Abstract

The designs of magneto-electric (ME) dipole antennas and 4×4 planar arrays on low-temperature cofired ceramic (LTCC) substrates are presented for radio-over-fiber (ROF) systems. The ME dipole antenna covers the four 2.16 GHz channels defined in the 60 GHz band from 57 to 66 GHz. It can be used as a 4×4 planar antenna array element for high gain performance. The results show that the proposed antenna array achieves a variation of peak gain from 15.0 to 18.1 dBi and a peak gain up to 17.67 dBi at 60 GHz. It is revealed that our design satisfies the 60 GHz standards ruled by IEEE 802.15.3c.

© 2014 Chinese Laser Press

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References

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]

2013 (2)

H.  Sun, Y. X.  Guo, Z.  Wang, “60-GHz circularly polarized U-slot patch antenna array on LTCC,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 61, 430–435 (2013).
[Crossref]

H.  Chu, Y. X.  Guo, Z.  Wang, “60-GHz LTCC wideband vertical off-center dipole antenna and arrays,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 61, 153–161 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (4)

B.  Zhang, Y. P.  Zhang, “Grid array antennas with subarrays and multiple feeds for 60-GHz radios,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 60, 2270–2275 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. B.  Ng, H.  Wong, K. K.  So, C. H.  Chan, K. M.  Luk, “60  GHz plated through hole printed magneto-electric dipole antenna,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 60, 3129–3136 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. R.  Liu, Y. X.  Guo, X. Y.  Bao, S. Q.  Xiao, “60-GHz LTCC integrated circularly polarized helical antenna array,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 60, 1329–1335 (2012).
[Crossref]

X.  Bao, Y.  Guo, Y.  Xiong, “60-GHz AMC-based circularly polarized on-chip antenna using standard 0.18-m CMOS technology,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 60, 2234–2241 (2012).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

2009 (3)

Y. P.  Zhang, M.  Sun, K. M.  Chua, L. L.  Wai, D.  Liu, “Antenna-in-package design for wirebond interconnection to highly integrated 60-GHz radios,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 57, 2842–2852 (2009).
[Crossref]

B. Q.  Wu, K.-M.  Luk, “A broadband dual-polarized magneto-electric dipole antenna with simple feeds,” IEEE Antennas Wireless Propag. Lett. 8, 60–63 (2009).

L.  Siu, H.  Wong, K.-M.  Luk, “A dual-polarized magneto-electric dipole with dielectric loading,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 57, 616–623 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

A. E. I.  Lamminen, J.  Säily, A. R.  Vimpari, “60-GHz patch antennas and arrays on LTCC with embedded-cavity substrates,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 56, 2865–2874 (2008).
[Crossref]

C. H.  Tseng, C. J.  Chen, T. H.  Chu, “A low-cost 60-GHz switched beam patch antenna array with Butler matrix network,” IEEE Antennas Wireless Propag. Lett. 7, 432–435 (2008).

2006 (1)

K.-M.  Luk, H.  Wong, “A new wideband unidirectional antenna element,” Int. J. Microwave Opt. Technol. 1, 35–44 (2006).

2004 (1)

R. R.  Tummala, M.  Swaminathan, M. M.  Tentzeris, J.  Laskar, G.-K.  Chang, S.  Sitaraman, D.  Keezer, D.  Guidotti, Z. R.  Huang, K.  Lim, L. X.  Wan, S. K.  Bhattacharya, V.  Sundaram, F. H.  Liu, P. M.  Raj, “The SOP for miniaturized, mixed-signal computing, communication, and consumer systems of the next decade,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 27, 250–267 (2004).

2002 (1)

A.  Grbic, G. V.  Eleftheriades, “Leaky CPW-based slot antenna arrays for millimeter-wave applications,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 50, 1494–1504 (2002).
[Crossref]

Bao, X.

X.  Bao, Y.  Guo, Y.  Xiong, “60-GHz AMC-based circularly polarized on-chip antenna using standard 0.18-m CMOS technology,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 60, 2234–2241 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bao, X. Y.

C. R.  Liu, Y. X.  Guo, X. Y.  Bao, S. Q.  Xiao, “60-GHz LTCC integrated circularly polarized helical antenna array,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 60, 1329–1335 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bhattacharya, S. K.

R. R.  Tummala, M.  Swaminathan, M. M.  Tentzeris, J.  Laskar, G.-K.  Chang, S.  Sitaraman, D.  Keezer, D.  Guidotti, Z. R.  Huang, K.  Lim, L. X.  Wan, S. K.  Bhattacharya, V.  Sundaram, F. H.  Liu, P. M.  Raj, “The SOP for miniaturized, mixed-signal computing, communication, and consumer systems of the next decade,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 27, 250–267 (2004).

Chan, C. H.

K. B.  Ng, H.  Wong, K. K.  So, C. H.  Chan, K. M.  Luk, “60  GHz plated through hole printed magneto-electric dipole antenna,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 60, 3129–3136 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chang, G.-K.

R. R.  Tummala, M.  Swaminathan, M. M.  Tentzeris, J.  Laskar, G.-K.  Chang, S.  Sitaraman, D.  Keezer, D.  Guidotti, Z. R.  Huang, K.  Lim, L. X.  Wan, S. K.  Bhattacharya, V.  Sundaram, F. H.  Liu, P. M.  Raj, “The SOP for miniaturized, mixed-signal computing, communication, and consumer systems of the next decade,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 27, 250–267 (2004).

Chen, C. J.

C. H.  Tseng, C. J.  Chen, T. H.  Chu, “A low-cost 60-GHz switched beam patch antenna array with Butler matrix network,” IEEE Antennas Wireless Propag. Lett. 7, 432–435 (2008).

Chu, H.

H.  Chu, Y. X.  Guo, Z.  Wang, “60-GHz LTCC wideband vertical off-center dipole antenna and arrays,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 61, 153–161 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chu, T. H.

C. H.  Tseng, C. J.  Chen, T. H.  Chu, “A low-cost 60-GHz switched beam patch antenna array with Butler matrix network,” IEEE Antennas Wireless Propag. Lett. 7, 432–435 (2008).

Chua, K. M.

Y. P.  Zhang, M.  Sun, K. M.  Chua, L. L.  Wai, D.  Liu, “Antenna-in-package design for wirebond interconnection to highly integrated 60-GHz radios,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 57, 2842–2852 (2009).
[Crossref]

Eleftheriades, G. V.

A.  Grbic, G. V.  Eleftheriades, “Leaky CPW-based slot antenna arrays for millimeter-wave applications,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 50, 1494–1504 (2002).
[Crossref]

Grbic, A.

A.  Grbic, G. V.  Eleftheriades, “Leaky CPW-based slot antenna arrays for millimeter-wave applications,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 50, 1494–1504 (2002).
[Crossref]

Guidotti, D.

R. R.  Tummala, M.  Swaminathan, M. M.  Tentzeris, J.  Laskar, G.-K.  Chang, S.  Sitaraman, D.  Keezer, D.  Guidotti, Z. R.  Huang, K.  Lim, L. X.  Wan, S. K.  Bhattacharya, V.  Sundaram, F. H.  Liu, P. M.  Raj, “The SOP for miniaturized, mixed-signal computing, communication, and consumer systems of the next decade,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 27, 250–267 (2004).

Guo, Y.

X.  Bao, Y.  Guo, Y.  Xiong, “60-GHz AMC-based circularly polarized on-chip antenna using standard 0.18-m CMOS technology,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 60, 2234–2241 (2012).
[Crossref]

Guo, Y. X.

H.  Sun, Y. X.  Guo, Z.  Wang, “60-GHz circularly polarized U-slot patch antenna array on LTCC,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 61, 430–435 (2013).
[Crossref]

H.  Chu, Y. X.  Guo, Z.  Wang, “60-GHz LTCC wideband vertical off-center dipole antenna and arrays,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 61, 153–161 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. R.  Liu, Y. X.  Guo, X. Y.  Bao, S. Q.  Xiao, “60-GHz LTCC integrated circularly polarized helical antenna array,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 60, 1329–1335 (2012).
[Crossref]

Guo, Z.

Z.  Guo, H.  Tian, Q.  Luo, X.  Wang, Y.  Ji, “EBG ME-dipole antenna with enhanced gain for intelligent radio-over-fiber systems,” in Proceedings of 12th International Conference on Optical Communications and Networks (IEEE, 2013), pp. 1–3.

Huang, Z. R.

R. R.  Tummala, M.  Swaminathan, M. M.  Tentzeris, J.  Laskar, G.-K.  Chang, S.  Sitaraman, D.  Keezer, D.  Guidotti, Z. R.  Huang, K.  Lim, L. X.  Wan, S. K.  Bhattacharya, V.  Sundaram, F. H.  Liu, P. M.  Raj, “The SOP for miniaturized, mixed-signal computing, communication, and consumer systems of the next decade,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 27, 250–267 (2004).

Ji, Y.

Z.  Guo, H.  Tian, Q.  Luo, X.  Wang, Y.  Ji, “EBG ME-dipole antenna with enhanced gain for intelligent radio-over-fiber systems,” in Proceedings of 12th International Conference on Optical Communications and Networks (IEEE, 2013), pp. 1–3.

Keezer, D.

R. R.  Tummala, M.  Swaminathan, M. M.  Tentzeris, J.  Laskar, G.-K.  Chang, S.  Sitaraman, D.  Keezer, D.  Guidotti, Z. R.  Huang, K.  Lim, L. X.  Wan, S. K.  Bhattacharya, V.  Sundaram, F. H.  Liu, P. M.  Raj, “The SOP for miniaturized, mixed-signal computing, communication, and consumer systems of the next decade,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 27, 250–267 (2004).

Lamminen, A. E. I.

A. E. I.  Lamminen, J.  Säily, A. R.  Vimpari, “60-GHz patch antennas and arrays on LTCC with embedded-cavity substrates,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 56, 2865–2874 (2008).
[Crossref]

Laskar, J.

R. R.  Tummala, M.  Swaminathan, M. M.  Tentzeris, J.  Laskar, G.-K.  Chang, S.  Sitaraman, D.  Keezer, D.  Guidotti, Z. R.  Huang, K.  Lim, L. X.  Wan, S. K.  Bhattacharya, V.  Sundaram, F. H.  Liu, P. M.  Raj, “The SOP for miniaturized, mixed-signal computing, communication, and consumer systems of the next decade,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 27, 250–267 (2004).

Li, M.

K.  Luk, M.  Li, “Magneto-electric dipole antennas for millimeter-wave applications,” in Proceedings of Asia-Pacific Microwave Conference (IEEE, 2013), pp. 304–306.

Lim, K.

R. R.  Tummala, M.  Swaminathan, M. M.  Tentzeris, J.  Laskar, G.-K.  Chang, S.  Sitaraman, D.  Keezer, D.  Guidotti, Z. R.  Huang, K.  Lim, L. X.  Wan, S. K.  Bhattacharya, V.  Sundaram, F. H.  Liu, P. M.  Raj, “The SOP for miniaturized, mixed-signal computing, communication, and consumer systems of the next decade,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 27, 250–267 (2004).

Lin, C.

Lin, Y.

Liu, C. R.

C. R.  Liu, Y. X.  Guo, X. Y.  Bao, S. Q.  Xiao, “60-GHz LTCC integrated circularly polarized helical antenna array,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 60, 1329–1335 (2012).
[Crossref]

Liu, D.

Y. P.  Zhang, M.  Sun, K. M.  Chua, L. L.  Wai, D.  Liu, “Antenna-in-package design for wirebond interconnection to highly integrated 60-GHz radios,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 57, 2842–2852 (2009).
[Crossref]

Liu, F. H.

R. R.  Tummala, M.  Swaminathan, M. M.  Tentzeris, J.  Laskar, G.-K.  Chang, S.  Sitaraman, D.  Keezer, D.  Guidotti, Z. R.  Huang, K.  Lim, L. X.  Wan, S. K.  Bhattacharya, V.  Sundaram, F. H.  Liu, P. M.  Raj, “The SOP for miniaturized, mixed-signal computing, communication, and consumer systems of the next decade,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 27, 250–267 (2004).

Lu, H.

Luk, K.

K.  Luk, M.  Li, “Magneto-electric dipole antennas for millimeter-wave applications,” in Proceedings of Asia-Pacific Microwave Conference (IEEE, 2013), pp. 304–306.

Luk, K. M.

K. B.  Ng, H.  Wong, K. K.  So, C. H.  Chan, K. M.  Luk, “60  GHz plated through hole printed magneto-electric dipole antenna,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 60, 3129–3136 (2012).
[Crossref]

Luk, K.-M.

B. Q.  Wu, K.-M.  Luk, “A broadband dual-polarized magneto-electric dipole antenna with simple feeds,” IEEE Antennas Wireless Propag. Lett. 8, 60–63 (2009).

L.  Siu, H.  Wong, K.-M.  Luk, “A dual-polarized magneto-electric dipole with dielectric loading,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 57, 616–623 (2009).
[Crossref]

K.-M.  Luk, H.  Wong, “A new wideband unidirectional antenna element,” Int. J. Microwave Opt. Technol. 1, 35–44 (2006).

Luo, Q.

Z.  Guo, H.  Tian, Q.  Luo, X.  Wang, Y.  Ji, “EBG ME-dipole antenna with enhanced gain for intelligent radio-over-fiber systems,” in Proceedings of 12th International Conference on Optical Communications and Networks (IEEE, 2013), pp. 1–3.

Mailloux, R. J.

R. J.  Mailloux, Phased Array Antenna Handbook (Artech House, 1994).

Ng, K. B.

K. B.  Ng, H.  Wong, K. K.  So, C. H.  Chan, K. M.  Luk, “60  GHz plated through hole printed magneto-electric dipole antenna,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 60, 3129–3136 (2012).
[Crossref]

Peng, H.

Raj, P. M.

R. R.  Tummala, M.  Swaminathan, M. M.  Tentzeris, J.  Laskar, G.-K.  Chang, S.  Sitaraman, D.  Keezer, D.  Guidotti, Z. R.  Huang, K.  Lim, L. X.  Wan, S. K.  Bhattacharya, V.  Sundaram, F. H.  Liu, P. M.  Raj, “The SOP for miniaturized, mixed-signal computing, communication, and consumer systems of the next decade,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 27, 250–267 (2004).

Säily, J.

A. E. I.  Lamminen, J.  Säily, A. R.  Vimpari, “60-GHz patch antennas and arrays on LTCC with embedded-cavity substrates,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 56, 2865–2874 (2008).
[Crossref]

Sitaraman, S.

R. R.  Tummala, M.  Swaminathan, M. M.  Tentzeris, J.  Laskar, G.-K.  Chang, S.  Sitaraman, D.  Keezer, D.  Guidotti, Z. R.  Huang, K.  Lim, L. X.  Wan, S. K.  Bhattacharya, V.  Sundaram, F. H.  Liu, P. M.  Raj, “The SOP for miniaturized, mixed-signal computing, communication, and consumer systems of the next decade,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 27, 250–267 (2004).

Siu, L.

L.  Siu, H.  Wong, K.-M.  Luk, “A dual-polarized magneto-electric dipole with dielectric loading,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 57, 616–623 (2009).
[Crossref]

So, K. K.

K. B.  Ng, H.  Wong, K. K.  So, C. H.  Chan, K. M.  Luk, “60  GHz plated through hole printed magneto-electric dipole antenna,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 60, 3129–3136 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sun, H.

H.  Sun, Y. X.  Guo, Z.  Wang, “60-GHz circularly polarized U-slot patch antenna array on LTCC,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 61, 430–435 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sun, M.

Y. P.  Zhang, M.  Sun, K. M.  Chua, L. L.  Wai, D.  Liu, “Antenna-in-package design for wirebond interconnection to highly integrated 60-GHz radios,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 57, 2842–2852 (2009).
[Crossref]

Sundaram, V.

R. R.  Tummala, M.  Swaminathan, M. M.  Tentzeris, J.  Laskar, G.-K.  Chang, S.  Sitaraman, D.  Keezer, D.  Guidotti, Z. R.  Huang, K.  Lim, L. X.  Wan, S. K.  Bhattacharya, V.  Sundaram, F. H.  Liu, P. M.  Raj, “The SOP for miniaturized, mixed-signal computing, communication, and consumer systems of the next decade,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 27, 250–267 (2004).

Swaminathan, M.

R. R.  Tummala, M.  Swaminathan, M. M.  Tentzeris, J.  Laskar, G.-K.  Chang, S.  Sitaraman, D.  Keezer, D.  Guidotti, Z. R.  Huang, K.  Lim, L. X.  Wan, S. K.  Bhattacharya, V.  Sundaram, F. H.  Liu, P. M.  Raj, “The SOP for miniaturized, mixed-signal computing, communication, and consumer systems of the next decade,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 27, 250–267 (2004).

Tentzeris, M. M.

R. R.  Tummala, M.  Swaminathan, M. M.  Tentzeris, J.  Laskar, G.-K.  Chang, S.  Sitaraman, D.  Keezer, D.  Guidotti, Z. R.  Huang, K.  Lim, L. X.  Wan, S. K.  Bhattacharya, V.  Sundaram, F. H.  Liu, P. M.  Raj, “The SOP for miniaturized, mixed-signal computing, communication, and consumer systems of the next decade,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 27, 250–267 (2004).

Tian, H.

Z.  Guo, H.  Tian, Q.  Luo, X.  Wang, Y.  Ji, “EBG ME-dipole antenna with enhanced gain for intelligent radio-over-fiber systems,” in Proceedings of 12th International Conference on Optical Communications and Networks (IEEE, 2013), pp. 1–3.

Tsai, W.

Tseng, C. H.

C. H.  Tseng, C. J.  Chen, T. H.  Chu, “A low-cost 60-GHz switched beam patch antenna array with Butler matrix network,” IEEE Antennas Wireless Propag. Lett. 7, 432–435 (2008).

Tummala, R. R.

R. R.  Tummala, M.  Swaminathan, M. M.  Tentzeris, J.  Laskar, G.-K.  Chang, S.  Sitaraman, D.  Keezer, D.  Guidotti, Z. R.  Huang, K.  Lim, L. X.  Wan, S. K.  Bhattacharya, V.  Sundaram, F. H.  Liu, P. M.  Raj, “The SOP for miniaturized, mixed-signal computing, communication, and consumer systems of the next decade,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 27, 250–267 (2004).

Tzeng, S.

Vimpari, A. R.

A. E. I.  Lamminen, J.  Säily, A. R.  Vimpari, “60-GHz patch antennas and arrays on LTCC with embedded-cavity substrates,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 56, 2865–2874 (2008).
[Crossref]

Wai, L. L.

Y. P.  Zhang, M.  Sun, K. M.  Chua, L. L.  Wai, D.  Liu, “Antenna-in-package design for wirebond interconnection to highly integrated 60-GHz radios,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 57, 2842–2852 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wan, L. X.

R. R.  Tummala, M.  Swaminathan, M. M.  Tentzeris, J.  Laskar, G.-K.  Chang, S.  Sitaraman, D.  Keezer, D.  Guidotti, Z. R.  Huang, K.  Lim, L. X.  Wan, S. K.  Bhattacharya, V.  Sundaram, F. H.  Liu, P. M.  Raj, “The SOP for miniaturized, mixed-signal computing, communication, and consumer systems of the next decade,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 27, 250–267 (2004).

Wang, X.

Z.  Guo, H.  Tian, Q.  Luo, X.  Wang, Y.  Ji, “EBG ME-dipole antenna with enhanced gain for intelligent radio-over-fiber systems,” in Proceedings of 12th International Conference on Optical Communications and Networks (IEEE, 2013), pp. 1–3.

Wang, Z.

H.  Chu, Y. X.  Guo, Z.  Wang, “60-GHz LTCC wideband vertical off-center dipole antenna and arrays,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 61, 153–161 (2013).
[Crossref]

H.  Sun, Y. X.  Guo, Z.  Wang, “60-GHz circularly polarized U-slot patch antenna array on LTCC,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 61, 430–435 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wong, H.

K. B.  Ng, H.  Wong, K. K.  So, C. H.  Chan, K. M.  Luk, “60  GHz plated through hole printed magneto-electric dipole antenna,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 60, 3129–3136 (2012).
[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

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Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (4)

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Z.  Guo, H.  Tian, Q.  Luo, X.  Wang, Y.  Ji, “EBG ME-dipole antenna with enhanced gain for intelligent radio-over-fiber systems,” in Proceedings of 12th International Conference on Optical Communications and Networks (IEEE, 2013), pp. 1–3.

IEEE 802.15 WPAN Task Group 3c (TG3c) IEEE, Sept.2009 [Online]. Available: http://www.ieee802.org/15/pub/TG3c.html .

K.  Luk, M.  Li, “Magneto-electric dipole antennas for millimeter-wave applications,” in Proceedings of Asia-Pacific Microwave Conference (IEEE, 2013), pp. 304–306.

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) Half-wavelength dipole antenna (electric dipole). (b) Quarter-wavelength short-circuit patch antenna (magnetic dipole). (c) ME dipole antenna.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Configuration of LTCC ME dipole antenna: (a) simulation model, (b) top view, and (c) side view.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Simulated | S 11 | versus (a)  L , (b)  d 1 , and (c)  d 2 for the antenna in Fig. 2.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Current distribution at (a) 58 and (b) 67.3 GHz.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Bandwidth and gain characteristics of the antenna in Fig. 2.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Configuration of the antenna array.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Simulated S parameters of the T-junction power divider.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. Simulated (a) E-plane and (b) H-plane couplings for antenna array.
Fig. 9.
Fig. 9. Bandwidth and gain characteristics of the antenna array.
Fig. 10.
Fig. 10. Radiation pattern of the antenna array at 58, 60, and 65 GHz: (a) E plane and (b) H plane.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Comparisons Between This Work and Other 60 GHz Dipole Antenna Arrays

Equations (1)

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d λ 0 1 1 + sin θ 0 d c 0 f ( 1 + sin θ 0 ) ,

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