change metasurface,” Sci. Rep. 5, 15020 (2015).
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X. Zhang, Z. Tian, W. Yue, J. Gu, S. Zhang, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Broadband terahertz wave deflection based on C-shape complex metamaterials with phase discontinuities,” Adv. Mater. 25, 4567–4572 (2013).
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D. Lin, A. L. Holsteen, E. Maguid, G. Wetzstein, P. G. Kik, E. Hasman, and M. L. Brongersma, “Photonic multitasking interleaved Si nanoantenna phased array,” Nano Lett. 16, 7671–7676 (2016).
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E. Hasman, V. Kleiner, G. Biener, and A. Niv, “Polarization dependent focusing lens by use of quantized Pancharatnam-Berry phase diffractive optics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 328–330 (2003).
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D. Lin, A. L. Holsteen, E. Maguid, G. Wetzstein, P. G. Kik, E. Hasman, and M. L. Brongersma, “Photonic multitasking interleaved Si nanoantenna phased array,” Nano Lett. 16, 7671–7676 (2016).
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S. M. Kamali, E. Arbabi, A. Arbabi, Y. Horie, M. Faraji-Dana, and A. Faraon, “Angle-multiplexed metasurfaces: encoding independent wavefronts in a single metasurface under different illumination angles,” Phys. Rev. X 7, 041056 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Arbabi, Y. Horie, M. Bagheri, and A. Faraon, “Dielectric metasurfaces for complete control of phase and polarization with subwavelength spatial resolution and high transmission,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10, 937–943 (2015).
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Y. Xu, C. Gu, B. Hou, Y. Lai, J. Li, and H. Chen, “Broadband asymmetric waveguiding of light without polarization limitations,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2561 (2013).
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H. Zhang, X. Zhang, Q. Xu, C. Tian, Q. Wang, Y. Xu, Y. Li, J. Gu, Z. Tian, C. Ouyang, X. Zhang, C. Hu, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “High-efficiency dielectric metasurfaces for polarization-dependent terahertz wavefront manipulation,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6, 1700773 (2018).
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D. Wang, L. Zhang, Y. Gu, M. Q. Mehmood, Y. Gong, A. Srivastava, L. Jian, T. Venkatesan, C. Qiu, and M. Hong, “Switchable ultrathin quarter-wave plate in terahertz using active phase-change metasurface,” Sci. Rep. 5, 15020 (2015).
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M. L. N. Chen, L. J. Jiang, and W. E. I. Sha, “Ultrathin complementary metasurface for orbital angular momentum generation at microwave frequencies,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 65, 396–400 (2017).
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H. F. Ma, G. Z. Wang, W. X. Jiang, and T. J. Cui, “Independent control of differently-polarized waves using anisotropic gradient-index metamaterials,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6337 (2014).
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S. M. Kamali, E. Arbabi, A. Arbabi, Y. Horie, M. Faraji-Dana, and A. Faraon, “Angle-multiplexed metasurfaces: encoding independent wavefronts in a single metasurface under different illumination angles,” Phys. Rev. X 7, 041056 (2017).
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N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334, 333–337 (2011).
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M. Khorasaninejad and K. B. Crozier, “Silicon nanofin grating as a miniature chirality-distinguishing beam-splitter,” Nat. Commun. 5, 5386 (2014).
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D. Lin, A. L. Holsteen, E. Maguid, G. Wetzstein, P. G. Kik, E. Hasman, and M. L. Brongersma, “Photonic multitasking interleaved Si nanoantenna phased array,” Nano Lett. 16, 7671–7676 (2016).
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E. Hasman, V. Kleiner, G. Biener, and A. Niv, “Polarization dependent focusing lens by use of quantized Pancharatnam-Berry phase diffractive optics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 328–330 (2003).
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Y. Xu, C. Gu, B. Hou, Y. Lai, J. Li, and H. Chen, “Broadband asymmetric waveguiding of light without polarization limitations,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2561 (2013).
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Li, G.

H. Yang, G. Li, G. Cao, Z. Zhao, F. Yu, X. Chen, and W. Lu, “Polarization-independent metalens constructed of antennas without rotational invariance,” Opt. Lett. 42, 3996–3999 (2017).
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[Crossref]

B. Wang, F. Dong, H. Feng, D. Yang, Z. Song, L. Xu, W. Chu, Q. Gong, and Y. Li, “Rochon-prism-like planar circularly polarized beam splitters based on dielectric metasurfaces,” ACS Photon. 5, 1660–1664 (2017).
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Y. Li, X. Li, M. Pu, Z. Zhao, X. Ma, Y. Wang, and X. Luo, “Achromatic flat optical components via compensation between structure and material dispersions,” Sci. Rep. 6, 19885 (2016).
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Zhang, X.

H. Zhang, X. Zhang, Q. Xu, C. Tian, Q. Wang, Y. Xu, Y. Li, J. Gu, Z. Tian, C. Ouyang, X. Zhang, C. Hu, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “High-efficiency dielectric metasurfaces for polarization-dependent terahertz wavefront manipulation,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6, 1700773 (2018).
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H. Zhang, X. Zhang, Q. Xu, C. Tian, Q. Wang, Y. Xu, Y. Li, J. Gu, Z. Tian, C. Ouyang, X. Zhang, C. Hu, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “High-efficiency dielectric metasurfaces for polarization-dependent terahertz wavefront manipulation,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6, 1700773 (2018).
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X. Zhang, Z. Tian, W. Yue, J. Gu, S. Zhang, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Broadband terahertz wave deflection based on C-shape complex metamaterials with phase discontinuities,” Adv. Mater. 25, 4567–4572 (2013).
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[Crossref]

X. Zhang, Z. Tian, W. Yue, J. Gu, S. Zhang, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Broadband terahertz wave deflection based on C-shape complex metamaterials with phase discontinuities,” Adv. Mater. 25, 4567–4572 (2013).
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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Schematic demonstration of a meta-deflector refracting transmitted wave with orthogonal polarization states into arbitrary and asymmetrical directions.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) Schematic of the proposed polarization-controlled refraction meta-deflector; inset shows the unit cell structure with the lattice period a=10  mm, width of slot w=0.2  mm, and gap length g=0.2  mm, and the thickness of the substrate with relative permittivity ϵr=4 is h=2  mm. Simulated transmission (b) amplitude spectra and (c) phase spectra of the unit cell with l1=5.5  mm and l2=6.9  mm. Simulated transmission (d) amplitude Txx and (e) phase delay φxx along the x direction, and transmission (f) amplitude Tyy and (g) phase delay φyy along the y direction as functions of two side lengths l1 and l2 changing from 3.5 mm to 7.0 mm with the other geometric parameters fixed. (h) Simulated phase delay φxx and φyy corresponding to the white dotted lined in (e) and (g), respectively.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Design of meta-deflectors for realizing polarized-independent refractions. (a) Schematic of the traditional deflector based on only geometric phase. Schematics of designed (b) meta-deflector 1 and (c) meta-deflector 2 for polarization-independent arbitrary refraction of the transmitted wave without symmetry for two opposite handednesses. Calculated phase delay δx, δy and rotation angle θ as functions of the coordinate of the unit cell along the x direction for (d) meta-deflector 1 and (e) meta-deflector 2. Simulation results of transmitted phase delay φxx, φyy and difference Δφ for collected unit cells for (f) meta-deflector 1 and (g) meta-deflector 2.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a) Schematic of the experimental setup for far-field measurement. Photographs of fabricated (b) meta-deflector 1 and (c) meta-deflector 2 (top views); insets are enlarged illustrations of corresponding super cells. (d)–(k) Simulation and measurement results of transmitted cross-polarized waves emitted from meta-deflectors 1 and 2. For meta-deflector 1, (d) and (e) show simulated phase fronts of cross-polarized components in the transmitted field under RHCP and LHCP incidence. (f) and (g) show measured far-field distributions of cross-polarized components in the transmitted field under RHCP and LHCP incidence. For meta-deflector 2, (h) and (i) show simulated phase fronts of cross-polarized components in the transmitted field under RHCP and LHCP incidence. (j) and (k) show far-field distributions of cross-polarized components in the transmitted field under RHCP and LHCP incidence.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Simulated and measured efficiencies of proposed meta-deflectors under opposite circularly polarized incidences. Transmission efficiencies of (a) meta-deflector 1 and (b) meta-deflector 2. Conversion efficiencies of (c) meta-deflector 1 and (d) meta-deflector 2. Black-thick lines represent LHCP incidence, while red-fine lines are for RHCP incidence; solid lines indicate measured efficiency, while dashed lines express simulated efficiency.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Geometric Parameters of Selected Unit Cells for Meta-Deflector 1

Tables Icon

Table 2. Geometric Parameters of Selected Unit Cells for Meta-Deflector 2

Equations (10)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

|Ψ+=J|λ+=eiαtx|(λ+)*,
|Ψ=J|λ=eiβtx|(λ)*.
|λ+=|L=[1i],
|λ=|R=[1i].
J=12[eiαtx+eiβtxieiαtx+ieiβtxieiαtx+ieiβtxieiαtxieiβtx].
J=Q×A×Q1=[cos[14(αtβt)x]sin[14(αtβt)x]sin[14(αtβt)x]cos[14(αtβt)x]][e12(αt+βt)x00e12(αt+βt)xπ][cos[14(αtβt)x]sin[14(αtβt)x]sin[14(αtβt)x]cos[14(αtβt)x]]1,
δx=12(αt+βt)x,
δy=12(αt+βt)xπ,
θ=14(αtβt)x.
sin(θt)ntsin(θi)ni=λ02πdϕdx,

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