Abstract

In this paper, a new approach for wireless data transmission within an aircraft cabin is presented. The proposed application enables the transmission of data to a passenger’s user device. As wireless in-flight applications are subject to strict frequency and electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) regulations, the data is transferred by optical wireless transmission, specifically by two-dimensional visual codes. To this end, black-and-white or colored visual code sequences are displayed on the in-flight entertainment screen. These visual codes are captured by the built-in camera of the passenger’s mobile device and are decoded to reconstruct the transmitted data. In order to compensate for frame losses caused by effects like occlusion and motion blur, a temporal forward error correction coding scheme is applied. Transmission experiments within an Airbus A330 cabin mock-up demonstrate the functionality of the implemented system under realistic conditions such as ambient illumination and geometric configuration. Representative user devices are used for evaluation; specifically, a low-cost and a high-end smartphone are employed as receivers. Performance evaluations show that the proposed transmission system achieves data rates of up to 120 kbit/s per individual passenger seat with these user devices. As the user device has no physical connection to the sensitive on-board system, the proposed transmission system provides an intrinsic safety feature.

© 2014 Chinese Laser Press

Full Article  |  PDF Article
OSA Recommended Articles
Optimization of high-definition video coding and hybrid fiber-wireless transmission in the 60 GHz band

Alexander Lebedev, Tien Thang Pham, Marta Beltrán, Xianbin Yu, Anna Ukhanova, Roberto Llorente, Idelfonso Tafur Monroy, and Søren Forchhammer
Opt. Express 19(26) B895-B904 (2011)

Enhancing the decoding performance of optical wireless communication systems using receiver-side predistortion

Qi Wang, Zhaocheng Wang, Sheng Chen, and Lajos Hanzo
Opt. Express 21(25) 30295-30305 (2013)

Transmission of OFDM wired-wireless quintuple-play services along WDM LR-PONs using centralized broadband impairment compensation

Tiago M. F. Alves, Maria Morant, Adolfo V. T. Cartaxo, and Roberto Llorente
Opt. Express 20(13) 13748-13761 (2012)

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. Lufthansa., “Lufthansa FlyNet: limitless communication on long-haul flights,” 2014, http://www.lufthansa.com/de/en/Fly-Net .
  2. American Airlines., “Wi-Fi in the sky,” 2013, http://www.aa.com/i18n/urls/entertainmentOnDemand.jsp .
  3. H. Liu, “Deliverable D4.1: state of art of in-flight entertainment systems and office work infrastructure,” 6th Framework Programme Project: Smart Technologies for Stress Free Air Travel, December 2006, http://www.seat.id.tue.nl/publications/D4-1-State%20of%20the%20Art%20Report.pdf .
  4. Radio Technical Commission for Aeronautics (RTCA), “Software considerations in airborne systems and equipment certification,” , May2012.
  5. S. Hranilovic, Wireless Optical Communication Systems, 1st ed. (Springer, 1996).
  6. N. Schmitt, “Wireless optical NLOS Communication in aircraft cabin for in-flight entertainment,” in Proceedings of the ESA 1st Optical Wireless Onboard Communications Workshop, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, September 29–30, 2004.
  7. N. Schmitt, T. Pistner, C. Vassilopoulos, D. Marinos, A. Boucouvalas, M. Nikolitsa, C. Aidinis, and G. Metaxas, “Diffuse wireless optical link for aircraft intra-cabin passenger communication,” in Proceedings of the 5th International Symposium on Communication Systems, Networks and Digital Signal Processing, Patras, Greece, July 19–21, 2006.
  8. D. O’Brien, G. Faulkner, S. Zikic, and N. Schmitt, “High data-rate optical wireless communications in passenger aircraft: measurements and simulations,” in Proceedings of the 6th International Symposium on Communication Systems, Networks and Digital Signal Processing, Graz, Austria, July 23–25, 2008, pp. 68–71.
  9. S. Dimitrov, R. Mesleh, H. Haas, M. Cappitelli, M. Olbert, and E. Bassow, “On the SIR of a cellular infrared optical wireless system for an aircraft,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 27, 1623–1638 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  10. International Standards Organization, “Information technology—automatic identification and data capture techniques—EAN/UPC bar code symbology specification,” (December2009).
  11. International Standards Organization, “Information technology—automatic identification and data capture techniques—data matrix bar code symbology specification,” (September2006).
  12. Y. P. Wang and A. Ye, “Maxicode data extraction using spatial domain features,” U.S. patent5,637,849 (June10, 1997).
  13. A. Longacre and R. Hussey, “Two dimensional data encoding structure and symbology for use with optical readers,” U.S. patent5,591,956 (January 7, 1997).
  14. International Standards Organisation, “Information technology—automatic identification and data capture techniques—bar code symbology—QR code,” (June2000).
  15. Microsoft, “Tag implementation guide,” December2011, http://tag.microsoft.com/home.aspx .
  16. A. Mohan, G. Woo, S. Hiura, Q. Smithwick, and R. Raskar, “Bokode: imperceptible visual tags for camera based interaction from a distance,” ACM Trans. Graph. 28, 98:1–98:8 (2009).
  17. H. Kato and K. Tan, “2D barcodes for mobile phones,” in Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Mobile Technology, Applications and Systems, Guangzhou, China, November 15–17, 2005, pp. 1–8.
  18. H. Shen and J. Coughlan, “Reading LCD/LED displays with a camera cell phone,” in Proceedings of the Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, New York, June 17–22, 2006, pp. 119–125.
  19. M. Rohs, “Real-world interaction with camera-phones,” in Proceedings of the 2nd International Symposium on Ubiquitous Computing Systems, Tokyo, Japan, November 8–9, 2004, pp. 74–89.
  20. M. Rohs, “Visual code widgets for marker-based interaction,” in Proceedings of the 25th IEEE International Conference on Distributed Computing Systems Workshops, Columbus, Ohio, June 6–10, 2005, pp. 506–513.
  21. D. Scott, R. Sharp, A. Madhavapeddy, and E. Upton, “Using visual tags to bypass Bluetooth device discovery,” ACM Mobile Comput. Commun. Rev. 9, 41–53 (2005).
  22. T. D. Han, C. H. Cheong, N. K. Lee, and E. D. Shin, “Machine readable code image and method of encoding and decoding the same,” U.S. patent9,739,698 (March7, 2002.
  23. T. Langlotz and O. Bimber, “Unsynchronized 4D barcodes: coding and decoding time-multiplexed 2D colorcodes,” in Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Advances in Visual Computing, Lake Tahoe, Nevada, November 26–28, 2007, pp. 363–374.
  24. J. Memeti, “Data transfer using a camera and a three-dimensional code,” Bachelor’s thesis, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland, April 2012.
  25. Samsung, “Technical specification: Galaxy S II,” 2012, http://www.samsung.com/uk/consumer/mobile-devices/smartphones/android/GT-I9100LKAXEU .
  26. S. Hranilovic and F. Kschischang, “Short-range wireless optical communication using pixilated transmitters and imaging receivers,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Communications, Paris, France, June 20–24, 2004, pp. 891–895.
  27. S. D. Perli, N. Ahmed, and D. Katabi, “Pixnet: interference-free wireless links using LCD–camera pairs,” in Proceedings of the 16th Annual International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking, Chicago, Illinois, September 20–24, 2010, pp. 137–148.
  28. Rockwell Collins., “Inflight entertainment system,” 2012, http://www.rockwellcollins.com/Products_and_Systems/Cabin/Inflight_Entertainment_Systems.aspx .
  29. Panasonic Avionics., “In-flight systems,” 2014, http://www.panasonic.aero/InflightSystems.aspx .
  30. Thales Group, “In-flight entertainment solutions—IFE,” 2012, http://www.thalesgroup.com/Portfolio/Aerospace/Aerospace_Product_IFE_Products .
  31. ZXing, “Multi-format 1D/2D barcode image processing library, release 1.7,” 2011, https://code.google.com/p/zxing/downloads/detail?name=ZXing-1.7.zip&can=4&q= .
  32. Samsung, “Technical specification: Galaxy Ace GT-S5830,” May 2012, http://www.samsung.com/uk/support/model/GT-S5830OKAXEU .
  33. Apple Inc, “Technical specification: iPhone 4,” 2012, http://www.apple.com/uk/iphone/iphone-4/specs.html .

2009 (2)

S. Dimitrov, R. Mesleh, H. Haas, M. Cappitelli, M. Olbert, and E. Bassow, “On the SIR of a cellular infrared optical wireless system for an aircraft,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 27, 1623–1638 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. Mohan, G. Woo, S. Hiura, Q. Smithwick, and R. Raskar, “Bokode: imperceptible visual tags for camera based interaction from a distance,” ACM Trans. Graph. 28, 98:1–98:8 (2009).

2005 (1)

D. Scott, R. Sharp, A. Madhavapeddy, and E. Upton, “Using visual tags to bypass Bluetooth device discovery,” ACM Mobile Comput. Commun. Rev. 9, 41–53 (2005).

Ahmed, N.

S. D. Perli, N. Ahmed, and D. Katabi, “Pixnet: interference-free wireless links using LCD–camera pairs,” in Proceedings of the 16th Annual International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking, Chicago, Illinois, September 20–24, 2010, pp. 137–148.

Aidinis, C.

N. Schmitt, T. Pistner, C. Vassilopoulos, D. Marinos, A. Boucouvalas, M. Nikolitsa, C. Aidinis, and G. Metaxas, “Diffuse wireless optical link for aircraft intra-cabin passenger communication,” in Proceedings of the 5th International Symposium on Communication Systems, Networks and Digital Signal Processing, Patras, Greece, July 19–21, 2006.

Bassow, E.

S. Dimitrov, R. Mesleh, H. Haas, M. Cappitelli, M. Olbert, and E. Bassow, “On the SIR of a cellular infrared optical wireless system for an aircraft,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 27, 1623–1638 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bimber, O.

T. Langlotz and O. Bimber, “Unsynchronized 4D barcodes: coding and decoding time-multiplexed 2D colorcodes,” in Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Advances in Visual Computing, Lake Tahoe, Nevada, November 26–28, 2007, pp. 363–374.

Boucouvalas, A.

N. Schmitt, T. Pistner, C. Vassilopoulos, D. Marinos, A. Boucouvalas, M. Nikolitsa, C. Aidinis, and G. Metaxas, “Diffuse wireless optical link for aircraft intra-cabin passenger communication,” in Proceedings of the 5th International Symposium on Communication Systems, Networks and Digital Signal Processing, Patras, Greece, July 19–21, 2006.

Cappitelli, M.

S. Dimitrov, R. Mesleh, H. Haas, M. Cappitelli, M. Olbert, and E. Bassow, “On the SIR of a cellular infrared optical wireless system for an aircraft,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 27, 1623–1638 (2009).
[Crossref]

Cheong, C. H.

T. D. Han, C. H. Cheong, N. K. Lee, and E. D. Shin, “Machine readable code image and method of encoding and decoding the same,” U.S. patent9,739,698 (March7, 2002.

Coughlan, J.

H. Shen and J. Coughlan, “Reading LCD/LED displays with a camera cell phone,” in Proceedings of the Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, New York, June 17–22, 2006, pp. 119–125.

Dimitrov, S.

S. Dimitrov, R. Mesleh, H. Haas, M. Cappitelli, M. Olbert, and E. Bassow, “On the SIR of a cellular infrared optical wireless system for an aircraft,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 27, 1623–1638 (2009).
[Crossref]

Faulkner, G.

D. O’Brien, G. Faulkner, S. Zikic, and N. Schmitt, “High data-rate optical wireless communications in passenger aircraft: measurements and simulations,” in Proceedings of the 6th International Symposium on Communication Systems, Networks and Digital Signal Processing, Graz, Austria, July 23–25, 2008, pp. 68–71.

Haas, H.

S. Dimitrov, R. Mesleh, H. Haas, M. Cappitelli, M. Olbert, and E. Bassow, “On the SIR of a cellular infrared optical wireless system for an aircraft,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 27, 1623–1638 (2009).
[Crossref]

Han, T. D.

T. D. Han, C. H. Cheong, N. K. Lee, and E. D. Shin, “Machine readable code image and method of encoding and decoding the same,” U.S. patent9,739,698 (March7, 2002.

Hiura, S.

A. Mohan, G. Woo, S. Hiura, Q. Smithwick, and R. Raskar, “Bokode: imperceptible visual tags for camera based interaction from a distance,” ACM Trans. Graph. 28, 98:1–98:8 (2009).

Hranilovic, S.

S. Hranilovic, Wireless Optical Communication Systems, 1st ed. (Springer, 1996).

S. Hranilovic and F. Kschischang, “Short-range wireless optical communication using pixilated transmitters and imaging receivers,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Communications, Paris, France, June 20–24, 2004, pp. 891–895.

Hussey, R.

A. Longacre and R. Hussey, “Two dimensional data encoding structure and symbology for use with optical readers,” U.S. patent5,591,956 (January 7, 1997).

Katabi, D.

S. D. Perli, N. Ahmed, and D. Katabi, “Pixnet: interference-free wireless links using LCD–camera pairs,” in Proceedings of the 16th Annual International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking, Chicago, Illinois, September 20–24, 2010, pp. 137–148.

Kato, H.

H. Kato and K. Tan, “2D barcodes for mobile phones,” in Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Mobile Technology, Applications and Systems, Guangzhou, China, November 15–17, 2005, pp. 1–8.

Kschischang, F.

S. Hranilovic and F. Kschischang, “Short-range wireless optical communication using pixilated transmitters and imaging receivers,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Communications, Paris, France, June 20–24, 2004, pp. 891–895.

Langlotz, T.

T. Langlotz and O. Bimber, “Unsynchronized 4D barcodes: coding and decoding time-multiplexed 2D colorcodes,” in Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Advances in Visual Computing, Lake Tahoe, Nevada, November 26–28, 2007, pp. 363–374.

Lee, N. K.

T. D. Han, C. H. Cheong, N. K. Lee, and E. D. Shin, “Machine readable code image and method of encoding and decoding the same,” U.S. patent9,739,698 (March7, 2002.

Liu, H.

H. Liu, “Deliverable D4.1: state of art of in-flight entertainment systems and office work infrastructure,” 6th Framework Programme Project: Smart Technologies for Stress Free Air Travel, December 2006, http://www.seat.id.tue.nl/publications/D4-1-State%20of%20the%20Art%20Report.pdf .

Longacre, A.

A. Longacre and R. Hussey, “Two dimensional data encoding structure and symbology for use with optical readers,” U.S. patent5,591,956 (January 7, 1997).

Madhavapeddy, A.

D. Scott, R. Sharp, A. Madhavapeddy, and E. Upton, “Using visual tags to bypass Bluetooth device discovery,” ACM Mobile Comput. Commun. Rev. 9, 41–53 (2005).

Marinos, D.

N. Schmitt, T. Pistner, C. Vassilopoulos, D. Marinos, A. Boucouvalas, M. Nikolitsa, C. Aidinis, and G. Metaxas, “Diffuse wireless optical link for aircraft intra-cabin passenger communication,” in Proceedings of the 5th International Symposium on Communication Systems, Networks and Digital Signal Processing, Patras, Greece, July 19–21, 2006.

Memeti, J.

J. Memeti, “Data transfer using a camera and a three-dimensional code,” Bachelor’s thesis, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland, April 2012.

Mesleh, R.

S. Dimitrov, R. Mesleh, H. Haas, M. Cappitelli, M. Olbert, and E. Bassow, “On the SIR of a cellular infrared optical wireless system for an aircraft,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 27, 1623–1638 (2009).
[Crossref]

Metaxas, G.

N. Schmitt, T. Pistner, C. Vassilopoulos, D. Marinos, A. Boucouvalas, M. Nikolitsa, C. Aidinis, and G. Metaxas, “Diffuse wireless optical link for aircraft intra-cabin passenger communication,” in Proceedings of the 5th International Symposium on Communication Systems, Networks and Digital Signal Processing, Patras, Greece, July 19–21, 2006.

Mohan, A.

A. Mohan, G. Woo, S. Hiura, Q. Smithwick, and R. Raskar, “Bokode: imperceptible visual tags for camera based interaction from a distance,” ACM Trans. Graph. 28, 98:1–98:8 (2009).

Nikolitsa, M.

N. Schmitt, T. Pistner, C. Vassilopoulos, D. Marinos, A. Boucouvalas, M. Nikolitsa, C. Aidinis, and G. Metaxas, “Diffuse wireless optical link for aircraft intra-cabin passenger communication,” in Proceedings of the 5th International Symposium on Communication Systems, Networks and Digital Signal Processing, Patras, Greece, July 19–21, 2006.

O’Brien, D.

D. O’Brien, G. Faulkner, S. Zikic, and N. Schmitt, “High data-rate optical wireless communications in passenger aircraft: measurements and simulations,” in Proceedings of the 6th International Symposium on Communication Systems, Networks and Digital Signal Processing, Graz, Austria, July 23–25, 2008, pp. 68–71.

Olbert, M.

S. Dimitrov, R. Mesleh, H. Haas, M. Cappitelli, M. Olbert, and E. Bassow, “On the SIR of a cellular infrared optical wireless system for an aircraft,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 27, 1623–1638 (2009).
[Crossref]

Perli, S. D.

S. D. Perli, N. Ahmed, and D. Katabi, “Pixnet: interference-free wireless links using LCD–camera pairs,” in Proceedings of the 16th Annual International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking, Chicago, Illinois, September 20–24, 2010, pp. 137–148.

Pistner, T.

N. Schmitt, T. Pistner, C. Vassilopoulos, D. Marinos, A. Boucouvalas, M. Nikolitsa, C. Aidinis, and G. Metaxas, “Diffuse wireless optical link for aircraft intra-cabin passenger communication,” in Proceedings of the 5th International Symposium on Communication Systems, Networks and Digital Signal Processing, Patras, Greece, July 19–21, 2006.

Raskar, R.

A. Mohan, G. Woo, S. Hiura, Q. Smithwick, and R. Raskar, “Bokode: imperceptible visual tags for camera based interaction from a distance,” ACM Trans. Graph. 28, 98:1–98:8 (2009).

Rohs, M.

M. Rohs, “Real-world interaction with camera-phones,” in Proceedings of the 2nd International Symposium on Ubiquitous Computing Systems, Tokyo, Japan, November 8–9, 2004, pp. 74–89.

M. Rohs, “Visual code widgets for marker-based interaction,” in Proceedings of the 25th IEEE International Conference on Distributed Computing Systems Workshops, Columbus, Ohio, June 6–10, 2005, pp. 506–513.

Schmitt, N.

N. Schmitt, “Wireless optical NLOS Communication in aircraft cabin for in-flight entertainment,” in Proceedings of the ESA 1st Optical Wireless Onboard Communications Workshop, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, September 29–30, 2004.

N. Schmitt, T. Pistner, C. Vassilopoulos, D. Marinos, A. Boucouvalas, M. Nikolitsa, C. Aidinis, and G. Metaxas, “Diffuse wireless optical link for aircraft intra-cabin passenger communication,” in Proceedings of the 5th International Symposium on Communication Systems, Networks and Digital Signal Processing, Patras, Greece, July 19–21, 2006.

D. O’Brien, G. Faulkner, S. Zikic, and N. Schmitt, “High data-rate optical wireless communications in passenger aircraft: measurements and simulations,” in Proceedings of the 6th International Symposium on Communication Systems, Networks and Digital Signal Processing, Graz, Austria, July 23–25, 2008, pp. 68–71.

Scott, D.

D. Scott, R. Sharp, A. Madhavapeddy, and E. Upton, “Using visual tags to bypass Bluetooth device discovery,” ACM Mobile Comput. Commun. Rev. 9, 41–53 (2005).

Sharp, R.

D. Scott, R. Sharp, A. Madhavapeddy, and E. Upton, “Using visual tags to bypass Bluetooth device discovery,” ACM Mobile Comput. Commun. Rev. 9, 41–53 (2005).

Shen, H.

H. Shen and J. Coughlan, “Reading LCD/LED displays with a camera cell phone,” in Proceedings of the Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, New York, June 17–22, 2006, pp. 119–125.

Shin, E. D.

T. D. Han, C. H. Cheong, N. K. Lee, and E. D. Shin, “Machine readable code image and method of encoding and decoding the same,” U.S. patent9,739,698 (March7, 2002.

Smithwick, Q.

A. Mohan, G. Woo, S. Hiura, Q. Smithwick, and R. Raskar, “Bokode: imperceptible visual tags for camera based interaction from a distance,” ACM Trans. Graph. 28, 98:1–98:8 (2009).

Tan, K.

H. Kato and K. Tan, “2D barcodes for mobile phones,” in Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Mobile Technology, Applications and Systems, Guangzhou, China, November 15–17, 2005, pp. 1–8.

Upton, E.

D. Scott, R. Sharp, A. Madhavapeddy, and E. Upton, “Using visual tags to bypass Bluetooth device discovery,” ACM Mobile Comput. Commun. Rev. 9, 41–53 (2005).

Vassilopoulos, C.

N. Schmitt, T. Pistner, C. Vassilopoulos, D. Marinos, A. Boucouvalas, M. Nikolitsa, C. Aidinis, and G. Metaxas, “Diffuse wireless optical link for aircraft intra-cabin passenger communication,” in Proceedings of the 5th International Symposium on Communication Systems, Networks and Digital Signal Processing, Patras, Greece, July 19–21, 2006.

Wang, Y. P.

Y. P. Wang and A. Ye, “Maxicode data extraction using spatial domain features,” U.S. patent5,637,849 (June10, 1997).

Woo, G.

A. Mohan, G. Woo, S. Hiura, Q. Smithwick, and R. Raskar, “Bokode: imperceptible visual tags for camera based interaction from a distance,” ACM Trans. Graph. 28, 98:1–98:8 (2009).

Ye, A.

Y. P. Wang and A. Ye, “Maxicode data extraction using spatial domain features,” U.S. patent5,637,849 (June10, 1997).

Zikic, S.

D. O’Brien, G. Faulkner, S. Zikic, and N. Schmitt, “High data-rate optical wireless communications in passenger aircraft: measurements and simulations,” in Proceedings of the 6th International Symposium on Communication Systems, Networks and Digital Signal Processing, Graz, Austria, July 23–25, 2008, pp. 68–71.

ACM Mobile Comput. Commun. Rev. (1)

D. Scott, R. Sharp, A. Madhavapeddy, and E. Upton, “Using visual tags to bypass Bluetooth device discovery,” ACM Mobile Comput. Commun. Rev. 9, 41–53 (2005).

ACM Trans. Graph. (1)

A. Mohan, G. Woo, S. Hiura, Q. Smithwick, and R. Raskar, “Bokode: imperceptible visual tags for camera based interaction from a distance,” ACM Trans. Graph. 28, 98:1–98:8 (2009).

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. (1)

S. Dimitrov, R. Mesleh, H. Haas, M. Cappitelli, M. Olbert, and E. Bassow, “On the SIR of a cellular infrared optical wireless system for an aircraft,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 27, 1623–1638 (2009).
[Crossref]

Other (30)

International Standards Organization, “Information technology—automatic identification and data capture techniques—EAN/UPC bar code symbology specification,” (December2009).

International Standards Organization, “Information technology—automatic identification and data capture techniques—data matrix bar code symbology specification,” (September2006).

Y. P. Wang and A. Ye, “Maxicode data extraction using spatial domain features,” U.S. patent5,637,849 (June10, 1997).

A. Longacre and R. Hussey, “Two dimensional data encoding structure and symbology for use with optical readers,” U.S. patent5,591,956 (January 7, 1997).

International Standards Organisation, “Information technology—automatic identification and data capture techniques—bar code symbology—QR code,” (June2000).

Microsoft, “Tag implementation guide,” December2011, http://tag.microsoft.com/home.aspx .

H. Kato and K. Tan, “2D barcodes for mobile phones,” in Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Mobile Technology, Applications and Systems, Guangzhou, China, November 15–17, 2005, pp. 1–8.

H. Shen and J. Coughlan, “Reading LCD/LED displays with a camera cell phone,” in Proceedings of the Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, New York, June 17–22, 2006, pp. 119–125.

M. Rohs, “Real-world interaction with camera-phones,” in Proceedings of the 2nd International Symposium on Ubiquitous Computing Systems, Tokyo, Japan, November 8–9, 2004, pp. 74–89.

M. Rohs, “Visual code widgets for marker-based interaction,” in Proceedings of the 25th IEEE International Conference on Distributed Computing Systems Workshops, Columbus, Ohio, June 6–10, 2005, pp. 506–513.

Lufthansa., “Lufthansa FlyNet: limitless communication on long-haul flights,” 2014, http://www.lufthansa.com/de/en/Fly-Net .

American Airlines., “Wi-Fi in the sky,” 2013, http://www.aa.com/i18n/urls/entertainmentOnDemand.jsp .

H. Liu, “Deliverable D4.1: state of art of in-flight entertainment systems and office work infrastructure,” 6th Framework Programme Project: Smart Technologies for Stress Free Air Travel, December 2006, http://www.seat.id.tue.nl/publications/D4-1-State%20of%20the%20Art%20Report.pdf .

Radio Technical Commission for Aeronautics (RTCA), “Software considerations in airborne systems and equipment certification,” , May2012.

S. Hranilovic, Wireless Optical Communication Systems, 1st ed. (Springer, 1996).

N. Schmitt, “Wireless optical NLOS Communication in aircraft cabin for in-flight entertainment,” in Proceedings of the ESA 1st Optical Wireless Onboard Communications Workshop, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, September 29–30, 2004.

N. Schmitt, T. Pistner, C. Vassilopoulos, D. Marinos, A. Boucouvalas, M. Nikolitsa, C. Aidinis, and G. Metaxas, “Diffuse wireless optical link for aircraft intra-cabin passenger communication,” in Proceedings of the 5th International Symposium on Communication Systems, Networks and Digital Signal Processing, Patras, Greece, July 19–21, 2006.

D. O’Brien, G. Faulkner, S. Zikic, and N. Schmitt, “High data-rate optical wireless communications in passenger aircraft: measurements and simulations,” in Proceedings of the 6th International Symposium on Communication Systems, Networks and Digital Signal Processing, Graz, Austria, July 23–25, 2008, pp. 68–71.

T. D. Han, C. H. Cheong, N. K. Lee, and E. D. Shin, “Machine readable code image and method of encoding and decoding the same,” U.S. patent9,739,698 (March7, 2002.

T. Langlotz and O. Bimber, “Unsynchronized 4D barcodes: coding and decoding time-multiplexed 2D colorcodes,” in Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Advances in Visual Computing, Lake Tahoe, Nevada, November 26–28, 2007, pp. 363–374.

J. Memeti, “Data transfer using a camera and a three-dimensional code,” Bachelor’s thesis, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland, April 2012.

Samsung, “Technical specification: Galaxy S II,” 2012, http://www.samsung.com/uk/consumer/mobile-devices/smartphones/android/GT-I9100LKAXEU .

S. Hranilovic and F. Kschischang, “Short-range wireless optical communication using pixilated transmitters and imaging receivers,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Communications, Paris, France, June 20–24, 2004, pp. 891–895.

S. D. Perli, N. Ahmed, and D. Katabi, “Pixnet: interference-free wireless links using LCD–camera pairs,” in Proceedings of the 16th Annual International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking, Chicago, Illinois, September 20–24, 2010, pp. 137–148.

Rockwell Collins., “Inflight entertainment system,” 2012, http://www.rockwellcollins.com/Products_and_Systems/Cabin/Inflight_Entertainment_Systems.aspx .

Panasonic Avionics., “In-flight systems,” 2014, http://www.panasonic.aero/InflightSystems.aspx .

Thales Group, “In-flight entertainment solutions—IFE,” 2012, http://www.thalesgroup.com/Portfolio/Aerospace/Aerospace_Product_IFE_Products .

ZXing, “Multi-format 1D/2D barcode image processing library, release 1.7,” 2011, https://code.google.com/p/zxing/downloads/detail?name=ZXing-1.7.zip&can=4&q= .

Samsung, “Technical specification: Galaxy Ace GT-S5830,” May 2012, http://www.samsung.com/uk/support/model/GT-S5830OKAXEU .

Apple Inc, “Technical specification: iPhone 4,” 2012, http://www.apple.com/uk/iphone/iphone-4/specs.html .

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (9)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Structure of a QR code.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Setup for the transmission of passenger-specific data.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Data transmission via visual code videos.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Illustration of distortions and transition artifacts induced by visual transmission: (a) frame without transition effects; (b) motion blur; (c) overlay artifacts.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Captured colored image and decomposed color channels for RGB: (a) captured colored image; (b) red channel; (c) green channel; (d) blue channel.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Frame setup of visual codes. The proposed visual codes consist of three parts: payload code, meta code, and frame synchronization pattern.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Merging of three payload codes into a single colored payload code.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. Timing of displaying and capturing process. The upper time line shows how the screen displays the visual code sequence. The displaying is affected by the response rate of the screen and the time each visual code is shown. The lower time line shows the capturing times of the camera.
Fig. 9.
Fig. 9. Illustration of temporal sequence-wise FEC encoding.

Tables (7)

Tables Icon

Table 1. QR Code Error Correction Levels

Tables Icon

Table 2. FEC Coding of QR Codes

Tables Icon

Table 3. Performance of Conventional Black-and-White QR Codes with Frame-wise FEC Coding Using Samsung Galaxy Ace Smartphone

Tables Icon

Table 4. Performance of Black-and-White Visual Codes with Temporal Sequence-Wise FEC Coding Using Samsung Galaxy Ace Smartphone

Tables Icon

Table 5. Performance of Black-and-White Visual Codes with Temporal Sequence-Wise FEC Coding Using Apple iPhone 4 Smartphone

Tables Icon

Table 6. Performance of Colored Visual Codes with Temporal Sequence-Wise FEC Coding Using Apple iPhone 4 Smartphone

Tables Icon

Table 7. Performance Bounds Derived from Transmission Experiments

Equations (1)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

e + 2 t q p ,

Metrics