Abstract

We demonstrate the first commercial production–ready white light-emitting diodes (LEDs) for the general illumination market with red colloidal quantum dots (QDs) applied in an on–chip configuration. We show the red QDs with tunable peak emission and narrow full width at half-maximum in combination with a conventional phosphor material can lead to LED conversion efficiency improvements of 5% to 15% over commercial phosphor based LEDs at correlated color temperatures (CCTs) ranging from 5000 to 2700 K. Furthermore, the challenges associated with reliability under high temperature, high blue flux intensity, and high humidity operation have been overcome to meet consumer market requirements. Finally, a demonstrator lamp at 3000 K color temperature and 90 color rendering index (CRI) with QD based LEDs show a larger efficiency gain up to 17%, attributed to the reduced blue LED droop from the lower drive current and the lower heat sink temperature when compared to a standard phosphor based LED lamp output.

© 2017 Chinese Laser Press

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References

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    [Crossref]
  3. S. F. Wuister, I. Swart, F. van Driel, S. G. Hickey, and C. D. Donega, “Highly luminescent water-soluble CdTe quantum dots,” Nano Lett. 3, 503–507 (2003).
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    [Crossref]

2016 (1)

C. Pu and X. Peng, “To battle surface traps on CdSe/CdS core/shell nanocrystals: shell isolation versus surface treatment,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 138, 8134–8142 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (3)

Y. Gao and X. Peng, “Photogenerated excitons in plain core CdSe nanocrystals with unity radiative decay in single channel: the effects of surface and ligands,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 137, 4230–4235 (2015).
[Crossref]

Q. Hong, K.-C. Lee, Z. Luo, and S.-T. Wu, “High-efficiency quantum dot remote phosphor film,” Appl. Opt. 54, 4617–4622 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Swarnkar, R. Chulliyil, V. K. Ravi, M. Irfanullah, A. Chowdhury, and A. Nag, “Colloidal CsPbBr3 perovskite nanocrystals: luminescence beyond traditional quantum dots,” Angew. Chem. 54, 15424–15428 (2015).

2014 (3)

P. Pust, V. Weiler, C. Hecht, A. Tücks, A. S. Wochnik, A. Henß, D. Wiechert, C. Scheu, P. J. Schmidt, and W. Schnick, “Narrow-band red-emitting Sr[LiAl3 N4]:Eu2+ as a next-generation LED-phosphor material,” Nat. Mater. 13, 891–896 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Tu, J. H. Hoo, K. F. Böhringer, L. Y. Lin, and G. Cao, “Red-emitting silicon quantum dot phosphors in warm white LEDs with excellent color rendering,” Opt. Express 22, A276–A281 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Cui, A. P. Beyler, T. S. Bischof, M. W. B. Wilson, and M. G. Bawendi, “Deconstructing the photon stream from single nanocrystals: from binning to correlation,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 43, 1287–1310 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

S. Jun, J. Lee, and E. Jang, “Highly luminescent and photostable quantum dot-silica monolith and its application to light-emitting diodes,” ACS Nano 7, 1472–1477 (2013).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

H. Kim, J. Y. Han, D. S. Kang, S. W. Kim, D. S. Jang, M. Suh, A. Kirakosyan, and D. Y. Jeon, “Characteristics of CuInS2/ZnS quantum dots and its application on LED,” J. Cryst. Growth 326, 90–93 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

2007 (1)

N. Pradhan and X. Peng, “Efficient and color-tunable Mn-doped ZnSe nanocrystal emitters: control of optical performance via greener synthetic chemistry,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129, 3339–3347 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

H. Chen, C. Hsu, and H. Hong, “InGaN–CdSe–ZnSe quantum dots white LEDs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2005–2007 (2006).
[Crossref]

F. Pinaud, X. Michalet, L. A. Bentolila, J. M. Tsay, S. Doose, J. J. Li, G. Iyer, and S. Weiss, “Advances in fluorescence imaging with quantum dot bio-probes,” Biomaterials 27, 1679–1687 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

Y. Ohno, “Spectral design considerations for white LED color rendering,” Opt. Eng. 44, 111302 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

H. E. Grecco, K. A. Lidke, R. Heintzmann, D. S. Lidke, C. Spagnuolo, O. E. Martinez, E. A. Jares-Erijman, and T. M. Jovin, “Ensemble and single particle photophysical properties (two-photon excitation, anisotropy, FRET, lifetime, spectral conversion) of commercial quantum dots in solution and in live cells,” Microsc. Res. Tech. 65, 169–179 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

S. F. Wuister, I. Swart, F. van Driel, S. G. Hickey, and C. D. Donega, “Highly luminescent water-soluble CdTe quantum dots,” Nano Lett. 3, 503–507 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

P. Reiss, J. Bleuse, and A. Pron, “Highly luminescent CdSe/ZnSe core/shell nanocrystals of low size dispersion,” Nano Lett. 2, 781–784 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

D. V. Talapin, A. L. Rogach, A. Kornowski, M. Haase, and H. Weller, “Highly luminescent monodisperse CdSe and CdSe/ZnS nanocrystals synthesized in a hexadecylamine-trioctylphosphine oxide-trioctylphospine mixture,” Nano Lett. 1, 207–211 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (2)

S. R. Cordero, P. J. Carson, R. A. Estabrook, G. F. Strouse, and S. K. Buratto, “Photo-activated luminescence of CdSe quantum dot monolayers,” J. Phys. Chem. B 104, 12137–12142 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. Lee, V. C. Sundar, J. R. Heine, M. G. Bawendi, and K. F. Jensen, “Full color emission from II ± VI semiconductor,” Adv. Mater. 12, 1102–1105 (2000).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

A. P. Alivisatos, “Semiconductor clusters, nanocrystals, and quantum dots,” Science 271, 933–937 (1996).
[Crossref]

Alivisatos, A. P.

A. P. Alivisatos, “Semiconductor clusters, nanocrystals, and quantum dots,” Science 271, 933–937 (1996).
[Crossref]

Bardsley, N.

J. Brodrick, N. Bardsley, M. Hansen, L. Pattison, M. Pattison, K. Stober, V. Taylor, J. Tsao, and M. Yamada, Solid-State Lighting 2016 R&D Plan (2016).

Bawendi, M. G.

J. Cui, A. P. Beyler, T. S. Bischof, M. W. B. Wilson, and M. G. Bawendi, “Deconstructing the photon stream from single nanocrystals: from binning to correlation,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 43, 1287–1310 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Lee, V. C. Sundar, J. R. Heine, M. G. Bawendi, and K. F. Jensen, “Full color emission from II ± VI semiconductor,” Adv. Mater. 12, 1102–1105 (2000).
[Crossref]

Bentolila, L. A.

F. Pinaud, X. Michalet, L. A. Bentolila, J. M. Tsay, S. Doose, J. J. Li, G. Iyer, and S. Weiss, “Advances in fluorescence imaging with quantum dot bio-probes,” Biomaterials 27, 1679–1687 (2006).
[Crossref]

Beyler, A. P.

J. Cui, A. P. Beyler, T. S. Bischof, M. W. B. Wilson, and M. G. Bawendi, “Deconstructing the photon stream from single nanocrystals: from binning to correlation,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 43, 1287–1310 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bischof, T. S.

J. Cui, A. P. Beyler, T. S. Bischof, M. W. B. Wilson, and M. G. Bawendi, “Deconstructing the photon stream from single nanocrystals: from binning to correlation,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 43, 1287–1310 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bleuse, J.

P. Reiss, J. Bleuse, and A. Pron, “Highly luminescent CdSe/ZnSe core/shell nanocrystals of low size dispersion,” Nano Lett. 2, 781–784 (2002).
[Crossref]

Böhringer, K. F.

Breen, C. A.

R. J. Nick, C. A. Breen, C. M. Denton, S. Sadasivan, and J. R. Linton, “Method of making components including quantum dots, methods and products,” U.S. patentUS 20140027673 A1 (Jan.302014).

Brodrick, J.

J. Brodrick, N. Bardsley, M. Hansen, L. Pattison, M. Pattison, K. Stober, V. Taylor, J. Tsao, and M. Yamada, Solid-State Lighting 2016 R&D Plan (2016).

Buratto, S. K.

S. R. Cordero, P. J. Carson, R. A. Estabrook, G. F. Strouse, and S. K. Buratto, “Photo-activated luminescence of CdSe quantum dot monolayers,” J. Phys. Chem. B 104, 12137–12142 (2000).
[Crossref]

Cao, G.

Carson, P. J.

S. R. Cordero, P. J. Carson, R. A. Estabrook, G. F. Strouse, and S. K. Buratto, “Photo-activated luminescence of CdSe quantum dot monolayers,” J. Phys. Chem. B 104, 12137–12142 (2000).
[Crossref]

Chen, H.

H. Chen, C. Hsu, and H. Hong, “InGaN–CdSe–ZnSe quantum dots white LEDs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2005–2007 (2006).
[Crossref]

Chowdhury, A.

A. Swarnkar, R. Chulliyil, V. K. Ravi, M. Irfanullah, A. Chowdhury, and A. Nag, “Colloidal CsPbBr3 perovskite nanocrystals: luminescence beyond traditional quantum dots,” Angew. Chem. 54, 15424–15428 (2015).

Chulliyil, R.

A. Swarnkar, R. Chulliyil, V. K. Ravi, M. Irfanullah, A. Chowdhury, and A. Nag, “Colloidal CsPbBr3 perovskite nanocrystals: luminescence beyond traditional quantum dots,” Angew. Chem. 54, 15424–15428 (2015).

Cordero, S. R.

S. R. Cordero, P. J. Carson, R. A. Estabrook, G. F. Strouse, and S. K. Buratto, “Photo-activated luminescence of CdSe quantum dot monolayers,” J. Phys. Chem. B 104, 12137–12142 (2000).
[Crossref]

Cui, J.

J. Cui, A. P. Beyler, T. S. Bischof, M. W. B. Wilson, and M. G. Bawendi, “Deconstructing the photon stream from single nanocrystals: from binning to correlation,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 43, 1287–1310 (2014).
[Crossref]

Demir, H. V.

Denton, C. M.

R. J. Nick, C. A. Breen, C. M. Denton, S. Sadasivan, and J. R. Linton, “Method of making components including quantum dots, methods and products,” U.S. patentUS 20140027673 A1 (Jan.302014).

Donega, C. D.

S. F. Wuister, I. Swart, F. van Driel, S. G. Hickey, and C. D. Donega, “Highly luminescent water-soluble CdTe quantum dots,” Nano Lett. 3, 503–507 (2003).
[Crossref]

Doose, S.

F. Pinaud, X. Michalet, L. A. Bentolila, J. M. Tsay, S. Doose, J. J. Li, G. Iyer, and S. Weiss, “Advances in fluorescence imaging with quantum dot bio-probes,” Biomaterials 27, 1679–1687 (2006).
[Crossref]

Duclos, S. J.

A. R. Duggal, A. M. Srivastava, L. M. Levinson, and S. J. Duclos, “Color tunable light source,” U.S. patentUS6357889 B1 (Mar.192002).

Duggal, A. R.

A. R. Duggal, A. M. Srivastava, L. M. Levinson, and S. J. Duclos, “Color tunable light source,” U.S. patentUS6357889 B1 (Mar.192002).

Erdem, T.

Estabrook, R. A.

S. R. Cordero, P. J. Carson, R. A. Estabrook, G. F. Strouse, and S. K. Buratto, “Photo-activated luminescence of CdSe quantum dot monolayers,” J. Phys. Chem. B 104, 12137–12142 (2000).
[Crossref]

Gao, Y.

Y. Gao and X. Peng, “Photogenerated excitons in plain core CdSe nanocrystals with unity radiative decay in single channel: the effects of surface and ligands,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 137, 4230–4235 (2015).
[Crossref]

Grecco, H. E.

H. E. Grecco, K. A. Lidke, R. Heintzmann, D. S. Lidke, C. Spagnuolo, O. E. Martinez, E. A. Jares-Erijman, and T. M. Jovin, “Ensemble and single particle photophysical properties (two-photon excitation, anisotropy, FRET, lifetime, spectral conversion) of commercial quantum dots in solution and in live cells,” Microsc. Res. Tech. 65, 169–179 (2004).
[Crossref]

Haase, M.

D. V. Talapin, A. L. Rogach, A. Kornowski, M. Haase, and H. Weller, “Highly luminescent monodisperse CdSe and CdSe/ZnS nanocrystals synthesized in a hexadecylamine-trioctylphosphine oxide-trioctylphospine mixture,” Nano Lett. 1, 207–211 (2001).
[Crossref]

Han, J. Y.

H. Kim, J. Y. Han, D. S. Kang, S. W. Kim, D. S. Jang, M. Suh, A. Kirakosyan, and D. Y. Jeon, “Characteristics of CuInS2/ZnS quantum dots and its application on LED,” J. Cryst. Growth 326, 90–93 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hansen, M.

J. Brodrick, N. Bardsley, M. Hansen, L. Pattison, M. Pattison, K. Stober, V. Taylor, J. Tsao, and M. Yamada, Solid-State Lighting 2016 R&D Plan (2016).

Hecht, C.

P. Pust, V. Weiler, C. Hecht, A. Tücks, A. S. Wochnik, A. Henß, D. Wiechert, C. Scheu, P. J. Schmidt, and W. Schnick, “Narrow-band red-emitting Sr[LiAl3 N4]:Eu2+ as a next-generation LED-phosphor material,” Nat. Mater. 13, 891–896 (2014).
[Crossref]

Heine, J. R.

J. Lee, V. C. Sundar, J. R. Heine, M. G. Bawendi, and K. F. Jensen, “Full color emission from II ± VI semiconductor,” Adv. Mater. 12, 1102–1105 (2000).
[Crossref]

Heintzmann, R.

H. E. Grecco, K. A. Lidke, R. Heintzmann, D. S. Lidke, C. Spagnuolo, O. E. Martinez, E. A. Jares-Erijman, and T. M. Jovin, “Ensemble and single particle photophysical properties (two-photon excitation, anisotropy, FRET, lifetime, spectral conversion) of commercial quantum dots in solution and in live cells,” Microsc. Res. Tech. 65, 169–179 (2004).
[Crossref]

Henß, A.

P. Pust, V. Weiler, C. Hecht, A. Tücks, A. S. Wochnik, A. Henß, D. Wiechert, C. Scheu, P. J. Schmidt, and W. Schnick, “Narrow-band red-emitting Sr[LiAl3 N4]:Eu2+ as a next-generation LED-phosphor material,” Nat. Mater. 13, 891–896 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hickey, S. G.

S. F. Wuister, I. Swart, F. van Driel, S. G. Hickey, and C. D. Donega, “Highly luminescent water-soluble CdTe quantum dots,” Nano Lett. 3, 503–507 (2003).
[Crossref]

Hong, H.

H. Chen, C. Hsu, and H. Hong, “InGaN–CdSe–ZnSe quantum dots white LEDs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2005–2007 (2006).
[Crossref]

Hong, Q.

Hoo, J. H.

Hsu, C.

H. Chen, C. Hsu, and H. Hong, “InGaN–CdSe–ZnSe quantum dots white LEDs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2005–2007 (2006).
[Crossref]

Irfanullah, M.

A. Swarnkar, R. Chulliyil, V. K. Ravi, M. Irfanullah, A. Chowdhury, and A. Nag, “Colloidal CsPbBr3 perovskite nanocrystals: luminescence beyond traditional quantum dots,” Angew. Chem. 54, 15424–15428 (2015).

Iyer, G.

F. Pinaud, X. Michalet, L. A. Bentolila, J. M. Tsay, S. Doose, J. J. Li, G. Iyer, and S. Weiss, “Advances in fluorescence imaging with quantum dot bio-probes,” Biomaterials 27, 1679–1687 (2006).
[Crossref]

Jang, D. S.

H. Kim, J. Y. Han, D. S. Kang, S. W. Kim, D. S. Jang, M. Suh, A. Kirakosyan, and D. Y. Jeon, “Characteristics of CuInS2/ZnS quantum dots and its application on LED,” J. Cryst. Growth 326, 90–93 (2011).
[Crossref]

Jang, E.

S. Jun, J. Lee, and E. Jang, “Highly luminescent and photostable quantum dot-silica monolith and its application to light-emitting diodes,” ACS Nano 7, 1472–1477 (2013).
[Crossref]

Jares-Erijman, E. A.

H. E. Grecco, K. A. Lidke, R. Heintzmann, D. S. Lidke, C. Spagnuolo, O. E. Martinez, E. A. Jares-Erijman, and T. M. Jovin, “Ensemble and single particle photophysical properties (two-photon excitation, anisotropy, FRET, lifetime, spectral conversion) of commercial quantum dots in solution and in live cells,” Microsc. Res. Tech. 65, 169–179 (2004).
[Crossref]

Jensen, K. F.

J. Lee, V. C. Sundar, J. R. Heine, M. G. Bawendi, and K. F. Jensen, “Full color emission from II ± VI semiconductor,” Adv. Mater. 12, 1102–1105 (2000).
[Crossref]

Jeon, D. Y.

H. Kim, J. Y. Han, D. S. Kang, S. W. Kim, D. S. Jang, M. Suh, A. Kirakosyan, and D. Y. Jeon, “Characteristics of CuInS2/ZnS quantum dots and its application on LED,” J. Cryst. Growth 326, 90–93 (2011).
[Crossref]

Jovin, T. M.

H. E. Grecco, K. A. Lidke, R. Heintzmann, D. S. Lidke, C. Spagnuolo, O. E. Martinez, E. A. Jares-Erijman, and T. M. Jovin, “Ensemble and single particle photophysical properties (two-photon excitation, anisotropy, FRET, lifetime, spectral conversion) of commercial quantum dots in solution and in live cells,” Microsc. Res. Tech. 65, 169–179 (2004).
[Crossref]

Jun, S.

S. Jun, J. Lee, and E. Jang, “Highly luminescent and photostable quantum dot-silica monolith and its application to light-emitting diodes,” ACS Nano 7, 1472–1477 (2013).
[Crossref]

Jung, H.

A. Mnoyan, Y. Lee, H. Jung, and S. Kim, Phosphors, Up Conversion Nano Particles, Quantum Dots and their Applications (Springer, 2016), Vol. 2, pp. 437–471.

Kang, D. S.

H. Kim, J. Y. Han, D. S. Kang, S. W. Kim, D. S. Jang, M. Suh, A. Kirakosyan, and D. Y. Jeon, “Characteristics of CuInS2/ZnS quantum dots and its application on LED,” J. Cryst. Growth 326, 90–93 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kim, H.

H. Kim, J. Y. Han, D. S. Kang, S. W. Kim, D. S. Jang, M. Suh, A. Kirakosyan, and D. Y. Jeon, “Characteristics of CuInS2/ZnS quantum dots and its application on LED,” J. Cryst. Growth 326, 90–93 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kim, S.

S. Kim, K. Taehoon, and S.-W. K. Kim, “Highly luminescent InP/GaP/ZnS nanocrystals and their application to white LED SI,” 1–9 (2011).

A. Mnoyan, Y. Lee, H. Jung, and S. Kim, Phosphors, Up Conversion Nano Particles, Quantum Dots and their Applications (Springer, 2016), Vol. 2, pp. 437–471.

Kim, S. W.

H. Kim, J. Y. Han, D. S. Kang, S. W. Kim, D. S. Jang, M. Suh, A. Kirakosyan, and D. Y. Jeon, “Characteristics of CuInS2/ZnS quantum dots and its application on LED,” J. Cryst. Growth 326, 90–93 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kim, S.-W. K.

S. Kim, K. Taehoon, and S.-W. K. Kim, “Highly luminescent InP/GaP/ZnS nanocrystals and their application to white LED SI,” 1–9 (2011).

Kirakosyan, A.

H. Kim, J. Y. Han, D. S. Kang, S. W. Kim, D. S. Jang, M. Suh, A. Kirakosyan, and D. Y. Jeon, “Characteristics of CuInS2/ZnS quantum dots and its application on LED,” J. Cryst. Growth 326, 90–93 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kornowski, A.

D. V. Talapin, A. L. Rogach, A. Kornowski, M. Haase, and H. Weller, “Highly luminescent monodisperse CdSe and CdSe/ZnS nanocrystals synthesized in a hexadecylamine-trioctylphosphine oxide-trioctylphospine mixture,” Nano Lett. 1, 207–211 (2001).
[Crossref]

Lee, J.

S. Jun, J. Lee, and E. Jang, “Highly luminescent and photostable quantum dot-silica monolith and its application to light-emitting diodes,” ACS Nano 7, 1472–1477 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Lee, V. C. Sundar, J. R. Heine, M. G. Bawendi, and K. F. Jensen, “Full color emission from II ± VI semiconductor,” Adv. Mater. 12, 1102–1105 (2000).
[Crossref]

Lee, K.-C.

Lee, Y.

A. Mnoyan, Y. Lee, H. Jung, and S. Kim, Phosphors, Up Conversion Nano Particles, Quantum Dots and their Applications (Springer, 2016), Vol. 2, pp. 437–471.

Levinson, L. M.

A. R. Duggal, A. M. Srivastava, L. M. Levinson, and S. J. Duclos, “Color tunable light source,” U.S. patentUS6357889 B1 (Mar.192002).

Li, J. J.

F. Pinaud, X. Michalet, L. A. Bentolila, J. M. Tsay, S. Doose, J. J. Li, G. Iyer, and S. Weiss, “Advances in fluorescence imaging with quantum dot bio-probes,” Biomaterials 27, 1679–1687 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lidke, D. S.

H. E. Grecco, K. A. Lidke, R. Heintzmann, D. S. Lidke, C. Spagnuolo, O. E. Martinez, E. A. Jares-Erijman, and T. M. Jovin, “Ensemble and single particle photophysical properties (two-photon excitation, anisotropy, FRET, lifetime, spectral conversion) of commercial quantum dots in solution and in live cells,” Microsc. Res. Tech. 65, 169–179 (2004).
[Crossref]

Lidke, K. A.

H. E. Grecco, K. A. Lidke, R. Heintzmann, D. S. Lidke, C. Spagnuolo, O. E. Martinez, E. A. Jares-Erijman, and T. M. Jovin, “Ensemble and single particle photophysical properties (two-photon excitation, anisotropy, FRET, lifetime, spectral conversion) of commercial quantum dots in solution and in live cells,” Microsc. Res. Tech. 65, 169–179 (2004).
[Crossref]

Lin, L. Y.

Linton, J. R.

R. J. Nick, C. A. Breen, C. M. Denton, S. Sadasivan, and J. R. Linton, “Method of making components including quantum dots, methods and products,” U.S. patentUS 20140027673 A1 (Jan.302014).

Luo, Z.

Martinez, O. E.

H. E. Grecco, K. A. Lidke, R. Heintzmann, D. S. Lidke, C. Spagnuolo, O. E. Martinez, E. A. Jares-Erijman, and T. M. Jovin, “Ensemble and single particle photophysical properties (two-photon excitation, anisotropy, FRET, lifetime, spectral conversion) of commercial quantum dots in solution and in live cells,” Microsc. Res. Tech. 65, 169–179 (2004).
[Crossref]

Michalet, X.

F. Pinaud, X. Michalet, L. A. Bentolila, J. M. Tsay, S. Doose, J. J. Li, G. Iyer, and S. Weiss, “Advances in fluorescence imaging with quantum dot bio-probes,” Biomaterials 27, 1679–1687 (2006).
[Crossref]

Mnoyan, A.

A. Mnoyan, Y. Lee, H. Jung, and S. Kim, Phosphors, Up Conversion Nano Particles, Quantum Dots and their Applications (Springer, 2016), Vol. 2, pp. 437–471.

Nag, A.

A. Swarnkar, R. Chulliyil, V. K. Ravi, M. Irfanullah, A. Chowdhury, and A. Nag, “Colloidal CsPbBr3 perovskite nanocrystals: luminescence beyond traditional quantum dots,” Angew. Chem. 54, 15424–15428 (2015).

Nick, R. J.

R. J. Nick, C. A. Breen, C. M. Denton, S. Sadasivan, and J. R. Linton, “Method of making components including quantum dots, methods and products,” U.S. patentUS 20140027673 A1 (Jan.302014).

Nizamoglu, S.

Ohno, Y.

Y. Ohno, “Spectral design considerations for white LED color rendering,” Opt. Eng. 44, 111302 (2005).
[Crossref]

Pattison, L.

J. Brodrick, N. Bardsley, M. Hansen, L. Pattison, M. Pattison, K. Stober, V. Taylor, J. Tsao, and M. Yamada, Solid-State Lighting 2016 R&D Plan (2016).

Pattison, M.

J. Brodrick, N. Bardsley, M. Hansen, L. Pattison, M. Pattison, K. Stober, V. Taylor, J. Tsao, and M. Yamada, Solid-State Lighting 2016 R&D Plan (2016).

Peng, X.

C. Pu and X. Peng, “To battle surface traps on CdSe/CdS core/shell nanocrystals: shell isolation versus surface treatment,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 138, 8134–8142 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Gao and X. Peng, “Photogenerated excitons in plain core CdSe nanocrystals with unity radiative decay in single channel: the effects of surface and ligands,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 137, 4230–4235 (2015).
[Crossref]

N. Pradhan and X. Peng, “Efficient and color-tunable Mn-doped ZnSe nanocrystal emitters: control of optical performance via greener synthetic chemistry,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129, 3339–3347 (2007).
[Crossref]

Pinaud, F.

F. Pinaud, X. Michalet, L. A. Bentolila, J. M. Tsay, S. Doose, J. J. Li, G. Iyer, and S. Weiss, “Advances in fluorescence imaging with quantum dot bio-probes,” Biomaterials 27, 1679–1687 (2006).
[Crossref]

Pradhan, N.

N. Pradhan and X. Peng, “Efficient and color-tunable Mn-doped ZnSe nanocrystal emitters: control of optical performance via greener synthetic chemistry,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129, 3339–3347 (2007).
[Crossref]

Pron, A.

P. Reiss, J. Bleuse, and A. Pron, “Highly luminescent CdSe/ZnSe core/shell nanocrystals of low size dispersion,” Nano Lett. 2, 781–784 (2002).
[Crossref]

Pu, C.

C. Pu and X. Peng, “To battle surface traps on CdSe/CdS core/shell nanocrystals: shell isolation versus surface treatment,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 138, 8134–8142 (2016).
[Crossref]

Pust, P.

P. Pust, V. Weiler, C. Hecht, A. Tücks, A. S. Wochnik, A. Henß, D. Wiechert, C. Scheu, P. J. Schmidt, and W. Schnick, “Narrow-band red-emitting Sr[LiAl3 N4]:Eu2+ as a next-generation LED-phosphor material,” Nat. Mater. 13, 891–896 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ravi, V. K.

A. Swarnkar, R. Chulliyil, V. K. Ravi, M. Irfanullah, A. Chowdhury, and A. Nag, “Colloidal CsPbBr3 perovskite nanocrystals: luminescence beyond traditional quantum dots,” Angew. Chem. 54, 15424–15428 (2015).

Reiss, P.

P. Reiss, J. Bleuse, and A. Pron, “Highly luminescent CdSe/ZnSe core/shell nanocrystals of low size dispersion,” Nano Lett. 2, 781–784 (2002).
[Crossref]

Rogach, A. L.

D. V. Talapin, A. L. Rogach, A. Kornowski, M. Haase, and H. Weller, “Highly luminescent monodisperse CdSe and CdSe/ZnS nanocrystals synthesized in a hexadecylamine-trioctylphosphine oxide-trioctylphospine mixture,” Nano Lett. 1, 207–211 (2001).
[Crossref]

Sadasivan, S.

R. J. Nick, C. A. Breen, C. M. Denton, S. Sadasivan, and J. R. Linton, “Method of making components including quantum dots, methods and products,” U.S. patentUS 20140027673 A1 (Jan.302014).

Scheu, C.

P. Pust, V. Weiler, C. Hecht, A. Tücks, A. S. Wochnik, A. Henß, D. Wiechert, C. Scheu, P. J. Schmidt, and W. Schnick, “Narrow-band red-emitting Sr[LiAl3 N4]:Eu2+ as a next-generation LED-phosphor material,” Nat. Mater. 13, 891–896 (2014).
[Crossref]

Schmidt, P. J.

P. Pust, V. Weiler, C. Hecht, A. Tücks, A. S. Wochnik, A. Henß, D. Wiechert, C. Scheu, P. J. Schmidt, and W. Schnick, “Narrow-band red-emitting Sr[LiAl3 N4]:Eu2+ as a next-generation LED-phosphor material,” Nat. Mater. 13, 891–896 (2014).
[Crossref]

Schnick, W.

P. Pust, V. Weiler, C. Hecht, A. Tücks, A. S. Wochnik, A. Henß, D. Wiechert, C. Scheu, P. J. Schmidt, and W. Schnick, “Narrow-band red-emitting Sr[LiAl3 N4]:Eu2+ as a next-generation LED-phosphor material,” Nat. Mater. 13, 891–896 (2014).
[Crossref]

Spagnuolo, C.

H. E. Grecco, K. A. Lidke, R. Heintzmann, D. S. Lidke, C. Spagnuolo, O. E. Martinez, E. A. Jares-Erijman, and T. M. Jovin, “Ensemble and single particle photophysical properties (two-photon excitation, anisotropy, FRET, lifetime, spectral conversion) of commercial quantum dots in solution and in live cells,” Microsc. Res. Tech. 65, 169–179 (2004).
[Crossref]

Srivastava, A. M.

A. R. Duggal, A. M. Srivastava, L. M. Levinson, and S. J. Duclos, “Color tunable light source,” U.S. patentUS6357889 B1 (Mar.192002).

Stober, K.

J. Brodrick, N. Bardsley, M. Hansen, L. Pattison, M. Pattison, K. Stober, V. Taylor, J. Tsao, and M. Yamada, Solid-State Lighting 2016 R&D Plan (2016).

Strouse, G. F.

S. R. Cordero, P. J. Carson, R. A. Estabrook, G. F. Strouse, and S. K. Buratto, “Photo-activated luminescence of CdSe quantum dot monolayers,” J. Phys. Chem. B 104, 12137–12142 (2000).
[Crossref]

Suh, M.

H. Kim, J. Y. Han, D. S. Kang, S. W. Kim, D. S. Jang, M. Suh, A. Kirakosyan, and D. Y. Jeon, “Characteristics of CuInS2/ZnS quantum dots and its application on LED,” J. Cryst. Growth 326, 90–93 (2011).
[Crossref]

Sun, X. W.

Sundar, V. C.

J. Lee, V. C. Sundar, J. R. Heine, M. G. Bawendi, and K. F. Jensen, “Full color emission from II ± VI semiconductor,” Adv. Mater. 12, 1102–1105 (2000).
[Crossref]

Swarnkar, A.

A. Swarnkar, R. Chulliyil, V. K. Ravi, M. Irfanullah, A. Chowdhury, and A. Nag, “Colloidal CsPbBr3 perovskite nanocrystals: luminescence beyond traditional quantum dots,” Angew. Chem. 54, 15424–15428 (2015).

Swart, I.

S. F. Wuister, I. Swart, F. van Driel, S. G. Hickey, and C. D. Donega, “Highly luminescent water-soluble CdTe quantum dots,” Nano Lett. 3, 503–507 (2003).
[Crossref]

Taehoon, K.

S. Kim, K. Taehoon, and S.-W. K. Kim, “Highly luminescent InP/GaP/ZnS nanocrystals and their application to white LED SI,” 1–9 (2011).

Talapin, D. V.

D. V. Talapin, A. L. Rogach, A. Kornowski, M. Haase, and H. Weller, “Highly luminescent monodisperse CdSe and CdSe/ZnS nanocrystals synthesized in a hexadecylamine-trioctylphosphine oxide-trioctylphospine mixture,” Nano Lett. 1, 207–211 (2001).
[Crossref]

Taylor, V.

J. Brodrick, N. Bardsley, M. Hansen, L. Pattison, M. Pattison, K. Stober, V. Taylor, J. Tsao, and M. Yamada, Solid-State Lighting 2016 R&D Plan (2016).

Tsao, J.

J. Brodrick, N. Bardsley, M. Hansen, L. Pattison, M. Pattison, K. Stober, V. Taylor, J. Tsao, and M. Yamada, Solid-State Lighting 2016 R&D Plan (2016).

Tsay, J. M.

F. Pinaud, X. Michalet, L. A. Bentolila, J. M. Tsay, S. Doose, J. J. Li, G. Iyer, and S. Weiss, “Advances in fluorescence imaging with quantum dot bio-probes,” Biomaterials 27, 1679–1687 (2006).
[Crossref]

Tu, C.

Tücks, A.

P. Pust, V. Weiler, C. Hecht, A. Tücks, A. S. Wochnik, A. Henß, D. Wiechert, C. Scheu, P. J. Schmidt, and W. Schnick, “Narrow-band red-emitting Sr[LiAl3 N4]:Eu2+ as a next-generation LED-phosphor material,” Nat. Mater. 13, 891–896 (2014).
[Crossref]

van Driel, F.

S. F. Wuister, I. Swart, F. van Driel, S. G. Hickey, and C. D. Donega, “Highly luminescent water-soluble CdTe quantum dots,” Nano Lett. 3, 503–507 (2003).
[Crossref]

Virey, E.

E. Virey, From Technologies to Market Phosphors and Quantum Dots LED Downconverters for Lighting and Display Applications (2015).

Weiler, V.

P. Pust, V. Weiler, C. Hecht, A. Tücks, A. S. Wochnik, A. Henß, D. Wiechert, C. Scheu, P. J. Schmidt, and W. Schnick, “Narrow-band red-emitting Sr[LiAl3 N4]:Eu2+ as a next-generation LED-phosphor material,” Nat. Mater. 13, 891–896 (2014).
[Crossref]

Weiss, S.

F. Pinaud, X. Michalet, L. A. Bentolila, J. M. Tsay, S. Doose, J. J. Li, G. Iyer, and S. Weiss, “Advances in fluorescence imaging with quantum dot bio-probes,” Biomaterials 27, 1679–1687 (2006).
[Crossref]

Weller, H.

D. V. Talapin, A. L. Rogach, A. Kornowski, M. Haase, and H. Weller, “Highly luminescent monodisperse CdSe and CdSe/ZnS nanocrystals synthesized in a hexadecylamine-trioctylphosphine oxide-trioctylphospine mixture,” Nano Lett. 1, 207–211 (2001).
[Crossref]

Wiechert, D.

P. Pust, V. Weiler, C. Hecht, A. Tücks, A. S. Wochnik, A. Henß, D. Wiechert, C. Scheu, P. J. Schmidt, and W. Schnick, “Narrow-band red-emitting Sr[LiAl3 N4]:Eu2+ as a next-generation LED-phosphor material,” Nat. Mater. 13, 891–896 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wilson, M. W. B.

J. Cui, A. P. Beyler, T. S. Bischof, M. W. B. Wilson, and M. G. Bawendi, “Deconstructing the photon stream from single nanocrystals: from binning to correlation,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 43, 1287–1310 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wochnik, A. S.

P. Pust, V. Weiler, C. Hecht, A. Tücks, A. S. Wochnik, A. Henß, D. Wiechert, C. Scheu, P. J. Schmidt, and W. Schnick, “Narrow-band red-emitting Sr[LiAl3 N4]:Eu2+ as a next-generation LED-phosphor material,” Nat. Mater. 13, 891–896 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wu, S.-T.

Wuister, S. F.

S. F. Wuister, I. Swart, F. van Driel, S. G. Hickey, and C. D. Donega, “Highly luminescent water-soluble CdTe quantum dots,” Nano Lett. 3, 503–507 (2003).
[Crossref]

Yamada, M.

J. Brodrick, N. Bardsley, M. Hansen, L. Pattison, M. Pattison, K. Stober, V. Taylor, J. Tsao, and M. Yamada, Solid-State Lighting 2016 R&D Plan (2016).

ACS Nano (1)

S. Jun, J. Lee, and E. Jang, “Highly luminescent and photostable quantum dot-silica monolith and its application to light-emitting diodes,” ACS Nano 7, 1472–1477 (2013).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater. (1)

J. Lee, V. C. Sundar, J. R. Heine, M. G. Bawendi, and K. F. Jensen, “Full color emission from II ± VI semiconductor,” Adv. Mater. 12, 1102–1105 (2000).
[Crossref]

Angew. Chem. (1)

A. Swarnkar, R. Chulliyil, V. K. Ravi, M. Irfanullah, A. Chowdhury, and A. Nag, “Colloidal CsPbBr3 perovskite nanocrystals: luminescence beyond traditional quantum dots,” Angew. Chem. 54, 15424–15428 (2015).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Biomaterials (1)

F. Pinaud, X. Michalet, L. A. Bentolila, J. M. Tsay, S. Doose, J. J. Li, G. Iyer, and S. Weiss, “Advances in fluorescence imaging with quantum dot bio-probes,” Biomaterials 27, 1679–1687 (2006).
[Crossref]

Chem. Soc. Rev. (1)

J. Cui, A. P. Beyler, T. S. Bischof, M. W. B. Wilson, and M. G. Bawendi, “Deconstructing the photon stream from single nanocrystals: from binning to correlation,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 43, 1287–1310 (2014).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

H. Chen, C. Hsu, and H. Hong, “InGaN–CdSe–ZnSe quantum dots white LEDs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2005–2007 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (3)

Y. Gao and X. Peng, “Photogenerated excitons in plain core CdSe nanocrystals with unity radiative decay in single channel: the effects of surface and ligands,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 137, 4230–4235 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Pu and X. Peng, “To battle surface traps on CdSe/CdS core/shell nanocrystals: shell isolation versus surface treatment,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 138, 8134–8142 (2016).
[Crossref]

N. Pradhan and X. Peng, “Efficient and color-tunable Mn-doped ZnSe nanocrystal emitters: control of optical performance via greener synthetic chemistry,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129, 3339–3347 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Cryst. Growth (1)

H. Kim, J. Y. Han, D. S. Kang, S. W. Kim, D. S. Jang, M. Suh, A. Kirakosyan, and D. Y. Jeon, “Characteristics of CuInS2/ZnS quantum dots and its application on LED,” J. Cryst. Growth 326, 90–93 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. Chem. B (1)

S. R. Cordero, P. J. Carson, R. A. Estabrook, G. F. Strouse, and S. K. Buratto, “Photo-activated luminescence of CdSe quantum dot monolayers,” J. Phys. Chem. B 104, 12137–12142 (2000).
[Crossref]

Microsc. Res. Tech. (1)

H. E. Grecco, K. A. Lidke, R. Heintzmann, D. S. Lidke, C. Spagnuolo, O. E. Martinez, E. A. Jares-Erijman, and T. M. Jovin, “Ensemble and single particle photophysical properties (two-photon excitation, anisotropy, FRET, lifetime, spectral conversion) of commercial quantum dots in solution and in live cells,” Microsc. Res. Tech. 65, 169–179 (2004).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (3)

P. Reiss, J. Bleuse, and A. Pron, “Highly luminescent CdSe/ZnSe core/shell nanocrystals of low size dispersion,” Nano Lett. 2, 781–784 (2002).
[Crossref]

D. V. Talapin, A. L. Rogach, A. Kornowski, M. Haase, and H. Weller, “Highly luminescent monodisperse CdSe and CdSe/ZnS nanocrystals synthesized in a hexadecylamine-trioctylphosphine oxide-trioctylphospine mixture,” Nano Lett. 1, 207–211 (2001).
[Crossref]

S. F. Wuister, I. Swart, F. van Driel, S. G. Hickey, and C. D. Donega, “Highly luminescent water-soluble CdTe quantum dots,” Nano Lett. 3, 503–507 (2003).
[Crossref]

Nat. Mater. (1)

P. Pust, V. Weiler, C. Hecht, A. Tücks, A. S. Wochnik, A. Henß, D. Wiechert, C. Scheu, P. J. Schmidt, and W. Schnick, “Narrow-band red-emitting Sr[LiAl3 N4]:Eu2+ as a next-generation LED-phosphor material,” Nat. Mater. 13, 891–896 (2014).
[Crossref]

Opt. Eng. (1)

Y. Ohno, “Spectral design considerations for white LED color rendering,” Opt. Eng. 44, 111302 (2005).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (2)

Science (1)

A. P. Alivisatos, “Semiconductor clusters, nanocrystals, and quantum dots,” Science 271, 933–937 (1996).
[Crossref]

Other (7)

Lumileds, LUXEON 3535L Line (2016).

A. R. Duggal, A. M. Srivastava, L. M. Levinson, and S. J. Duclos, “Color tunable light source,” U.S. patentUS6357889 B1 (Mar.192002).

E. Virey, From Technologies to Market Phosphors and Quantum Dots LED Downconverters for Lighting and Display Applications (2015).

R. J. Nick, C. A. Breen, C. M. Denton, S. Sadasivan, and J. R. Linton, “Method of making components including quantum dots, methods and products,” U.S. patentUS 20140027673 A1 (Jan.302014).

S. Kim, K. Taehoon, and S.-W. K. Kim, “Highly luminescent InP/GaP/ZnS nanocrystals and their application to white LED SI,” 1–9 (2011).

A. Mnoyan, Y. Lee, H. Jung, and S. Kim, Phosphors, Up Conversion Nano Particles, Quantum Dots and their Applications (Springer, 2016), Vol. 2, pp. 437–471.

J. Brodrick, N. Bardsley, M. Hansen, L. Pattison, M. Pattison, K. Stober, V. Taylor, J. Tsao, and M. Yamada, Solid-State Lighting 2016 R&D Plan (2016).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. LUXEON 3535L HE Plus lead frame LED package was used for integrating and testing QDs in silicone resins.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) Modeling results showcasing LE performance expectations based on a 40 nm FWHM red QD compared to red nitride based pcLED. (b) Experimentally measured QD based LED CE normalized to a commercial red nitride based pcLED at different CCT values.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) Measured CE performance versus drive current and (b) color point shift comparison between red nitride phosphor and QD based LED at 3000 K, driven in DC mode and 85°C heatsink temperature.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Reliability of QD LEDs under 95°C and 200 mA HTOL conditions. (a) Light output maintenance and (b) color shift over 3000 h duration.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Reliability of QD LEDs under 60°C/90% RH WHTOL stress conditions. (a) Light output maintenance and (b) color shift over 1000 h duration.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. LED efficiency comparison between QD based LED and hybrid direct Red + pcWhite LED modules at different temperatures.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Normalized QE showcasing (a) thermal droop at 13  W/cm2 and (b) photoquenching comparison at 100°C between QD, broad red nitride, and SLA phosphor. Inset shows their respective emission spectra.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Simulated FWHM Dependence for LE at 3000 K and 90 CRI

Tables Icon

Table 2. External Testing Results of a QD Based LED and a pcLED Module on Printed Circuit Board

Metrics