Abstract

Transverse mode characteristics of a laser are related to a variety of interesting applications. An on-demand mode solid laser in the 1064 nm band was proposed previously. In this paper, we provide a fiber laser for on-demand modes in the 1550 nm band to prescribe the pure and high-quality emission of a higher-order transverse laser mode, based on a simple construction with one spatial light modulator (SLM) and a single-mode erbium-doped fiber (SM-EDF). The SLM is designated to generate the desired higher-order mode and separate the higher-order mode and the fundamental mode. The fundamental mode oscillates in the fiber ring laser, and therefore the SM-EDF can be pumped with a single-mode 980 nm laser, no matter what higher-order mode is prescribed. In this proof-of-principle experiment, high-quality higher-order modes are observed from LP01 to LP105. Stable emission and real-time switching between modes can be easily realized by altering the phase on the SLM. In addition, the propagation of the LP01, LP11, LP21, and LP02 modes from the fiber laser is also demonstrated in a four-mode few-mode fiber.

© 2017 Chinese Laser Press

Full Article  |  PDF Article
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References

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2016 (2)

2015 (4)

2014 (3)

G. Li, N. Bai, N. Zhao, and C. Xia, “Space-division multiplexing: the next frontier in optical communication,” Adv. Opt. Photon. 6, 413–487 (2014).
[Crossref]

I. Spaleniak, S. Gross, N. Jovanovic, R. J. Williams, J. S. Lawrence, M. J. Ireland, and M. J. Withford, “Multiband processing of multimode light: combining 3D photonic lanterns with waveguide Bragg gratings,” Laser Photon. Rev. 8, L1–L5 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Gross, N. Riesen, J. D. Love, and M. J. Withford, “Three dimensional ultra broadband integrated tapered mode multiplexers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 8, L81–L85 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

S. Ngcobo, I. Litvin, L. Burger, and A. Forbes, “A digital laser for on-demand laser modes,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2289 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. J. Richardson, J. M. Fini, and L. E. Nelson, “Space-division multiplexing in optical fibres,” Nat. Photonics 7, 354–362 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

2010 (1)

2002 (1)

J. Leach, M. J. Padgett, S. M. Barnett, S. Franke-Arnold, and J. Courtial, “Measuring the orbital angular momentum of a single photon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 257901 (2002).
[Crossref]

Ahmed, N.

H. Huang, G. Milione, M. P. J. Lavery, G. Xie, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, T. A. Nguyen, D. A. Nolan, M. Li, M. Tur, R. R. Alfano, and A. E. Willner, “Mode division multiplexing using an orbital angular momentum mode sorter and MIMO-DSP over a graded-index few-mode optical fibre,” Sci. Rep. 5, 14931 (2015).
[Crossref]

Alfano, R. R.

H. Huang, G. Milione, M. P. J. Lavery, G. Xie, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, T. A. Nguyen, D. A. Nolan, M. Li, M. Tur, R. R. Alfano, and A. E. Willner, “Mode division multiplexing using an orbital angular momentum mode sorter and MIMO-DSP over a graded-index few-mode optical fibre,” Sci. Rep. 5, 14931 (2015).
[Crossref]

Arik, S. O.

Bai, N.

Barnett, S. M.

J. Leach, M. J. Padgett, S. M. Barnett, S. Franke-Arnold, and J. Courtial, “Measuring the orbital angular momentum of a single photon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 257901 (2002).
[Crossref]

Bickham, S.

Burger, L.

S. Ngcobo, I. Litvin, L. Burger, and A. Forbes, “A digital laser for on-demand laser modes,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2289 (2013).
[Crossref]

Cai, S.

C. Ma, S. Yu, M. Lan, S. Cai, S. Nie, and W. Gu, “Optimization of super pixel for higher order mode excitation in mode-division multiplexing system,” in Asia Communications and Photonics Conference (2015), paper ASu2A.97.

Cao, Y.

H. Huang, G. Milione, M. P. J. Lavery, G. Xie, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, T. A. Nguyen, D. A. Nolan, M. Li, M. Tur, R. R. Alfano, and A. E. Willner, “Mode division multiplexing using an orbital angular momentum mode sorter and MIMO-DSP over a graded-index few-mode optical fibre,” Sci. Rep. 5, 14931 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chujo, K.

Chung, K. M.

Courtial, J.

J. Leach, M. J. Padgett, S. M. Barnett, S. Franke-Arnold, and J. Courtial, “Measuring the orbital angular momentum of a single photon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 257901 (2002).
[Crossref]

Cui, L.

L. Cui, J. Su, and X. Li, “Distribution of entangled photon pairs over few mode fibers,” in Asia Communications and Photonics Conference (2016), paper AF1D.5.

Dudley, A.

Fang, J.

Fini, J. M.

D. J. Richardson, J. M. Fini, and L. E. Nelson, “Space-division multiplexing in optical fibres,” Nat. Photonics 7, 354–362 (2013).
[Crossref]

Forbes, A.

A. Forbes, A. Dudley, and M. McLaren, “Creation and detection of optical modes with spatial light modulators,” Adv. Opt. Photon. 8, 200–227 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Ngcobo, I. Litvin, L. Burger, and A. Forbes, “A digital laser for on-demand laser modes,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2289 (2013).
[Crossref]

Franke-Arnold, S.

J. Leach, M. J. Padgett, S. M. Barnett, S. Franke-Arnold, and J. Courtial, “Measuring the orbital angular momentum of a single photon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 257901 (2002).
[Crossref]

Gross, S.

I. Spaleniak, S. Gross, N. Jovanovic, R. J. Williams, J. S. Lawrence, M. J. Ireland, and M. J. Withford, “Multiband processing of multimode light: combining 3D photonic lanterns with waveguide Bragg gratings,” Laser Photon. Rev. 8, L1–L5 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Gross, N. Riesen, J. D. Love, and M. J. Withford, “Three dimensional ultra broadband integrated tapered mode multiplexers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 8, L81–L85 (2014).
[Crossref]

Gu, W.

C. Ma, S. Yu, M. Lan, S. Cai, S. Nie, and W. Gu, “Optimization of super pixel for higher order mode excitation in mode-division multiplexing system,” in Asia Communications and Photonics Conference (2015), paper ASu2A.97.

Hamazaki, J.

Hu, Q.

Huang, H.

H. Huang, G. Milione, M. P. J. Lavery, G. Xie, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, T. A. Nguyen, D. A. Nolan, M. Li, M. Tur, R. R. Alfano, and A. E. Willner, “Mode division multiplexing using an orbital angular momentum mode sorter and MIMO-DSP over a graded-index few-mode optical fibre,” Sci. Rep. 5, 14931 (2015).
[Crossref]

Huang, Y.

Ip, E.

Ireland, M. J.

I. Spaleniak, S. Gross, N. Jovanovic, R. J. Williams, J. S. Lawrence, M. J. Ireland, and M. J. Withford, “Multiband processing of multimode light: combining 3D photonic lanterns with waveguide Bragg gratings,” Laser Photon. Rev. 8, L1–L5 (2014).
[Crossref]

Jovanovic, N.

I. Spaleniak, S. Gross, N. Jovanovic, R. J. Williams, J. S. Lawrence, M. J. Ireland, and M. J. Withford, “Multiband processing of multimode light: combining 3D photonic lanterns with waveguide Bragg gratings,” Laser Photon. Rev. 8, L1–L5 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kahn, J. M.

Kim, B. Y.

Kobayashi, Y.

Koechner, W.

W. Koechner, Solid-State Laser Engineering (Springer, 2006).

Lan, M.

C. Ma, S. Yu, M. Lan, S. Cai, S. Nie, and W. Gu, “Optimization of super pixel for higher order mode excitation in mode-division multiplexing system,” in Asia Communications and Photonics Conference (2015), paper ASu2A.97.

Lau, A. P. T.

Lavery, M. P. J.

H. Huang, G. Milione, M. P. J. Lavery, G. Xie, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, T. A. Nguyen, D. A. Nolan, M. Li, M. Tur, R. R. Alfano, and A. E. Willner, “Mode division multiplexing using an orbital angular momentum mode sorter and MIMO-DSP over a graded-index few-mode optical fibre,” Sci. Rep. 5, 14931 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lawrence, J. S.

I. Spaleniak, S. Gross, N. Jovanovic, R. J. Williams, J. S. Lawrence, M. J. Ireland, and M. J. Withford, “Multiband processing of multimode light: combining 3D photonic lanterns with waveguide Bragg gratings,” Laser Photon. Rev. 8, L1–L5 (2014).
[Crossref]

Leach, J.

J. Leach, M. J. Padgett, S. M. Barnett, S. Franke-Arnold, and J. Courtial, “Measuring the orbital angular momentum of a single photon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 257901 (2002).
[Crossref]

Li, A.

Li, G.

Li, M.

Li, X.

L. Cui, J. Su, and X. Li, “Distribution of entangled photon pairs over few mode fibers,” in Asia Communications and Photonics Conference (2016), paper AF1D.5.

Liñares, J.

Litvin, I.

S. Ngcobo, I. Litvin, L. Burger, and A. Forbes, “A digital laser for on-demand laser modes,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2289 (2013).
[Crossref]

Love, J. D.

S. Gross, N. Riesen, J. D. Love, and M. J. Withford, “Three dimensional ultra broadband integrated tapered mode multiplexers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 8, L81–L85 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lu, C.

Luo, Y.

Ma, C.

C. Ma, S. Yu, M. Lan, S. Cai, S. Nie, and W. Gu, “Optimization of super pixel for higher order mode excitation in mode-division multiplexing system,” in Asia Communications and Photonics Conference (2015), paper ASu2A.97.

Mateo, E.

McLaren, M.

Milione, G.

H. Huang, G. Milione, M. P. J. Lavery, G. Xie, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, T. A. Nguyen, D. A. Nolan, M. Li, M. Tur, R. R. Alfano, and A. E. Willner, “Mode division multiplexing using an orbital angular momentum mode sorter and MIMO-DSP over a graded-index few-mode optical fibre,” Sci. Rep. 5, 14931 (2015).
[Crossref]

Montero, C.

Moreno, V.

Morita, R.

Nelson, L. E.

D. J. Richardson, J. M. Fini, and L. E. Nelson, “Space-division multiplexing in optical fibres,” Nat. Photonics 7, 354–362 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ngcobo, S.

S. Ngcobo, I. Litvin, L. Burger, and A. Forbes, “A digital laser for on-demand laser modes,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2289 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nguyen, T. A.

H. Huang, G. Milione, M. P. J. Lavery, G. Xie, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, T. A. Nguyen, D. A. Nolan, M. Li, M. Tur, R. R. Alfano, and A. E. Willner, “Mode division multiplexing using an orbital angular momentum mode sorter and MIMO-DSP over a graded-index few-mode optical fibre,” Sci. Rep. 5, 14931 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nie, S.

C. Ma, S. Yu, M. Lan, S. Cai, S. Nie, and W. Gu, “Optimization of super pixel for higher order mode excitation in mode-division multiplexing system,” in Asia Communications and Photonics Conference (2015), paper ASu2A.97.

Nolan, D. A.

H. Huang, G. Milione, M. P. J. Lavery, G. Xie, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, T. A. Nguyen, D. A. Nolan, M. Li, M. Tur, R. R. Alfano, and A. E. Willner, “Mode division multiplexing using an orbital angular momentum mode sorter and MIMO-DSP over a graded-index few-mode optical fibre,” Sci. Rep. 5, 14931 (2015).
[Crossref]

Omatsu, T.

Padgett, M. J.

J. Leach, M. J. Padgett, S. M. Barnett, S. Franke-Arnold, and J. Courtial, “Measuring the orbital angular momentum of a single photon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 257901 (2002).
[Crossref]

Pan, Z.

Peng, G.-D.

Prieto, X.

Ren, Y.

H. Huang, G. Milione, M. P. J. Lavery, G. Xie, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, T. A. Nguyen, D. A. Nolan, M. Li, M. Tur, R. R. Alfano, and A. E. Willner, “Mode division multiplexing using an orbital angular momentum mode sorter and MIMO-DSP over a graded-index few-mode optical fibre,” Sci. Rep. 5, 14931 (2015).
[Crossref]

Richardson, D. J.

D. J. Richardson, J. M. Fini, and L. E. Nelson, “Space-division multiplexing in optical fibres,” Nat. Photonics 7, 354–362 (2013).
[Crossref]

Riesen, N.

S. Gross, N. Riesen, J. D. Love, and M. J. Withford, “Three dimensional ultra broadband integrated tapered mode multiplexers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 8, L81–L85 (2014).
[Crossref]

Shieh, W.

Spaleniak, I.

I. Spaleniak, S. Gross, N. Jovanovic, R. J. Williams, J. S. Lawrence, M. J. Ireland, and M. J. Withford, “Multiband processing of multimode light: combining 3D photonic lanterns with waveguide Bragg gratings,” Laser Photon. Rev. 8, L1–L5 (2014).
[Crossref]

Su, J.

L. Cui, J. Su, and X. Li, “Distribution of entangled photon pairs over few mode fibers,” in Asia Communications and Photonics Conference (2016), paper AF1D.5.

Tam, H.-Y.

Tanda, S.

Ten, S.

Tse, V.

Tur, M.

H. Huang, G. Milione, M. P. J. Lavery, G. Xie, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, T. A. Nguyen, D. A. Nolan, M. Li, M. Tur, R. R. Alfano, and A. E. Willner, “Mode division multiplexing using an orbital angular momentum mode sorter and MIMO-DSP over a graded-index few-mode optical fibre,” Sci. Rep. 5, 14931 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wang, T.

Wang, Y.

Weng, Y.

Williams, R. J.

I. Spaleniak, S. Gross, N. Jovanovic, R. J. Williams, J. S. Lawrence, M. J. Ireland, and M. J. Withford, “Multiband processing of multimode light: combining 3D photonic lanterns with waveguide Bragg gratings,” Laser Photon. Rev. 8, L1–L5 (2014).
[Crossref]

Willner, A. E.

H. Huang, G. Milione, M. P. J. Lavery, G. Xie, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, T. A. Nguyen, D. A. Nolan, M. Li, M. Tur, R. R. Alfano, and A. E. Willner, “Mode division multiplexing using an orbital angular momentum mode sorter and MIMO-DSP over a graded-index few-mode optical fibre,” Sci. Rep. 5, 14931 (2015).
[Crossref]

Withford, M. J.

I. Spaleniak, S. Gross, N. Jovanovic, R. J. Williams, J. S. Lawrence, M. J. Ireland, and M. J. Withford, “Multiband processing of multimode light: combining 3D photonic lanterns with waveguide Bragg gratings,” Laser Photon. Rev. 8, L1–L5 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Gross, N. Riesen, J. D. Love, and M. J. Withford, “Three dimensional ultra broadband integrated tapered mode multiplexers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 8, L81–L85 (2014).
[Crossref]

Xia, C.

Xie, G.

H. Huang, G. Milione, M. P. J. Lavery, G. Xie, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, T. A. Nguyen, D. A. Nolan, M. Li, M. Tur, R. R. Alfano, and A. E. Willner, “Mode division multiplexing using an orbital angular momentum mode sorter and MIMO-DSP over a graded-index few-mode optical fibre,” Sci. Rep. 5, 14931 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yaman, F.

Yu, S.

C. Ma, S. Yu, M. Lan, S. Cai, S. Nie, and W. Gu, “Optimization of super pixel for higher order mode excitation in mode-division multiplexing system,” in Asia Communications and Photonics Conference (2015), paper ASu2A.97.

Zhao, N.

Adv. Opt. Photon. (2)

Laser Photon. Rev. (2)

I. Spaleniak, S. Gross, N. Jovanovic, R. J. Williams, J. S. Lawrence, M. J. Ireland, and M. J. Withford, “Multiband processing of multimode light: combining 3D photonic lanterns with waveguide Bragg gratings,” Laser Photon. Rev. 8, L1–L5 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Gross, N. Riesen, J. D. Love, and M. J. Withford, “Three dimensional ultra broadband integrated tapered mode multiplexers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 8, L81–L85 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nat. Commun. (1)

S. Ngcobo, I. Litvin, L. Burger, and A. Forbes, “A digital laser for on-demand laser modes,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2289 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (1)

D. J. Richardson, J. M. Fini, and L. E. Nelson, “Space-division multiplexing in optical fibres,” Nat. Photonics 7, 354–362 (2013).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

J. Leach, M. J. Padgett, S. M. Barnett, S. Franke-Arnold, and J. Courtial, “Measuring the orbital angular momentum of a single photon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 257901 (2002).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (1)

H. Huang, G. Milione, M. P. J. Lavery, G. Xie, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, T. A. Nguyen, D. A. Nolan, M. Li, M. Tur, R. R. Alfano, and A. E. Willner, “Mode division multiplexing using an orbital angular momentum mode sorter and MIMO-DSP over a graded-index few-mode optical fibre,” Sci. Rep. 5, 14931 (2015).
[Crossref]

Other (3)

L. Cui, J. Su, and X. Li, “Distribution of entangled photon pairs over few mode fibers,” in Asia Communications and Photonics Conference (2016), paper AF1D.5.

W. Koechner, Solid-State Laser Engineering (Springer, 2006).

C. Ma, S. Yu, M. Lan, S. Cai, S. Nie, and W. Gu, “Optimization of super pixel for higher order mode excitation in mode-division multiplexing system,” in Asia Communications and Photonics Conference (2015), paper ASu2A.97.

Supplementary Material (1)

NameDescription
» Visualization 1: MP4 (5498 KB)      The degree of polarization remains stable.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental setup of on-demand mode laser. PL, 980 nm pump laser; ISO, isolator; Col, fiber collimator; Fi, filter; Pol, polarizer; SMF, single-mode fiber.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Phase setting of superpixel cell, (b) multi-mode mask optimized by superpixel for excitation of the LP21 mode, (c) the simulation results of the simultaneous excitation of the LP01 and LP21 modes, (d), (e) the simulation results for the generation of the LP74 and LP105 modes, respectively, (f) the simultaneous excitation of the LP01 and LP21 modes by using the multi-mode mask in the experiment.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Examples of higher-order mode output from the on-demand mode laser.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Optical intensity distributions of the LP01, LP11, LP21, and LP02 modes before and after propagation in four-mode FMF. (a) The intensity distributions before propagation, captured by a CCD located in the focal point of the lens, and (b) the far-field intensity distributions after propagation in 100 m FMF.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Measured spectrum of the mode generated from the on-demand mode laser and (b) the quantum efficiency of the LP21 mode.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Ψ=angle{A·exp[j(φ1+ϕ1)]+B·exp[j(φ2+ϕ2)]},
ϕn=mod(x·2πΔd,2π),
Ψ=angle{A+B·exp[j(φ2+ϕ2)]}.
Power=0.536+0.47cos(0.84Δθ)0.08sin(0.84Δθ),

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