Abstract

An optical vortex having an isolated point singularity is associated with the spatial structure of light waves. A polarization vortex (vector beam) with a polarization singularity has spatially variant polarizations. A phase vortex with phase singularity or screw dislocation has a spiral phase front. The optical vortex has recently gained increasing interest in optical trapping, optical tweezers, laser machining, microscopy, quantum information processing, and optical communications. In this paper, we review recent advances in optical communications using optical vortices. First, basic concepts of polarization/phase vortex modulation and multiplexing in communications and key techniques of polarization/phase vortex generation and (de)multiplexing are introduced. Second, free-space and fiber optical communications using optical vortex modulation and optical vortex multiplexing are presented. Finally, key challenges and perspectives of optical communications using optical vortices are discussed. It is expected that optical vortices exploiting the space physical dimension of light waves might find more interesting applications in optical communications and interconnects.

© 2016 Chinese Laser Press

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2016 (4)

2015 (19)

H. Huang, G. Milione, M. P. J. Lavery, G. Xie, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, T. A. Nguyen, D. A. Nolan, M.-J. Li, M. Tur, R. R. Alfano, and A. E. Willner, “Mode division multiplexing using an orbital angular momentum mode sorter and MIMO-DSP over a graded-index few-mode optical fiber,” Sci. Rep. 5, 14931 (2015).
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P. Gregg, P. Kristensen, and S. Ramachandran, “Conservation of orbital angular momentum in air-core optical fibers,” Optica 2, 267–270 (2015).
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S. Li and J. Wang, “Supermode fiber for orbital angular momentum (OAM) transmission,” Opt. Express 23, 18736–18745 (2015).
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A. Wang, L. Zhu, J. Liu, C. Du, Q. Mo, and J. Wang, “Demonstration of hybrid orbital angular momentum multiplexing and time-division multiplexing passive optical network,” Opt. Express 23, 29457–29466 (2015).
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S. Li and J. Wang, “Performance evaluation of analog signal transmission in an orbital angular momentum multiplexing system,” Opt. Lett. 40, 760–763 (2015).
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L. Zhu and J. Wang, “Simultaneous generation of multiple orbital angular momentum (OAM) modes using a single phase-only element,” Opt. Express 23, 26221–26233 (2015).
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J. Du and J. Wang, “Design of on-chip N-fold orbital angular momentum multicasting using V-shaped antenna array,” Sci. Rep. 5, 9662 (2015).
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S. Li and J. Wang, “Adaptive power-controllable orbital angular momentum (OAM) multicasting,” Sci. Rep. 5, 9677 (2015).
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L. Zhu and J. Wang, “Demonstration of obstruction-free data-carrying N-fold Bessel modes multicasting from a single Gaussian mode,” Opt. Lett. 40, 5463–5466 (2015).
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L. Fang and J. Wang, “Flexible generation/conversion/exchange of fiber-guided orbital angular momentum modes using helical gratings,” Opt. Lett. 40, 4010–4013 (2015).
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J. Du and J. Wang, “High-dimensional structured light coding/decoding for free-space optical communications free of obstructions,” Opt. Lett. 40, 4827–4830 (2015).
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G. Milione, M. P. J. Lavery, H. Huang, Y. Ren, G. Xie, T. A. Nguyen, E. Karimi, L. Marrucci, D. A. Nolan, R. R. Alfano, and A. E. Willner, “4 × 20  Gbit/s mode division multiplexing over free space using vector modes and a q-plate mode (de)multiplexer,” Opt. Lett. 40, 1980–1983 (2015).
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S. Li and J. Wang, “Simultaneous demultiplexing and steering of multiple orbital angular momentum modes,” Sci. Rep. 5, 15406 (2015).
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T. Lei, M. Zhang, Y. Li, P. Jia, G. N. Liu, X. Xu, Z. Li, C. Min, J. Lin, C. Yu, H. Niu, and X. Yuan, “Massive individual orbital angular momentum channels for multiplexing enabled by Dammann gratings,” Light Sci. Appl. 4, e257 (2015).
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Y. Zhao and J. Wang, “High-base vector beam encoding/decoding for visible-light communications,” Opt. Lett. 40, 4843–4846 (2015).
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J. Liu and J. Wang, “Demonstration of polarization-insensitive spatial light modulation using a single polarization-sensitive spatial light modulator,” Sci. Rep. 5, 9959 (2015).
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S. Li, Q. Mo, X. Hu, C. Du, and J. Wang, “Controllable all-fiber orbital angular momentum mode converter,” Opt. Lett. 40, 4376–4379 (2015).
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H. Li, D. B. Phillips, X. Wang, Y.-L. D. Ho, L. Chen, X. Zhou, J. B. Zhu, S. Yu, and X. Cai, “Orbital angular momentum vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Optica 2, 547–552 (2015).
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A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photon. 7, 66–106 (2015).

2014 (17)

G. Li, N. Bai, N. Zhao, and C. Xia, “Space-division multiplexing: the next frontier in optical communication,” Adv. Opt. Photon. 6, 413–487 (2014).
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B. J. Puttnam, R. Luis, J.-M. Delgado-Mendinueta, J. Sakaguchi, W. Klaus, Y. Awaji, N. Wada, A. Kanno, and T. Kawanishi, “High-capacity self-homodyne PDM-WDM-SDM transmission in a 19-core fiber,” Opt. Express 22, 21185–21191 (2014).
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R. G. H. van Uden, R. Amezcua Correa, E. Antonio Lopez, F. M. Huijskens, C. Xia, G. Li, A. Schülzgen, H. de Waardt, A. M. J. Koonen, and C. M. Okonkwo, “Ultra-high-density spatial division multiplexing with a few-mode multicore fiber,” Nat. Photonics 8, 865–870 (2014).
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Y. Yang, W. Wang, P. Moitra, I. I. Kravchenko, D. P. Briggs, and J. Valentine, “Dielectric meta-reflectarray for broadband linear polarization conversion and optical vortex generation,” Nano Lett. 14, 1394–1399 (2014).
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E. Karimi, S. A. Schulz, I. De Leon, V. Qassim, J. Upham, and R. W. Boyd, “Generating optical orbital angular momentum at visible wavelengths using a plasmonic metasurface,” Light Sci. Appl. 3, e167 (2014).
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L. Zhu and J. Wang, “Arbitrary manipulation of spatial amplitude and phase using phase-only spatial light modulators,” Sci. Rep. 4, 7441 (2014).
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M. J. Strain, X. Cai, J. Wang, J. Zhu, D. B. Phillips, L. Chen, M. Lopez-Garcia, J. L. O’Brien, M. G. Thompson, M. Sorel, and S. Yu, “Fast electrical switching of orbital angular momentum modes using ultra-compact integrated vortex emitters,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4856 (2014).
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G. Labroille, B. Denolle, P. Jian, P. Genevaux, N. Treps, and J.-F. Morizur, “Efficient and mode selective spatial mode multiplexer based on multi-plane light conversion,” Opt. Express 22, 15599–15607 (2014).
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B. Guan, R. P. Scott, C. Qin, N. K. Fontaine, T. Su, C. Ferrari, M. Cappuzzo, F. Klemens, B. Keller, M. Earnshaw, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Free-space coherent optical communication with orbital angular, momentum multiplexing/demultiplexing using a hybrid 3D photonic integrated circuit,” Opt. Express 22, 145–156 (2014).
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M. Krenn, R. Fickler, M. Fink, J. Handsteiner, M. Malik, T. Scheidl, R. Ursin, and A. Zeilinger, “Communication with spatially modulated light through turbulent air across Vienna,” New J. Phys. 16, 113028 (2014).
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H. Huang, G. Xie, Y. Yan, N. Ahmed, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, D. Rogawski, B. I. Erkmen, K. M. Birnbaum, S. J. Dolinar, M. P. J. Lavery, M. J. Padgett, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “100 Tbit/s free-space data link enabled by three-dimensional multiplexing of orbital angular momentum, polarization, and wavelength,” Opt. Lett. 39, 197–200 (2014).
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Y. Yan, G. Xie, M. P. J. Lavery, H. Huang, N. Ahmed, C. Bao, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, L. Li, Z. Zhao, A. F. Molisch, M. Tur, M. J. Padgett, and A. E. Willner, “High-capacity millimetre-wave communications with orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4876 (2014).
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C. Brunet, P. Vaity, Y. Messaddeq, S. LaRochelle, and L. A. Rusch, “Design, fabrication and validation of an OAM fiber supporting 36 states,” Opt. Express 22, 26117–26127 (2014).
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S. Li and J. Wang, “A compact trench-assisted multi-orbital-angular-momentum multi-ring fiber for ultrahigh-density space-division multiplexing (19 rings × 22 modes),” Sci. Rep. 4, 3853 (2014).

B. Ung, P. Vaity, L. Wang, Y. Messaddeq, L. A. Rusch, and S. LaRochelle, “Few-mode fiber with inverse-parabolic graded-index profile for transmission of OAM-carrying modes,” Opt. Express 22, 18044–18055 (2014).
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Y. Ren, G. Xie, H. Huang, C. Bao, Y. Yan, N. Ahmed, M. P. J. Lavery, B. I. Erkmen, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, M. A. Neifeld, M. J. Padgett, R. W. Boyd, J. H. Shapiro, and A. E. Willner, “Adaptive optics compensation of multiple orbital angular momentum beams propagating through emulated atmospheric turbulence,” Opt. Lett. 39, 2845–2848 (2014).
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H. Huang, Y. Ren, G. Xie, Y. Yan, Y. Yue, N. Ahmed, M. P. J. Lavery, M. J. Padgett, S. J. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Tunable orbital angular momentum mode filter based on optical geometric transformation,” Opt. Lett. 39, 1689–1692 (2014).
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2013 (9)

Y. Yue, H. Huang, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, G. Xie, D. Rogawski, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Reconfigurable switching of orbital-angular-momentum-based free-space data channels,” Opt. Lett. 38, 5118–5121 (2013).
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H. Huang, Y. Yue, Y. Yan, N. Ahmed, Y. Ren, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Liquid-crystal-on-silicon-based optical add/drop multiplexer for orbital-angular-momentum-multiplexed optical links,” Opt. Lett. 38, 5142–5145 (2013).
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S. Li and J. Wang, “Multi-orbital-angular-momentum multi-ring fiber for high-density space-division multiplexing,” IEEE Photon. J. 5, 7101007 (2013).
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Y. Yan, Y. Yue, H. Huang, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, M. Tur, S. J. Dolinar, and A. E. Willner, “Multicasting in a spatial division multiplexing system based on optical orbital angular momentum,” Opt. Lett. 38, 3930–3933 (2013).
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Z. Zhao, J. Wang, S. Li, and A. E. Willner, “Metamaterials-based broadband generation of orbital angular momentum carrying vector beams,” Opt. Lett. 38, 932–934 (2013).
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M. Mirhosseini, M. Malik, Z. Shi, and R. W. Boyd, “Efficient separation of the orbital angular momentum eigenstates of light,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2781 (2013).
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D. J. Richardson, J. M. Fini, and L. E. Nelson, “Space-division multiplexing in optical fibers,” Nat. Photonics 7, 354–3622013.
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N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340, 1545–1548 (2013).
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S. Ramachandran and P. Kristensen, “Optical vortices in fiber,” Nanophotonics 2, 455–474 (2013).

2012 (9)

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. X. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6, 488–496 (2012).
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A. E. Willner, J. Wang, and H. Huang, “A different angle on light communications,” Science 337, 655–656 (2012).
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R. Ryf, S. Randel, A. H. Gnauck, C. Bolle, A. Sierra, S. Mumtaz, M. Esmaeelpour, E. C. Burrows, R.-J. Essiambre, P. J. Winzer, D. W. Peckham, A. H. McCurdy, and R. Lingle, “Mode-division multiplexing over 96  km of few-mode fiber using coherent 6 × 6 MIMO processing,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30, 521–531 (2012).
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T. Su, R. P. Scott, S. S. Djordjevic, N. K. Fontaine, D. J. Geisler, X. Cai, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Demonstration of free space coherent optical communication using integrated silicon photonic orbital angular momentum devices,” Opt. Express 20, 9396–9402 (2012).
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X. Cai, J. Wang, M. J. Strain, B. J. Morris, J. Zhu, M. Sorel, J. L. O’ Brien, M. G. Thompson, and S. Yu, “Integrated compact optical vortex beam emitters,” Science 338, 363–366 (2012).
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Y. Yan, L. Zhang, J. Wang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, A. E. Willner, and S. J. Dolinar, “Fiber structure to convert a Gaussian beam to higher-order optical orbital angular momentum modes,” Opt. Lett. 37, 3294–3296 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Yan, Y. Yue, H. Huang, J. Y. Yang, M. R. Chitgarha, N. Ahmed, M. Tur, S. J. Dolinar, and A. E. Willner, “Efficient generation and multiplexing of optical orbital angular momentum modes in a ring fiber by using multiple coherent inputs,” Opt. Lett. 37, 3645–3647 (2012).
[Crossref]

F. Tamburini, E. Mari, A. Sponselli, B. Thidé, A. Bianchini, and F. Romanato, “Encoding many channels on the same frequency through radio vorticity: first experimental test,” New J. Phys. 14, 033001 (2012).
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G. Wong, M. Kang, H. Lee, F. Biancalana, C. Conti, T. Weiss, and P. St.J. Russell, “Excitation of orbital angular momentum resonances in helically twisted photonic crystal fiber,” Science 337, 446–449 (2012).
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2011 (7)

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334, 333–337 (2011).
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C. Maurer, A. Jesacher, S. Bernet, and M. Ritsch-Marte, “What spatial light modulators can do for optical microscopy,” Laser Photon. Rev. 5, 81–101 (2011).
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L. Marrucci, E. Karimi, S. Slussarenko, B. Piccirillo, E. Santamato, E. Nagali, and F. Sciarrino, “Spin-to-orbital conversion of the angular momentum of light and its classical and quantum applications,” J. Opt. 13, 064001 (2011).
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Y. Yan, J. Wang, L. Zhang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, B. Shamee, A. E. Willner, K. Birnbaum, and S. J. Dolinar, “Fiber coupler for generating orbital angular momentum modes,” Opt. Lett. 36, 4269–4271 (2011).
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A. Yao and M. J. Padgett, “Orbital angular momentum: origins, behavior and applications,” Adv. Opt. Photon. 3, 161–204 (2011).
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M. J. Padgett and R. Bowman, “Tweezers with a twist,” Nat. Photonics 5, 343–348 (2011).
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K. Dholakia and T. Čižmár, “Shaping the future of manipulation,” Nat Photonics 5, 335–342 (2011).
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2010 (4)

M. R. Dennis, R. P. King, B. Jack, K. O’Holleran, and M. J. Padgett, “Isolated optical vortex knots,” Nat. Phys. 6, 118–121 (2010).
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J. Leach, B. Jack, J. Romero, A. K. Jha, A. M. Yao, S. Franke-Arnold, D. G. Ireland, R. W. Boyd, S. M. Barnett, and M. J. Padgett, “Quantum correlations in optical angle-orbital angular momentum variables,” Science 329, 662–665 (2010).
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G. C. G. Berkhout, M. P. J. Lavery, J. Courtial, M. W. Beijersbergen, and M. J. Padgett, “Efficient sorting of orbital angular momentum states of light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 153601 (2010).
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I. B. Djordjevic and M. Arabaci, “LDPC-coded orbital angular momentum (OAM) modulation for free-space optical communication,” Opt. Express 18, 24722–24728 (2010).

2009 (5)

S. Ramachandran, P. Kristensen, and M. Yan, “Generation and propagation of radially polarized beams in optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 34, 2525–2527 (2009).
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P. J. Winzer, “Modulation and multiplexing in optical communication systems,” IEEE LEOS Newslett. 23, 4–10 (2009).

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M. R. Dennis, K. O’Holleran, and M. J. Padgett, “Singular optics: optical vortices and polarization singularities,” Prog. Opt. 53, 293–363 (2009).
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Q. Zhang, “Cylindrical vector beams from mathematical concepts to applications,” Adv. Opt. Photon. 1, 1–57 (2009).
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2008 (2)

S. Franke-Arnold, L. Allen, and M. Padgett, “Advances in optical angular momentum,” Laser Photon. Rev. 2, 299–313 (2008).
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2007 (2)

M. A. Ahed, A. Voss, M. M. Vogel, and T. Graf, “Multilayer polarizing grating mirror used for the generation of radial polarization in Yb: YAG thin-disk lasers,” Opt. Lett. 32, 3272–3274 (2007).
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M. Meier, V. Romano, and T. Feurer, “Material processing with pulsed radially and azimuthally polarized laser radiation,” Appl. Phys. A 86, 329–334 (2007).
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2006 (3)

2005 (1)

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2003 (1)

R. Dorn, S. Quabis, and G. Leuchs, “Sharper focus for a radially polarized light beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 233901 (2003).
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2002 (1)

2001 (3)

L. Novotny, M. R. Beversluis, K. S. Youngworth, and T. G. Brown, “Longitudinal field modes probed by single molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 5251–5254 (2001).
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A. Mair, A. Vaziri, G. Weihs, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement of the orbital angular momentum states of photons,” Nature 412, 313–316 (2001).
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2000 (2)

A. V. Nesterov and V. G. Niziev, “Laser beams with axially symmetric polarization,” J. Phys. D 33, 1817–1822 (2000).
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1998 (1)

1997 (1)

1996 (1)

1993 (1)

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1992 (1)

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45, 8185–8189 (1992).
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Ahmed, N.

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photon. 7, 66–106 (2015).

H. Huang, G. Milione, M. P. J. Lavery, G. Xie, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, T. A. Nguyen, D. A. Nolan, M.-J. Li, M. Tur, R. R. Alfano, and A. E. Willner, “Mode division multiplexing using an orbital angular momentum mode sorter and MIMO-DSP over a graded-index few-mode optical fiber,” Sci. Rep. 5, 14931 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Ren, G. Xie, H. Huang, C. Bao, Y. Yan, N. Ahmed, M. P. J. Lavery, B. I. Erkmen, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, M. A. Neifeld, M. J. Padgett, R. W. Boyd, J. H. Shapiro, and A. E. Willner, “Adaptive optics compensation of multiple orbital angular momentum beams propagating through emulated atmospheric turbulence,” Opt. Lett. 39, 2845–2848 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Huang, Y. Ren, G. Xie, Y. Yan, Y. Yue, N. Ahmed, M. P. J. Lavery, M. J. Padgett, S. J. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Tunable orbital angular momentum mode filter based on optical geometric transformation,” Opt. Lett. 39, 1689–1692 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Huang, G. Xie, Y. Yan, N. Ahmed, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, D. Rogawski, B. I. Erkmen, K. M. Birnbaum, S. J. Dolinar, M. P. J. Lavery, M. J. Padgett, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “100 Tbit/s free-space data link enabled by three-dimensional multiplexing of orbital angular momentum, polarization, and wavelength,” Opt. Lett. 39, 197–200 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Yan, G. Xie, M. P. J. Lavery, H. Huang, N. Ahmed, C. Bao, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, L. Li, Z. Zhao, A. F. Molisch, M. Tur, M. J. Padgett, and A. E. Willner, “High-capacity millimetre-wave communications with orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4876 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Yan, Y. Yue, H. Huang, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, M. Tur, S. J. Dolinar, and A. E. Willner, “Multicasting in a spatial division multiplexing system based on optical orbital angular momentum,” Opt. Lett. 38, 3930–3933 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Yue, H. Huang, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, G. Xie, D. Rogawski, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Reconfigurable switching of orbital-angular-momentum-based free-space data channels,” Opt. Lett. 38, 5118–5121 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Huang, Y. Yue, Y. Yan, N. Ahmed, Y. Ren, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Liquid-crystal-on-silicon-based optical add/drop multiplexer for orbital-angular-momentum-multiplexed optical links,” Opt. Lett. 38, 5142–5145 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Yan, Y. Yue, H. Huang, J. Y. Yang, M. R. Chitgarha, N. Ahmed, M. Tur, S. J. Dolinar, and A. E. Willner, “Efficient generation and multiplexing of optical orbital angular momentum modes in a ring fiber by using multiple coherent inputs,” Opt. Lett. 37, 3645–3647 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. X. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6, 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Yan, L. Zhang, J. Wang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, A. E. Willner, and S. J. Dolinar, “Fiber structure to convert a Gaussian beam to higher-order optical orbital angular momentum modes,” Opt. Lett. 37, 3294–3296 (2012).
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Y. Yan, J. Wang, L. Zhang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, B. Shamee, A. E. Willner, K. Birnbaum, and S. J. Dolinar, “Fiber coupler for generating orbital angular momentum modes,” Opt. Lett. 36, 4269–4271 (2011).
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J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, B. Shamee, A. E. Willner, K. Birnbaum, J. Choi, B. Erkmen, S. Dolinar, and M. Tur, “Demonstration of 12.8-bit/s/Hz spectral efficiency using 16-QAM signals over multiple orbital-angular-momentum modes,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC), Geneva, Switzerland, (2011), paper We.10.P1.76.

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, B. Shamee, A. E. Willner, K. Birnbaum, J. Choi, B. Erkmen, S. Dolinar, and M. Tur, “25.6-bit/s/Hz spectral efficiency using 16-QAM signals over pol-muxed multiple orbital-angular-momentum modes,” in Annual Meeting IEEE Photonic Society, Arlington, VA, (2011), paper WW2.

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N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334, 333–337 (2011).
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G. Milione, M. P. J. Lavery, H. Huang, Y. Ren, G. Xie, T. A. Nguyen, E. Karimi, L. Marrucci, D. A. Nolan, R. R. Alfano, and A. E. Willner, “4 × 20  Gbit/s mode division multiplexing over free space using vector modes and a q-plate mode (de)multiplexer,” Opt. Lett. 40, 1980–1983 (2015).
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H. Huang, G. Milione, M. P. J. Lavery, G. Xie, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, T. A. Nguyen, D. A. Nolan, M.-J. Li, M. Tur, R. R. Alfano, and A. E. Willner, “Mode division multiplexing using an orbital angular momentum mode sorter and MIMO-DSP over a graded-index few-mode optical fiber,” Sci. Rep. 5, 14931 (2015).
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[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

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Figures (31)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic illustration of field distributions (polarization, amplitude, phase) of (a,b) polarization vortex and (c,d) phase vortex beams. (a) Radially polarized beam (TM01). (b) Azimuthally polarized beam (TE01). (c) OAM beam with topological charge value of +1 (OAM+1). (d) OAM beam with topological charge value of 1 (OAM1).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Schematic illustration of physical dimensions of photons (frequency/wavelength, time, complex amplitude, polarization, spatial structure) and orthogonal states (multiple wavelengths, time slots, constellation points in the complex plane, X- and Y-polarizations, polarization vortices, phase vortices) in modulation schemes and multiplexing techniques.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Schematic illustration of optical vortex modulation and optical vortex multiplexing. (a) Polarization vortex modulation. (b) Phase vortex modulation. (c) Polarization vortex multiplexing. (d) Phase vortex multiplexing.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Experimental setup for generating and detecting polarization vortex beams (radially/azimuthally polarized and high-order vector beams) with a single SLM. Pol., polarizer; M, mirror.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Phase patterns loaded to SLM for the generation of four polarization vortex beams (radially polarized beam P=1, ϕ0=0, azimuthally polarized beam P=1, ϕ0=π/2, vector beam P=2, ϕ0=0, vector beam P=3, ϕ0=0). (b) Linear polarizer with orientation of 0°, 45°, 90°, 45° with respect to the y direction. (c)–(f) Left column: illustration of spatially variant polarization of four polarization vortex beams. Right four columns: measured multipetal intensity profiles of four polarization vortex beams after linear polarizer.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Measured multipetal intensity profiles of 16 polarization vortex beams after linear polarizer.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Schematic illustration of (a) conversion from planar phase fronts to helical ones and (b) backconversion from helical phase fronts to planar ones using spiral phase masks loaded to the SLM.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Schematic illustration of a controllable all-fiber OAM mode converter.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Measured (a,c) intensity profiles and (b,d) interferograms (interference with reference Gaussian beam) of the generated (a,b) OAM1 and (c,d) OAM+1 modes using an all-fiber device.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Schematic illustration of simultaneous demultiplexing and steering of multiple OAM modes using a single complex phase mask.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

Measured intensity profiles for the demultiplexing of OAM l=±6, ±7, ±8, ±9 with circular-shaped beam steering of demultiplexed beams.

Fig. 12.
Fig. 12.

Schematic illustration of optical communications using polarization vortex modulation.

Fig. 13.
Fig. 13.

Free-space 64×64  pixels Lena gray image transfer through a visible-light communication link using polarization vortex modulation.

Fig. 14.
Fig. 14.

Schematic illustration of optical communications using phase vortex (OAM-carrying Bessel beam) modulation.

Fig. 15.
Fig. 15.

Measured intensity profiles for free-space data information transfer using phase vortex (OAM-carrying Bessel beam) modulation. (a) Hexadecimal coding. (b) Decoding for hexadecimal number 4, 7, and 15. (c) 32-ary coding. (d) Decoding for 32-ary number 14.

Fig. 16.
Fig. 16.

Measured BER for free-space data information transfer using hexadecimal and 32-ary phase vortex (OAM-carrying Bessel beam) modulation.

Fig. 17.
Fig. 17.

Schematic illustration of free-space optical communications using phase vortex (OAM beams) multiplexing combined with other multiplexing techniques (e.g., polarization multiplexing).

Fig. 18.
Fig. 18.

Measured intensity profiles and BER performance for free-space communications using 10 Gbaud 16-QAM signals over four OAM beams (four channels in total).

Fig. 19.
Fig. 19.

Measured intensity profiles and BER performance for free-space communications using 10 Gbaud 16-QAM signals over pol-muxed four OAM beams (eight channels in total).

Fig. 20.
Fig. 20.

Measured intensity profile and BER performance for free-space communications using 20 Gbaud 16-QAM signals over pol-muxed eight OAM beams in two groups of concentric rings (32 channels in total).

Fig. 21.
Fig. 21.

Measured intensity profiles and BER performance for free-space optical communications using 17.9  Gbit/s OFDM/OQAM 64-QAM signals over pol-muxed 22 OAM modes (44 channels in total).

Fig. 22.
Fig. 22.

Schematic illustration of N-dimensional multiplexing for increased spectral efficiency (OAM multiplexing, PDM, Nyquist m-QAM signal).

Fig. 23.
Fig. 23.

Schematic illustration of N-dimensional multiplexing for increased transmission capacity and spectral efficiency (OAM multiplexing, PDM, WDM, multicarrier multilevel modulation signal).

Fig. 24.
Fig. 24.

Schematic illustration of multi-OAM multiring fiber.

Fig. 25.
Fig. 25.

Schematic illustration and simulated intensity/phase distribution of compact trench-assisted multi-OAM multiring fiber.

Fig. 26.
Fig. 26.

Schematic illustration and simulated intensity/phase distribution of multi-OAM multicore supermode fiber.

Fig. 27.
Fig. 27.

Schematic illustration of fiber optical communications using modes modulation (LP01, LP11a, LP11b, and OAM1).

Fig. 28.
Fig. 28.

Schematic illustration of the proposed OAM-based MDM-TDM-PON architecture (hybrid OAM multiplexing and TDM PON). ODN, optical distribution network; Mux/Demux, multiplexing/demultiplexing; OC, optical coupler.

Fig. 29.
Fig. 29.

(a) Cross section of the FMF. (b) Relative refractive index profile (step-index) of the FMF. (c) Supported six eigenmodes in two mode groups of the FMF.

Fig. 30.
Fig. 30.

(a) Complex phase patterns for the generation of OAM+1 and OAM1 modes. (b) Measured intensity profiles and interferograms for input OAM modes. (c) Measured intensity profiles and interferograms for output OAM modes after 1.1 km FMF transmission.

Fig. 31.
Fig. 31.

Measured BER performance for OAM-based MDM-TDM-PON (hybrid OAM multiplexing and TDM PON). (a) Downstream transmission link. (b) Upstream transmission link.

Equations (1)

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Eout=Q(π4)M(ξxy)NNH(π8)M(ηxy)Ein=12exp(jηxy)(sinξxy+1+jcosξxycosξxy+j(1sinξxy)),

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