Abstract

Titanium nitride (TiN) as a refractory plasmonic material is proposed to be used as an angle-insensitive integrated broadband solar absorber and narrowband near-infrared (NIR) emitter for solar thermo-photovoltaic (STPV) application. By constructing TiN-nanopatterns/dielectric/TiN stack metamaterial, approximately 93% light absorption in a wavelength range of 0.3–0.9 μm and near unit narrowband (Δλ/λ0.3) emission in NIR (2μm) were demonstrated by numerical simulation. Keeping the excellent light absorption in the visible band, the emission wavelength can be easily tuned by patterning the top TiN layer into various subwavelength structures. This dual function attributes to the intrinsic absorption and plasmonic property of TiN. In such an integrated structure, broadband absorption and narrowband emission need to be balanced for an optimized power efficiency conversion. Detailed analysis has demonstrated that the STPV system based on this integrated absorber/emitter can exceed the Shockley–Queisser limit at 1000 K.

© 2015 Chinese Laser Press

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2015 (2)

M. A. Green, K. Emery, Y. Hishikawa, W. Warta, and E. D. Dunlop, “Solar cell efficiency tables (Version 45),” Prog. Photovoltaics 23, 1–9 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Yu, Q. Chen, L. Wen, X. Hu, and H.-F. Zhang, “Spatial optical crosstalk in CMOS image sensors integrated with plasmonic color filters,” Opt. Express 23, 21994–22003 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (6)

A. Lenert, D. M. Bierman, Y. Nam, W. R. Chan, I. Celanovic, M. Soljacic, and E. N. Wang, “A nanophotonic solar thermophotovoltaic device,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9, 126–130 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Wen, F. H. Sun, and Q. Chen, “Cascading metallic gratings for broadband absorption enhancement in ultrathin plasmonic solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 151106 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Wen, Q. Chen, F. Sun, S. Song, L. Jin, and Y. Yu, “Theoretical design of multi-colored semi-transparent organic solar cells with both efficient color filtering and light harvesting,” Sci. Rep. 4, 7036 (2014).

V. Rinnerbauer, A. Lenert, D. M. Bierman, Y. X. Yeng, W. R. Chan, R. D. Geil, J. J. Senkevich, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. N. Wang, and M. Soljačić, “Metallic photonic crystal absorber-emitter for efficient spectral control in high-temperature solar thermophotovoltaics,” Adv. Energy Mater. 4, 1400334 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. F. DeMeo, N. Pfeister, C. M. Shemelya, and T. Vandervelde, “Metamaterial selective emitters for photodiodes,” Proc. SPIE 8982, 89820J (2014.

H. X. Deng, T. C. Wang, J. Gao, and X. D. Yang, “Metamaterial thermal emitters based on nanowire cavities for high-efficiency thermophotovoltaics,” J. Opt. 16, 035102 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (6)

S. Akhavan, K. Gungor, E. Mutlugun, and H. V. Demir, “Plasmonic light-sensitive skins of nanocrystal monolayers,” Nanotechnology 24, 155201 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. A. Arpin, M. D. Losego, A. N. Cloud, H. Ning, J. Mallek, N. P. Sergeant, L. Zhu, Z. Yu, B. Kalanyan, and G. N. Parsons, “Three-dimensional self-assembled photonic crystals with high temperature stability for thermal emission modification,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2630 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. V. Naik, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Boltasseva, “Alternative plasmonic materials: beyond gold and silver,” Adv. Mater. 25, 3264–3294 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Molesky, C. J. Dewalt, and Z. Jacob, “High temperature epsilon-near-zero and epsilon-near-pole metamaterial emitters for thermophotovoltaics,” Opt. Express 21, A96–A110 (2013).
[Crossref]

B. Jia, X. Chen, J. K. Saha, Q. Qiao, Y. Wang, Z. Shi, and M. Gu, “Concept to devices: from plasmonic light trapping to upscaled plasmonic solar modules,” Photon. Res. 1, 22–27 (2013).
[Crossref]

W. R. Chan, P. Bermel, R. C. N. Pilawa-Podgurski, C. H. Marton, K. F. Jensen, J. J. Senkevich, J. D. Joannopoulos, M. Soljacic, and I. Celanovic, “Toward high-energy-density, high-efficiency, and moderate-temperature chip-scale thermophotovoltaics,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 110, 5309–5314 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (5)

C. H. Wu, B. Neuner, J. John, A. Milder, B. Zollars, S. Savoy, and G. Shvets, “Metamaterial-based integrated plasmonic absorber/emitter for solar thermo-photovoltaic systems,” J. Opt. 14, 024005 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. X. Cui, K. H. Fung, J. Xu, H. J. Ma, Y. Jin, S. L. He, and N. X. Fang, “Ultrabroadband light absorption by a sawtooth anisotropic metamaterial slab,” Nano Lett. 12, 1443–1447 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. Wu and G. Shvets, “Design of metamaterial surfaces with broadband absorbance,” Opt. Lett. 37, 308–310 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. V. Naik, J. L. Schroeder, X. Ni, A. V. Kildishev, T. D. Sands, and A. Boltasseva, “Titanium nitride as a plasmonic material for visible and near-infrared wavelengths,” Opt. Mater. Express 2, 478–489 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Albooyeh and C. R. Simovski, “Huge local field enhancement in perfect plasmonic absorbers,” Opt. Express 20, 21888–21895 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (5)

K. B. Alici, A. B. Turhan, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. Ozbay, “Optically thin composite resonant absorber at the near-infrared band: a polarization independent and spectrally broadband configuration,” Opt. Express 19, 14260–14267 (2011).
[Crossref]

G. V. Naik, J. Kim, and A. Boltasseva, “Oxides and nitrides as alternative plasmonic materials in the optical range,” Opt. Mater. Express 1, 1090–1099 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. Cui, J. Xu, K. H. Fung, Y. Jin, A. Kumar, S. He, and N. X. Fang, “A thin film broadband absorber based on multi-sized nanoantennas,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 253101 (2011).
[Crossref]

X. L. Liu, T. Tyler, T. Starr, A. F. Starr, N. M. Jokerst, and W. J. Padilla, “Taming the blackbody with infrared metamaterials as selective thermal emitters,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 045901 (2011).
[Crossref]

K. Aydin, V. E. Ferry, R. M. Briggs, and H. A. Atwater, “Broadband polarization-independent resonant light absorption using ultrathin plasmonic super absorbers,” Nat. Commun. 2, 517 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, H. B. Li, E. Verhagen, R. J. Walters, R. E. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Light trapping in ultrathin plasmonic solar cells,” Opt. Express 18, A237–A245 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Cortie, J. Giddings, and A. Dowd, “Optical properties and plasmon resonances of titanium nitride nanostructures,” Nanotechnology 21, 115201 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

E. Rephaeli and S. Fan, “Absorber and emitter for solar thermo-photovoltaic systems to achieve efficiency exceeding the Shockley-Queisser limit,” Opt. Express 17, 15145–15159 (2009).
[Crossref]

R. A. Pala, J. White, E. Barnard, J. Liu, and M. L. Brongersma, “Design of plasmonic thin-film solar cells with broadband absorption enhancements,” Adv. Mater. 21, 3504–3509 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

2003 (2)

N. P. Harder and P. Wurfel, “Theoretical limits of thermophotovoltaic solar energy conversion,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 18, S151–S157 (2003).
[Crossref]

Q. Jiang, S. Zhang, and M. Zhao, “Size-dependent melting point of noble metals,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 82, 225–227 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

J. Fleming, S. Lin, I. El-Kady, R. Biswas, and K. Ho, “All-metallic three-dimensional photonic crystals with a large infrared bandgap,” Nature 417, 52–55 (2002).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

T. J. Coutts, “A review of progress in thermophotovoltaic generation of electricity,” Renew. Sustain. Energ. Rev. 3, 77–184 (1999).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

U. Buskies, “The efficiency of coal-fired combined-cycle powerplants,” Appl. Therm. Eng. 16, 959–974 (1996).
[Crossref]

1985 (1)

W. Spirkl and H. Ries, “Solar thermophotovoltaics: an assessment,” J. Appl. Phys. 57, 4409–4414 (1985).
[Crossref]

1961 (1)

W. Shockley and H. J. Queisser, “Detailed balance limit of efficiency of p-n junction solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 32, 510–519 (1961).
[Crossref]

Akhavan, S.

S. Akhavan, K. Gungor, E. Mutlugun, and H. V. Demir, “Plasmonic light-sensitive skins of nanocrystal monolayers,” Nanotechnology 24, 155201 (2013).
[Crossref]

Albooyeh, M.

Alici, K. B.

Arpin, K. A.

K. A. Arpin, M. D. Losego, A. N. Cloud, H. Ning, J. Mallek, N. P. Sergeant, L. Zhu, Z. Yu, B. Kalanyan, and G. N. Parsons, “Three-dimensional self-assembled photonic crystals with high temperature stability for thermal emission modification,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2630 (2013).
[Crossref]

Atwater, H. A.

K. Aydin, V. E. Ferry, R. M. Briggs, and H. A. Atwater, “Broadband polarization-independent resonant light absorption using ultrathin plasmonic super absorbers,” Nat. Commun. 2, 517 (2011).
[Crossref]

V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, H. B. Li, E. Verhagen, R. J. Walters, R. E. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Light trapping in ultrathin plasmonic solar cells,” Opt. Express 18, A237–A245 (2010).
[Crossref]

Averitt, R. D.

Aydin, K.

K. Aydin, V. E. Ferry, R. M. Briggs, and H. A. Atwater, “Broadband polarization-independent resonant light absorption using ultrathin plasmonic super absorbers,” Nat. Commun. 2, 517 (2011).
[Crossref]

Barnard, E.

R. A. Pala, J. White, E. Barnard, J. Liu, and M. L. Brongersma, “Design of plasmonic thin-film solar cells with broadband absorption enhancements,” Adv. Mater. 21, 3504–3509 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bermel, P.

W. R. Chan, P. Bermel, R. C. N. Pilawa-Podgurski, C. H. Marton, K. F. Jensen, J. J. Senkevich, J. D. Joannopoulos, M. Soljacic, and I. Celanovic, “Toward high-energy-density, high-efficiency, and moderate-temperature chip-scale thermophotovoltaics,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 110, 5309–5314 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bierman, D. M.

A. Lenert, D. M. Bierman, Y. Nam, W. R. Chan, I. Celanovic, M. Soljacic, and E. N. Wang, “A nanophotonic solar thermophotovoltaic device,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9, 126–130 (2014).
[Crossref]

V. Rinnerbauer, A. Lenert, D. M. Bierman, Y. X. Yeng, W. R. Chan, R. D. Geil, J. J. Senkevich, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. N. Wang, and M. Soljačić, “Metallic photonic crystal absorber-emitter for efficient spectral control in high-temperature solar thermophotovoltaics,” Adv. Energy Mater. 4, 1400334 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bingham, C. M.

Biswas, R.

J. Fleming, S. Lin, I. El-Kady, R. Biswas, and K. Ho, “All-metallic three-dimensional photonic crystals with a large infrared bandgap,” Nature 417, 52–55 (2002).
[Crossref]

Boltasseva, A.

Briggs, R. M.

K. Aydin, V. E. Ferry, R. M. Briggs, and H. A. Atwater, “Broadband polarization-independent resonant light absorption using ultrathin plasmonic super absorbers,” Nat. Commun. 2, 517 (2011).
[Crossref]

Brongersma, M. L.

R. A. Pala, J. White, E. Barnard, J. Liu, and M. L. Brongersma, “Design of plasmonic thin-film solar cells with broadband absorption enhancements,” Adv. Mater. 21, 3504–3509 (2009).
[Crossref]

Buskies, U.

U. Buskies, “The efficiency of coal-fired combined-cycle powerplants,” Appl. Therm. Eng. 16, 959–974 (1996).
[Crossref]

Celanovic, I.

A. Lenert, D. M. Bierman, Y. Nam, W. R. Chan, I. Celanovic, M. Soljacic, and E. N. Wang, “A nanophotonic solar thermophotovoltaic device,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9, 126–130 (2014).
[Crossref]

W. R. Chan, P. Bermel, R. C. N. Pilawa-Podgurski, C. H. Marton, K. F. Jensen, J. J. Senkevich, J. D. Joannopoulos, M. Soljacic, and I. Celanovic, “Toward high-energy-density, high-efficiency, and moderate-temperature chip-scale thermophotovoltaics,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 110, 5309–5314 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chan, W. R.

A. Lenert, D. M. Bierman, Y. Nam, W. R. Chan, I. Celanovic, M. Soljacic, and E. N. Wang, “A nanophotonic solar thermophotovoltaic device,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9, 126–130 (2014).
[Crossref]

V. Rinnerbauer, A. Lenert, D. M. Bierman, Y. X. Yeng, W. R. Chan, R. D. Geil, J. J. Senkevich, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. N. Wang, and M. Soljačić, “Metallic photonic crystal absorber-emitter for efficient spectral control in high-temperature solar thermophotovoltaics,” Adv. Energy Mater. 4, 1400334 (2014).
[Crossref]

W. R. Chan, P. Bermel, R. C. N. Pilawa-Podgurski, C. H. Marton, K. F. Jensen, J. J. Senkevich, J. D. Joannopoulos, M. Soljacic, and I. Celanovic, “Toward high-energy-density, high-efficiency, and moderate-temperature chip-scale thermophotovoltaics,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 110, 5309–5314 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chen, Q.

Y. Yu, Q. Chen, L. Wen, X. Hu, and H.-F. Zhang, “Spatial optical crosstalk in CMOS image sensors integrated with plasmonic color filters,” Opt. Express 23, 21994–22003 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Wen, F. H. Sun, and Q. Chen, “Cascading metallic gratings for broadband absorption enhancement in ultrathin plasmonic solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 151106 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Wen, Q. Chen, F. Sun, S. Song, L. Jin, and Y. Yu, “Theoretical design of multi-colored semi-transparent organic solar cells with both efficient color filtering and light harvesting,” Sci. Rep. 4, 7036 (2014).

Chen, X.

Cloud, A. N.

K. A. Arpin, M. D. Losego, A. N. Cloud, H. Ning, J. Mallek, N. P. Sergeant, L. Zhu, Z. Yu, B. Kalanyan, and G. N. Parsons, “Three-dimensional self-assembled photonic crystals with high temperature stability for thermal emission modification,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2630 (2013).
[Crossref]

Cortie, M.

M. Cortie, J. Giddings, and A. Dowd, “Optical properties and plasmon resonances of titanium nitride nanostructures,” Nanotechnology 21, 115201 (2010).
[Crossref]

Coutts, T. J.

T. J. Coutts, “A review of progress in thermophotovoltaic generation of electricity,” Renew. Sustain. Energ. Rev. 3, 77–184 (1999).
[Crossref]

Cui, Y.

Y. Cui, J. Xu, K. H. Fung, Y. Jin, A. Kumar, S. He, and N. X. Fang, “A thin film broadband absorber based on multi-sized nanoantennas,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 253101 (2011).
[Crossref]

Cui, Y. X.

Y. X. Cui, K. H. Fung, J. Xu, H. J. Ma, Y. Jin, S. L. He, and N. X. Fang, “Ultrabroadband light absorption by a sawtooth anisotropic metamaterial slab,” Nano Lett. 12, 1443–1447 (2012).
[Crossref]

DeMeo, D. F.

D. F. DeMeo, N. Pfeister, C. M. Shemelya, and T. Vandervelde, “Metamaterial selective emitters for photodiodes,” Proc. SPIE 8982, 89820J (2014.

Demir, H. V.

S. Akhavan, K. Gungor, E. Mutlugun, and H. V. Demir, “Plasmonic light-sensitive skins of nanocrystal monolayers,” Nanotechnology 24, 155201 (2013).
[Crossref]

Deng, H. X.

H. X. Deng, T. C. Wang, J. Gao, and X. D. Yang, “Metamaterial thermal emitters based on nanowire cavities for high-efficiency thermophotovoltaics,” J. Opt. 16, 035102 (2014).
[Crossref]

Dewalt, C. J.

Dowd, A.

M. Cortie, J. Giddings, and A. Dowd, “Optical properties and plasmon resonances of titanium nitride nanostructures,” Nanotechnology 21, 115201 (2010).
[Crossref]

Dunlop, E. D.

M. A. Green, K. Emery, Y. Hishikawa, W. Warta, and E. D. Dunlop, “Solar cell efficiency tables (Version 45),” Prog. Photovoltaics 23, 1–9 (2015).
[Crossref]

El-Kady, I.

J. Fleming, S. Lin, I. El-Kady, R. Biswas, and K. Ho, “All-metallic three-dimensional photonic crystals with a large infrared bandgap,” Nature 417, 52–55 (2002).
[Crossref]

Emery, K.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Schematic of the BANE structure and the geometric parameters of one unit cell. The BANE film is a three-layered structure consisting of lossy TiN cross features on top of a lossless AlN layer and a substrate of TiN.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) Polarization-averaged normalized absorption spectra of a BANE structure: L=0.28μm; W=0.11μm; P=0.4μm; H1=0.08μm; H2=0.03μm; H3=0.1μm for various incidence angles. (b) Radiation spectra of blackbody and the BANE structure at 800, 1500, and 2000 K. (c) Normalized absorption spectra for varying L of 0.24, 0.26, 0.28, 0.3, and 0.32 μm. Normalized absorption spectrum as a function of width of cross structure (W in Fig. 1) in (d) and height of cross structure (H1 in Fig. 1) in (e). (f) Normalized reflection (black line) transmission (red line) and absorption (blue line) spectra of 0.1 μm TiN film.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) Field distributions. (b) Resonance wavelength of 2 μm. (c), (d) Nonresonance wavelength of 1.25 μm for the BANE structure in Fig. 2(a) at normal incidence. (a) and (c) Electric field. (b) and (d) Magnetic field.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a) Artificial absorption/emission spectrum ϵart(λ). (b) Maximum overall PCE as a function of bw1 and bw3.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Contours of (a) ultimate efficiency, U, (b) recombination efficiency, ν, (c) impedance matching factor, m, (d) overall STPV efficiency, η.

Equations (11)

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E(λ,T)=A(λ,θ,ϕ)×EBB(λ,T),
ηab=dEd(NΩ)cos(θ)ϵ(E,Ω)IB(E,TS)dEd(NΩ)cos(θ)IB(E,TS),
IB(υ,T)=2hν3c21ehυkT1,
ηSC=U(Te,Eg)×ν(Te,Eg)×m(Vop).
U(Te,Eg)=0π2dθ×sin(2θ)EgdEϵ(E,θ)IB(E,Te)EgE0π2dθ×sin(26θ)0dEϵ(E,θ)IB(E,Te).
υ=VopVg=VcVgln[fQe(Te,Eg)Qc(Tc,Eg)],
Qe(Te,Eg)=2πh3c20π2sin(2θ)dθEgϵ(E,θ)E2eEkbTe1dE
Qc(Tc,Eg)=2πh3c2Egϵ(E,θ)E2eEkbTc1dE
m=Zm2(1+ZmeZm)[Zm+ln(1+Zm)],
Zop=Zm+ln(1+Zm).
ϵart(λ)={1;0.3μm<λ<0.3μm+bw10.1;0.3μm+bw1<λ<3μmbw3bw41;3μmbw3bw4<λ<3μmbw40.1;3μmbw4<λ<3μm

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