Abstract

Gapless linear energy dispersion of graphene endows it with unique nonlinear optical properties, including broadband nonlinear absorption and giant nonlinear refractive index. Herein, we experimentally observed that few-layers graphene has obvious nonlinear absorption and large nonlinear refraction, as investigated by the Z-scan technique in the mid-infrared (mid-IR) regime. Our study may not only, for the first time to our knowledge, verify the giant nonlinear refractive index of graphene (107cm2/W) at the mid-IR, which is 7 orders of magnitude larger than other conventional bulk materials, but also provide some new insights for graphene-based mid-IR photonics, potentially leading to the emergence of several new conceptual mid-IR optoelectronics devices.

© 2015 Chinese Laser Press

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2015 (4)

2014 (2)

J. Ma, G. Xie, P. Lv, W. Gao, P. Yuan, L. Qian, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, H. Yu, and H. Zhang, “Wavelength-versatile graphene-gold film saturable absorber mirror for ultra-broadband mode-locking of bulk lasers,” Sci. Rep. 4, 5016 (2014).

W. Li, B. Chen, C. Meng, W. Fang, Y. Xiao, X. Li, Z. Hu, Y. Xu, L. Tong, and H. Wang, “Ultrafast all-optical graphene modulator,” Nano Lett. 14, 955–959 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

G. Zheng, Y. Chen, H. Huang, C. Zhao, S. Lu, S. Chen, H. Zhang, and S. Wen, “Improved transfer quality of CVD-grown graphene by ultrasonic processing of target substrates: applications for ultra-fast laser photonics,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 5, 10288–10293 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (8)

S. Chu, S. Wang, and Q. Gong, “Ultrafast third-order nonlinear optical properties of graphene in aqueous solution and polyvinyl alcohol film,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 523, 104–106 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, S. Virally, Q. Bao, L. K. Ping, S. Massar, N. Godbout, and P. Kockaert, “Z-scan measurement of the nonlinear refractive index of graphene,” Opt. Lett. 37, 1856–1858 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Ma, G. Xie, P. Lv, W. Gao, P. Yuan, L. Qian, H. Yu, H. Zhang, J. Wang, and D. Tang, “Graphene mode-locked femtosecond laser at 2  μm wavelength,” Opt. Lett. 37, 2085–2087 (2012).
[Crossref]

Z. Zheng, C. Zhao, S. Lu, Y. Chen, Y. Li, H. Zhang, and S. Wen, “Microwave and optical saturable absorption in graphene,” Opt. Express 20, 23201–23214 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Oya, H. Kishikawa, N. Goto, and S.-I. Yanagiya, “All-optical switch consisting of two-stage interferometers controlled by using saturable absorption of monolayer graphene,” Opt. Express 20, 27322–27330 (2012).
[Crossref]

Z. Liu, X. Zhang, X. Yan, Y. Chen, and J. Tian, “Nonlinear optical properties of graphene-based materials,” Chin. Sci. Bull. 57, 2971–2982 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. Chantharasupawong, R. Philip, N. T. Narayanan, P. M. Sudeep, A. Mathkar, P. M. Ajayan, and J. Thomas, “Optical power limiting in fluorinated graphene oxide: an insight into the nonlinear optical properties,” J. Phys. Chem. C 116, 25955–25961 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Wu, L. Mao, A. M. Jones, W. Yao, C. Zhang, and X. Xu, “Quantum-enhanced tunable second-order optical nonlinearity in bilayer graphene,” Nano Lett. 12, 2032–2036 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (5)

M. Glazov, “Second harmonic generation in graphene,” JETP Lett. 93, 366–371 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. Yang, X. Feng, Q. Wang, H. Huang, W. Chen, A. T. Wee, and W. Ji, “Giant two-photon absorption in bilayer graphene,” Nano Lett. 11, 2622–2627 (2011).
[Crossref]

R. Wu, Y. Zhang, S. Yan, F. Bian, W. Wang, X. Bai, X. Lu, J. Zhao, and E. Wang, “Purely coherent nonlinear optical response in solution dispersions of graphene sheets,” Nano Lett. 11, 5159–5164 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Breusing, S. Kuehn, T. Winzer, E. Malić, F. Milde, N. Severin, J. Rabe, C. Ropers, A. Knorr, and T. Elsaesser, “Ultrafast nonequilibrium carrier dynamics in a single graphene layer,” Phys. Rev. B 83, 153410 (2011).
[Crossref]

E. Malic, T. Winzer, E. Bobkin, and A. Knorr, “Microscopic theory of absorption and ultrafast many-particle kinetics in graphene,” Phys. Rev. B 84, 205406 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (7)

E. Hendry, P. J. Hale, J. Moger, A. K. Savchenko, and S. A. Mikhailov, “Coherent nonlinear optical response of graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 097401 (2010).
[Crossref]

L. Huang, G. V. Hartland, L.-Q. Chu, R. M. Feenstra, C. Lian, K. Tahy, and H. Xing, “Ultrafast transient absorption microscopy studies of carrier dynamics in epitaxial graphene,” Nano Lett. 10, 1308–1313 (2010).
[Crossref]

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4, 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, D. Tang, R. J. Knize, L. Zhao, Q. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Graphene mode locked, wavelength-tunable, dissipative soliton fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 111112 (2010).
[Crossref]

W. Tan, C. Su, R. Knize, G. Xie, L. Li, and D. Tang, “Mode locking of ceramic Nd:yttrium aluminum garnet with graphene as a saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 031106 (2010).
[Crossref]

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4, 611–622 (2010).
[Crossref]

L. M. Zhao, D. Y. Tang, H. Zhang, X. Wu, Q. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Dissipative soliton operation of an ytterbium-doped fiber laser mode locked with atomic multilayer graphene,” Opt. Lett. 35, 3622–3624 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (5)

A. K. Geim, “Graphene: status and prospects,” Science 324, 1530–1534 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. H. Castro Neto, F. Guinea, N. M. R. Peres, K. S. Novoselov, and A. K. Geim, “The electronic properties of graphene,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 109–162 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. J. Dean and H. M. van Driel, “Second harmonic generation from graphene and graphitic films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 261910 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, Y. Hernandez, M. Lotya, J. N. Coleman, and W. J. Blau, “Broadband nonlinear optical response of graphene dispersions,” Adv. Mater. 21, 2430–2435 (2009).
[Crossref]

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

J. M. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, M. Chandrashekhar, F. Rana, and M. G. Spencer, “Measurement of ultrafast carrier dynamics in epitaxial graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 042116 (2008).
[Crossref]

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science 320, 1308 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

F. Rana, “Electron-hole generation and recombination rates for Coulomb scattering in graphene,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 155431 (2007).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

Y. Lin, J. Zhang, E. Kumacheva, and E. Sargent, “Third-order optical nonlinearity and figure of merit of CdS nanocrystals chemically stabilized in spin-processable polymeric films,” J. Mater. Sci. 39, 993–996 (2004).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

1990 (2)

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T.-H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760–769 (1990).
[Crossref]

J. A. Salehi, A. M. Weiner, and J. P. Heritage, “Coherent ultrashort light pulse code-division multiple access communication systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 478–491 (1990).
[Crossref]

1969 (1)

R. N. Zitter, “Saturated optical absorption through band filling in semiconductors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 14, 73–74 (1969).
[Crossref]

Aggarwal, I.

Ajayan, P. M.

P. Chantharasupawong, R. Philip, N. T. Narayanan, P. M. Sudeep, A. Mathkar, P. M. Ajayan, and J. Thomas, “Optical power limiting in fluorinated graphene oxide: an insight into the nonlinear optical properties,” J. Phys. Chem. C 116, 25955–25961 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bai, X.

R. Wu, Y. Zhang, S. Yan, F. Bian, W. Wang, X. Bai, X. Lu, J. Zhao, and E. Wang, “Purely coherent nonlinear optical response in solution dispersions of graphene sheets,” Nano Lett. 11, 5159–5164 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bao, Q.

H. Zhang, S. Virally, Q. Bao, L. K. Ping, S. Massar, N. Godbout, and P. Kockaert, “Z-scan measurement of the nonlinear refractive index of graphene,” Opt. Lett. 37, 1856–1858 (2012).
[Crossref]

L. M. Zhao, D. Y. Tang, H. Zhang, X. Wu, Q. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Dissipative soliton operation of an ytterbium-doped fiber laser mode locked with atomic multilayer graphene,” Opt. Lett. 35, 3622–3624 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, D. Tang, R. J. Knize, L. Zhao, Q. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Graphene mode locked, wavelength-tunable, dissipative soliton fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 111112 (2010).
[Crossref]

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

Basko, D. M.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4, 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bian, F.

R. Wu, Y. Zhang, S. Yan, F. Bian, W. Wang, X. Bai, X. Lu, J. Zhao, and E. Wang, “Purely coherent nonlinear optical response in solution dispersions of graphene sheets,” Nano Lett. 11, 5159–5164 (2011).
[Crossref]

Blake, P.

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science 320, 1308 (2008).
[Crossref]

Blau, W. J.

J. Wang, Y. Hernandez, M. Lotya, J. N. Coleman, and W. J. Blau, “Broadband nonlinear optical response of graphene dispersions,” Adv. Mater. 21, 2430–2435 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bobkin, E.

E. Malic, T. Winzer, E. Bobkin, and A. Knorr, “Microscopic theory of absorption and ultrafast many-particle kinetics in graphene,” Phys. Rev. B 84, 205406 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bonaccorso, F.

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4, 611–622 (2010).
[Crossref]

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4, 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref]

Booth, T. J.

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science 320, 1308 (2008).
[Crossref]

Breusing, M.

M. Breusing, S. Kuehn, T. Winzer, E. Malić, F. Milde, N. Severin, J. Rabe, C. Ropers, A. Knorr, and T. Elsaesser, “Ultrafast nonequilibrium carrier dynamics in a single graphene layer,” Phys. Rev. B 83, 153410 (2011).
[Crossref]

Cao, X.

Castro Neto, A. H.

A. H. Castro Neto, F. Guinea, N. M. R. Peres, K. S. Novoselov, and A. K. Geim, “The electronic properties of graphene,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 109–162 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chandrashekhar, M.

J. M. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, M. Chandrashekhar, F. Rana, and M. G. Spencer, “Measurement of ultrafast carrier dynamics in epitaxial graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 042116 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chantharasupawong, P.

P. Chantharasupawong, R. Philip, N. T. Narayanan, P. M. Sudeep, A. Mathkar, P. M. Ajayan, and J. Thomas, “Optical power limiting in fluorinated graphene oxide: an insight into the nonlinear optical properties,” J. Phys. Chem. C 116, 25955–25961 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chen, B.

W. Li, B. Chen, C. Meng, W. Fang, Y. Xiao, X. Li, Z. Hu, Y. Xu, L. Tong, and H. Wang, “Ultrafast all-optical graphene modulator,” Nano Lett. 14, 955–959 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, S.

G. Zheng, Y. Chen, H. Huang, C. Zhao, S. Lu, S. Chen, H. Zhang, and S. Wen, “Improved transfer quality of CVD-grown graphene by ultrasonic processing of target substrates: applications for ultra-fast laser photonics,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 5, 10288–10293 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chen, W.

H. Yang, X. Feng, Q. Wang, H. Huang, W. Chen, A. T. Wee, and W. Ji, “Giant two-photon absorption in bilayer graphene,” Nano Lett. 11, 2622–2627 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.

Cheong, S.-W.

Chu, L.-Q.

L. Huang, G. V. Hartland, L.-Q. Chu, R. M. Feenstra, C. Lian, K. Tahy, and H. Xing, “Ultrafast transient absorption microscopy studies of carrier dynamics in epitaxial graphene,” Nano Lett. 10, 1308–1313 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chu, S.

S. Chu, S. Wang, and Q. Gong, “Ultrafast third-order nonlinear optical properties of graphene in aqueous solution and polyvinyl alcohol film,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 523, 104–106 (2012).
[Crossref]

Coleman, J. N.

J. Wang, Y. Hernandez, M. Lotya, J. N. Coleman, and W. J. Blau, “Broadband nonlinear optical response of graphene dispersions,” Adv. Mater. 21, 2430–2435 (2009).
[Crossref]

Dawlaty, J. M.

J. M. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, M. Chandrashekhar, F. Rana, and M. G. Spencer, “Measurement of ultrafast carrier dynamics in epitaxial graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 042116 (2008).
[Crossref]

Dean, J. J.

J. J. Dean and H. M. van Driel, “Second harmonic generation from graphene and graphitic films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 261910 (2009).
[Crossref]

Elsaesser, T.

M. Breusing, S. Kuehn, T. Winzer, E. Malić, F. Milde, N. Severin, J. Rabe, C. Ropers, A. Knorr, and T. Elsaesser, “Ultrafast nonequilibrium carrier dynamics in a single graphene layer,” Phys. Rev. B 83, 153410 (2011).
[Crossref]

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J. Ma, G. Xie, P. Lv, W. Gao, P. Yuan, L. Qian, H. Yu, H. Zhang, J. Wang, and D. Tang, “Graphene mode-locked femtosecond laser at 2  μm wavelength,” Opt. Lett. 37, 2085–2087 (2012).
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J. Ma, G. Xie, P. Lv, W. Gao, P. Yuan, L. Qian, H. Yu, H. Zhang, J. Wang, and D. Tang, “Graphene mode-locked femtosecond laser at 2  μm wavelength,” Opt. Lett. 37, 2085–2087 (2012).
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J. Ma, G. Xie, P. Lv, W. Gao, P. Yuan, L. Qian, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, H. Yu, and H. Zhang, “Wavelength-versatile graphene-gold film saturable absorber mirror for ultra-broadband mode-locking of bulk lasers,” Sci. Rep. 4, 5016 (2014).

J. Ma, G. Xie, P. Lv, W. Gao, P. Yuan, L. Qian, H. Yu, H. Zhang, J. Wang, and D. Tang, “Graphene mode-locked femtosecond laser at 2  μm wavelength,” Opt. Lett. 37, 2085–2087 (2012).
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M. Breusing, S. Kuehn, T. Winzer, E. Malić, F. Milde, N. Severin, J. Rabe, C. Ropers, A. Knorr, and T. Elsaesser, “Ultrafast nonequilibrium carrier dynamics in a single graphene layer,” Phys. Rev. B 83, 153410 (2011).
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J. Ma, G. Xie, P. Lv, W. Gao, P. Yuan, L. Qian, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, H. Yu, and H. Zhang, “Wavelength-versatile graphene-gold film saturable absorber mirror for ultra-broadband mode-locking of bulk lasers,” Sci. Rep. 4, 5016 (2014).

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P. Chantharasupawong, R. Philip, N. T. Narayanan, P. M. Sudeep, A. Mathkar, P. M. Ajayan, and J. Thomas, “Optical power limiting in fluorinated graphene oxide: an insight into the nonlinear optical properties,” J. Phys. Chem. C 116, 25955–25961 (2012).
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J. Ma, G. Xie, P. Lv, W. Gao, P. Yuan, L. Qian, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, H. Yu, and H. Zhang, “Wavelength-versatile graphene-gold film saturable absorber mirror for ultra-broadband mode-locking of bulk lasers,” Sci. Rep. 4, 5016 (2014).

J. Ma, G. Xie, P. Lv, W. Gao, P. Yuan, L. Qian, H. Yu, H. Zhang, J. Wang, and D. Tang, “Graphene mode-locked femtosecond laser at 2  μm wavelength,” Opt. Lett. 37, 2085–2087 (2012).
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M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T.-H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760–769 (1990).
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Sargent, E.

Y. Lin, J. Zhang, E. Kumacheva, and E. Sargent, “Third-order optical nonlinearity and figure of merit of CdS nanocrystals chemically stabilized in spin-processable polymeric films,” J. Mater. Sci. 39, 993–996 (2004).
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E. Hendry, P. J. Hale, J. Moger, A. K. Savchenko, and S. A. Mikhailov, “Coherent nonlinear optical response of graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 097401 (2010).
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W. Tan, C. Su, R. Knize, G. Xie, L. Li, and D. Tang, “Mode locking of ceramic Nd:yttrium aluminum garnet with graphene as a saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 031106 (2010).
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P. Chantharasupawong, R. Philip, N. T. Narayanan, P. M. Sudeep, A. Mathkar, P. M. Ajayan, and J. Thomas, “Optical power limiting in fluorinated graphene oxide: an insight into the nonlinear optical properties,” J. Phys. Chem. C 116, 25955–25961 (2012).
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F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4, 611–622 (2010).
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Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4, 803–810 (2010).
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L. Huang, G. V. Hartland, L.-Q. Chu, R. M. Feenstra, C. Lian, K. Tahy, and H. Xing, “Ultrafast transient absorption microscopy studies of carrier dynamics in epitaxial graphene,” Nano Lett. 10, 1308–1313 (2010).
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W. Tan, C. Su, R. Knize, G. Xie, L. Li, and D. Tang, “Mode locking of ceramic Nd:yttrium aluminum garnet with graphene as a saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 031106 (2010).
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J. Ma, G. Xie, P. Lv, W. Gao, P. Yuan, L. Qian, H. Yu, H. Zhang, J. Wang, and D. Tang, “Graphene mode-locked femtosecond laser at 2  μm wavelength,” Opt. Lett. 37, 2085–2087 (2012).
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H. Zhang, D. Tang, R. J. Knize, L. Zhao, Q. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Graphene mode locked, wavelength-tunable, dissipative soliton fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 111112 (2010).
[Crossref]

W. Tan, C. Su, R. Knize, G. Xie, L. Li, and D. Tang, “Mode locking of ceramic Nd:yttrium aluminum garnet with graphene as a saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 031106 (2010).
[Crossref]

Tang, D. Y.

L. M. Zhao, D. Y. Tang, H. Zhang, X. Wu, Q. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Dissipative soliton operation of an ytterbium-doped fiber laser mode locked with atomic multilayer graphene,” Opt. Lett. 35, 3622–3624 (2010).
[Crossref]

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

Thomas, J.

P. Chantharasupawong, R. Philip, N. T. Narayanan, P. M. Sudeep, A. Mathkar, P. M. Ajayan, and J. Thomas, “Optical power limiting in fluorinated graphene oxide: an insight into the nonlinear optical properties,” J. Phys. Chem. C 116, 25955–25961 (2012).
[Crossref]

Tian, J.

Z. Liu, X. Zhang, X. Yan, Y. Chen, and J. Tian, “Nonlinear optical properties of graphene-based materials,” Chin. Sci. Bull. 57, 2971–2982 (2012).
[Crossref]

Tian, J. G.

Tong, L.

W. Li, B. Chen, C. Meng, W. Fang, Y. Xiao, X. Li, Z. Hu, Y. Xu, L. Tong, and H. Wang, “Ultrafast all-optical graphene modulator,” Nano Lett. 14, 955–959 (2014).
[Crossref]

Torrisi, F.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4, 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref]

van Driel, H. M.

J. J. Dean and H. M. van Driel, “Second harmonic generation from graphene and graphitic films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 261910 (2009).
[Crossref]

Van Stryland, E. W.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T.-H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760–769 (1990).
[Crossref]

Virally, S.

Wang, E.

R. Wu, Y. Zhang, S. Yan, F. Bian, W. Wang, X. Bai, X. Lu, J. Zhao, and E. Wang, “Purely coherent nonlinear optical response in solution dispersions of graphene sheets,” Nano Lett. 11, 5159–5164 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wang, F.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4, 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wang, H.

W. Li, B. Chen, C. Meng, W. Fang, Y. Xiao, X. Li, Z. Hu, Y. Xu, L. Tong, and H. Wang, “Ultrafast all-optical graphene modulator,” Nano Lett. 14, 955–959 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wang, J.

J. Ma, G. Xie, P. Lv, W. Gao, P. Yuan, L. Qian, H. Yu, H. Zhang, J. Wang, and D. Tang, “Graphene mode-locked femtosecond laser at 2  μm wavelength,” Opt. Lett. 37, 2085–2087 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, Y. Hernandez, M. Lotya, J. N. Coleman, and W. J. Blau, “Broadband nonlinear optical response of graphene dispersions,” Adv. Mater. 21, 2430–2435 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wang, Q.

H. Yang, X. Feng, Q. Wang, H. Huang, W. Chen, A. T. Wee, and W. Ji, “Giant two-photon absorption in bilayer graphene,” Nano Lett. 11, 2622–2627 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wang, S.

S. Chu, S. Wang, and Q. Gong, “Ultrafast third-order nonlinear optical properties of graphene in aqueous solution and polyvinyl alcohol film,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 523, 104–106 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wang, W.

R. Wu, Y. Zhang, S. Yan, F. Bian, W. Wang, X. Bai, X. Lu, J. Zhao, and E. Wang, “Purely coherent nonlinear optical response in solution dispersions of graphene sheets,” Nano Lett. 11, 5159–5164 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wang, X.

Wang, Y.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wang, Z.

Wee, A. T.

H. Yang, X. Feng, Q. Wang, H. Huang, W. Chen, A. T. Wee, and W. Ji, “Giant two-photon absorption in bilayer graphene,” Nano Lett. 11, 2622–2627 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wei, T.-H.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T.-H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760–769 (1990).
[Crossref]

Weiner, A. M.

J. A. Salehi, A. M. Weiner, and J. P. Heritage, “Coherent ultrashort light pulse code-division multiple access communication systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 478–491 (1990).
[Crossref]

Wen, S.

G. Zheng, Y. Chen, H. Huang, C. Zhao, S. Lu, S. Chen, H. Zhang, and S. Wen, “Improved transfer quality of CVD-grown graphene by ultrasonic processing of target substrates: applications for ultra-fast laser photonics,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 5, 10288–10293 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z. Zheng, C. Zhao, S. Lu, Y. Chen, Y. Li, H. Zhang, and S. Wen, “Microwave and optical saturable absorption in graphene,” Opt. Express 20, 23201–23214 (2012).
[Crossref]

Winzer, T.

M. Breusing, S. Kuehn, T. Winzer, E. Malić, F. Milde, N. Severin, J. Rabe, C. Ropers, A. Knorr, and T. Elsaesser, “Ultrafast nonequilibrium carrier dynamics in a single graphene layer,” Phys. Rev. B 83, 153410 (2011).
[Crossref]

E. Malic, T. Winzer, E. Bobkin, and A. Knorr, “Microscopic theory of absorption and ultrafast many-particle kinetics in graphene,” Phys. Rev. B 84, 205406 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wu, R.

R. Wu, Y. Zhang, S. Yan, F. Bian, W. Wang, X. Bai, X. Lu, J. Zhao, and E. Wang, “Purely coherent nonlinear optical response in solution dispersions of graphene sheets,” Nano Lett. 11, 5159–5164 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wu, S.

S. Wu, L. Mao, A. M. Jones, W. Yao, C. Zhang, and X. Xu, “Quantum-enhanced tunable second-order optical nonlinearity in bilayer graphene,” Nano Lett. 12, 2032–2036 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wu, X.

Wu, Y.

Xiao, Y.

W. Li, B. Chen, C. Meng, W. Fang, Y. Xiao, X. Li, Z. Hu, Y. Xu, L. Tong, and H. Wang, “Ultrafast all-optical graphene modulator,” Nano Lett. 14, 955–959 (2014).
[Crossref]

Xie, G.

J. Ma, G. Xie, P. Lv, W. Gao, P. Yuan, L. Qian, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, H. Yu, and H. Zhang, “Wavelength-versatile graphene-gold film saturable absorber mirror for ultra-broadband mode-locking of bulk lasers,” Sci. Rep. 4, 5016 (2014).

J. Ma, G. Xie, P. Lv, W. Gao, P. Yuan, L. Qian, H. Yu, H. Zhang, J. Wang, and D. Tang, “Graphene mode-locked femtosecond laser at 2  μm wavelength,” Opt. Lett. 37, 2085–2087 (2012).
[Crossref]

W. Tan, C. Su, R. Knize, G. Xie, L. Li, and D. Tang, “Mode locking of ceramic Nd:yttrium aluminum garnet with graphene as a saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 031106 (2010).
[Crossref]

Xing, H.

L. Huang, G. V. Hartland, L.-Q. Chu, R. M. Feenstra, C. Lian, K. Tahy, and H. Xing, “Ultrafast transient absorption microscopy studies of carrier dynamics in epitaxial graphene,” Nano Lett. 10, 1308–1313 (2010).
[Crossref]

Xu, X.

S. Wu, L. Mao, A. M. Jones, W. Yao, C. Zhang, and X. Xu, “Quantum-enhanced tunable second-order optical nonlinearity in bilayer graphene,” Nano Lett. 12, 2032–2036 (2012).
[Crossref]

Xu, Y.

W. Li, B. Chen, C. Meng, W. Fang, Y. Xiao, X. Li, Z. Hu, Y. Xu, L. Tong, and H. Wang, “Ultrafast all-optical graphene modulator,” Nano Lett. 14, 955–959 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yan, S.

R. Wu, Y. Zhang, S. Yan, F. Bian, W. Wang, X. Bai, X. Lu, J. Zhao, and E. Wang, “Purely coherent nonlinear optical response in solution dispersions of graphene sheets,” Nano Lett. 11, 5159–5164 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yan, X.

Z. Liu, X. Zhang, X. Yan, Y. Chen, and J. Tian, “Nonlinear optical properties of graphene-based materials,” Chin. Sci. Bull. 57, 2971–2982 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yan, X.-Q.

Yan, Y.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yanagiya, S.-I.

Yang, H.

H. Yang, X. Feng, Q. Wang, H. Huang, W. Chen, A. T. Wee, and W. Ji, “Giant two-photon absorption in bilayer graphene,” Nano Lett. 11, 2622–2627 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yao, B.

Yao, J.

Yao, W.

S. Wu, L. Mao, A. M. Jones, W. Yao, C. Zhang, and X. Xu, “Quantum-enhanced tunable second-order optical nonlinearity in bilayer graphene,” Nano Lett. 12, 2032–2036 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yu, H.

J. Ma, G. Xie, P. Lv, W. Gao, P. Yuan, L. Qian, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, H. Yu, and H. Zhang, “Wavelength-versatile graphene-gold film saturable absorber mirror for ultra-broadband mode-locking of bulk lasers,” Sci. Rep. 4, 5016 (2014).

J. Ma, G. Xie, P. Lv, W. Gao, P. Yuan, L. Qian, H. Yu, H. Zhang, J. Wang, and D. Tang, “Graphene mode-locked femtosecond laser at 2  μm wavelength,” Opt. Lett. 37, 2085–2087 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yuan, P.

J. Ma, G. Xie, P. Lv, W. Gao, P. Yuan, L. Qian, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, H. Yu, and H. Zhang, “Wavelength-versatile graphene-gold film saturable absorber mirror for ultra-broadband mode-locking of bulk lasers,” Sci. Rep. 4, 5016 (2014).

J. Ma, G. Xie, P. Lv, W. Gao, P. Yuan, L. Qian, H. Yu, H. Zhang, J. Wang, and D. Tang, “Graphene mode-locked femtosecond laser at 2  μm wavelength,” Opt. Lett. 37, 2085–2087 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhang, C.

S. Wu, L. Mao, A. M. Jones, W. Yao, C. Zhang, and X. Xu, “Quantum-enhanced tunable second-order optical nonlinearity in bilayer graphene,” Nano Lett. 12, 2032–2036 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhang, H.

J. Ma, G. Xie, P. Lv, W. Gao, P. Yuan, L. Qian, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, H. Yu, and H. Zhang, “Wavelength-versatile graphene-gold film saturable absorber mirror for ultra-broadband mode-locking of bulk lasers,” Sci. Rep. 4, 5016 (2014).

G. Zheng, Y. Chen, H. Huang, C. Zhao, S. Lu, S. Chen, H. Zhang, and S. Wen, “Improved transfer quality of CVD-grown graphene by ultrasonic processing of target substrates: applications for ultra-fast laser photonics,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 5, 10288–10293 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, S. Virally, Q. Bao, L. K. Ping, S. Massar, N. Godbout, and P. Kockaert, “Z-scan measurement of the nonlinear refractive index of graphene,” Opt. Lett. 37, 1856–1858 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Ma, G. Xie, P. Lv, W. Gao, P. Yuan, L. Qian, H. Yu, H. Zhang, J. Wang, and D. Tang, “Graphene mode-locked femtosecond laser at 2  μm wavelength,” Opt. Lett. 37, 2085–2087 (2012).
[Crossref]

Z. Zheng, C. Zhao, S. Lu, Y. Chen, Y. Li, H. Zhang, and S. Wen, “Microwave and optical saturable absorption in graphene,” Opt. Express 20, 23201–23214 (2012).
[Crossref]

L. M. Zhao, D. Y. Tang, H. Zhang, X. Wu, Q. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Dissipative soliton operation of an ytterbium-doped fiber laser mode locked with atomic multilayer graphene,” Opt. Lett. 35, 3622–3624 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, D. Tang, R. J. Knize, L. Zhao, Q. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Graphene mode locked, wavelength-tunable, dissipative soliton fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 111112 (2010).
[Crossref]

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zhang, J.

Y. Lin, J. Zhang, E. Kumacheva, and E. Sargent, “Third-order optical nonlinearity and figure of merit of CdS nanocrystals chemically stabilized in spin-processable polymeric films,” J. Mater. Sci. 39, 993–996 (2004).
[Crossref]

Zhang, W.

Zhang, X.

Z. Liu, X. Zhang, X. Yan, Y. Chen, and J. Tian, “Nonlinear optical properties of graphene-based materials,” Chin. Sci. Bull. 57, 2971–2982 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y.

R. Wu, Y. Zhang, S. Yan, F. Bian, W. Wang, X. Bai, X. Lu, J. Zhao, and E. Wang, “Purely coherent nonlinear optical response in solution dispersions of graphene sheets,” Nano Lett. 11, 5159–5164 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zhao, C.

G. Zheng, Y. Chen, H. Huang, C. Zhao, S. Lu, S. Chen, H. Zhang, and S. Wen, “Improved transfer quality of CVD-grown graphene by ultrasonic processing of target substrates: applications for ultra-fast laser photonics,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 5, 10288–10293 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z. Zheng, C. Zhao, S. Lu, Y. Chen, Y. Li, H. Zhang, and S. Wen, “Microwave and optical saturable absorption in graphene,” Opt. Express 20, 23201–23214 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhao, J.

R. Wu, Y. Zhang, S. Yan, F. Bian, W. Wang, X. Bai, X. Lu, J. Zhao, and E. Wang, “Purely coherent nonlinear optical response in solution dispersions of graphene sheets,” Nano Lett. 11, 5159–5164 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zhao, L.

H. Zhang, D. Tang, R. J. Knize, L. Zhao, Q. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Graphene mode locked, wavelength-tunable, dissipative soliton fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 111112 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zhao, L. M.

Zhao, X.

Zheng, G.

G. Zheng, Y. Chen, H. Huang, C. Zhao, S. Lu, S. Chen, H. Zhang, and S. Wen, “Improved transfer quality of CVD-grown graphene by ultrasonic processing of target substrates: applications for ultra-fast laser photonics,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 5, 10288–10293 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zheng, Z.

Zhou, J.

Zhou, X.

Zimmermann, J.

Zitter, R. N.

R. N. Zitter, “Saturated optical absorption through band filling in semiconductors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 14, 73–74 (1969).
[Crossref]

ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces (1)

G. Zheng, Y. Chen, H. Huang, C. Zhao, S. Lu, S. Chen, H. Zhang, and S. Wen, “Improved transfer quality of CVD-grown graphene by ultrasonic processing of target substrates: applications for ultra-fast laser photonics,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 5, 10288–10293 (2013).
[Crossref]

ACS Nano (1)

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4, 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater. (1)

J. Wang, Y. Hernandez, M. Lotya, J. N. Coleman, and W. J. Blau, “Broadband nonlinear optical response of graphene dispersions,” Adv. Mater. 21, 2430–2435 (2009).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

R. N. Zitter, “Saturated optical absorption through band filling in semiconductors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 14, 73–74 (1969).
[Crossref]

J. J. Dean and H. M. van Driel, “Second harmonic generation from graphene and graphitic films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 261910 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, D. Tang, R. J. Knize, L. Zhao, Q. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Graphene mode locked, wavelength-tunable, dissipative soliton fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 111112 (2010).
[Crossref]

W. Tan, C. Su, R. Knize, G. Xie, L. Li, and D. Tang, “Mode locking of ceramic Nd:yttrium aluminum garnet with graphene as a saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 031106 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. M. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, M. Chandrashekhar, F. Rana, and M. G. Spencer, “Measurement of ultrafast carrier dynamics in epitaxial graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 042116 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

S. Chu, S. Wang, and Q. Gong, “Ultrafast third-order nonlinear optical properties of graphene in aqueous solution and polyvinyl alcohol film,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 523, 104–106 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chin. Sci. Bull. (1)

Z. Liu, X. Zhang, X. Yan, Y. Chen, and J. Tian, “Nonlinear optical properties of graphene-based materials,” Chin. Sci. Bull. 57, 2971–2982 (2012).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T.-H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760–769 (1990).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. A. Salehi, A. M. Weiner, and J. P. Heritage, “Coherent ultrashort light pulse code-division multiple access communication systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 478–491 (1990).
[Crossref]

J. Mater. Sci. (1)

Y. Lin, J. Zhang, E. Kumacheva, and E. Sargent, “Third-order optical nonlinearity and figure of merit of CdS nanocrystals chemically stabilized in spin-processable polymeric films,” J. Mater. Sci. 39, 993–996 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. Chem. C (1)

P. Chantharasupawong, R. Philip, N. T. Narayanan, P. M. Sudeep, A. Mathkar, P. M. Ajayan, and J. Thomas, “Optical power limiting in fluorinated graphene oxide: an insight into the nonlinear optical properties,” J. Phys. Chem. C 116, 25955–25961 (2012).
[Crossref]

JETP Lett. (1)

M. Glazov, “Second harmonic generation in graphene,” JETP Lett. 93, 366–371 (2011).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (5)

W. Li, B. Chen, C. Meng, W. Fang, Y. Xiao, X. Li, Z. Hu, Y. Xu, L. Tong, and H. Wang, “Ultrafast all-optical graphene modulator,” Nano Lett. 14, 955–959 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Wu, L. Mao, A. M. Jones, W. Yao, C. Zhang, and X. Xu, “Quantum-enhanced tunable second-order optical nonlinearity in bilayer graphene,” Nano Lett. 12, 2032–2036 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. Yang, X. Feng, Q. Wang, H. Huang, W. Chen, A. T. Wee, and W. Ji, “Giant two-photon absorption in bilayer graphene,” Nano Lett. 11, 2622–2627 (2011).
[Crossref]

R. Wu, Y. Zhang, S. Yan, F. Bian, W. Wang, X. Bai, X. Lu, J. Zhao, and E. Wang, “Purely coherent nonlinear optical response in solution dispersions of graphene sheets,” Nano Lett. 11, 5159–5164 (2011).
[Crossref]

L. Huang, G. V. Hartland, L.-Q. Chu, R. M. Feenstra, C. Lian, K. Tahy, and H. Xing, “Ultrafast transient absorption microscopy studies of carrier dynamics in epitaxial graphene,” Nano Lett. 10, 1308–1313 (2010).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (1)

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4, 611–622 (2010).
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Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Photon. Res. (4)

Phys. Rev. B (3)

M. Breusing, S. Kuehn, T. Winzer, E. Malić, F. Milde, N. Severin, J. Rabe, C. Ropers, A. Knorr, and T. Elsaesser, “Ultrafast nonequilibrium carrier dynamics in a single graphene layer,” Phys. Rev. B 83, 153410 (2011).
[Crossref]

E. Malic, T. Winzer, E. Bobkin, and A. Knorr, “Microscopic theory of absorption and ultrafast many-particle kinetics in graphene,” Phys. Rev. B 84, 205406 (2011).
[Crossref]

F. Rana, “Electron-hole generation and recombination rates for Coulomb scattering in graphene,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 155431 (2007).
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Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

E. Hendry, P. J. Hale, J. Moger, A. K. Savchenko, and S. A. Mikhailov, “Coherent nonlinear optical response of graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 097401 (2010).
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Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

A. H. Castro Neto, F. Guinea, N. M. R. Peres, K. S. Novoselov, and A. K. Geim, “The electronic properties of graphene,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 109–162 (2009).
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Sci. Rep. (1)

J. Ma, G. Xie, P. Lv, W. Gao, P. Yuan, L. Qian, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, H. Yu, and H. Zhang, “Wavelength-versatile graphene-gold film saturable absorber mirror for ultra-broadband mode-locking of bulk lasers,” Sci. Rep. 4, 5016 (2014).

Science (2)

A. K. Geim, “Graphene: status and prospects,” Science 324, 1530–1534 (2009).
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R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science 320, 1308 (2008).
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Other (2)

B. Semnani, A. H. Majedi, and S. Safavi-Naeini, “Nonlinear quantum optical properties of graphene: the role of chirality and symmetry,” arXiv:1502.02203 (2015).

G. Sucha, “Overview of industrial and medical applications of ultrafast lasers,” in Handbook of Ultrafast Lasers: Technology and Applications, M. E. Fermann, A. Galvanauskas, and G. Sucha, eds. (Academic, 2003), pp. 286–316.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Raman characterization of the graphene sample.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Absorption spectra of six–eight-layer graphene.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Experimental setup of the pump–probe measurement.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Transient transmittance traces at different incident pump intensities for FLG at room temperature. The solid lines are fitting results based on different incident pump intensities.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Experimental setup of the Z-scan measurement.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Curves of an OA Z-scan by FLG sample. The black curve represents the quartz substrate, and the blue curve represents the FLG sample on quartz.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. (a) Power-dependent transmittance of FLG, and (b) balanced twin detector of FLG.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. (a) CA Z-scan measurement of FLG at 1.56 μm, (b) OA Z-scan measurement of FLG at 1.56 μm, (c) CA Z-scan measurement of FLG at 1.93 μm, and (d) OA Z-scan measurement of FLG at 1.93 μm.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ΔT/T=A1et/τ1+A2et/τ2,
α*(N)=αS*1+IIs+αNS*,
T=(1α0L1+I/Is).11α0L,
T(x)=1+4xΔΦ(1+x2)(9+x2),

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