Abstract

Liquid-phase-exfoliation technology was utilized to prepare layered MoS2, WS2, and MoSe2 nanosheets in cyclohexylpyrrolidone. The nonlinear optical response of these nanosheets in dispersions was investigated by observing spatial self-phase modulation (SSPM) using a 488 nm continuous wave laser beam. The diffraction ring patterns of SSPM were found to be distorted along the vertical direction right after the laser traversing the nanosheet dispersions. The nonlinear refractive index of the three transition metal dichalcogenides dispersions n2 was measured to be 107cm2W1, and the third-order nonlinear susceptibility χ(3)109esu. The relative change of effective nonlinear refractive index Δn2e/n2e of the MoS2, WS2, and MoSe2 dispersions can be modulated 0.012–0.240, 0.029–0.154, and 0.091–0.304, respectively, by changing the incident intensities. Our experimental results imply novel potential application of two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides in nonlinear phase modulation devices.

© 2015 Chinese Laser Press

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  1. G. Cunningham, M. Lotya, C. S. Cucinotta, S. Sanvito, S. D. Bergin, R. Menzel, M. S. Shaffer, and J. N. Coleman, “Solvent exfoliation of transition metal dichalcogenides: dispersibility of exfoliated nanosheets varies only weakly between compounds,” ACS Nano 6, 3468–3480 (2012).
    [Crossref]
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  3. S. Tongay, J. Zhou, C. Ataca, J. Liu, J. S. Kang, T. S. Matthews, L. You, J. Li, J. C. Grossman, and J. Wu, “Broad-range modulation of light emission in two-dimensional semiconductors by molecular physisorption gating,” Nano Lett. 13, 2831–2836 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  4. N. Peimyoo, J. Shang, C. Cong, X. Shen, X. Wu, E. K. Yeow, and T. Yu, “Nonblinking, intense two-dimensional light emitter: monolayer WS2 triangles,” ACS Nano 7, 10985–10994 (2013).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  6. M. Bernardi, M. Palummo, and J. C. Grossman, “Extraordinary sunlight absorption and one nanometer thick photovoltaics using two-dimensional monolayer materials,” Nano Lett. 13, 3664–3670 (2013).
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    [Crossref]
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  12. S. Sugai, T. Ueda, and K. Murase, “Raman-scattering in Mos2, MoSe2 and alpha-Mote2 at high-pressures,” J. Phys. Colloq. 42, 320–322 (1981).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  16. A. Berkdemir, H. R. Gutiérrez, A. R. Botello-Méndez, N. Perea-López, A. L. Elías, C. Chia, B. Wang, V. H. Crespi, F. López-Urías, and J. Charlier, “Identification of individual and few layers of WS2 using Raman spectroscopy,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1755 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  17. S. D. Durbin, S. M. Arakelian, and Y. R. Shen, “Laser-induced diffraction rings from a nematic-liquid-crystal film,” Opt. Lett. 6, 411–413 (1981).
  18. G. Wang, S. Zhang, F. A. Umran, X. Cheng, N. Dong, D. Coghlan, Y. Cheng, L. Zhang, W. J. Blau, and J. Wang, “Tunable effective nonlinear refractive index of graphene dispersions during the distortion of spatial self-phase modulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 141909 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  19. Z. Wang, “Alignment of graphene nanoribbons by an electric field,” Carbon 47, 3050–3053 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  20. R. Karimzadeh, “Spatial self-phase modulation of a laser beam propagating through liquids with self-induced natural convection flow,” J. Opt. 14, 095701 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  21. C. M. Vest and M. L. Lawson, “Onset of convection near a suddenly heated horizontal wire,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 15, 1281–1283 (1972).
    [Crossref]
  22. S. Wang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, A. Wang, M. Zhao, Y. Chen, L. Mei, and J. Wang, “Broadband few-layer MoS2 saturable absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 26, 3538–3544 (2014).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  25. F. Wurthner, S. Yao, J. Schilling, R. Wortmann, M. Redi-Abshiro, E. Mecher, F. Gallego-Gomez, and K. Meerholz, “ATOP dyes. Optimization of a multifunctional merocyanine chromophore for high refractive index modulation in photorefractive materials,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123, 2810–2824 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  26. B. R. Bennett, R. A. Soref, and J. A. Delalamo, “Carrier-induced change in refractive-index of InP, GaAs, and InGaAsP,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 113–122 (1990).
    [Crossref]

2014 (3)

G. Wang, S. Zhang, F. A. Umran, X. Cheng, N. Dong, D. Coghlan, Y. Cheng, L. Zhang, W. J. Blau, and J. Wang, “Tunable effective nonlinear refractive index of graphene dispersions during the distortion of spatial self-phase modulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 141909 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Wang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, A. Wang, M. Zhao, Y. Chen, L. Mei, and J. Wang, “Broadband few-layer MoS2 saturable absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 26, 3538–3544 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. Kumar, Q. Cui, F. Ceballos, D. He, Y. Wang, and H. Zhao, “Exciton-exciton annihilation in MoSe2 monolayers,” Phys. Rev. B 89, 125427 (2014).

2013 (9)

W. Li, J. Carrete, and N. Mingo, “Thermal conductivity and phonon linewidths of monolayer MoS2 from first principles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 253103 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. R. Gutierrez, N. Perea-Lopez, A. L. Elias, A. Berkdemir, B. Wang, R. Lv, F. Lopez-Urias, V. H. Crespi, H. Terrones, and M. Terrones, “Extraordinary room-temperature photoluminescence in triangular WS2 monolayers,” Nano Lett. 13, 3447–3454 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Berkdemir, H. R. Gutiérrez, A. R. Botello-Méndez, N. Perea-López, A. L. Elías, C. Chia, B. Wang, V. H. Crespi, F. López-Urías, and J. Charlier, “Identification of individual and few layers of WS2 using Raman spectroscopy,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1755 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Tongay, J. Zhou, C. Ataca, J. Liu, J. S. Kang, T. S. Matthews, L. You, J. Li, J. C. Grossman, and J. Wu, “Broad-range modulation of light emission in two-dimensional semiconductors by molecular physisorption gating,” Nano Lett. 13, 2831–2836 (2013).
[Crossref]

N. Peimyoo, J. Shang, C. Cong, X. Shen, X. Wu, E. K. Yeow, and T. Yu, “Nonblinking, intense two-dimensional light emitter: monolayer WS2 triangles,” ACS Nano 7, 10985–10994 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Tonndorf, R. Schmidt, P. Böttger, X. Zhang, J. Börner, A. Liebig, M. Albrecht, C. Kloc, O. Gordan, and D. R. Zahn, “Photoluminescence emission and Raman response of monolayer MoS2, MoSe2, and WSe2,” Opt. Express 21, 4908–4916 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Bernardi, M. Palummo, and J. C. Grossman, “Extraordinary sunlight absorption and one nanometer thick photovoltaics using two-dimensional monolayer materials,” Nano Lett. 13, 3664–3670 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. M. Malard, T. V. Alencar, A. P. M. Barboza, K. F. Mak, and A. M. de Paula, “Observation of intense second harmonic generation from MoS2 atomic crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 87, 201401 (2013).

K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, and Q. Zhao, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7, 9260–9267 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

G. Cunningham, M. Lotya, C. S. Cucinotta, S. Sanvito, S. D. Bergin, R. Menzel, M. S. Shaffer, and J. N. Coleman, “Solvent exfoliation of transition metal dichalcogenides: dispersibility of exfoliated nanosheets varies only weakly between compounds,” ACS Nano 6, 3468–3480 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. Karimzadeh, “Spatial self-phase modulation of a laser beam propagating through liquids with self-induced natural convection flow,” J. Opt. 14, 095701 (2012).
[Crossref]

S.-L. Li, H. Miyazaki, H. Song, H. Kuramochi, S. Nakaharai, and K. Tsukagoshi, “Quantitative Raman spectrum and reliable thickness identification for atomic layers on insulating substrates,” ACS Nano 6, 7381–7388 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

R. Wu, Y. L. Zhang, S. C. Yan, F. Bian, W. L. Wang, X. D. Bai, X. H. Lu, J. M. Zhao, and E. G. Wang, “Purely coherent nonlinear optical response in solution dispersions of graphene sheets,” Nano Lett. 11, 5159–5164 (2011).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

Z. Wang, “Alignment of graphene nanoribbons by an electric field,” Carbon 47, 3050–3053 (2009).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

2002 (1)

R. Gordon, D. Yang, E. Crozier, D. Jiang, and R. Frindt, “Structures of exfoliated single layers of WS2, MoS2, and MoSe2 in aqueous suspension,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 125407 (2002).

2001 (1)

F. Wurthner, S. Yao, J. Schilling, R. Wortmann, M. Redi-Abshiro, E. Mecher, F. Gallego-Gomez, and K. Meerholz, “ATOP dyes. Optimization of a multifunctional merocyanine chromophore for high refractive index modulation in photorefractive materials,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123, 2810–2824 (2001).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

N. McDevitt, J. Zabinski, and M. Donley, “The use of Raman scattering to study disorder in pulsed laser deposited MoS2 films,” Thin Solid Films 240, 76–81 (1994).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

B. R. Bennett, R. A. Soref, and J. A. Delalamo, “Carrier-induced change in refractive-index of InP, GaAs, and InGaAsP,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 113–122 (1990).
[Crossref]

1981 (2)

S. Sugai, T. Ueda, and K. Murase, “Raman-scattering in Mos2, MoSe2 and alpha-Mote2 at high-pressures,” J. Phys. Colloq. 42, 320–322 (1981).
[Crossref]

S. D. Durbin, S. M. Arakelian, and Y. R. Shen, “Laser-induced diffraction rings from a nematic-liquid-crystal film,” Opt. Lett. 6, 411–413 (1981).

1980 (1)

T. Sekine, T. Nakashizu, K. Toyoda, K. Uchinokura, and E. Matsuura, “Raman scattering in layered compound 2H-WS2,” Solid State Commun. 35, 371–373 (1980).
[Crossref]

1972 (1)

C. M. Vest and M. L. Lawson, “Onset of convection near a suddenly heated horizontal wire,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 15, 1281–1283 (1972).
[Crossref]

Albrecht, M.

Alencar, T. V.

L. M. Malard, T. V. Alencar, A. P. M. Barboza, K. F. Mak, and A. M. de Paula, “Observation of intense second harmonic generation from MoS2 atomic crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 87, 201401 (2013).

Arakelian, S. M.

Ataca, C.

S. Tongay, J. Zhou, C. Ataca, J. Liu, J. S. Kang, T. S. Matthews, L. You, J. Li, J. C. Grossman, and J. Wu, “Broad-range modulation of light emission in two-dimensional semiconductors by molecular physisorption gating,” Nano Lett. 13, 2831–2836 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bai, X. D.

R. Wu, Y. L. Zhang, S. C. Yan, F. Bian, W. L. Wang, X. D. Bai, X. H. Lu, J. M. Zhao, and E. G. Wang, “Purely coherent nonlinear optical response in solution dispersions of graphene sheets,” Nano Lett. 11, 5159–5164 (2011).
[Crossref]

Barboza, A. P. M.

L. M. Malard, T. V. Alencar, A. P. M. Barboza, K. F. Mak, and A. M. de Paula, “Observation of intense second harmonic generation from MoS2 atomic crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 87, 201401 (2013).

Bennett, B. R.

B. R. Bennett, R. A. Soref, and J. A. Delalamo, “Carrier-induced change in refractive-index of InP, GaAs, and InGaAsP,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 113–122 (1990).
[Crossref]

Bergin, S. D.

G. Cunningham, M. Lotya, C. S. Cucinotta, S. Sanvito, S. D. Bergin, R. Menzel, M. S. Shaffer, and J. N. Coleman, “Solvent exfoliation of transition metal dichalcogenides: dispersibility of exfoliated nanosheets varies only weakly between compounds,” ACS Nano 6, 3468–3480 (2012).
[Crossref]

Berkdemir, A.

H. R. Gutierrez, N. Perea-Lopez, A. L. Elias, A. Berkdemir, B. Wang, R. Lv, F. Lopez-Urias, V. H. Crespi, H. Terrones, and M. Terrones, “Extraordinary room-temperature photoluminescence in triangular WS2 monolayers,” Nano Lett. 13, 3447–3454 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Berkdemir, H. R. Gutiérrez, A. R. Botello-Méndez, N. Perea-López, A. L. Elías, C. Chia, B. Wang, V. H. Crespi, F. López-Urías, and J. Charlier, “Identification of individual and few layers of WS2 using Raman spectroscopy,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1755 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bernardi, M.

M. Bernardi, M. Palummo, and J. C. Grossman, “Extraordinary sunlight absorption and one nanometer thick photovoltaics using two-dimensional monolayer materials,” Nano Lett. 13, 3664–3670 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bian, F.

R. Wu, Y. L. Zhang, S. C. Yan, F. Bian, W. L. Wang, X. D. Bai, X. H. Lu, J. M. Zhao, and E. G. Wang, “Purely coherent nonlinear optical response in solution dispersions of graphene sheets,” Nano Lett. 11, 5159–5164 (2011).
[Crossref]

Blau, W. J.

G. Wang, S. Zhang, F. A. Umran, X. Cheng, N. Dong, D. Coghlan, Y. Cheng, L. Zhang, W. J. Blau, and J. Wang, “Tunable effective nonlinear refractive index of graphene dispersions during the distortion of spatial self-phase modulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 141909 (2014).
[Crossref]

Börner, J.

Botello-Méndez, A. R.

A. Berkdemir, H. R. Gutiérrez, A. R. Botello-Méndez, N. Perea-López, A. L. Elías, C. Chia, B. Wang, V. H. Crespi, F. López-Urías, and J. Charlier, “Identification of individual and few layers of WS2 using Raman spectroscopy,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1755 (2013).
[Crossref]

Böttger, P.

Carrete, J.

W. Li, J. Carrete, and N. Mingo, “Thermal conductivity and phonon linewidths of monolayer MoS2 from first principles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 253103 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ceballos, F.

N. Kumar, Q. Cui, F. Ceballos, D. He, Y. Wang, and H. Zhao, “Exciton-exciton annihilation in MoSe2 monolayers,” Phys. Rev. B 89, 125427 (2014).

Charlier, J.

A. Berkdemir, H. R. Gutiérrez, A. R. Botello-Méndez, N. Perea-López, A. L. Elías, C. Chia, B. Wang, V. H. Crespi, F. López-Urías, and J. Charlier, “Identification of individual and few layers of WS2 using Raman spectroscopy,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1755 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chen, W.

Chen, Y.

S. Wang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, A. Wang, M. Zhao, Y. Chen, L. Mei, and J. Wang, “Broadband few-layer MoS2 saturable absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 26, 3538–3544 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cheng, X.

G. Wang, S. Zhang, F. A. Umran, X. Cheng, N. Dong, D. Coghlan, Y. Cheng, L. Zhang, W. J. Blau, and J. Wang, “Tunable effective nonlinear refractive index of graphene dispersions during the distortion of spatial self-phase modulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 141909 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cheng, Y.

G. Wang, S. Zhang, F. A. Umran, X. Cheng, N. Dong, D. Coghlan, Y. Cheng, L. Zhang, W. J. Blau, and J. Wang, “Tunable effective nonlinear refractive index of graphene dispersions during the distortion of spatial self-phase modulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 141909 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chia, C.

A. Berkdemir, H. R. Gutiérrez, A. R. Botello-Méndez, N. Perea-López, A. L. Elías, C. Chia, B. Wang, V. H. Crespi, F. López-Urías, and J. Charlier, “Identification of individual and few layers of WS2 using Raman spectroscopy,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1755 (2013).
[Crossref]

Coghlan, D.

G. Wang, S. Zhang, F. A. Umran, X. Cheng, N. Dong, D. Coghlan, Y. Cheng, L. Zhang, W. J. Blau, and J. Wang, “Tunable effective nonlinear refractive index of graphene dispersions during the distortion of spatial self-phase modulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 141909 (2014).
[Crossref]

Coleman, J. N.

G. Cunningham, M. Lotya, C. S. Cucinotta, S. Sanvito, S. D. Bergin, R. Menzel, M. S. Shaffer, and J. N. Coleman, “Solvent exfoliation of transition metal dichalcogenides: dispersibility of exfoliated nanosheets varies only weakly between compounds,” ACS Nano 6, 3468–3480 (2012).
[Crossref]

Cong, C.

N. Peimyoo, J. Shang, C. Cong, X. Shen, X. Wu, E. K. Yeow, and T. Yu, “Nonblinking, intense two-dimensional light emitter: monolayer WS2 triangles,” ACS Nano 7, 10985–10994 (2013).
[Crossref]

Crespi, V. H.

A. Berkdemir, H. R. Gutiérrez, A. R. Botello-Méndez, N. Perea-López, A. L. Elías, C. Chia, B. Wang, V. H. Crespi, F. López-Urías, and J. Charlier, “Identification of individual and few layers of WS2 using Raman spectroscopy,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1755 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. R. Gutierrez, N. Perea-Lopez, A. L. Elias, A. Berkdemir, B. Wang, R. Lv, F. Lopez-Urias, V. H. Crespi, H. Terrones, and M. Terrones, “Extraordinary room-temperature photoluminescence in triangular WS2 monolayers,” Nano Lett. 13, 3447–3454 (2013).
[Crossref]

Crozier, E.

R. Gordon, D. Yang, E. Crozier, D. Jiang, and R. Frindt, “Structures of exfoliated single layers of WS2, MoS2, and MoSe2 in aqueous suspension,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 125407 (2002).

Cucinotta, C. S.

G. Cunningham, M. Lotya, C. S. Cucinotta, S. Sanvito, S. D. Bergin, R. Menzel, M. S. Shaffer, and J. N. Coleman, “Solvent exfoliation of transition metal dichalcogenides: dispersibility of exfoliated nanosheets varies only weakly between compounds,” ACS Nano 6, 3468–3480 (2012).
[Crossref]

Cui, Q.

N. Kumar, Q. Cui, F. Ceballos, D. He, Y. Wang, and H. Zhao, “Exciton-exciton annihilation in MoSe2 monolayers,” Phys. Rev. B 89, 125427 (2014).

Cunningham, G.

G. Cunningham, M. Lotya, C. S. Cucinotta, S. Sanvito, S. D. Bergin, R. Menzel, M. S. Shaffer, and J. N. Coleman, “Solvent exfoliation of transition metal dichalcogenides: dispersibility of exfoliated nanosheets varies only weakly between compounds,” ACS Nano 6, 3468–3480 (2012).
[Crossref]

de Paula, A. M.

L. M. Malard, T. V. Alencar, A. P. M. Barboza, K. F. Mak, and A. M. de Paula, “Observation of intense second harmonic generation from MoS2 atomic crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 87, 201401 (2013).

Delalamo, J. A.

B. R. Bennett, R. A. Soref, and J. A. Delalamo, “Carrier-induced change in refractive-index of InP, GaAs, and InGaAsP,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 113–122 (1990).
[Crossref]

Dong, N.

G. Wang, S. Zhang, F. A. Umran, X. Cheng, N. Dong, D. Coghlan, Y. Cheng, L. Zhang, W. J. Blau, and J. Wang, “Tunable effective nonlinear refractive index of graphene dispersions during the distortion of spatial self-phase modulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 141909 (2014).
[Crossref]

Donley, M.

N. McDevitt, J. Zabinski, and M. Donley, “The use of Raman scattering to study disorder in pulsed laser deposited MoS2 films,” Thin Solid Films 240, 76–81 (1994).
[Crossref]

Durbin, S. D.

Elias, A. L.

H. R. Gutierrez, N. Perea-Lopez, A. L. Elias, A. Berkdemir, B. Wang, R. Lv, F. Lopez-Urias, V. H. Crespi, H. Terrones, and M. Terrones, “Extraordinary room-temperature photoluminescence in triangular WS2 monolayers,” Nano Lett. 13, 3447–3454 (2013).
[Crossref]

Elías, A. L.

A. Berkdemir, H. R. Gutiérrez, A. R. Botello-Méndez, N. Perea-López, A. L. Elías, C. Chia, B. Wang, V. H. Crespi, F. López-Urías, and J. Charlier, “Identification of individual and few layers of WS2 using Raman spectroscopy,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1755 (2013).
[Crossref]

Fan, J.

K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, and Q. Zhao, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7, 9260–9267 (2013).
[Crossref]

Feng, Y.

K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, and Q. Zhao, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7, 9260–9267 (2013).
[Crossref]

Fox, D.

K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, and Q. Zhao, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7, 9260–9267 (2013).
[Crossref]

Frindt, R.

R. Gordon, D. Yang, E. Crozier, D. Jiang, and R. Frindt, “Structures of exfoliated single layers of WS2, MoS2, and MoSe2 in aqueous suspension,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 125407 (2002).

Gallego-Gomez, F.

F. Wurthner, S. Yao, J. Schilling, R. Wortmann, M. Redi-Abshiro, E. Mecher, F. Gallego-Gomez, and K. Meerholz, “ATOP dyes. Optimization of a multifunctional merocyanine chromophore for high refractive index modulation in photorefractive materials,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123, 2810–2824 (2001).
[Crossref]

Gordan, O.

Gordon, R.

R. Gordon, D. Yang, E. Crozier, D. Jiang, and R. Frindt, “Structures of exfoliated single layers of WS2, MoS2, and MoSe2 in aqueous suspension,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 125407 (2002).

Grossman, J. C.

M. Bernardi, M. Palummo, and J. C. Grossman, “Extraordinary sunlight absorption and one nanometer thick photovoltaics using two-dimensional monolayer materials,” Nano Lett. 13, 3664–3670 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Tongay, J. Zhou, C. Ataca, J. Liu, J. S. Kang, T. S. Matthews, L. You, J. Li, J. C. Grossman, and J. Wu, “Broad-range modulation of light emission in two-dimensional semiconductors by molecular physisorption gating,” Nano Lett. 13, 2831–2836 (2013).
[Crossref]

Guo, Z.

Gutierrez, H. R.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

STEM images of (a)  MoS 2 , (b)  WS 2 , and (c)  MoSe 2 nanosheets. (d) Raman spectra of the three TMDs. (e) Transmittance spectra from 300 to 1000 nm.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Typical SSPM diffraction ring pattern and (b) its stable distorted pattern. (c) Schematic of half-cone angle θ H and distorted angle θ D . (d)–(f) Diameters of the outermost diffraction ring along the vertical and horizontal directions and Δ n 2 e / n 2 e as functions of time.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Numbers of diffraction rings as a function of incident intensity.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Distortion angle of (a)  MoS 2 , (b)  WS 2 , and (c)  MoSe 2 as functions of incident intensity. Δ n 2 e / n 2 e of (d)  MoS 2 , (e)  WS 2 , and (f)  MoSe 2 as functions of incident intensity.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Effective Nonlinear Refractive Indices and Third-Order Optical Susceptibilities of MoS 2 , WS 2 , and MoSe 2

Equations (7)

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n e = n 0 e + I n 2 e ,
Δ ψ ( r ) = 2 π n 0 e λ L e / 2 L e / 2 Δ n e ( r , z ) d z ,
Δ ψ ( r ) = 2 π n 0 e λ L e / 2 L e / 2 Δ n 2 e I ( r , z ) d z ,
n 2 e = λ 2 n 0 e L e · N I .
χ monolayer    ( 3 ) ( esu ) = n 0 e 2 n 2 e ( cm 2 / W ) 0.0395 × N eff 2 .
θ H n 2 e [ 8 I r L w 0 2 exp ( 2 r 2 w 0 2 ) ] max , r [ 0 , + ) ,
Δ n 2 e / n 2 e = θ D / θ H ,

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