Abstract

An efficient monolithically integrated laser on Si remains the missing component to enable Si photonics. We discuss the design and fabrication of suspended and tensile-strained Ge/SiGe multiple quantum well microdisk resonators on Si for laser applications in Si photonics using an all-around SiNx stressor. An etch-stop technique in the Ge/SiGe system is demonstrated and allows the capability of removing the defective buffer layer as well as providing precise thickness control of the resonators. Photoluminescence and Raman spectroscopy indicate that we have achieved a biaxial tensile strain shift as high as 0.88% in the microdisk resonators by adding a high-stress SiNx layer. Optical gain calculations show that high positive net gain can be achieved in Ge quantum wells with 1% external biaxial tensile strain.

© 2017 Chinese Laser Press

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  1. R. E. Camacho-Aguilera, Y. Cai, N. Patel, J. T. Bessette, M. Romagnoli, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “An electrically pumped germanium laser,” Opt. Express 20, 11316–11320 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  2. R. Chen, H. Lin, Y. Huo, C. Hitzman, T. I. Kamins, and J. S. Harris, “Increased photoluminescence of strain-reduced, high-Sn composition Ge1−xSnx alloys grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 181125 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  3. S. Al-Kabi, S. A. Ghetmiri, J. Margetis, T. Pham, Y. Zhou, W. Dou, B. Collier, R. Quinde, W. Du, A. Mosleh, J. Liu, G. Sun, R. A. Soref, J. Tolle, B. Li, M. Mortazavi, H. A. Naseem, and S.-Q. Yu, “An optically pumped 2.5  μm GeSn laser on Si operating at 110  K,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 171105 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  4. S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. Von Den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grützmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9, 88–92 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  5. M. Süess, R. Geiger, R. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium microbridges,” Nat. Photonics 7, 466–472 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  6. Y. Huo, H. Lin, R. Chen, M. Makarova, Y. Rong, M. Li, T. I. Kamins, J. Vuckovic, and J. S. Harris, “Strong enhancement of direct transition photoluminescence with highly tensile-strained Ge grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 011111 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  7. A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, M. de Kersauson, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Tensile-strained germanium microdisks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 221112 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  8. W. Tsang, “Extremely low threshold (AlGa)As modified multiquantum well heterostructure lasers grown by molecular-beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 39, 786–788 (1981).
    [Crossref]
  9. H. K. Choi and C. Wang, “InGaAs/AlGaAs strained single quantum well diode lasers with extremely low threshold current density and high efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 321–323 (1990).
    [Crossref]
  10. Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature 437, 1334–1336 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  11. E. T. Fei, X. Chen, K. Zang, Y. Huo, G. Shambat, G. Miller, X. Liu, R. Dutt, T. I. Kamins, J. Vuckovic, and J. S. Harris, “Investigation of germanium quantum-well light sources,” Opt. Express 23, 22424–22430 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  12. K. Zang, D. Zhang, Y. Huo, X. Chen, C.-Y. Lu, E. T. Fei, T. I. Kamins, X. Feng, Y. Huang, and J. S. Harris, “Microring bio-chemical sensor with integrated low dark current Ge photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 101111 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  13. P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, M.-S. Rouifed, S. Cecchi, P. Crozat, G. Isella, and L. Vivien, “Integrated germanium optical interconnects on silicon substrates,” Nat. Photonics 8, 482–488 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  14. G. Shambat, S.-L. Cheng, J. Lu, Y. Nishi, and J. Vuckovic, “Direct band Ge photoluminescence near 1.6  μm coupled to Ge-on-Si microdisk resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 241102 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  15. X. Xu, T. Maruizumi, and Y. Shiraki, “Waveguide-integrated microdisk light-emitting diode and photodetector based on Ge quantum dots,” Opt. Express 22, 3902–3910 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  16. X. Chen, Y. Huo, E. T. Fei, G. Shambat, X. Liu, T. I. Kamins, J. Vuckovic, and J. S. Harris, “Room temperature photoluminescence from Ge/SiGe quantum well structure in microdisk resonator,” in Proceedings of Symposium on Photonics and Optoelectronics (2012), pp. 1–3.
  17. C. S. Fenrich, X. Chen, R. Chen, Y.-C. Huang, H. Chung, M.-Y. Kao, Y. Huo, T. Kamins, and J. S. Harris, “Strained pseudomorphic Ge1−xSnx multiple quantum well microdisk using SiNy stressor layer,” ACS Photon. 3, 2231–2236 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  18. R. W. Millar, K. Gallacher, J. Frigerio, A. Ballabio, A. Bashir, I. MacLaren, G. Isella, and D. J. Paul, “Analysis of Ge micro-cavities with in-plane tensile strains above 2%,” Opt. Express 24, 4365–4374 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  19. A. Ghrib, M. De Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, R. Jakomin, G. Beaudoin, S. Sauvage, G. Fishman, G. Ndong, M. Chaigneau, R. Ossikovski, and I. Sagnes, “Control of tensile strain in germanium waveguides through silicon nitride layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 201104 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  20. G. Capellini, C. Reich, S. Guha, Y. Yamamoto, M. Lisker, M. Virgilio, A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, P. Boucaud, B. Tillack, and T. Schroeder, “Tensile Ge microstructures for lasing fabricated by means of a silicon complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor process,” Opt. Express 22, 399–410 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  21. A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, M. Chaigneau, R. Ossikovski, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “All-around SiN stressor for high and homogeneous tensile strain in germanium microdisk cavities,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3, 353–358 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  22. M.-Y. Kao, X. Chen, Y. Huo, C. Shang, M. Xue, K. Zang, C.-Y. Lu, E. T. Fei, Y. Chen, T. I. Kamins, and J. S. Harris, “Tensile-strained Ge/SiGe quantum-well microdisks with overlying SiNx stressors,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (2016), paper SF1P-1.
  23. G. Katsaros, A. Rastelli, M. Stoffel, G. Isella, H. von Känel, A. Bittner, J. Tersoff, U. Denker, O. Schmidt, G. Costantini, and K. Kern, “Investigating the lateral motion of SiGe islands by selective chemical etching,” Surf. Sci. 600, 2608–2613 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  24. S. McCall, A. Levi, R. Slusher, S. Pearton, and R. Logan, “Whispering-gallery mode microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 289–291 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  25. C. Boztug, J. R. Sánchez-Pérez, F. Cavallo, M. G. Lagally, and R. Paiella, “Strained-germanium nanostructures for infrared photonics,” ACS Nano 8, 3136–3151 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  26. O. Pages, J. Souhabi, V. Torres, A. Postnikov, and K. Rustagi, “Re-examination of the SiGe Raman spectra: percolation/one-dimensional-cluster scheme and ab initio calculations,” Phys. Rev. B 86, 045201 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  27. F. Cerdeira, C. Buchenauer, F. H. Pollak, and M. Cardona, “Stress-induced shifts of first-order Raman frequencies of diamond- and zinc-blende-type semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 5, 580–593 (1972).
    [Crossref]
  28. R. K. Schaevitz, J. E. Roth, S. Ren, O. Fidaner, and D. A. Miller, “Material properties of Si-Ge/Ge quantum wells,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 1082–1089 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  29. Y. Cai, Z. Han, X. Wang, R. E. Camacho-Aguilera, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, and J. Liu, “Analysis of threshold current behavior for bulk and quantum-well germanium laser structures,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 1901009 (2013).
    [Crossref]

2016 (3)

S. Al-Kabi, S. A. Ghetmiri, J. Margetis, T. Pham, Y. Zhou, W. Dou, B. Collier, R. Quinde, W. Du, A. Mosleh, J. Liu, G. Sun, R. A. Soref, J. Tolle, B. Li, M. Mortazavi, H. A. Naseem, and S.-Q. Yu, “An optically pumped 2.5  μm GeSn laser on Si operating at 110  K,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 171105 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. S. Fenrich, X. Chen, R. Chen, Y.-C. Huang, H. Chung, M.-Y. Kao, Y. Huo, T. Kamins, and J. S. Harris, “Strained pseudomorphic Ge1−xSnx multiple quantum well microdisk using SiNy stressor layer,” ACS Photon. 3, 2231–2236 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. W. Millar, K. Gallacher, J. Frigerio, A. Ballabio, A. Bashir, I. MacLaren, G. Isella, and D. J. Paul, “Analysis of Ge micro-cavities with in-plane tensile strains above 2%,” Opt. Express 24, 4365–4374 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (4)

E. T. Fei, X. Chen, K. Zang, Y. Huo, G. Shambat, G. Miller, X. Liu, R. Dutt, T. I. Kamins, J. Vuckovic, and J. S. Harris, “Investigation of germanium quantum-well light sources,” Opt. Express 23, 22424–22430 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. Zang, D. Zhang, Y. Huo, X. Chen, C.-Y. Lu, E. T. Fei, T. I. Kamins, X. Feng, Y. Huang, and J. S. Harris, “Microring bio-chemical sensor with integrated low dark current Ge photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 101111 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. Von Den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grützmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9, 88–92 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, M. Chaigneau, R. Ossikovski, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “All-around SiN stressor for high and homogeneous tensile strain in germanium microdisk cavities,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3, 353–358 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (4)

X. Xu, T. Maruizumi, and Y. Shiraki, “Waveguide-integrated microdisk light-emitting diode and photodetector based on Ge quantum dots,” Opt. Express 22, 3902–3910 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. Capellini, C. Reich, S. Guha, Y. Yamamoto, M. Lisker, M. Virgilio, A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, P. Boucaud, B. Tillack, and T. Schroeder, “Tensile Ge microstructures for lasing fabricated by means of a silicon complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor process,” Opt. Express 22, 399–410 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Boztug, J. R. Sánchez-Pérez, F. Cavallo, M. G. Lagally, and R. Paiella, “Strained-germanium nanostructures for infrared photonics,” ACS Nano 8, 3136–3151 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, M.-S. Rouifed, S. Cecchi, P. Crozat, G. Isella, and L. Vivien, “Integrated germanium optical interconnects on silicon substrates,” Nat. Photonics 8, 482–488 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

M. Süess, R. Geiger, R. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium microbridges,” Nat. Photonics 7, 466–472 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, M. de Kersauson, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Tensile-strained germanium microdisks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 221112 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Cai, Z. Han, X. Wang, R. E. Camacho-Aguilera, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, and J. Liu, “Analysis of threshold current behavior for bulk and quantum-well germanium laser structures,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 1901009 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

O. Pages, J. Souhabi, V. Torres, A. Postnikov, and K. Rustagi, “Re-examination of the SiGe Raman spectra: percolation/one-dimensional-cluster scheme and ab initio calculations,” Phys. Rev. B 86, 045201 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. E. Camacho-Aguilera, Y. Cai, N. Patel, J. T. Bessette, M. Romagnoli, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “An electrically pumped germanium laser,” Opt. Express 20, 11316–11320 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Ghrib, M. De Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, R. Jakomin, G. Beaudoin, S. Sauvage, G. Fishman, G. Ndong, M. Chaigneau, R. Ossikovski, and I. Sagnes, “Control of tensile strain in germanium waveguides through silicon nitride layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 201104 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

R. Chen, H. Lin, Y. Huo, C. Hitzman, T. I. Kamins, and J. S. Harris, “Increased photoluminescence of strain-reduced, high-Sn composition Ge1−xSnx alloys grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 181125 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. Huo, H. Lin, R. Chen, M. Makarova, Y. Rong, M. Li, T. I. Kamins, J. Vuckovic, and J. S. Harris, “Strong enhancement of direct transition photoluminescence with highly tensile-strained Ge grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 011111 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

G. Shambat, S.-L. Cheng, J. Lu, Y. Nishi, and J. Vuckovic, “Direct band Ge photoluminescence near 1.6  μm coupled to Ge-on-Si microdisk resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 241102 (2010).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

R. K. Schaevitz, J. E. Roth, S. Ren, O. Fidaner, and D. A. Miller, “Material properties of Si-Ge/Ge quantum wells,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 1082–1089 (2008).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

G. Katsaros, A. Rastelli, M. Stoffel, G. Isella, H. von Känel, A. Bittner, J. Tersoff, U. Denker, O. Schmidt, G. Costantini, and K. Kern, “Investigating the lateral motion of SiGe islands by selective chemical etching,” Surf. Sci. 600, 2608–2613 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature 437, 1334–1336 (2005).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

S. McCall, A. Levi, R. Slusher, S. Pearton, and R. Logan, “Whispering-gallery mode microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 289–291 (1992).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

H. K. Choi and C. Wang, “InGaAs/AlGaAs strained single quantum well diode lasers with extremely low threshold current density and high efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 321–323 (1990).
[Crossref]

1981 (1)

W. Tsang, “Extremely low threshold (AlGa)As modified multiquantum well heterostructure lasers grown by molecular-beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 39, 786–788 (1981).
[Crossref]

1972 (1)

F. Cerdeira, C. Buchenauer, F. H. Pollak, and M. Cardona, “Stress-induced shifts of first-order Raman frequencies of diamond- and zinc-blende-type semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 5, 580–593 (1972).
[Crossref]

Al-Kabi, S.

S. Al-Kabi, S. A. Ghetmiri, J. Margetis, T. Pham, Y. Zhou, W. Dou, B. Collier, R. Quinde, W. Du, A. Mosleh, J. Liu, G. Sun, R. A. Soref, J. Tolle, B. Li, M. Mortazavi, H. A. Naseem, and S.-Q. Yu, “An optically pumped 2.5  μm GeSn laser on Si operating at 110  K,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 171105 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ballabio, A.

Bashir, A.

Beaudoin, G.

A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, M. Chaigneau, R. Ossikovski, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “All-around SiN stressor for high and homogeneous tensile strain in germanium microdisk cavities,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3, 353–358 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, M. de Kersauson, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Tensile-strained germanium microdisks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 221112 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Ghrib, M. De Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, R. Jakomin, G. Beaudoin, S. Sauvage, G. Fishman, G. Ndong, M. Chaigneau, R. Ossikovski, and I. Sagnes, “Control of tensile strain in germanium waveguides through silicon nitride layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 201104 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bessette, J. T.

Bittner, A.

G. Katsaros, A. Rastelli, M. Stoffel, G. Isella, H. von Känel, A. Bittner, J. Tersoff, U. Denker, O. Schmidt, G. Costantini, and K. Kern, “Investigating the lateral motion of SiGe islands by selective chemical etching,” Surf. Sci. 600, 2608–2613 (2006).
[Crossref]

Boucaud, P.

A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, M. Chaigneau, R. Ossikovski, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “All-around SiN stressor for high and homogeneous tensile strain in germanium microdisk cavities,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3, 353–358 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. Capellini, C. Reich, S. Guha, Y. Yamamoto, M. Lisker, M. Virgilio, A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, P. Boucaud, B. Tillack, and T. Schroeder, “Tensile Ge microstructures for lasing fabricated by means of a silicon complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor process,” Opt. Express 22, 399–410 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, M. de Kersauson, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Tensile-strained germanium microdisks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 221112 (2013).
[Crossref]

Boztug, C.

C. Boztug, J. R. Sánchez-Pérez, F. Cavallo, M. G. Lagally, and R. Paiella, “Strained-germanium nanostructures for infrared photonics,” ACS Nano 8, 3136–3151 (2014).
[Crossref]

Buca, D.

S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. Von Den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grützmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9, 88–92 (2015).
[Crossref]

Buchenauer, C.

F. Cerdeira, C. Buchenauer, F. H. Pollak, and M. Cardona, “Stress-induced shifts of first-order Raman frequencies of diamond- and zinc-blende-type semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 5, 580–593 (1972).
[Crossref]

Cai, Y.

Y. Cai, Z. Han, X. Wang, R. E. Camacho-Aguilera, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, and J. Liu, “Analysis of threshold current behavior for bulk and quantum-well germanium laser structures,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 1901009 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. E. Camacho-Aguilera, Y. Cai, N. Patel, J. T. Bessette, M. Romagnoli, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “An electrically pumped germanium laser,” Opt. Express 20, 11316–11320 (2012).
[Crossref]

Camacho-Aguilera, R. E.

Y. Cai, Z. Han, X. Wang, R. E. Camacho-Aguilera, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, and J. Liu, “Analysis of threshold current behavior for bulk and quantum-well germanium laser structures,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 1901009 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. E. Camacho-Aguilera, Y. Cai, N. Patel, J. T. Bessette, M. Romagnoli, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “An electrically pumped germanium laser,” Opt. Express 20, 11316–11320 (2012).
[Crossref]

Capellini, G.

Cardona, M.

F. Cerdeira, C. Buchenauer, F. H. Pollak, and M. Cardona, “Stress-induced shifts of first-order Raman frequencies of diamond- and zinc-blende-type semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 5, 580–593 (1972).
[Crossref]

Cavallo, F.

C. Boztug, J. R. Sánchez-Pérez, F. Cavallo, M. G. Lagally, and R. Paiella, “Strained-germanium nanostructures for infrared photonics,” ACS Nano 8, 3136–3151 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cecchi, S.

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, M.-S. Rouifed, S. Cecchi, P. Crozat, G. Isella, and L. Vivien, “Integrated germanium optical interconnects on silicon substrates,” Nat. Photonics 8, 482–488 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cerdeira, F.

F. Cerdeira, C. Buchenauer, F. H. Pollak, and M. Cardona, “Stress-induced shifts of first-order Raman frequencies of diamond- and zinc-blende-type semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 5, 580–593 (1972).
[Crossref]

Chaigneau, M.

A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, M. Chaigneau, R. Ossikovski, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “All-around SiN stressor for high and homogeneous tensile strain in germanium microdisk cavities,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3, 353–358 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Ghrib, M. De Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, R. Jakomin, G. Beaudoin, S. Sauvage, G. Fishman, G. Ndong, M. Chaigneau, R. Ossikovski, and I. Sagnes, “Control of tensile strain in germanium waveguides through silicon nitride layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 201104 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chaisakul, P.

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, M.-S. Rouifed, S. Cecchi, P. Crozat, G. Isella, and L. Vivien, “Integrated germanium optical interconnects on silicon substrates,” Nat. Photonics 8, 482–488 (2014).
[Crossref]

Checoury, X.

A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, M. Chaigneau, R. Ossikovski, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “All-around SiN stressor for high and homogeneous tensile strain in germanium microdisk cavities,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3, 353–358 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, M. de Kersauson, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Tensile-strained germanium microdisks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 221112 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chen, R.

C. S. Fenrich, X. Chen, R. Chen, Y.-C. Huang, H. Chung, M.-Y. Kao, Y. Huo, T. Kamins, and J. S. Harris, “Strained pseudomorphic Ge1−xSnx multiple quantum well microdisk using SiNy stressor layer,” ACS Photon. 3, 2231–2236 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. Chen, H. Lin, Y. Huo, C. Hitzman, T. I. Kamins, and J. S. Harris, “Increased photoluminescence of strain-reduced, high-Sn composition Ge1−xSnx alloys grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 181125 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. Huo, H. Lin, R. Chen, M. Makarova, Y. Rong, M. Li, T. I. Kamins, J. Vuckovic, and J. S. Harris, “Strong enhancement of direct transition photoluminescence with highly tensile-strained Ge grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 011111 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chen, X.

C. S. Fenrich, X. Chen, R. Chen, Y.-C. Huang, H. Chung, M.-Y. Kao, Y. Huo, T. Kamins, and J. S. Harris, “Strained pseudomorphic Ge1−xSnx multiple quantum well microdisk using SiNy stressor layer,” ACS Photon. 3, 2231–2236 (2016).
[Crossref]

E. T. Fei, X. Chen, K. Zang, Y. Huo, G. Shambat, G. Miller, X. Liu, R. Dutt, T. I. Kamins, J. Vuckovic, and J. S. Harris, “Investigation of germanium quantum-well light sources,” Opt. Express 23, 22424–22430 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. Zang, D. Zhang, Y. Huo, X. Chen, C.-Y. Lu, E. T. Fei, T. I. Kamins, X. Feng, Y. Huang, and J. S. Harris, “Microring bio-chemical sensor with integrated low dark current Ge photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 101111 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Chen, Y. Huo, E. T. Fei, G. Shambat, X. Liu, T. I. Kamins, J. Vuckovic, and J. S. Harris, “Room temperature photoluminescence from Ge/SiGe quantum well structure in microdisk resonator,” in Proceedings of Symposium on Photonics and Optoelectronics (2012), pp. 1–3.

M.-Y. Kao, X. Chen, Y. Huo, C. Shang, M. Xue, K. Zang, C.-Y. Lu, E. T. Fei, Y. Chen, T. I. Kamins, and J. S. Harris, “Tensile-strained Ge/SiGe quantum-well microdisks with overlying SiNx stressors,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (2016), paper SF1P-1.

Chen, Y.

M.-Y. Kao, X. Chen, Y. Huo, C. Shang, M. Xue, K. Zang, C.-Y. Lu, E. T. Fei, Y. Chen, T. I. Kamins, and J. S. Harris, “Tensile-strained Ge/SiGe quantum-well microdisks with overlying SiNx stressors,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (2016), paper SF1P-1.

Cheng, S.-L.

G. Shambat, S.-L. Cheng, J. Lu, Y. Nishi, and J. Vuckovic, “Direct band Ge photoluminescence near 1.6  μm coupled to Ge-on-Si microdisk resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 241102 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chiussi, S.

S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. Von Den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grützmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9, 88–92 (2015).
[Crossref]

Choi, H. K.

H. K. Choi and C. Wang, “InGaAs/AlGaAs strained single quantum well diode lasers with extremely low threshold current density and high efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 321–323 (1990).
[Crossref]

Chrastina, D.

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, M.-S. Rouifed, S. Cecchi, P. Crozat, G. Isella, and L. Vivien, “Integrated germanium optical interconnects on silicon substrates,” Nat. Photonics 8, 482–488 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Süess, R. Geiger, R. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium microbridges,” Nat. Photonics 7, 466–472 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chung, H.

C. S. Fenrich, X. Chen, R. Chen, Y.-C. Huang, H. Chung, M.-Y. Kao, Y. Huo, T. Kamins, and J. S. Harris, “Strained pseudomorphic Ge1−xSnx multiple quantum well microdisk using SiNy stressor layer,” ACS Photon. 3, 2231–2236 (2016).
[Crossref]

Collier, B.

S. Al-Kabi, S. A. Ghetmiri, J. Margetis, T. Pham, Y. Zhou, W. Dou, B. Collier, R. Quinde, W. Du, A. Mosleh, J. Liu, G. Sun, R. A. Soref, J. Tolle, B. Li, M. Mortazavi, H. A. Naseem, and S.-Q. Yu, “An optically pumped 2.5  μm GeSn laser on Si operating at 110  K,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 171105 (2016).
[Crossref]

Costantini, G.

G. Katsaros, A. Rastelli, M. Stoffel, G. Isella, H. von Känel, A. Bittner, J. Tersoff, U. Denker, O. Schmidt, G. Costantini, and K. Kern, “Investigating the lateral motion of SiGe islands by selective chemical etching,” Surf. Sci. 600, 2608–2613 (2006).
[Crossref]

Crozat, P.

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, M.-S. Rouifed, S. Cecchi, P. Crozat, G. Isella, and L. Vivien, “Integrated germanium optical interconnects on silicon substrates,” Nat. Photonics 8, 482–488 (2014).
[Crossref]

de Kersauson, M.

A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, M. de Kersauson, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Tensile-strained germanium microdisks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 221112 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Ghrib, M. De Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, R. Jakomin, G. Beaudoin, S. Sauvage, G. Fishman, G. Ndong, M. Chaigneau, R. Ossikovski, and I. Sagnes, “Control of tensile strain in germanium waveguides through silicon nitride layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 201104 (2012).
[Crossref]

Denker, U.

G. Katsaros, A. Rastelli, M. Stoffel, G. Isella, H. von Känel, A. Bittner, J. Tersoff, U. Denker, O. Schmidt, G. Costantini, and K. Kern, “Investigating the lateral motion of SiGe islands by selective chemical etching,” Surf. Sci. 600, 2608–2613 (2006).
[Crossref]

Dou, W.

S. Al-Kabi, S. A. Ghetmiri, J. Margetis, T. Pham, Y. Zhou, W. Dou, B. Collier, R. Quinde, W. Du, A. Mosleh, J. Liu, G. Sun, R. A. Soref, J. Tolle, B. Li, M. Mortazavi, H. A. Naseem, and S.-Q. Yu, “An optically pumped 2.5  μm GeSn laser on Si operating at 110  K,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 171105 (2016).
[Crossref]

Du, W.

S. Al-Kabi, S. A. Ghetmiri, J. Margetis, T. Pham, Y. Zhou, W. Dou, B. Collier, R. Quinde, W. Du, A. Mosleh, J. Liu, G. Sun, R. A. Soref, J. Tolle, B. Li, M. Mortazavi, H. A. Naseem, and S.-Q. Yu, “An optically pumped 2.5  μm GeSn laser on Si operating at 110  K,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 171105 (2016).
[Crossref]

Dutt, R.

El Kurdi, M.

A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, M. Chaigneau, R. Ossikovski, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “All-around SiN stressor for high and homogeneous tensile strain in germanium microdisk cavities,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3, 353–358 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. Capellini, C. Reich, S. Guha, Y. Yamamoto, M. Lisker, M. Virgilio, A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, P. Boucaud, B. Tillack, and T. Schroeder, “Tensile Ge microstructures for lasing fabricated by means of a silicon complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor process,” Opt. Express 22, 399–410 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, M. de Kersauson, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Tensile-strained germanium microdisks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 221112 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Ghrib, M. De Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, R. Jakomin, G. Beaudoin, S. Sauvage, G. Fishman, G. Ndong, M. Chaigneau, R. Ossikovski, and I. Sagnes, “Control of tensile strain in germanium waveguides through silicon nitride layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 201104 (2012).
[Crossref]

Faist, J.

S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. Von Den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grützmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9, 88–92 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Süess, R. Geiger, R. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium microbridges,” Nat. Photonics 7, 466–472 (2013).
[Crossref]

Fei, E. T.

E. T. Fei, X. Chen, K. Zang, Y. Huo, G. Shambat, G. Miller, X. Liu, R. Dutt, T. I. Kamins, J. Vuckovic, and J. S. Harris, “Investigation of germanium quantum-well light sources,” Opt. Express 23, 22424–22430 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. Zang, D. Zhang, Y. Huo, X. Chen, C.-Y. Lu, E. T. Fei, T. I. Kamins, X. Feng, Y. Huang, and J. S. Harris, “Microring bio-chemical sensor with integrated low dark current Ge photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 101111 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Chen, Y. Huo, E. T. Fei, G. Shambat, X. Liu, T. I. Kamins, J. Vuckovic, and J. S. Harris, “Room temperature photoluminescence from Ge/SiGe quantum well structure in microdisk resonator,” in Proceedings of Symposium on Photonics and Optoelectronics (2012), pp. 1–3.

M.-Y. Kao, X. Chen, Y. Huo, C. Shang, M. Xue, K. Zang, C.-Y. Lu, E. T. Fei, Y. Chen, T. I. Kamins, and J. S. Harris, “Tensile-strained Ge/SiGe quantum-well microdisks with overlying SiNx stressors,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (2016), paper SF1P-1.

Feng, X.

K. Zang, D. Zhang, Y. Huo, X. Chen, C.-Y. Lu, E. T. Fei, T. I. Kamins, X. Feng, Y. Huang, and J. S. Harris, “Microring bio-chemical sensor with integrated low dark current Ge photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 101111 (2015).
[Crossref]

Fenrich, C. S.

C. S. Fenrich, X. Chen, R. Chen, Y.-C. Huang, H. Chung, M.-Y. Kao, Y. Huo, T. Kamins, and J. S. Harris, “Strained pseudomorphic Ge1−xSnx multiple quantum well microdisk using SiNy stressor layer,” ACS Photon. 3, 2231–2236 (2016).
[Crossref]

Fidaner, O.

R. K. Schaevitz, J. E. Roth, S. Ren, O. Fidaner, and D. A. Miller, “Material properties of Si-Ge/Ge quantum wells,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 1082–1089 (2008).
[Crossref]

Fishman, G.

A. Ghrib, M. De Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, R. Jakomin, G. Beaudoin, S. Sauvage, G. Fishman, G. Ndong, M. Chaigneau, R. Ossikovski, and I. Sagnes, “Control of tensile strain in germanium waveguides through silicon nitride layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 201104 (2012).
[Crossref]

Frigerio, J.

R. W. Millar, K. Gallacher, J. Frigerio, A. Ballabio, A. Bashir, I. MacLaren, G. Isella, and D. J. Paul, “Analysis of Ge micro-cavities with in-plane tensile strains above 2%,” Opt. Express 24, 4365–4374 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, M.-S. Rouifed, S. Cecchi, P. Crozat, G. Isella, and L. Vivien, “Integrated germanium optical interconnects on silicon substrates,” Nat. Photonics 8, 482–488 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Süess, R. Geiger, R. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium microbridges,” Nat. Photonics 7, 466–472 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gallacher, K.

Ge, Y.

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature 437, 1334–1336 (2005).
[Crossref]

Geiger, R.

S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. Von Den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grützmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9, 88–92 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Süess, R. Geiger, R. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium microbridges,” Nat. Photonics 7, 466–472 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ghetmiri, S. A.

S. Al-Kabi, S. A. Ghetmiri, J. Margetis, T. Pham, Y. Zhou, W. Dou, B. Collier, R. Quinde, W. Du, A. Mosleh, J. Liu, G. Sun, R. A. Soref, J. Tolle, B. Li, M. Mortazavi, H. A. Naseem, and S.-Q. Yu, “An optically pumped 2.5  μm GeSn laser on Si operating at 110  K,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 171105 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ghrib, A.

A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, M. Chaigneau, R. Ossikovski, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “All-around SiN stressor for high and homogeneous tensile strain in germanium microdisk cavities,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3, 353–358 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. Capellini, C. Reich, S. Guha, Y. Yamamoto, M. Lisker, M. Virgilio, A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, P. Boucaud, B. Tillack, and T. Schroeder, “Tensile Ge microstructures for lasing fabricated by means of a silicon complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor process,” Opt. Express 22, 399–410 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, M. de Kersauson, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Tensile-strained germanium microdisks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 221112 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Ghrib, M. De Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, R. Jakomin, G. Beaudoin, S. Sauvage, G. Fishman, G. Ndong, M. Chaigneau, R. Ossikovski, and I. Sagnes, “Control of tensile strain in germanium waveguides through silicon nitride layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 201104 (2012).
[Crossref]

Grützmacher, D.

S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. Von Den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grützmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9, 88–92 (2015).
[Crossref]

Guha, S.

Han, Z.

Y. Cai, Z. Han, X. Wang, R. E. Camacho-Aguilera, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, and J. Liu, “Analysis of threshold current behavior for bulk and quantum-well germanium laser structures,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 1901009 (2013).
[Crossref]

Harris, J. S.

C. S. Fenrich, X. Chen, R. Chen, Y.-C. Huang, H. Chung, M.-Y. Kao, Y. Huo, T. Kamins, and J. S. Harris, “Strained pseudomorphic Ge1−xSnx multiple quantum well microdisk using SiNy stressor layer,” ACS Photon. 3, 2231–2236 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. Zang, D. Zhang, Y. Huo, X. Chen, C.-Y. Lu, E. T. Fei, T. I. Kamins, X. Feng, Y. Huang, and J. S. Harris, “Microring bio-chemical sensor with integrated low dark current Ge photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 101111 (2015).
[Crossref]

E. T. Fei, X. Chen, K. Zang, Y. Huo, G. Shambat, G. Miller, X. Liu, R. Dutt, T. I. Kamins, J. Vuckovic, and J. S. Harris, “Investigation of germanium quantum-well light sources,” Opt. Express 23, 22424–22430 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Huo, H. Lin, R. Chen, M. Makarova, Y. Rong, M. Li, T. I. Kamins, J. Vuckovic, and J. S. Harris, “Strong enhancement of direct transition photoluminescence with highly tensile-strained Ge grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 011111 (2011).
[Crossref]

R. Chen, H. Lin, Y. Huo, C. Hitzman, T. I. Kamins, and J. S. Harris, “Increased photoluminescence of strain-reduced, high-Sn composition Ge1−xSnx alloys grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 181125 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature 437, 1334–1336 (2005).
[Crossref]

X. Chen, Y. Huo, E. T. Fei, G. Shambat, X. Liu, T. I. Kamins, J. Vuckovic, and J. S. Harris, “Room temperature photoluminescence from Ge/SiGe quantum well structure in microdisk resonator,” in Proceedings of Symposium on Photonics and Optoelectronics (2012), pp. 1–3.

M.-Y. Kao, X. Chen, Y. Huo, C. Shang, M. Xue, K. Zang, C.-Y. Lu, E. T. Fei, Y. Chen, T. I. Kamins, and J. S. Harris, “Tensile-strained Ge/SiGe quantum-well microdisks with overlying SiNx stressors,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (2016), paper SF1P-1.

Hartmann, J.

S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. Von Den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grützmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9, 88–92 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hitzman, C.

R. Chen, H. Lin, Y. Huo, C. Hitzman, T. I. Kamins, and J. S. Harris, “Increased photoluminescence of strain-reduced, high-Sn composition Ge1−xSnx alloys grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 181125 (2011).
[Crossref]

Huang, Y.

K. Zang, D. Zhang, Y. Huo, X. Chen, C.-Y. Lu, E. T. Fei, T. I. Kamins, X. Feng, Y. Huang, and J. S. Harris, “Microring bio-chemical sensor with integrated low dark current Ge photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 101111 (2015).
[Crossref]

Huang, Y.-C.

C. S. Fenrich, X. Chen, R. Chen, Y.-C. Huang, H. Chung, M.-Y. Kao, Y. Huo, T. Kamins, and J. S. Harris, “Strained pseudomorphic Ge1−xSnx multiple quantum well microdisk using SiNy stressor layer,” ACS Photon. 3, 2231–2236 (2016).
[Crossref]

Huo, Y.

C. S. Fenrich, X. Chen, R. Chen, Y.-C. Huang, H. Chung, M.-Y. Kao, Y. Huo, T. Kamins, and J. S. Harris, “Strained pseudomorphic Ge1−xSnx multiple quantum well microdisk using SiNy stressor layer,” ACS Photon. 3, 2231–2236 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. Zang, D. Zhang, Y. Huo, X. Chen, C.-Y. Lu, E. T. Fei, T. I. Kamins, X. Feng, Y. Huang, and J. S. Harris, “Microring bio-chemical sensor with integrated low dark current Ge photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 101111 (2015).
[Crossref]

E. T. Fei, X. Chen, K. Zang, Y. Huo, G. Shambat, G. Miller, X. Liu, R. Dutt, T. I. Kamins, J. Vuckovic, and J. S. Harris, “Investigation of germanium quantum-well light sources,” Opt. Express 23, 22424–22430 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Chen, H. Lin, Y. Huo, C. Hitzman, T. I. Kamins, and J. S. Harris, “Increased photoluminescence of strain-reduced, high-Sn composition Ge1−xSnx alloys grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 181125 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. Huo, H. Lin, R. Chen, M. Makarova, Y. Rong, M. Li, T. I. Kamins, J. Vuckovic, and J. S. Harris, “Strong enhancement of direct transition photoluminescence with highly tensile-strained Ge grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 011111 (2011).
[Crossref]

X. Chen, Y. Huo, E. T. Fei, G. Shambat, X. Liu, T. I. Kamins, J. Vuckovic, and J. S. Harris, “Room temperature photoluminescence from Ge/SiGe quantum well structure in microdisk resonator,” in Proceedings of Symposium on Photonics and Optoelectronics (2012), pp. 1–3.

M.-Y. Kao, X. Chen, Y. Huo, C. Shang, M. Xue, K. Zang, C.-Y. Lu, E. T. Fei, Y. Chen, T. I. Kamins, and J. S. Harris, “Tensile-strained Ge/SiGe quantum-well microdisks with overlying SiNx stressors,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (2016), paper SF1P-1.

Ikonic, Z.

S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. Von Den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grützmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9, 88–92 (2015).
[Crossref]

Isella, G.

R. W. Millar, K. Gallacher, J. Frigerio, A. Ballabio, A. Bashir, I. MacLaren, G. Isella, and D. J. Paul, “Analysis of Ge micro-cavities with in-plane tensile strains above 2%,” Opt. Express 24, 4365–4374 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, M.-S. Rouifed, S. Cecchi, P. Crozat, G. Isella, and L. Vivien, “Integrated germanium optical interconnects on silicon substrates,” Nat. Photonics 8, 482–488 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Süess, R. Geiger, R. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium microbridges,” Nat. Photonics 7, 466–472 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. Katsaros, A. Rastelli, M. Stoffel, G. Isella, H. von Känel, A. Bittner, J. Tersoff, U. Denker, O. Schmidt, G. Costantini, and K. Kern, “Investigating the lateral motion of SiGe islands by selective chemical etching,” Surf. Sci. 600, 2608–2613 (2006).
[Crossref]

Jakomin, R.

A. Ghrib, M. De Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, R. Jakomin, G. Beaudoin, S. Sauvage, G. Fishman, G. Ndong, M. Chaigneau, R. Ossikovski, and I. Sagnes, “Control of tensile strain in germanium waveguides through silicon nitride layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 201104 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kamins, T.

C. S. Fenrich, X. Chen, R. Chen, Y.-C. Huang, H. Chung, M.-Y. Kao, Y. Huo, T. Kamins, and J. S. Harris, “Strained pseudomorphic Ge1−xSnx multiple quantum well microdisk using SiNy stressor layer,” ACS Photon. 3, 2231–2236 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kamins, T. I.

E. T. Fei, X. Chen, K. Zang, Y. Huo, G. Shambat, G. Miller, X. Liu, R. Dutt, T. I. Kamins, J. Vuckovic, and J. S. Harris, “Investigation of germanium quantum-well light sources,” Opt. Express 23, 22424–22430 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. Zang, D. Zhang, Y. Huo, X. Chen, C.-Y. Lu, E. T. Fei, T. I. Kamins, X. Feng, Y. Huang, and J. S. Harris, “Microring bio-chemical sensor with integrated low dark current Ge photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 101111 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Huo, H. Lin, R. Chen, M. Makarova, Y. Rong, M. Li, T. I. Kamins, J. Vuckovic, and J. S. Harris, “Strong enhancement of direct transition photoluminescence with highly tensile-strained Ge grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 011111 (2011).
[Crossref]

R. Chen, H. Lin, Y. Huo, C. Hitzman, T. I. Kamins, and J. S. Harris, “Increased photoluminescence of strain-reduced, high-Sn composition Ge1−xSnx alloys grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 181125 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature 437, 1334–1336 (2005).
[Crossref]

X. Chen, Y. Huo, E. T. Fei, G. Shambat, X. Liu, T. I. Kamins, J. Vuckovic, and J. S. Harris, “Room temperature photoluminescence from Ge/SiGe quantum well structure in microdisk resonator,” in Proceedings of Symposium on Photonics and Optoelectronics (2012), pp. 1–3.

M.-Y. Kao, X. Chen, Y. Huo, C. Shang, M. Xue, K. Zang, C.-Y. Lu, E. T. Fei, Y. Chen, T. I. Kamins, and J. S. Harris, “Tensile-strained Ge/SiGe quantum-well microdisks with overlying SiNx stressors,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (2016), paper SF1P-1.

Kao, M.-Y.

C. S. Fenrich, X. Chen, R. Chen, Y.-C. Huang, H. Chung, M.-Y. Kao, Y. Huo, T. Kamins, and J. S. Harris, “Strained pseudomorphic Ge1−xSnx multiple quantum well microdisk using SiNy stressor layer,” ACS Photon. 3, 2231–2236 (2016).
[Crossref]

M.-Y. Kao, X. Chen, Y. Huo, C. Shang, M. Xue, K. Zang, C.-Y. Lu, E. T. Fei, Y. Chen, T. I. Kamins, and J. S. Harris, “Tensile-strained Ge/SiGe quantum-well microdisks with overlying SiNx stressors,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (2016), paper SF1P-1.

Katsaros, G.

G. Katsaros, A. Rastelli, M. Stoffel, G. Isella, H. von Känel, A. Bittner, J. Tersoff, U. Denker, O. Schmidt, G. Costantini, and K. Kern, “Investigating the lateral motion of SiGe islands by selective chemical etching,” Surf. Sci. 600, 2608–2613 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kern, K.

G. Katsaros, A. Rastelli, M. Stoffel, G. Isella, H. von Känel, A. Bittner, J. Tersoff, U. Denker, O. Schmidt, G. Costantini, and K. Kern, “Investigating the lateral motion of SiGe islands by selective chemical etching,” Surf. Sci. 600, 2608–2613 (2006).
[Crossref]

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Y. Cai, Z. Han, X. Wang, R. E. Camacho-Aguilera, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, and J. Liu, “Analysis of threshold current behavior for bulk and quantum-well germanium laser structures,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 1901009 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. E. Camacho-Aguilera, Y. Cai, N. Patel, J. T. Bessette, M. Romagnoli, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “An electrically pumped germanium laser,” Opt. Express 20, 11316–11320 (2012).
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Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature 437, 1334–1336 (2005).
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Lagally, M. G.

C. Boztug, J. R. Sánchez-Pérez, F. Cavallo, M. G. Lagally, and R. Paiella, “Strained-germanium nanostructures for infrared photonics,” ACS Nano 8, 3136–3151 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lee, Y. K.

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature 437, 1334–1336 (2005).
[Crossref]

Levi, A.

S. McCall, A. Levi, R. Slusher, S. Pearton, and R. Logan, “Whispering-gallery mode microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 289–291 (1992).
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Li, B.

S. Al-Kabi, S. A. Ghetmiri, J. Margetis, T. Pham, Y. Zhou, W. Dou, B. Collier, R. Quinde, W. Du, A. Mosleh, J. Liu, G. Sun, R. A. Soref, J. Tolle, B. Li, M. Mortazavi, H. A. Naseem, and S.-Q. Yu, “An optically pumped 2.5  μm GeSn laser on Si operating at 110  K,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 171105 (2016).
[Crossref]

Li, M.

Y. Huo, H. Lin, R. Chen, M. Makarova, Y. Rong, M. Li, T. I. Kamins, J. Vuckovic, and J. S. Harris, “Strong enhancement of direct transition photoluminescence with highly tensile-strained Ge grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 011111 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lin, H.

Y. Huo, H. Lin, R. Chen, M. Makarova, Y. Rong, M. Li, T. I. Kamins, J. Vuckovic, and J. S. Harris, “Strong enhancement of direct transition photoluminescence with highly tensile-strained Ge grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 011111 (2011).
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R. Chen, H. Lin, Y. Huo, C. Hitzman, T. I. Kamins, and J. S. Harris, “Increased photoluminescence of strain-reduced, high-Sn composition Ge1−xSnx alloys grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 181125 (2011).
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Lisker, M.

Liu, J.

S. Al-Kabi, S. A. Ghetmiri, J. Margetis, T. Pham, Y. Zhou, W. Dou, B. Collier, R. Quinde, W. Du, A. Mosleh, J. Liu, G. Sun, R. A. Soref, J. Tolle, B. Li, M. Mortazavi, H. A. Naseem, and S.-Q. Yu, “An optically pumped 2.5  μm GeSn laser on Si operating at 110  K,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 171105 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Cai, Z. Han, X. Wang, R. E. Camacho-Aguilera, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, and J. Liu, “Analysis of threshold current behavior for bulk and quantum-well germanium laser structures,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 1901009 (2013).
[Crossref]

Liu, X.

E. T. Fei, X. Chen, K. Zang, Y. Huo, G. Shambat, G. Miller, X. Liu, R. Dutt, T. I. Kamins, J. Vuckovic, and J. S. Harris, “Investigation of germanium quantum-well light sources,” Opt. Express 23, 22424–22430 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Chen, Y. Huo, E. T. Fei, G. Shambat, X. Liu, T. I. Kamins, J. Vuckovic, and J. S. Harris, “Room temperature photoluminescence from Ge/SiGe quantum well structure in microdisk resonator,” in Proceedings of Symposium on Photonics and Optoelectronics (2012), pp. 1–3.

Logan, R.

S. McCall, A. Levi, R. Slusher, S. Pearton, and R. Logan, “Whispering-gallery mode microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 289–291 (1992).
[Crossref]

Lu, C.-Y.

K. Zang, D. Zhang, Y. Huo, X. Chen, C.-Y. Lu, E. T. Fei, T. I. Kamins, X. Feng, Y. Huang, and J. S. Harris, “Microring bio-chemical sensor with integrated low dark current Ge photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 101111 (2015).
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M.-Y. Kao, X. Chen, Y. Huo, C. Shang, M. Xue, K. Zang, C.-Y. Lu, E. T. Fei, Y. Chen, T. I. Kamins, and J. S. Harris, “Tensile-strained Ge/SiGe quantum-well microdisks with overlying SiNx stressors,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (2016), paper SF1P-1.

Lu, J.

G. Shambat, S.-L. Cheng, J. Lu, Y. Nishi, and J. Vuckovic, “Direct band Ge photoluminescence near 1.6  μm coupled to Ge-on-Si microdisk resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 241102 (2010).
[Crossref]

Luysberg, M.

S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. Von Den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grützmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9, 88–92 (2015).
[Crossref]

MacLaren, I.

Makarova, M.

Y. Huo, H. Lin, R. Chen, M. Makarova, Y. Rong, M. Li, T. I. Kamins, J. Vuckovic, and J. S. Harris, “Strong enhancement of direct transition photoluminescence with highly tensile-strained Ge grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 011111 (2011).
[Crossref]

Mantl, S.

S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. Von Den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grützmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9, 88–92 (2015).
[Crossref]

Margetis, J.

S. Al-Kabi, S. A. Ghetmiri, J. Margetis, T. Pham, Y. Zhou, W. Dou, B. Collier, R. Quinde, W. Du, A. Mosleh, J. Liu, G. Sun, R. A. Soref, J. Tolle, B. Li, M. Mortazavi, H. A. Naseem, and S.-Q. Yu, “An optically pumped 2.5  μm GeSn laser on Si operating at 110  K,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 171105 (2016).
[Crossref]

Marris-Morini, D.

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, M.-S. Rouifed, S. Cecchi, P. Crozat, G. Isella, and L. Vivien, “Integrated germanium optical interconnects on silicon substrates,” Nat. Photonics 8, 482–488 (2014).
[Crossref]

Maruizumi, T.

McCall, S.

S. McCall, A. Levi, R. Slusher, S. Pearton, and R. Logan, “Whispering-gallery mode microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 289–291 (1992).
[Crossref]

Michel, J.

Y. Cai, Z. Han, X. Wang, R. E. Camacho-Aguilera, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, and J. Liu, “Analysis of threshold current behavior for bulk and quantum-well germanium laser structures,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 1901009 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. E. Camacho-Aguilera, Y. Cai, N. Patel, J. T. Bessette, M. Romagnoli, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “An electrically pumped germanium laser,” Opt. Express 20, 11316–11320 (2012).
[Crossref]

Millar, R. W.

Miller, D. A.

R. K. Schaevitz, J. E. Roth, S. Ren, O. Fidaner, and D. A. Miller, “Material properties of Si-Ge/Ge quantum wells,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 1082–1089 (2008).
[Crossref]

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature 437, 1334–1336 (2005).
[Crossref]

Miller, G.

Minamisawa, R.

M. Süess, R. Geiger, R. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium microbridges,” Nat. Photonics 7, 466–472 (2013).
[Crossref]

Mortazavi, M.

S. Al-Kabi, S. A. Ghetmiri, J. Margetis, T. Pham, Y. Zhou, W. Dou, B. Collier, R. Quinde, W. Du, A. Mosleh, J. Liu, G. Sun, R. A. Soref, J. Tolle, B. Li, M. Mortazavi, H. A. Naseem, and S.-Q. Yu, “An optically pumped 2.5  μm GeSn laser on Si operating at 110  K,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 171105 (2016).
[Crossref]

Mosleh, A.

S. Al-Kabi, S. A. Ghetmiri, J. Margetis, T. Pham, Y. Zhou, W. Dou, B. Collier, R. Quinde, W. Du, A. Mosleh, J. Liu, G. Sun, R. A. Soref, J. Tolle, B. Li, M. Mortazavi, H. A. Naseem, and S.-Q. Yu, “An optically pumped 2.5  μm GeSn laser on Si operating at 110  K,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 171105 (2016).
[Crossref]

Mussler, G.

S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. Von Den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grützmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9, 88–92 (2015).
[Crossref]

Naseem, H. A.

S. Al-Kabi, S. A. Ghetmiri, J. Margetis, T. Pham, Y. Zhou, W. Dou, B. Collier, R. Quinde, W. Du, A. Mosleh, J. Liu, G. Sun, R. A. Soref, J. Tolle, B. Li, M. Mortazavi, H. A. Naseem, and S.-Q. Yu, “An optically pumped 2.5  μm GeSn laser on Si operating at 110  K,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 171105 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ndong, G.

A. Ghrib, M. De Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, R. Jakomin, G. Beaudoin, S. Sauvage, G. Fishman, G. Ndong, M. Chaigneau, R. Ossikovski, and I. Sagnes, “Control of tensile strain in germanium waveguides through silicon nitride layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 201104 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nishi, Y.

G. Shambat, S.-L. Cheng, J. Lu, Y. Nishi, and J. Vuckovic, “Direct band Ge photoluminescence near 1.6  μm coupled to Ge-on-Si microdisk resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 241102 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ossikovski, R.

A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, M. Chaigneau, R. Ossikovski, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “All-around SiN stressor for high and homogeneous tensile strain in germanium microdisk cavities,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3, 353–358 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Ghrib, M. De Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, R. Jakomin, G. Beaudoin, S. Sauvage, G. Fishman, G. Ndong, M. Chaigneau, R. Ossikovski, and I. Sagnes, “Control of tensile strain in germanium waveguides through silicon nitride layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 201104 (2012).
[Crossref]

Pages, O.

O. Pages, J. Souhabi, V. Torres, A. Postnikov, and K. Rustagi, “Re-examination of the SiGe Raman spectra: percolation/one-dimensional-cluster scheme and ab initio calculations,” Phys. Rev. B 86, 045201 (2012).
[Crossref]

Paiella, R.

C. Boztug, J. R. Sánchez-Pérez, F. Cavallo, M. G. Lagally, and R. Paiella, “Strained-germanium nanostructures for infrared photonics,” ACS Nano 8, 3136–3151 (2014).
[Crossref]

Patel, N.

Paul, D. J.

Pearton, S.

S. McCall, A. Levi, R. Slusher, S. Pearton, and R. Logan, “Whispering-gallery mode microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 289–291 (1992).
[Crossref]

Pham, T.

S. Al-Kabi, S. A. Ghetmiri, J. Margetis, T. Pham, Y. Zhou, W. Dou, B. Collier, R. Quinde, W. Du, A. Mosleh, J. Liu, G. Sun, R. A. Soref, J. Tolle, B. Li, M. Mortazavi, H. A. Naseem, and S.-Q. Yu, “An optically pumped 2.5  μm GeSn laser on Si operating at 110  K,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 171105 (2016).
[Crossref]

Pollak, F. H.

F. Cerdeira, C. Buchenauer, F. H. Pollak, and M. Cardona, “Stress-induced shifts of first-order Raman frequencies of diamond- and zinc-blende-type semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 5, 580–593 (1972).
[Crossref]

Postnikov, A.

O. Pages, J. Souhabi, V. Torres, A. Postnikov, and K. Rustagi, “Re-examination of the SiGe Raman spectra: percolation/one-dimensional-cluster scheme and ab initio calculations,” Phys. Rev. B 86, 045201 (2012).
[Crossref]

Prost, M.

A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, M. Chaigneau, R. Ossikovski, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “All-around SiN stressor for high and homogeneous tensile strain in germanium microdisk cavities,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3, 353–358 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, M. de Kersauson, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Tensile-strained germanium microdisks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 221112 (2013).
[Crossref]

Quinde, R.

S. Al-Kabi, S. A. Ghetmiri, J. Margetis, T. Pham, Y. Zhou, W. Dou, B. Collier, R. Quinde, W. Du, A. Mosleh, J. Liu, G. Sun, R. A. Soref, J. Tolle, B. Li, M. Mortazavi, H. A. Naseem, and S.-Q. Yu, “An optically pumped 2.5  μm GeSn laser on Si operating at 110  K,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 171105 (2016).
[Crossref]

Rastelli, A.

G. Katsaros, A. Rastelli, M. Stoffel, G. Isella, H. von Känel, A. Bittner, J. Tersoff, U. Denker, O. Schmidt, G. Costantini, and K. Kern, “Investigating the lateral motion of SiGe islands by selective chemical etching,” Surf. Sci. 600, 2608–2613 (2006).
[Crossref]

Reich, C.

Ren, S.

R. K. Schaevitz, J. E. Roth, S. Ren, O. Fidaner, and D. A. Miller, “Material properties of Si-Ge/Ge quantum wells,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 1082–1089 (2008).
[Crossref]

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature 437, 1334–1336 (2005).
[Crossref]

Romagnoli, M.

Rong, Y.

Y. Huo, H. Lin, R. Chen, M. Makarova, Y. Rong, M. Li, T. I. Kamins, J. Vuckovic, and J. S. Harris, “Strong enhancement of direct transition photoluminescence with highly tensile-strained Ge grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 011111 (2011).
[Crossref]

Roth, J. E.

R. K. Schaevitz, J. E. Roth, S. Ren, O. Fidaner, and D. A. Miller, “Material properties of Si-Ge/Ge quantum wells,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 1082–1089 (2008).
[Crossref]

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature 437, 1334–1336 (2005).
[Crossref]

Rouifed, M.-S.

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, M.-S. Rouifed, S. Cecchi, P. Crozat, G. Isella, and L. Vivien, “Integrated germanium optical interconnects on silicon substrates,” Nat. Photonics 8, 482–488 (2014).
[Crossref]

Rustagi, K.

O. Pages, J. Souhabi, V. Torres, A. Postnikov, and K. Rustagi, “Re-examination of the SiGe Raman spectra: percolation/one-dimensional-cluster scheme and ab initio calculations,” Phys. Rev. B 86, 045201 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sagnes, I.

A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, M. Chaigneau, R. Ossikovski, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “All-around SiN stressor for high and homogeneous tensile strain in germanium microdisk cavities,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3, 353–358 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, M. de Kersauson, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Tensile-strained germanium microdisks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 221112 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Ghrib, M. De Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, R. Jakomin, G. Beaudoin, S. Sauvage, G. Fishman, G. Ndong, M. Chaigneau, R. Ossikovski, and I. Sagnes, “Control of tensile strain in germanium waveguides through silicon nitride layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 201104 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sánchez-Pérez, J. R.

C. Boztug, J. R. Sánchez-Pérez, F. Cavallo, M. G. Lagally, and R. Paiella, “Strained-germanium nanostructures for infrared photonics,” ACS Nano 8, 3136–3151 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sauvage, S.

A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, M. Chaigneau, R. Ossikovski, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “All-around SiN stressor for high and homogeneous tensile strain in germanium microdisk cavities,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3, 353–358 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, M. de Kersauson, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Tensile-strained germanium microdisks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 221112 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Ghrib, M. De Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, R. Jakomin, G. Beaudoin, S. Sauvage, G. Fishman, G. Ndong, M. Chaigneau, R. Ossikovski, and I. Sagnes, “Control of tensile strain in germanium waveguides through silicon nitride layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 201104 (2012).
[Crossref]

Schaevitz, R. K.

R. K. Schaevitz, J. E. Roth, S. Ren, O. Fidaner, and D. A. Miller, “Material properties of Si-Ge/Ge quantum wells,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 1082–1089 (2008).
[Crossref]

Schiefler, G.

M. Süess, R. Geiger, R. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium microbridges,” Nat. Photonics 7, 466–472 (2013).
[Crossref]

Schmidt, O.

G. Katsaros, A. Rastelli, M. Stoffel, G. Isella, H. von Känel, A. Bittner, J. Tersoff, U. Denker, O. Schmidt, G. Costantini, and K. Kern, “Investigating the lateral motion of SiGe islands by selective chemical etching,” Surf. Sci. 600, 2608–2613 (2006).
[Crossref]

Schroeder, T.

Shambat, G.

E. T. Fei, X. Chen, K. Zang, Y. Huo, G. Shambat, G. Miller, X. Liu, R. Dutt, T. I. Kamins, J. Vuckovic, and J. S. Harris, “Investigation of germanium quantum-well light sources,” Opt. Express 23, 22424–22430 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. Shambat, S.-L. Cheng, J. Lu, Y. Nishi, and J. Vuckovic, “Direct band Ge photoluminescence near 1.6  μm coupled to Ge-on-Si microdisk resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 241102 (2010).
[Crossref]

X. Chen, Y. Huo, E. T. Fei, G. Shambat, X. Liu, T. I. Kamins, J. Vuckovic, and J. S. Harris, “Room temperature photoluminescence from Ge/SiGe quantum well structure in microdisk resonator,” in Proceedings of Symposium on Photonics and Optoelectronics (2012), pp. 1–3.

Shang, C.

M.-Y. Kao, X. Chen, Y. Huo, C. Shang, M. Xue, K. Zang, C.-Y. Lu, E. T. Fei, Y. Chen, T. I. Kamins, and J. S. Harris, “Tensile-strained Ge/SiGe quantum-well microdisks with overlying SiNx stressors,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (2016), paper SF1P-1.

Shiraki, Y.

Sigg, H.

S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. Von Den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grützmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9, 88–92 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Süess, R. Geiger, R. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium microbridges,” Nat. Photonics 7, 466–472 (2013).
[Crossref]

Slusher, R.

S. McCall, A. Levi, R. Slusher, S. Pearton, and R. Logan, “Whispering-gallery mode microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 289–291 (1992).
[Crossref]

Soref, R. A.

S. Al-Kabi, S. A. Ghetmiri, J. Margetis, T. Pham, Y. Zhou, W. Dou, B. Collier, R. Quinde, W. Du, A. Mosleh, J. Liu, G. Sun, R. A. Soref, J. Tolle, B. Li, M. Mortazavi, H. A. Naseem, and S.-Q. Yu, “An optically pumped 2.5  μm GeSn laser on Si operating at 110  K,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 171105 (2016).
[Crossref]

Souhabi, J.

O. Pages, J. Souhabi, V. Torres, A. Postnikov, and K. Rustagi, “Re-examination of the SiGe Raman spectra: percolation/one-dimensional-cluster scheme and ab initio calculations,” Phys. Rev. B 86, 045201 (2012).
[Crossref]

Spolenak, R.

M. Süess, R. Geiger, R. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium microbridges,” Nat. Photonics 7, 466–472 (2013).
[Crossref]

Stoffel, M.

G. Katsaros, A. Rastelli, M. Stoffel, G. Isella, H. von Känel, A. Bittner, J. Tersoff, U. Denker, O. Schmidt, G. Costantini, and K. Kern, “Investigating the lateral motion of SiGe islands by selective chemical etching,” Surf. Sci. 600, 2608–2613 (2006).
[Crossref]

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S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. Von Den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grützmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9, 88–92 (2015).
[Crossref]

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M. Süess, R. Geiger, R. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium microbridges,” Nat. Photonics 7, 466–472 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sun, G.

S. Al-Kabi, S. A. Ghetmiri, J. Margetis, T. Pham, Y. Zhou, W. Dou, B. Collier, R. Quinde, W. Du, A. Mosleh, J. Liu, G. Sun, R. A. Soref, J. Tolle, B. Li, M. Mortazavi, H. A. Naseem, and S.-Q. Yu, “An optically pumped 2.5  μm GeSn laser on Si operating at 110  K,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 171105 (2016).
[Crossref]

Tersoff, J.

G. Katsaros, A. Rastelli, M. Stoffel, G. Isella, H. von Känel, A. Bittner, J. Tersoff, U. Denker, O. Schmidt, G. Costantini, and K. Kern, “Investigating the lateral motion of SiGe islands by selective chemical etching,” Surf. Sci. 600, 2608–2613 (2006).
[Crossref]

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Tolle, J.

S. Al-Kabi, S. A. Ghetmiri, J. Margetis, T. Pham, Y. Zhou, W. Dou, B. Collier, R. Quinde, W. Du, A. Mosleh, J. Liu, G. Sun, R. A. Soref, J. Tolle, B. Li, M. Mortazavi, H. A. Naseem, and S.-Q. Yu, “An optically pumped 2.5  μm GeSn laser on Si operating at 110  K,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 171105 (2016).
[Crossref]

Torres, V.

O. Pages, J. Souhabi, V. Torres, A. Postnikov, and K. Rustagi, “Re-examination of the SiGe Raman spectra: percolation/one-dimensional-cluster scheme and ab initio calculations,” Phys. Rev. B 86, 045201 (2012).
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[Crossref]

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S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. Von Den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grützmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9, 88–92 (2015).
[Crossref]

von Känel, H.

G. Katsaros, A. Rastelli, M. Stoffel, G. Isella, H. von Känel, A. Bittner, J. Tersoff, U. Denker, O. Schmidt, G. Costantini, and K. Kern, “Investigating the lateral motion of SiGe islands by selective chemical etching,” Surf. Sci. 600, 2608–2613 (2006).
[Crossref]

Vuckovic, J.

E. T. Fei, X. Chen, K. Zang, Y. Huo, G. Shambat, G. Miller, X. Liu, R. Dutt, T. I. Kamins, J. Vuckovic, and J. S. Harris, “Investigation of germanium quantum-well light sources,” Opt. Express 23, 22424–22430 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Huo, H. Lin, R. Chen, M. Makarova, Y. Rong, M. Li, T. I. Kamins, J. Vuckovic, and J. S. Harris, “Strong enhancement of direct transition photoluminescence with highly tensile-strained Ge grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 011111 (2011).
[Crossref]

G. Shambat, S.-L. Cheng, J. Lu, Y. Nishi, and J. Vuckovic, “Direct band Ge photoluminescence near 1.6  μm coupled to Ge-on-Si microdisk resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 241102 (2010).
[Crossref]

X. Chen, Y. Huo, E. T. Fei, G. Shambat, X. Liu, T. I. Kamins, J. Vuckovic, and J. S. Harris, “Room temperature photoluminescence from Ge/SiGe quantum well structure in microdisk resonator,” in Proceedings of Symposium on Photonics and Optoelectronics (2012), pp. 1–3.

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S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. Von Den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grützmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9, 88–92 (2015).
[Crossref]

Xu, X.

Xue, M.

M.-Y. Kao, X. Chen, Y. Huo, C. Shang, M. Xue, K. Zang, C.-Y. Lu, E. T. Fei, Y. Chen, T. I. Kamins, and J. S. Harris, “Tensile-strained Ge/SiGe quantum-well microdisks with overlying SiNx stressors,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (2016), paper SF1P-1.

Yamamoto, Y.

Yu, S.-Q.

S. Al-Kabi, S. A. Ghetmiri, J. Margetis, T. Pham, Y. Zhou, W. Dou, B. Collier, R. Quinde, W. Du, A. Mosleh, J. Liu, G. Sun, R. A. Soref, J. Tolle, B. Li, M. Mortazavi, H. A. Naseem, and S.-Q. Yu, “An optically pumped 2.5  μm GeSn laser on Si operating at 110  K,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 171105 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zang, K.

E. T. Fei, X. Chen, K. Zang, Y. Huo, G. Shambat, G. Miller, X. Liu, R. Dutt, T. I. Kamins, J. Vuckovic, and J. S. Harris, “Investigation of germanium quantum-well light sources,” Opt. Express 23, 22424–22430 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. Zang, D. Zhang, Y. Huo, X. Chen, C.-Y. Lu, E. T. Fei, T. I. Kamins, X. Feng, Y. Huang, and J. S. Harris, “Microring bio-chemical sensor with integrated low dark current Ge photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 101111 (2015).
[Crossref]

M.-Y. Kao, X. Chen, Y. Huo, C. Shang, M. Xue, K. Zang, C.-Y. Lu, E. T. Fei, Y. Chen, T. I. Kamins, and J. S. Harris, “Tensile-strained Ge/SiGe quantum-well microdisks with overlying SiNx stressors,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (2016), paper SF1P-1.

Zhang, D.

K. Zang, D. Zhang, Y. Huo, X. Chen, C.-Y. Lu, E. T. Fei, T. I. Kamins, X. Feng, Y. Huang, and J. S. Harris, “Microring bio-chemical sensor with integrated low dark current Ge photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 101111 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhou, Y.

S. Al-Kabi, S. A. Ghetmiri, J. Margetis, T. Pham, Y. Zhou, W. Dou, B. Collier, R. Quinde, W. Du, A. Mosleh, J. Liu, G. Sun, R. A. Soref, J. Tolle, B. Li, M. Mortazavi, H. A. Naseem, and S.-Q. Yu, “An optically pumped 2.5  μm GeSn laser on Si operating at 110  K,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 171105 (2016).
[Crossref]

ACS Nano (1)

C. Boztug, J. R. Sánchez-Pérez, F. Cavallo, M. G. Lagally, and R. Paiella, “Strained-germanium nanostructures for infrared photonics,” ACS Nano 8, 3136–3151 (2014).
[Crossref]

ACS Photon. (1)

C. S. Fenrich, X. Chen, R. Chen, Y.-C. Huang, H. Chung, M.-Y. Kao, Y. Huo, T. Kamins, and J. S. Harris, “Strained pseudomorphic Ge1−xSnx multiple quantum well microdisk using SiNy stressor layer,” ACS Photon. 3, 2231–2236 (2016).
[Crossref]

Adv. Opt. Mater. (1)

A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, M. Chaigneau, R. Ossikovski, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “All-around SiN stressor for high and homogeneous tensile strain in germanium microdisk cavities,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3, 353–358 (2015).
[Crossref]

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A. Ghrib, M. De Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, R. Jakomin, G. Beaudoin, S. Sauvage, G. Fishman, G. Ndong, M. Chaigneau, R. Ossikovski, and I. Sagnes, “Control of tensile strain in germanium waveguides through silicon nitride layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 201104 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. Zang, D. Zhang, Y. Huo, X. Chen, C.-Y. Lu, E. T. Fei, T. I. Kamins, X. Feng, Y. Huang, and J. S. Harris, “Microring bio-chemical sensor with integrated low dark current Ge photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 101111 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. Shambat, S.-L. Cheng, J. Lu, Y. Nishi, and J. Vuckovic, “Direct band Ge photoluminescence near 1.6  μm coupled to Ge-on-Si microdisk resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 241102 (2010).
[Crossref]

R. Chen, H. Lin, Y. Huo, C. Hitzman, T. I. Kamins, and J. S. Harris, “Increased photoluminescence of strain-reduced, high-Sn composition Ge1−xSnx alloys grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 181125 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Al-Kabi, S. A. Ghetmiri, J. Margetis, T. Pham, Y. Zhou, W. Dou, B. Collier, R. Quinde, W. Du, A. Mosleh, J. Liu, G. Sun, R. A. Soref, J. Tolle, B. Li, M. Mortazavi, H. A. Naseem, and S.-Q. Yu, “An optically pumped 2.5  μm GeSn laser on Si operating at 110  K,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 171105 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Huo, H. Lin, R. Chen, M. Makarova, Y. Rong, M. Li, T. I. Kamins, J. Vuckovic, and J. S. Harris, “Strong enhancement of direct transition photoluminescence with highly tensile-strained Ge grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 011111 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, M. de Kersauson, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Tensile-strained germanium microdisks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 221112 (2013).
[Crossref]

W. Tsang, “Extremely low threshold (AlGa)As modified multiquantum well heterostructure lasers grown by molecular-beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 39, 786–788 (1981).
[Crossref]

H. K. Choi and C. Wang, “InGaAs/AlGaAs strained single quantum well diode lasers with extremely low threshold current density and high efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 321–323 (1990).
[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

Y. Cai, Z. Han, X. Wang, R. E. Camacho-Aguilera, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, and J. Liu, “Analysis of threshold current behavior for bulk and quantum-well germanium laser structures,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 1901009 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (3)

S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. Von Den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grützmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9, 88–92 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Süess, R. Geiger, R. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium microbridges,” Nat. Photonics 7, 466–472 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, M.-S. Rouifed, S. Cecchi, P. Crozat, G. Isella, and L. Vivien, “Integrated germanium optical interconnects on silicon substrates,” Nat. Photonics 8, 482–488 (2014).
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Nature (1)

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature 437, 1334–1336 (2005).
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Opt. Express (5)

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O. Pages, J. Souhabi, V. Torres, A. Postnikov, and K. Rustagi, “Re-examination of the SiGe Raman spectra: percolation/one-dimensional-cluster scheme and ab initio calculations,” Phys. Rev. B 86, 045201 (2012).
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Surf. Sci. (1)

G. Katsaros, A. Rastelli, M. Stoffel, G. Isella, H. von Känel, A. Bittner, J. Tersoff, U. Denker, O. Schmidt, G. Costantini, and K. Kern, “Investigating the lateral motion of SiGe islands by selective chemical etching,” Surf. Sci. 600, 2608–2613 (2006).
[Crossref]

Other (2)

M.-Y. Kao, X. Chen, Y. Huo, C. Shang, M. Xue, K. Zang, C.-Y. Lu, E. T. Fei, Y. Chen, T. I. Kamins, and J. S. Harris, “Tensile-strained Ge/SiGe quantum-well microdisks with overlying SiNx stressors,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (2016), paper SF1P-1.

X. Chen, Y. Huo, E. T. Fei, G. Shambat, X. Liu, T. I. Kamins, J. Vuckovic, and J. S. Harris, “Room temperature photoluminescence from Ge/SiGe quantum well structure in microdisk resonator,” in Proceedings of Symposium on Photonics and Optoelectronics (2012), pp. 1–3.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Epitaxial stack design and the fabricated Ge/SiGe MQW microdisks. (a) Schematic of the Ge/SiGe MQW epitaxial structure. (b) Scanning electron microscope (SEM) image of a nonsuspended Ge/SiGe MQW microdisk. (c) SEM image of a suspended Ge/SiGe MQW microdisk supported by a Si post.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Room-temperature PL of a suspended Ge/SiGe MQW microdisk exhibiting FP mode resonances. Inset: Bulk Ge reference showing direct bandgap emission at 1550 nm.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

3D-FEM simulation for tensile-strained microdisks. (a) Schematic of type 1, type 2, and type 3 SiNx stressor configurations. (b) Cross section of the simulated strain distribution for a type 1 Ge microdisk. (c) Comparison of strain profiles for all three configurations of Ge/stressor microdisks.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Schematic of the epitaxial stack of the Ge/SiGe MQW microdisk. (b) Fabrication process flow for a tensile-strained, suspended Ge/SiGe MQW microdisk. (c) SEM image of a Ge/SiGe MQW microdisk without SiNx stressor [step 8 in (b)]. (d) SEM image of a Ge/SiGe MQW microdisk with SiNx stressor [step 9 in (b)].

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

PL and Raman characterizations of Ge/SiGe MQW microdisks. (a) Room-temperature PL of strained (red and blue) and unstrained (black) microdisks. (b) Typical Raman spectrum from the center of a microdisk. (c) Raman line scan along the diameter of a strained, suspended Ge/SiGe MQW microdisk.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Comparisons of simulation, PL, and Raman measurements. (a) Devices 1, 2 (440 nm thick, 6 μm diameter). (b) Devices 3, 4 (440 nm thick, 10 μm diameter). (c) Devices 5, 6 (340 nm thick, 6 μm diameter). (d) Devices 7, 8 (340 nm thick, 10 μm diameter).

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Optical gain calculations for Ge/SiGe MQW. (a) Band alignment of strain-balanced Ge/Si0.19Ge0.81 MQW without external strain. (b) Band alignment of strain-balanced Ge/Si0.19Ge0.81 MQW with 1% external biaxial tensile strain. (c) TE and TM net gain spectra for Ge QW with different external biaxial tensile strain, assuming n-type doping concentration of 5×1019  cm3 and an injection of 2×1019  cm3. Without external tensile strain, net gain is negative, meaning lasing is not achieved. As external tensile strain increases, net gain increases remarkably. Peak gain reaches positive 600  cm1 with 1% of external tensile strain.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Parameters of the Investigated Microdisks