Abstract

Germanium tin (GeSn) is a group IV semiconductor with a direct band-to-band transition below 0.8 eV. Nonequilibrium GeSn alloys up to 20% Sn content were realized with low temperature (160°C) molecular beam epitaxy. Photodetectors and light emitting diodes (LEDs) were realized from in situ doped pin junctions in GeSn on Ge virtual substrates. The detection wavelength for infrared radiation was extended to 2 μm with clear potential for further extension into the mid-infrared. GeSn LEDs with Sn content of up to 4% exhibit light emission from the direct band transition, although GeSn with low Sn content is an indirect semiconductor. The photon emission energies span the region between 0.81 and 0.65 eV. Optical characterization techniques such as ellipsometry, in situ reflectometry, and Raman spectroscopy were used to monitor the Sn incorporation in GeSn epitaxy.

© 2013 Chinese Laser Press

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  29. J. Xie, J. Tolle, V. R. D’Costa, C. Weng, A. V. G. Chizmeshya, J. Menendez, and J. Kouvetakis, “Molecular approaches to p-and n-nanoscale doping of Ge1−ySny semiconductors: structural, electrical and transport properties,” Solid State Electron. 53, 816–823 (2009).
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  33. H. Jorke, H. Kibbel, K. Strohm, and E. Kasper, “Forward-bias characteristics of Si bipolar junctions grown by molecular beam epitaxy at low temperatures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2408–2410 (1993).
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  34. M. Bauer, M. Oehme, and E. Kasper, “Crystalline to amorphous phase transition in very low temperature molecular beam epitaxy,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 89, 263–268 (2002).
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  35. K. A. Bratland, Y. L. Foo, T. Spila, H. S. Seo, R. T. Haasch, P. Desgardins, and J. E. Greene, “Sn-mediated Ge/Ge(001) growth by low-temperature molecular-beam epitaxy: surface smoothening and enhanced epitaxial thickness,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, 044904 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  36. V. R. D’Costa, Y. Fang, J. Mathews, R. Roucka, J. Tolle, J. Menéndez, and J. Kouvetakis, “Sn-alloying as a means of increasing the optical absorption of Ge at the C-and L-telecommunication bands,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 24, 115006 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  37. A. Gassenq, F. Gencarelli, J. Van Campenhout, Y. Shimura, R. Loo, G. Narcy, B. Vincent, and G. Roelkens, “GeSn/Ge heterostructure short-wave infrared photodetectors on silicon,” Opt. Express 20, 27297–27303 (2012).
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  38. M. Oehme, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “GeSn photodetection and electroluminescence devices on Si,” ECS Trans. 50, 583–590 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  39. E. Kasper, M. Kittler, T. Arguirov, and M. Oehme, “Light from GeSn heterostructures on Si,” Proc. SPIE 8628, 86280J (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  40. V. R. D’Costa, C. S. Cook, A. G. Birdwell, C. L. Littler, M. Canonico, S. Zollner, J. Kouvetakis, and J. Menéndez, “Optical critical points of thin-film Ge1−ySny alloys: a comparative Ge1−ySny/Ge1−xSix study,” Phys. Rev. B 73, 125207 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  41. K. Alberi, J. Blacksberg, L. D. Bell, S. Nikzad, K. M. Yu, O. D. Dubon, and W. Walukiewicz, “Band anticrossing in highly mismatched SnxGe1−x semiconducting alloys,” Phys. Rev. B 77, 073202 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  42. H. Lin, R. Chen, W. Lu, Y. Huo, T. Kamins, and J. Harris, “Investigation of the direct band gaps in Ge1−xSnx alloys with strain control by photoreflectance spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 102109 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  43. M. Oehme, J. Werner, M. Gollhofer, M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “Room-temperature electroluminescence from GeSn light-emitting pin diodes on Si,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1751–1753 (2011).
    [CrossRef]

2013 (3)

R. Soref, “Group IV photonics for the mid infrared,” Proc. SPIE 8629, 862902 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. Ziebell, D. Marris-Morini, G. Rasigade, J. M. Fédéli, E. Cassan, and L. Vivien, “40  Gb/s low-loss self-aligned silicon optical modulator,” Proc. SPIE 8629, 86290Q (2013).
[CrossRef]

E. Kasper, M. Kittler, T. Arguirov, and M. Oehme, “Light from GeSn heterostructures on Si,” Proc. SPIE 8628, 86280J (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (7)

M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, M. Gollhofer, M. Oehme, J. Werner, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “Franz–Keldysh effect of germanium-on-silicon p–i–n diodes within a wide temperature range,” Thin Solid Films 525, 110–114 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, R. Camacho-Aguilera, J. T. Bessette, X. Sun, X. Wang, Y. Cai, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Ge-on-Si optoelectronics,” Thin Solid Films 520, 3354–3360 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Oehme, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “GeSn photodetection and electroluminescence devices on Si,” ECS Trans. 50, 583–590 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Lin, R. Chen, W. Lu, Y. Huo, T. Kamins, and J. Harris, “Investigation of the direct band gaps in Ge1−xSnx alloys with strain control by photoreflectance spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 102109 (2012).
[CrossRef]

E. Kasper, J. Werner, M. Oehme, S. Escoubas, N. Burle, and J. Schulze, “Growth of silicon based germanium tin alloys,” Thin Solid Films 520, 3195–3200 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Camacho-Aguilera, Y. Cai, N. Patel, J. T. Bessette, M. Romagnoli, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “An electrically pumped germanium laser,” Opt. Express 20, 11316–11320 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Gassenq, F. Gencarelli, J. Van Campenhout, Y. Shimura, R. Loo, G. Narcy, B. Vincent, and G. Roelkens, “GeSn/Ge heterostructure short-wave infrared photodetectors on silicon,” Opt. Express 20, 27297–27303 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (2)

G. Grzybowski, R. Roucka, J. Mathews, L. Jiang, R. T. Beeler, J. Kouvetakis, and J. Menéndez, “Direct versus indirect optical recombination in Ge films grown on Si substrates,” Phys. Rev. B 84, 205307 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Oehme, J. Werner, M. Gollhofer, M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “Room-temperature electroluminescence from GeSn light-emitting pin diodes on Si,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1751–1753 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2009 (5)

E. Kasper and M. Oehme, “Optoelectronic application of Si/Ge heterostructures,” Phys. Status Solidi C6, 700–703 (2009).

V. R. D’Costa, Y. Fang, J. Mathews, R. Roucka, J. Tolle, J. Menéndez, and J. Kouvetakis, “Sn-alloying as a means of increasing the optical absorption of Ge at the C-and L-telecommunication bands,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 24, 115006 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Kasper, “Prospects and challenges of silicon/germanium on-chip optoelectronics,” Front. Optoelectron. China 3, 143–152 (2009).

S. Klinger, M. Berroth, M. Kaschel, M. Oehme, and E. Kasper, “Ge on Si p-i-n photodiodes with a 3 dB bandwidth of 49 GHz,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 920–922 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Xie, J. Tolle, V. R. D’Costa, C. Weng, A. V. G. Chizmeshya, J. Menendez, and J. Kouvetakis, “Molecular approaches to p-and n-nanoscale doping of Ge1−ySny semiconductors: structural, electrical and transport properties,” Solid State Electron. 53, 816–823 (2009).

2008 (2)

K. Alberi, J. Blacksberg, L. D. Bell, S. Nikzad, K. M. Yu, O. D. Dubon, and W. Walukiewicz, “Band anticrossing in highly mismatched SnxGe1−x semiconducting alloys,” Phys. Rev. B 77, 073202 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Yamazaki, S. Takeuchi, O. Nakatsuka, A. Sakai, M. Ogawa, and S. Zaima, “Scanning tunneling microscopy observation of initial growth of Sn and Ge1−xSnx layers on Ge(001) substrates,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 254, 6048–6051 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

J. Kouvetakis and A. V. G. Chizmeshya, “New classes of Si-based photonic materials and device architectures via designer molecular routes,” J. Mater. Chem. 17, 1649–1655 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Takeuchi, A. Sakai, K. Yamamoto, O. Nakatsuka, M. Ogawa, and S. Zaima, “Growth and structure evaluation of strain-relaxed Ge1−xSnx buffer layers grown on various types of substrates,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 22, S231–S235 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

J. Tolle, A. V. G. Chizmeshya, Y. Y. Fang, J. Kouvetakis, V. R. D’Costa, C. W. Hu, J. Menendez, and I. S. T. Tsong, “Low temperature chemical vapor deposition of Si-based compounds via SiH3SiH2SiH3: metastable SiSn/GeSn/Si(100) heteroepitaxial structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 231924 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. R. D’Costa, C. S. Cook, A. G. Birdwell, C. L. Littler, M. Canonico, S. Zollner, J. Kouvetakis, and J. Menéndez, “Optical critical points of thin-film Ge1−ySny alloys: a comparative Ge1−ySny/Ge1−xSix study,” Phys. Rev. B 73, 125207 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

K. A. Bratland, Y. L. Foo, T. Spila, H. S. Seo, R. T. Haasch, P. Desgardins, and J. E. Greene, “Sn-mediated Ge/Ge(001) growth by low-temperature molecular-beam epitaxy: surface smoothening and enhanced epitaxial thickness,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, 044904 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

C. S. Cook, S. Zollner, M. R. Bauer, P. Aella, John Kouvetakis, and J. Menendez, “Optical constants and interband transitions of Ge1−xSnx alloys (x−0.2) grown on Si by UHV-CVD,” Thin Solid Films 455–456, 217–221 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

H. P. L. de Guevara, H. Navarro-Contreras, and M. A. Vidal, “Growth and characterization of Ge1−xSnx alloys grown by magnetron sputter deposition,” Superficies y Vacio 16, 22–24 (2003).

2002 (2)

M. Oehme and E. Kasper, “Abrupt boron profiles by Silicon-MBE,” Int. J. Mod. Phys. B 16, 4285–4288 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Bauer, M. Oehme, and E. Kasper, “Crystalline to amorphous phase transition in very low temperature molecular beam epitaxy,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 89, 263–268 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

M. E. Taylor, G. He, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Solid phase epitaxy of diamond cubic SnxGe1−x alloys,” J. Appl. Phys. 80, 4384–4388 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

W. Dondl, E. Silveira, and G. Abstreiter, “MBE growth of ternary SnGeSiGe superlattices,” J. Cryst. Growth 157, 400–404 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

H. Jorke, H. Kibbel, K. Strohm, and E. Kasper, “Forward-bias characteristics of Si bipolar junctions grown by molecular beam epitaxy at low temperatures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2408–2410 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1990 (3)

H. J. Gossmann, “Determination of critical layer thicknesses in IV-IV-alloy systems using reflection high energy electron diffraction intensity oscillations: Ge(100)/GexSn1−x,” J. Appl. Phys. 68, 2791–2795 (1990).
[CrossRef]

W. Wegscheider, K. Eberl, U. Menczigar, and G. Abstreiter, “Single-crystal Sn/Ge superlattices on Ge substrates: growth and structural properties,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 875–877 (1990).
[CrossRef]

A. Harwit, P. R. Pukite, J. Angilello, and S. S. Iyer, “Properties of diamond structure SnGe films grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Thin Solid Films 184, 395–401 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (4)

M. T. Asom, A. R. Kortan, L. C. Kimerling, and R. C. Farrow, “Structure and stability of metastable alpha-Sn,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 1439–1441 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Reno and L. L. Stephenson, “Effect of growth-conditions on the stability of alpha-Sn grown on CdTe by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 2207–2209 (1989).
[CrossRef]

P. R. Pukite, A. Harwit, and S. S. Iyer, “Molecular beam epitaxy of metastable, diamond structure SnxGe1−x alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 2142–2144 (1989).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Asom, E. A. Fitzgerald, A. R. Kortan, B. Spear, and L. C. Kimerling, “Epitaxial growth of metastable SnGe alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 578–579 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

S. I. Shah, J. E. Greene, L. L. Abels, Y. Qi, and P. M. Raccah, “Growth of single-crystal metastable Ge1−xSnx alloys on Ge(100) and GaAs(100) substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth 83, 3–10 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

R. F. C. Farrow, D. S. Robertson, G. M. Williams, A. G. Cullis, G. R. Jones, I. M. Young, and P. N. J. Dennis, “The growth of metastable, heteroepitaxial films of alpha-Sn by metal beam epitaxy,” J. Cryst. Growth 54, 507–518 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Abels, L. L.

S. I. Shah, J. E. Greene, L. L. Abels, Y. Qi, and P. M. Raccah, “Growth of single-crystal metastable Ge1−xSnx alloys on Ge(100) and GaAs(100) substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth 83, 3–10 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Abstreiter, G.

W. Dondl, E. Silveira, and G. Abstreiter, “MBE growth of ternary SnGeSiGe superlattices,” J. Cryst. Growth 157, 400–404 (1995).
[CrossRef]

W. Wegscheider, K. Eberl, U. Menczigar, and G. Abstreiter, “Single-crystal Sn/Ge superlattices on Ge substrates: growth and structural properties,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 875–877 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Aella, P.

C. S. Cook, S. Zollner, M. R. Bauer, P. Aella, John Kouvetakis, and J. Menendez, “Optical constants and interband transitions of Ge1−xSnx alloys (x−0.2) grown on Si by UHV-CVD,” Thin Solid Films 455–456, 217–221 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Alberi, K.

K. Alberi, J. Blacksberg, L. D. Bell, S. Nikzad, K. M. Yu, O. D. Dubon, and W. Walukiewicz, “Band anticrossing in highly mismatched SnxGe1−x semiconducting alloys,” Phys. Rev. B 77, 073202 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Angilello, J.

A. Harwit, P. R. Pukite, J. Angilello, and S. S. Iyer, “Properties of diamond structure SnGe films grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Thin Solid Films 184, 395–401 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Arguirov, T.

E. Kasper, M. Kittler, T. Arguirov, and M. Oehme, “Light from GeSn heterostructures on Si,” Proc. SPIE 8628, 86280J (2013).
[CrossRef]

Asom, M. T.

M. T. Asom, A. R. Kortan, L. C. Kimerling, and R. C. Farrow, “Structure and stability of metastable alpha-Sn,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 1439–1441 (1989).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Asom, E. A. Fitzgerald, A. R. Kortan, B. Spear, and L. C. Kimerling, “Epitaxial growth of metastable SnGe alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 578–579 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Atwater, H. A.

M. E. Taylor, G. He, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Solid phase epitaxy of diamond cubic SnxGe1−x alloys,” J. Appl. Phys. 80, 4384–4388 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bauer, M.

M. Bauer, M. Oehme, and E. Kasper, “Crystalline to amorphous phase transition in very low temperature molecular beam epitaxy,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 89, 263–268 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bauer, M. R.

C. S. Cook, S. Zollner, M. R. Bauer, P. Aella, John Kouvetakis, and J. Menendez, “Optical constants and interband transitions of Ge1−xSnx alloys (x−0.2) grown on Si by UHV-CVD,” Thin Solid Films 455–456, 217–221 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Beeler, R. T.

G. Grzybowski, R. Roucka, J. Mathews, L. Jiang, R. T. Beeler, J. Kouvetakis, and J. Menéndez, “Direct versus indirect optical recombination in Ge films grown on Si substrates,” Phys. Rev. B 84, 205307 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bell, L. D.

K. Alberi, J. Blacksberg, L. D. Bell, S. Nikzad, K. M. Yu, O. D. Dubon, and W. Walukiewicz, “Band anticrossing in highly mismatched SnxGe1−x semiconducting alloys,” Phys. Rev. B 77, 073202 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Berroth, M.

S. Klinger, M. Berroth, M. Kaschel, M. Oehme, and E. Kasper, “Ge on Si p-i-n photodiodes with a 3 dB bandwidth of 49 GHz,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 920–922 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bessette, J. T.

J. Liu, R. Camacho-Aguilera, J. T. Bessette, X. Sun, X. Wang, Y. Cai, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Ge-on-Si optoelectronics,” Thin Solid Films 520, 3354–3360 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Camacho-Aguilera, Y. Cai, N. Patel, J. T. Bessette, M. Romagnoli, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “An electrically pumped germanium laser,” Opt. Express 20, 11316–11320 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Birdwell, A. G.

V. R. D’Costa, C. S. Cook, A. G. Birdwell, C. L. Littler, M. Canonico, S. Zollner, J. Kouvetakis, and J. Menéndez, “Optical critical points of thin-film Ge1−ySny alloys: a comparative Ge1−ySny/Ge1−xSix study,” Phys. Rev. B 73, 125207 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Blacksberg, J.

K. Alberi, J. Blacksberg, L. D. Bell, S. Nikzad, K. M. Yu, O. D. Dubon, and W. Walukiewicz, “Band anticrossing in highly mismatched SnxGe1−x semiconducting alloys,” Phys. Rev. B 77, 073202 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bratland, K. A.

K. A. Bratland, Y. L. Foo, T. Spila, H. S. Seo, R. T. Haasch, P. Desgardins, and J. E. Greene, “Sn-mediated Ge/Ge(001) growth by low-temperature molecular-beam epitaxy: surface smoothening and enhanced epitaxial thickness,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, 044904 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Burle, N.

E. Kasper, J. Werner, M. Oehme, S. Escoubas, N. Burle, and J. Schulze, “Growth of silicon based germanium tin alloys,” Thin Solid Films 520, 3195–3200 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Cai, Y.

J. Liu, R. Camacho-Aguilera, J. T. Bessette, X. Sun, X. Wang, Y. Cai, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Ge-on-Si optoelectronics,” Thin Solid Films 520, 3354–3360 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Camacho-Aguilera, Y. Cai, N. Patel, J. T. Bessette, M. Romagnoli, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “An electrically pumped germanium laser,” Opt. Express 20, 11316–11320 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Camacho-Aguilera, R.

J. Liu, R. Camacho-Aguilera, J. T. Bessette, X. Sun, X. Wang, Y. Cai, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Ge-on-Si optoelectronics,” Thin Solid Films 520, 3354–3360 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Camacho-Aguilera, R. E.

Canonico, M.

V. R. D’Costa, C. S. Cook, A. G. Birdwell, C. L. Littler, M. Canonico, S. Zollner, J. Kouvetakis, and J. Menéndez, “Optical critical points of thin-film Ge1−ySny alloys: a comparative Ge1−ySny/Ge1−xSix study,” Phys. Rev. B 73, 125207 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cassan, E.

M. Ziebell, D. Marris-Morini, G. Rasigade, J. M. Fédéli, E. Cassan, and L. Vivien, “40  Gb/s low-loss self-aligned silicon optical modulator,” Proc. SPIE 8629, 86290Q (2013).
[CrossRef]

Chen, R.

H. Lin, R. Chen, W. Lu, Y. Huo, T. Kamins, and J. Harris, “Investigation of the direct band gaps in Ge1−xSnx alloys with strain control by photoreflectance spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 102109 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chizmeshya, A. V. G.

J. Xie, J. Tolle, V. R. D’Costa, C. Weng, A. V. G. Chizmeshya, J. Menendez, and J. Kouvetakis, “Molecular approaches to p-and n-nanoscale doping of Ge1−ySny semiconductors: structural, electrical and transport properties,” Solid State Electron. 53, 816–823 (2009).

J. Kouvetakis and A. V. G. Chizmeshya, “New classes of Si-based photonic materials and device architectures via designer molecular routes,” J. Mater. Chem. 17, 1649–1655 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Tolle, A. V. G. Chizmeshya, Y. Y. Fang, J. Kouvetakis, V. R. D’Costa, C. W. Hu, J. Menendez, and I. S. T. Tsong, “Low temperature chemical vapor deposition of Si-based compounds via SiH3SiH2SiH3: metastable SiSn/GeSn/Si(100) heteroepitaxial structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 231924 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cook, C. S.

V. R. D’Costa, C. S. Cook, A. G. Birdwell, C. L. Littler, M. Canonico, S. Zollner, J. Kouvetakis, and J. Menéndez, “Optical critical points of thin-film Ge1−ySny alloys: a comparative Ge1−ySny/Ge1−xSix study,” Phys. Rev. B 73, 125207 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Cook, S. Zollner, M. R. Bauer, P. Aella, John Kouvetakis, and J. Menendez, “Optical constants and interband transitions of Ge1−xSnx alloys (x−0.2) grown on Si by UHV-CVD,” Thin Solid Films 455–456, 217–221 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cullis, A. G.

R. F. C. Farrow, D. S. Robertson, G. M. Williams, A. G. Cullis, G. R. Jones, I. M. Young, and P. N. J. Dennis, “The growth of metastable, heteroepitaxial films of alpha-Sn by metal beam epitaxy,” J. Cryst. Growth 54, 507–518 (1981).
[CrossRef]

D’Costa, V. R.

V. R. D’Costa, Y. Fang, J. Mathews, R. Roucka, J. Tolle, J. Menéndez, and J. Kouvetakis, “Sn-alloying as a means of increasing the optical absorption of Ge at the C-and L-telecommunication bands,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 24, 115006 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Xie, J. Tolle, V. R. D’Costa, C. Weng, A. V. G. Chizmeshya, J. Menendez, and J. Kouvetakis, “Molecular approaches to p-and n-nanoscale doping of Ge1−ySny semiconductors: structural, electrical and transport properties,” Solid State Electron. 53, 816–823 (2009).

J. Tolle, A. V. G. Chizmeshya, Y. Y. Fang, J. Kouvetakis, V. R. D’Costa, C. W. Hu, J. Menendez, and I. S. T. Tsong, “Low temperature chemical vapor deposition of Si-based compounds via SiH3SiH2SiH3: metastable SiSn/GeSn/Si(100) heteroepitaxial structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 231924 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. R. D’Costa, C. S. Cook, A. G. Birdwell, C. L. Littler, M. Canonico, S. Zollner, J. Kouvetakis, and J. Menéndez, “Optical critical points of thin-film Ge1−ySny alloys: a comparative Ge1−ySny/Ge1−xSix study,” Phys. Rev. B 73, 125207 (2006).
[CrossRef]

de Guevara, H. P. L.

H. P. L. de Guevara, H. Navarro-Contreras, and M. A. Vidal, “Growth and characterization of Ge1−xSnx alloys grown by magnetron sputter deposition,” Superficies y Vacio 16, 22–24 (2003).

Dennis, P. N. J.

R. F. C. Farrow, D. S. Robertson, G. M. Williams, A. G. Cullis, G. R. Jones, I. M. Young, and P. N. J. Dennis, “The growth of metastable, heteroepitaxial films of alpha-Sn by metal beam epitaxy,” J. Cryst. Growth 54, 507–518 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Desgardins, P.

K. A. Bratland, Y. L. Foo, T. Spila, H. S. Seo, R. T. Haasch, P. Desgardins, and J. E. Greene, “Sn-mediated Ge/Ge(001) growth by low-temperature molecular-beam epitaxy: surface smoothening and enhanced epitaxial thickness,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, 044904 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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W. Dondl, E. Silveira, and G. Abstreiter, “MBE growth of ternary SnGeSiGe superlattices,” J. Cryst. Growth 157, 400–404 (1995).
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K. Alberi, J. Blacksberg, L. D. Bell, S. Nikzad, K. M. Yu, O. D. Dubon, and W. Walukiewicz, “Band anticrossing in highly mismatched SnxGe1−x semiconducting alloys,” Phys. Rev. B 77, 073202 (2008).
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Eberl, K.

W. Wegscheider, K. Eberl, U. Menczigar, and G. Abstreiter, “Single-crystal Sn/Ge superlattices on Ge substrates: growth and structural properties,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 875–877 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Escoubas, S.

E. Kasper, J. Werner, M. Oehme, S. Escoubas, N. Burle, and J. Schulze, “Growth of silicon based germanium tin alloys,” Thin Solid Films 520, 3195–3200 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Fang, Y.

V. R. D’Costa, Y. Fang, J. Mathews, R. Roucka, J. Tolle, J. Menéndez, and J. Kouvetakis, “Sn-alloying as a means of increasing the optical absorption of Ge at the C-and L-telecommunication bands,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 24, 115006 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fang, Y. Y.

J. Tolle, A. V. G. Chizmeshya, Y. Y. Fang, J. Kouvetakis, V. R. D’Costa, C. W. Hu, J. Menendez, and I. S. T. Tsong, “Low temperature chemical vapor deposition of Si-based compounds via SiH3SiH2SiH3: metastable SiSn/GeSn/Si(100) heteroepitaxial structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 231924 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Farrow, R. C.

M. T. Asom, A. R. Kortan, L. C. Kimerling, and R. C. Farrow, “Structure and stability of metastable alpha-Sn,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 1439–1441 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Farrow, R. F. C.

R. F. C. Farrow, D. S. Robertson, G. M. Williams, A. G. Cullis, G. R. Jones, I. M. Young, and P. N. J. Dennis, “The growth of metastable, heteroepitaxial films of alpha-Sn by metal beam epitaxy,” J. Cryst. Growth 54, 507–518 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Fédéli, J. M.

M. Ziebell, D. Marris-Morini, G. Rasigade, J. M. Fédéli, E. Cassan, and L. Vivien, “40  Gb/s low-loss self-aligned silicon optical modulator,” Proc. SPIE 8629, 86290Q (2013).
[CrossRef]

Fitzgerald, E. A.

M. T. Asom, E. A. Fitzgerald, A. R. Kortan, B. Spear, and L. C. Kimerling, “Epitaxial growth of metastable SnGe alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 578–579 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Foo, Y. L.

K. A. Bratland, Y. L. Foo, T. Spila, H. S. Seo, R. T. Haasch, P. Desgardins, and J. E. Greene, “Sn-mediated Ge/Ge(001) growth by low-temperature molecular-beam epitaxy: surface smoothening and enhanced epitaxial thickness,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, 044904 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gassenq, A.

Gencarelli, F.

Gollhofer, M.

M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, M. Gollhofer, M. Oehme, J. Werner, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “Franz–Keldysh effect of germanium-on-silicon p–i–n diodes within a wide temperature range,” Thin Solid Films 525, 110–114 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Oehme, J. Werner, M. Gollhofer, M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “Room-temperature electroluminescence from GeSn light-emitting pin diodes on Si,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1751–1753 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gossmann, H. J.

H. J. Gossmann, “Determination of critical layer thicknesses in IV-IV-alloy systems using reflection high energy electron diffraction intensity oscillations: Ge(100)/GexSn1−x,” J. Appl. Phys. 68, 2791–2795 (1990).
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Greene, J. E.

K. A. Bratland, Y. L. Foo, T. Spila, H. S. Seo, R. T. Haasch, P. Desgardins, and J. E. Greene, “Sn-mediated Ge/Ge(001) growth by low-temperature molecular-beam epitaxy: surface smoothening and enhanced epitaxial thickness,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, 044904 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Shah, J. E. Greene, L. L. Abels, Y. Qi, and P. M. Raccah, “Growth of single-crystal metastable Ge1−xSnx alloys on Ge(100) and GaAs(100) substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth 83, 3–10 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Grzybowski, G.

G. Grzybowski, R. Roucka, J. Mathews, L. Jiang, R. T. Beeler, J. Kouvetakis, and J. Menéndez, “Direct versus indirect optical recombination in Ge films grown on Si substrates,” Phys. Rev. B 84, 205307 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Haasch, R. T.

K. A. Bratland, Y. L. Foo, T. Spila, H. S. Seo, R. T. Haasch, P. Desgardins, and J. E. Greene, “Sn-mediated Ge/Ge(001) growth by low-temperature molecular-beam epitaxy: surface smoothening and enhanced epitaxial thickness,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, 044904 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Harris, J.

H. Lin, R. Chen, W. Lu, Y. Huo, T. Kamins, and J. Harris, “Investigation of the direct band gaps in Ge1−xSnx alloys with strain control by photoreflectance spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 102109 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Harwit, A.

A. Harwit, P. R. Pukite, J. Angilello, and S. S. Iyer, “Properties of diamond structure SnGe films grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Thin Solid Films 184, 395–401 (1990).
[CrossRef]

P. R. Pukite, A. Harwit, and S. S. Iyer, “Molecular beam epitaxy of metastable, diamond structure SnxGe1−x alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 2142–2144 (1989).
[CrossRef]

He, G.

M. E. Taylor, G. He, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Solid phase epitaxy of diamond cubic SnxGe1−x alloys,” J. Appl. Phys. 80, 4384–4388 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hu, C. W.

J. Tolle, A. V. G. Chizmeshya, Y. Y. Fang, J. Kouvetakis, V. R. D’Costa, C. W. Hu, J. Menendez, and I. S. T. Tsong, “Low temperature chemical vapor deposition of Si-based compounds via SiH3SiH2SiH3: metastable SiSn/GeSn/Si(100) heteroepitaxial structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 231924 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Huo, Y.

H. Lin, R. Chen, W. Lu, Y. Huo, T. Kamins, and J. Harris, “Investigation of the direct band gaps in Ge1−xSnx alloys with strain control by photoreflectance spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 102109 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Iyer, S. S.

A. Harwit, P. R. Pukite, J. Angilello, and S. S. Iyer, “Properties of diamond structure SnGe films grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Thin Solid Films 184, 395–401 (1990).
[CrossRef]

P. R. Pukite, A. Harwit, and S. S. Iyer, “Molecular beam epitaxy of metastable, diamond structure SnxGe1−x alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 2142–2144 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, L.

G. Grzybowski, R. Roucka, J. Mathews, L. Jiang, R. T. Beeler, J. Kouvetakis, and J. Menéndez, “Direct versus indirect optical recombination in Ge films grown on Si substrates,” Phys. Rev. B 84, 205307 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jones, G. R.

R. F. C. Farrow, D. S. Robertson, G. M. Williams, A. G. Cullis, G. R. Jones, I. M. Young, and P. N. J. Dennis, “The growth of metastable, heteroepitaxial films of alpha-Sn by metal beam epitaxy,” J. Cryst. Growth 54, 507–518 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Jorke, H.

H. Jorke, H. Kibbel, K. Strohm, and E. Kasper, “Forward-bias characteristics of Si bipolar junctions grown by molecular beam epitaxy at low temperatures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2408–2410 (1993).
[CrossRef]

H. Jorke, Segregation of Ge and dopant atoms during growth of SiGe layers in Properties of Strained and Relaxed SiGe, E. Kasper and K. Lyutovich eds. (INSPEC, Institution of Electrical Engineers, 2000), pp. 287–301.

Kamins, T.

H. Lin, R. Chen, W. Lu, Y. Huo, T. Kamins, and J. Harris, “Investigation of the direct band gaps in Ge1−xSnx alloys with strain control by photoreflectance spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 102109 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kaschel, M.

M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, M. Gollhofer, M. Oehme, J. Werner, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “Franz–Keldysh effect of germanium-on-silicon p–i–n diodes within a wide temperature range,” Thin Solid Films 525, 110–114 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Oehme, J. Werner, M. Gollhofer, M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “Room-temperature electroluminescence from GeSn light-emitting pin diodes on Si,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1751–1753 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Klinger, M. Berroth, M. Kaschel, M. Oehme, and E. Kasper, “Ge on Si p-i-n photodiodes with a 3 dB bandwidth of 49 GHz,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 920–922 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kasper, E.

E. Kasper, M. Kittler, T. Arguirov, and M. Oehme, “Light from GeSn heterostructures on Si,” Proc. SPIE 8628, 86280J (2013).
[CrossRef]

E. Kasper, J. Werner, M. Oehme, S. Escoubas, N. Burle, and J. Schulze, “Growth of silicon based germanium tin alloys,” Thin Solid Films 520, 3195–3200 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Oehme, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “GeSn photodetection and electroluminescence devices on Si,” ECS Trans. 50, 583–590 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, M. Gollhofer, M. Oehme, J. Werner, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “Franz–Keldysh effect of germanium-on-silicon p–i–n diodes within a wide temperature range,” Thin Solid Films 525, 110–114 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Oehme, J. Werner, M. Gollhofer, M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “Room-temperature electroluminescence from GeSn light-emitting pin diodes on Si,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1751–1753 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. Kasper and M. Oehme, “Optoelectronic application of Si/Ge heterostructures,” Phys. Status Solidi C6, 700–703 (2009).

S. Klinger, M. Berroth, M. Kaschel, M. Oehme, and E. Kasper, “Ge on Si p-i-n photodiodes with a 3 dB bandwidth of 49 GHz,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 920–922 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Kasper, “Prospects and challenges of silicon/germanium on-chip optoelectronics,” Front. Optoelectron. China 3, 143–152 (2009).

M. Oehme and E. Kasper, “Abrupt boron profiles by Silicon-MBE,” Int. J. Mod. Phys. B 16, 4285–4288 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Bauer, M. Oehme, and E. Kasper, “Crystalline to amorphous phase transition in very low temperature molecular beam epitaxy,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 89, 263–268 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Jorke, H. Kibbel, K. Strohm, and E. Kasper, “Forward-bias characteristics of Si bipolar junctions grown by molecular beam epitaxy at low temperatures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2408–2410 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kibbel, H.

H. Jorke, H. Kibbel, K. Strohm, and E. Kasper, “Forward-bias characteristics of Si bipolar junctions grown by molecular beam epitaxy at low temperatures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2408–2410 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kimerling, L. C.

R. E. Camacho-Aguilera, Y. Cai, N. Patel, J. T. Bessette, M. Romagnoli, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “An electrically pumped germanium laser,” Opt. Express 20, 11316–11320 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, R. Camacho-Aguilera, J. T. Bessette, X. Sun, X. Wang, Y. Cai, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Ge-on-Si optoelectronics,” Thin Solid Films 520, 3354–3360 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Asom, A. R. Kortan, L. C. Kimerling, and R. C. Farrow, “Structure and stability of metastable alpha-Sn,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 1439–1441 (1989).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Asom, E. A. Fitzgerald, A. R. Kortan, B. Spear, and L. C. Kimerling, “Epitaxial growth of metastable SnGe alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 578–579 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Kittler, M.

E. Kasper, M. Kittler, T. Arguirov, and M. Oehme, “Light from GeSn heterostructures on Si,” Proc. SPIE 8628, 86280J (2013).
[CrossRef]

Klinger, S.

S. Klinger, M. Berroth, M. Kaschel, M. Oehme, and E. Kasper, “Ge on Si p-i-n photodiodes with a 3 dB bandwidth of 49 GHz,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 920–922 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kortan, A. R.

M. T. Asom, A. R. Kortan, L. C. Kimerling, and R. C. Farrow, “Structure and stability of metastable alpha-Sn,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 1439–1441 (1989).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Asom, E. A. Fitzgerald, A. R. Kortan, B. Spear, and L. C. Kimerling, “Epitaxial growth of metastable SnGe alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 578–579 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Kouvetakis, J.

G. Grzybowski, R. Roucka, J. Mathews, L. Jiang, R. T. Beeler, J. Kouvetakis, and J. Menéndez, “Direct versus indirect optical recombination in Ge films grown on Si substrates,” Phys. Rev. B 84, 205307 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Xie, J. Tolle, V. R. D’Costa, C. Weng, A. V. G. Chizmeshya, J. Menendez, and J. Kouvetakis, “Molecular approaches to p-and n-nanoscale doping of Ge1−ySny semiconductors: structural, electrical and transport properties,” Solid State Electron. 53, 816–823 (2009).

V. R. D’Costa, Y. Fang, J. Mathews, R. Roucka, J. Tolle, J. Menéndez, and J. Kouvetakis, “Sn-alloying as a means of increasing the optical absorption of Ge at the C-and L-telecommunication bands,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 24, 115006 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Kouvetakis and A. V. G. Chizmeshya, “New classes of Si-based photonic materials and device architectures via designer molecular routes,” J. Mater. Chem. 17, 1649–1655 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. R. D’Costa, C. S. Cook, A. G. Birdwell, C. L. Littler, M. Canonico, S. Zollner, J. Kouvetakis, and J. Menéndez, “Optical critical points of thin-film Ge1−ySny alloys: a comparative Ge1−ySny/Ge1−xSix study,” Phys. Rev. B 73, 125207 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Tolle, A. V. G. Chizmeshya, Y. Y. Fang, J. Kouvetakis, V. R. D’Costa, C. W. Hu, J. Menendez, and I. S. T. Tsong, “Low temperature chemical vapor deposition of Si-based compounds via SiH3SiH2SiH3: metastable SiSn/GeSn/Si(100) heteroepitaxial structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 231924 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kouvetakis, John

C. S. Cook, S. Zollner, M. R. Bauer, P. Aella, John Kouvetakis, and J. Menendez, “Optical constants and interband transitions of Ge1−xSnx alloys (x−0.2) grown on Si by UHV-CVD,” Thin Solid Films 455–456, 217–221 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lin, H.

H. Lin, R. Chen, W. Lu, Y. Huo, T. Kamins, and J. Harris, “Investigation of the direct band gaps in Ge1−xSnx alloys with strain control by photoreflectance spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 102109 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Littler, C. L.

V. R. D’Costa, C. S. Cook, A. G. Birdwell, C. L. Littler, M. Canonico, S. Zollner, J. Kouvetakis, and J. Menéndez, “Optical critical points of thin-film Ge1−ySny alloys: a comparative Ge1−ySny/Ge1−xSix study,” Phys. Rev. B 73, 125207 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J.

J. Liu, R. Camacho-Aguilera, J. T. Bessette, X. Sun, X. Wang, Y. Cai, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Ge-on-Si optoelectronics,” Thin Solid Films 520, 3354–3360 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Loo, R.

Lu, W.

H. Lin, R. Chen, W. Lu, Y. Huo, T. Kamins, and J. Harris, “Investigation of the direct band gaps in Ge1−xSnx alloys with strain control by photoreflectance spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 102109 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Marris-Morini, D.

M. Ziebell, D. Marris-Morini, G. Rasigade, J. M. Fédéli, E. Cassan, and L. Vivien, “40  Gb/s low-loss self-aligned silicon optical modulator,” Proc. SPIE 8629, 86290Q (2013).
[CrossRef]

Mathews, J.

G. Grzybowski, R. Roucka, J. Mathews, L. Jiang, R. T. Beeler, J. Kouvetakis, and J. Menéndez, “Direct versus indirect optical recombination in Ge films grown on Si substrates,” Phys. Rev. B 84, 205307 (2011).
[CrossRef]

V. R. D’Costa, Y. Fang, J. Mathews, R. Roucka, J. Tolle, J. Menéndez, and J. Kouvetakis, “Sn-alloying as a means of increasing the optical absorption of Ge at the C-and L-telecommunication bands,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 24, 115006 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Menczigar, U.

W. Wegscheider, K. Eberl, U. Menczigar, and G. Abstreiter, “Single-crystal Sn/Ge superlattices on Ge substrates: growth and structural properties,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 875–877 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Menendez, J.

J. Xie, J. Tolle, V. R. D’Costa, C. Weng, A. V. G. Chizmeshya, J. Menendez, and J. Kouvetakis, “Molecular approaches to p-and n-nanoscale doping of Ge1−ySny semiconductors: structural, electrical and transport properties,” Solid State Electron. 53, 816–823 (2009).

J. Tolle, A. V. G. Chizmeshya, Y. Y. Fang, J. Kouvetakis, V. R. D’Costa, C. W. Hu, J. Menendez, and I. S. T. Tsong, “Low temperature chemical vapor deposition of Si-based compounds via SiH3SiH2SiH3: metastable SiSn/GeSn/Si(100) heteroepitaxial structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 231924 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Cook, S. Zollner, M. R. Bauer, P. Aella, John Kouvetakis, and J. Menendez, “Optical constants and interband transitions of Ge1−xSnx alloys (x−0.2) grown on Si by UHV-CVD,” Thin Solid Films 455–456, 217–221 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Menéndez, J.

G. Grzybowski, R. Roucka, J. Mathews, L. Jiang, R. T. Beeler, J. Kouvetakis, and J. Menéndez, “Direct versus indirect optical recombination in Ge films grown on Si substrates,” Phys. Rev. B 84, 205307 (2011).
[CrossRef]

V. R. D’Costa, Y. Fang, J. Mathews, R. Roucka, J. Tolle, J. Menéndez, and J. Kouvetakis, “Sn-alloying as a means of increasing the optical absorption of Ge at the C-and L-telecommunication bands,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 24, 115006 (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. R. D’Costa, C. S. Cook, A. G. Birdwell, C. L. Littler, M. Canonico, S. Zollner, J. Kouvetakis, and J. Menéndez, “Optical critical points of thin-film Ge1−ySny alloys: a comparative Ge1−ySny/Ge1−xSix study,” Phys. Rev. B 73, 125207 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Michel, J.

J. Liu, R. Camacho-Aguilera, J. T. Bessette, X. Sun, X. Wang, Y. Cai, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Ge-on-Si optoelectronics,” Thin Solid Films 520, 3354–3360 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Camacho-Aguilera, Y. Cai, N. Patel, J. T. Bessette, M. Romagnoli, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “An electrically pumped germanium laser,” Opt. Express 20, 11316–11320 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nakatsuka, O.

M. Yamazaki, S. Takeuchi, O. Nakatsuka, A. Sakai, M. Ogawa, and S. Zaima, “Scanning tunneling microscopy observation of initial growth of Sn and Ge1−xSnx layers on Ge(001) substrates,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 254, 6048–6051 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Takeuchi, A. Sakai, K. Yamamoto, O. Nakatsuka, M. Ogawa, and S. Zaima, “Growth and structure evaluation of strain-relaxed Ge1−xSnx buffer layers grown on various types of substrates,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 22, S231–S235 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Narcy, G.

Navarro-Contreras, H.

H. P. L. de Guevara, H. Navarro-Contreras, and M. A. Vidal, “Growth and characterization of Ge1−xSnx alloys grown by magnetron sputter deposition,” Superficies y Vacio 16, 22–24 (2003).

Nikzad, S.

K. Alberi, J. Blacksberg, L. D. Bell, S. Nikzad, K. M. Yu, O. D. Dubon, and W. Walukiewicz, “Band anticrossing in highly mismatched SnxGe1−x semiconducting alloys,” Phys. Rev. B 77, 073202 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Oehme, M.

E. Kasper, M. Kittler, T. Arguirov, and M. Oehme, “Light from GeSn heterostructures on Si,” Proc. SPIE 8628, 86280J (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. Oehme, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “GeSn photodetection and electroluminescence devices on Si,” ECS Trans. 50, 583–590 (2012).
[CrossRef]

E. Kasper, J. Werner, M. Oehme, S. Escoubas, N. Burle, and J. Schulze, “Growth of silicon based germanium tin alloys,” Thin Solid Films 520, 3195–3200 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, M. Gollhofer, M. Oehme, J. Werner, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “Franz–Keldysh effect of germanium-on-silicon p–i–n diodes within a wide temperature range,” Thin Solid Films 525, 110–114 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Oehme, J. Werner, M. Gollhofer, M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “Room-temperature electroluminescence from GeSn light-emitting pin diodes on Si,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1751–1753 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. Kasper and M. Oehme, “Optoelectronic application of Si/Ge heterostructures,” Phys. Status Solidi C6, 700–703 (2009).

S. Klinger, M. Berroth, M. Kaschel, M. Oehme, and E. Kasper, “Ge on Si p-i-n photodiodes with a 3 dB bandwidth of 49 GHz,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 920–922 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Bauer, M. Oehme, and E. Kasper, “Crystalline to amorphous phase transition in very low temperature molecular beam epitaxy,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 89, 263–268 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Oehme and E. Kasper, “Abrupt boron profiles by Silicon-MBE,” Int. J. Mod. Phys. B 16, 4285–4288 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ogawa, M.

M. Yamazaki, S. Takeuchi, O. Nakatsuka, A. Sakai, M. Ogawa, and S. Zaima, “Scanning tunneling microscopy observation of initial growth of Sn and Ge1−xSnx layers on Ge(001) substrates,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 254, 6048–6051 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Takeuchi, A. Sakai, K. Yamamoto, O. Nakatsuka, M. Ogawa, and S. Zaima, “Growth and structure evaluation of strain-relaxed Ge1−xSnx buffer layers grown on various types of substrates,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 22, S231–S235 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Okyay, A. K.

A. K. Okyay, “Si-Ge photodetection technologies for integrated optoelectronics,” Ph.D. dissertation (Stanford University, 2007).

Patel, N.

Polman, A.

M. E. Taylor, G. He, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Solid phase epitaxy of diamond cubic SnxGe1−x alloys,” J. Appl. Phys. 80, 4384–4388 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Pukite, P. R.

A. Harwit, P. R. Pukite, J. Angilello, and S. S. Iyer, “Properties of diamond structure SnGe films grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Thin Solid Films 184, 395–401 (1990).
[CrossRef]

P. R. Pukite, A. Harwit, and S. S. Iyer, “Molecular beam epitaxy of metastable, diamond structure SnxGe1−x alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 2142–2144 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Qi, Y.

S. I. Shah, J. E. Greene, L. L. Abels, Y. Qi, and P. M. Raccah, “Growth of single-crystal metastable Ge1−xSnx alloys on Ge(100) and GaAs(100) substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth 83, 3–10 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Raccah, P. M.

S. I. Shah, J. E. Greene, L. L. Abels, Y. Qi, and P. M. Raccah, “Growth of single-crystal metastable Ge1−xSnx alloys on Ge(100) and GaAs(100) substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth 83, 3–10 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Rasigade, G.

M. Ziebell, D. Marris-Morini, G. Rasigade, J. M. Fédéli, E. Cassan, and L. Vivien, “40  Gb/s low-loss self-aligned silicon optical modulator,” Proc. SPIE 8629, 86290Q (2013).
[CrossRef]

Reno, J. L.

J. L. Reno and L. L. Stephenson, “Effect of growth-conditions on the stability of alpha-Sn grown on CdTe by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 2207–2209 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Robertson, D. S.

R. F. C. Farrow, D. S. Robertson, G. M. Williams, A. G. Cullis, G. R. Jones, I. M. Young, and P. N. J. Dennis, “The growth of metastable, heteroepitaxial films of alpha-Sn by metal beam epitaxy,” J. Cryst. Growth 54, 507–518 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Roelkens, G.

Romagnoli, M.

Roucka, R.

G. Grzybowski, R. Roucka, J. Mathews, L. Jiang, R. T. Beeler, J. Kouvetakis, and J. Menéndez, “Direct versus indirect optical recombination in Ge films grown on Si substrates,” Phys. Rev. B 84, 205307 (2011).
[CrossRef]

V. R. D’Costa, Y. Fang, J. Mathews, R. Roucka, J. Tolle, J. Menéndez, and J. Kouvetakis, “Sn-alloying as a means of increasing the optical absorption of Ge at the C-and L-telecommunication bands,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 24, 115006 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sakai, A.

M. Yamazaki, S. Takeuchi, O. Nakatsuka, A. Sakai, M. Ogawa, and S. Zaima, “Scanning tunneling microscopy observation of initial growth of Sn and Ge1−xSnx layers on Ge(001) substrates,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 254, 6048–6051 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Takeuchi, A. Sakai, K. Yamamoto, O. Nakatsuka, M. Ogawa, and S. Zaima, “Growth and structure evaluation of strain-relaxed Ge1−xSnx buffer layers grown on various types of substrates,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 22, S231–S235 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schmid, M.

M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, M. Gollhofer, M. Oehme, J. Werner, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “Franz–Keldysh effect of germanium-on-silicon p–i–n diodes within a wide temperature range,” Thin Solid Films 525, 110–114 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Oehme, J. Werner, M. Gollhofer, M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “Room-temperature electroluminescence from GeSn light-emitting pin diodes on Si,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1751–1753 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Schulze, J.

M. Oehme, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “GeSn photodetection and electroluminescence devices on Si,” ECS Trans. 50, 583–590 (2012).
[CrossRef]

E. Kasper, J. Werner, M. Oehme, S. Escoubas, N. Burle, and J. Schulze, “Growth of silicon based germanium tin alloys,” Thin Solid Films 520, 3195–3200 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, M. Gollhofer, M. Oehme, J. Werner, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “Franz–Keldysh effect of germanium-on-silicon p–i–n diodes within a wide temperature range,” Thin Solid Films 525, 110–114 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Oehme, J. Werner, M. Gollhofer, M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “Room-temperature electroluminescence from GeSn light-emitting pin diodes on Si,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1751–1753 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Seo, H. S.

K. A. Bratland, Y. L. Foo, T. Spila, H. S. Seo, R. T. Haasch, P. Desgardins, and J. E. Greene, “Sn-mediated Ge/Ge(001) growth by low-temperature molecular-beam epitaxy: surface smoothening and enhanced epitaxial thickness,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, 044904 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shah, S. I.

S. I. Shah, J. E. Greene, L. L. Abels, Y. Qi, and P. M. Raccah, “Growth of single-crystal metastable Ge1−xSnx alloys on Ge(100) and GaAs(100) substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth 83, 3–10 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Shimura, Y.

Silveira, E.

W. Dondl, E. Silveira, and G. Abstreiter, “MBE growth of ternary SnGeSiGe superlattices,” J. Cryst. Growth 157, 400–404 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Soref, R.

R. Soref, “Group IV photonics for the mid infrared,” Proc. SPIE 8629, 862902 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Spear, B.

M. T. Asom, E. A. Fitzgerald, A. R. Kortan, B. Spear, and L. C. Kimerling, “Epitaxial growth of metastable SnGe alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 578–579 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Spila, T.

K. A. Bratland, Y. L. Foo, T. Spila, H. S. Seo, R. T. Haasch, P. Desgardins, and J. E. Greene, “Sn-mediated Ge/Ge(001) growth by low-temperature molecular-beam epitaxy: surface smoothening and enhanced epitaxial thickness,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, 044904 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Stephenson, L. L.

J. L. Reno and L. L. Stephenson, “Effect of growth-conditions on the stability of alpha-Sn grown on CdTe by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 2207–2209 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Strohm, K.

H. Jorke, H. Kibbel, K. Strohm, and E. Kasper, “Forward-bias characteristics of Si bipolar junctions grown by molecular beam epitaxy at low temperatures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2408–2410 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Su, S.

S. Su, ISCAS, Beijing (personal communication, 2011).

Sun, X.

J. Liu, R. Camacho-Aguilera, J. T. Bessette, X. Sun, X. Wang, Y. Cai, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Ge-on-Si optoelectronics,” Thin Solid Films 520, 3354–3360 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Takeuchi, S.

M. Yamazaki, S. Takeuchi, O. Nakatsuka, A. Sakai, M. Ogawa, and S. Zaima, “Scanning tunneling microscopy observation of initial growth of Sn and Ge1−xSnx layers on Ge(001) substrates,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 254, 6048–6051 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Takeuchi, A. Sakai, K. Yamamoto, O. Nakatsuka, M. Ogawa, and S. Zaima, “Growth and structure evaluation of strain-relaxed Ge1−xSnx buffer layers grown on various types of substrates,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 22, S231–S235 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, M. E.

M. E. Taylor, G. He, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Solid phase epitaxy of diamond cubic SnxGe1−x alloys,” J. Appl. Phys. 80, 4384–4388 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tolle, J.

J. Xie, J. Tolle, V. R. D’Costa, C. Weng, A. V. G. Chizmeshya, J. Menendez, and J. Kouvetakis, “Molecular approaches to p-and n-nanoscale doping of Ge1−ySny semiconductors: structural, electrical and transport properties,” Solid State Electron. 53, 816–823 (2009).

V. R. D’Costa, Y. Fang, J. Mathews, R. Roucka, J. Tolle, J. Menéndez, and J. Kouvetakis, “Sn-alloying as a means of increasing the optical absorption of Ge at the C-and L-telecommunication bands,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 24, 115006 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Tolle, A. V. G. Chizmeshya, Y. Y. Fang, J. Kouvetakis, V. R. D’Costa, C. W. Hu, J. Menendez, and I. S. T. Tsong, “Low temperature chemical vapor deposition of Si-based compounds via SiH3SiH2SiH3: metastable SiSn/GeSn/Si(100) heteroepitaxial structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 231924 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tsong, I. S. T.

J. Tolle, A. V. G. Chizmeshya, Y. Y. Fang, J. Kouvetakis, V. R. D’Costa, C. W. Hu, J. Menendez, and I. S. T. Tsong, “Low temperature chemical vapor deposition of Si-based compounds via SiH3SiH2SiH3: metastable SiSn/GeSn/Si(100) heteroepitaxial structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 231924 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Van Campenhout, J.

Vidal, M. A.

H. P. L. de Guevara, H. Navarro-Contreras, and M. A. Vidal, “Growth and characterization of Ge1−xSnx alloys grown by magnetron sputter deposition,” Superficies y Vacio 16, 22–24 (2003).

Vincent, B.

Vivien, L.

M. Ziebell, D. Marris-Morini, G. Rasigade, J. M. Fédéli, E. Cassan, and L. Vivien, “40  Gb/s low-loss self-aligned silicon optical modulator,” Proc. SPIE 8629, 86290Q (2013).
[CrossRef]

Walukiewicz, W.

K. Alberi, J. Blacksberg, L. D. Bell, S. Nikzad, K. M. Yu, O. D. Dubon, and W. Walukiewicz, “Band anticrossing in highly mismatched SnxGe1−x semiconducting alloys,” Phys. Rev. B 77, 073202 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.

J. Liu, R. Camacho-Aguilera, J. T. Bessette, X. Sun, X. Wang, Y. Cai, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Ge-on-Si optoelectronics,” Thin Solid Films 520, 3354–3360 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wegscheider, W.

W. Wegscheider, K. Eberl, U. Menczigar, and G. Abstreiter, “Single-crystal Sn/Ge superlattices on Ge substrates: growth and structural properties,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 875–877 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Weng, C.

J. Xie, J. Tolle, V. R. D’Costa, C. Weng, A. V. G. Chizmeshya, J. Menendez, and J. Kouvetakis, “Molecular approaches to p-and n-nanoscale doping of Ge1−ySny semiconductors: structural, electrical and transport properties,” Solid State Electron. 53, 816–823 (2009).

Werner, J.

M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, M. Gollhofer, M. Oehme, J. Werner, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “Franz–Keldysh effect of germanium-on-silicon p–i–n diodes within a wide temperature range,” Thin Solid Films 525, 110–114 (2012).
[CrossRef]

E. Kasper, J. Werner, M. Oehme, S. Escoubas, N. Burle, and J. Schulze, “Growth of silicon based germanium tin alloys,” Thin Solid Films 520, 3195–3200 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Oehme, J. Werner, M. Gollhofer, M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “Room-temperature electroluminescence from GeSn light-emitting pin diodes on Si,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1751–1753 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Williams, G. M.

R. F. C. Farrow, D. S. Robertson, G. M. Williams, A. G. Cullis, G. R. Jones, I. M. Young, and P. N. J. Dennis, “The growth of metastable, heteroepitaxial films of alpha-Sn by metal beam epitaxy,” J. Cryst. Growth 54, 507–518 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Xie, J.

J. Xie, J. Tolle, V. R. D’Costa, C. Weng, A. V. G. Chizmeshya, J. Menendez, and J. Kouvetakis, “Molecular approaches to p-and n-nanoscale doping of Ge1−ySny semiconductors: structural, electrical and transport properties,” Solid State Electron. 53, 816–823 (2009).

Yamamoto, K.

S. Takeuchi, A. Sakai, K. Yamamoto, O. Nakatsuka, M. Ogawa, and S. Zaima, “Growth and structure evaluation of strain-relaxed Ge1−xSnx buffer layers grown on various types of substrates,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 22, S231–S235 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yamazaki, M.

M. Yamazaki, S. Takeuchi, O. Nakatsuka, A. Sakai, M. Ogawa, and S. Zaima, “Scanning tunneling microscopy observation of initial growth of Sn and Ge1−xSnx layers on Ge(001) substrates,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 254, 6048–6051 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Young, I. M.

R. F. C. Farrow, D. S. Robertson, G. M. Williams, A. G. Cullis, G. R. Jones, I. M. Young, and P. N. J. Dennis, “The growth of metastable, heteroepitaxial films of alpha-Sn by metal beam epitaxy,” J. Cryst. Growth 54, 507–518 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Yu, K. M.

K. Alberi, J. Blacksberg, L. D. Bell, S. Nikzad, K. M. Yu, O. D. Dubon, and W. Walukiewicz, “Band anticrossing in highly mismatched SnxGe1−x semiconducting alloys,” Phys. Rev. B 77, 073202 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zaima, S.

M. Yamazaki, S. Takeuchi, O. Nakatsuka, A. Sakai, M. Ogawa, and S. Zaima, “Scanning tunneling microscopy observation of initial growth of Sn and Ge1−xSnx layers on Ge(001) substrates,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 254, 6048–6051 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Takeuchi, A. Sakai, K. Yamamoto, O. Nakatsuka, M. Ogawa, and S. Zaima, “Growth and structure evaluation of strain-relaxed Ge1−xSnx buffer layers grown on various types of substrates,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 22, S231–S235 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ziebell, M.

M. Ziebell, D. Marris-Morini, G. Rasigade, J. M. Fédéli, E. Cassan, and L. Vivien, “40  Gb/s low-loss self-aligned silicon optical modulator,” Proc. SPIE 8629, 86290Q (2013).
[CrossRef]

Zollner, S.

V. R. D’Costa, C. S. Cook, A. G. Birdwell, C. L. Littler, M. Canonico, S. Zollner, J. Kouvetakis, and J. Menéndez, “Optical critical points of thin-film Ge1−ySny alloys: a comparative Ge1−ySny/Ge1−xSix study,” Phys. Rev. B 73, 125207 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Cook, S. Zollner, M. R. Bauer, P. Aella, John Kouvetakis, and J. Menendez, “Optical constants and interband transitions of Ge1−xSnx alloys (x−0.2) grown on Si by UHV-CVD,” Thin Solid Films 455–456, 217–221 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (8)

M. T. Asom, A. R. Kortan, L. C. Kimerling, and R. C. Farrow, “Structure and stability of metastable alpha-Sn,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 1439–1441 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Reno and L. L. Stephenson, “Effect of growth-conditions on the stability of alpha-Sn grown on CdTe by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 2207–2209 (1989).
[CrossRef]

P. R. Pukite, A. Harwit, and S. S. Iyer, “Molecular beam epitaxy of metastable, diamond structure SnxGe1−x alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 2142–2144 (1989).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Asom, E. A. Fitzgerald, A. R. Kortan, B. Spear, and L. C. Kimerling, “Epitaxial growth of metastable SnGe alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 578–579 (1989).
[CrossRef]

W. Wegscheider, K. Eberl, U. Menczigar, and G. Abstreiter, “Single-crystal Sn/Ge superlattices on Ge substrates: growth and structural properties,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 875–877 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Tolle, A. V. G. Chizmeshya, Y. Y. Fang, J. Kouvetakis, V. R. D’Costa, C. W. Hu, J. Menendez, and I. S. T. Tsong, “Low temperature chemical vapor deposition of Si-based compounds via SiH3SiH2SiH3: metastable SiSn/GeSn/Si(100) heteroepitaxial structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 231924 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Jorke, H. Kibbel, K. Strohm, and E. Kasper, “Forward-bias characteristics of Si bipolar junctions grown by molecular beam epitaxy at low temperatures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2408–2410 (1993).
[CrossRef]

H. Lin, R. Chen, W. Lu, Y. Huo, T. Kamins, and J. Harris, “Investigation of the direct band gaps in Ge1−xSnx alloys with strain control by photoreflectance spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 102109 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Surf. Sci. (1)

M. Yamazaki, S. Takeuchi, O. Nakatsuka, A. Sakai, M. Ogawa, and S. Zaima, “Scanning tunneling microscopy observation of initial growth of Sn and Ge1−xSnx layers on Ge(001) substrates,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 254, 6048–6051 (2008).
[CrossRef]

ECS Trans. (1)

M. Oehme, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “GeSn photodetection and electroluminescence devices on Si,” ECS Trans. 50, 583–590 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Front. Optoelectron. China (1)

E. Kasper, “Prospects and challenges of silicon/germanium on-chip optoelectronics,” Front. Optoelectron. China 3, 143–152 (2009).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

S. Klinger, M. Berroth, M. Kaschel, M. Oehme, and E. Kasper, “Ge on Si p-i-n photodiodes with a 3 dB bandwidth of 49 GHz,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 920–922 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Oehme, J. Werner, M. Gollhofer, M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “Room-temperature electroluminescence from GeSn light-emitting pin diodes on Si,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1751–1753 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Mod. Phys. B (1)

M. Oehme and E. Kasper, “Abrupt boron profiles by Silicon-MBE,” Int. J. Mod. Phys. B 16, 4285–4288 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (3)

H. J. Gossmann, “Determination of critical layer thicknesses in IV-IV-alloy systems using reflection high energy electron diffraction intensity oscillations: Ge(100)/GexSn1−x,” J. Appl. Phys. 68, 2791–2795 (1990).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Bratland, Y. L. Foo, T. Spila, H. S. Seo, R. T. Haasch, P. Desgardins, and J. E. Greene, “Sn-mediated Ge/Ge(001) growth by low-temperature molecular-beam epitaxy: surface smoothening and enhanced epitaxial thickness,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, 044904 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Taylor, G. He, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Solid phase epitaxy of diamond cubic SnxGe1−x alloys,” J. Appl. Phys. 80, 4384–4388 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth (3)

W. Dondl, E. Silveira, and G. Abstreiter, “MBE growth of ternary SnGeSiGe superlattices,” J. Cryst. Growth 157, 400–404 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. F. C. Farrow, D. S. Robertson, G. M. Williams, A. G. Cullis, G. R. Jones, I. M. Young, and P. N. J. Dennis, “The growth of metastable, heteroepitaxial films of alpha-Sn by metal beam epitaxy,” J. Cryst. Growth 54, 507–518 (1981).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Shah, J. E. Greene, L. L. Abels, Y. Qi, and P. M. Raccah, “Growth of single-crystal metastable Ge1−xSnx alloys on Ge(100) and GaAs(100) substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth 83, 3–10 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Chem. (1)

J. Kouvetakis and A. V. G. Chizmeshya, “New classes of Si-based photonic materials and device architectures via designer molecular routes,” J. Mater. Chem. 17, 1649–1655 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Sci. Eng. B (1)

M. Bauer, M. Oehme, and E. Kasper, “Crystalline to amorphous phase transition in very low temperature molecular beam epitaxy,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 89, 263–268 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Phys. Rev. B (3)

V. R. D’Costa, C. S. Cook, A. G. Birdwell, C. L. Littler, M. Canonico, S. Zollner, J. Kouvetakis, and J. Menéndez, “Optical critical points of thin-film Ge1−ySny alloys: a comparative Ge1−ySny/Ge1−xSix study,” Phys. Rev. B 73, 125207 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Alberi, J. Blacksberg, L. D. Bell, S. Nikzad, K. M. Yu, O. D. Dubon, and W. Walukiewicz, “Band anticrossing in highly mismatched SnxGe1−x semiconducting alloys,” Phys. Rev. B 77, 073202 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Grzybowski, R. Roucka, J. Mathews, L. Jiang, R. T. Beeler, J. Kouvetakis, and J. Menéndez, “Direct versus indirect optical recombination in Ge films grown on Si substrates,” Phys. Rev. B 84, 205307 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Status Solidi (1)

E. Kasper and M. Oehme, “Optoelectronic application of Si/Ge heterostructures,” Phys. Status Solidi C6, 700–703 (2009).

Proc. SPIE (3)

E. Kasper, M. Kittler, T. Arguirov, and M. Oehme, “Light from GeSn heterostructures on Si,” Proc. SPIE 8628, 86280J (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. Ziebell, D. Marris-Morini, G. Rasigade, J. M. Fédéli, E. Cassan, and L. Vivien, “40  Gb/s low-loss self-aligned silicon optical modulator,” Proc. SPIE 8629, 86290Q (2013).
[CrossRef]

R. Soref, “Group IV photonics for the mid infrared,” Proc. SPIE 8629, 862902 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Semicond. Sci. Technol. (2)

S. Takeuchi, A. Sakai, K. Yamamoto, O. Nakatsuka, M. Ogawa, and S. Zaima, “Growth and structure evaluation of strain-relaxed Ge1−xSnx buffer layers grown on various types of substrates,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 22, S231–S235 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. R. D’Costa, Y. Fang, J. Mathews, R. Roucka, J. Tolle, J. Menéndez, and J. Kouvetakis, “Sn-alloying as a means of increasing the optical absorption of Ge at the C-and L-telecommunication bands,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 24, 115006 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Solid State Electron. (1)

J. Xie, J. Tolle, V. R. D’Costa, C. Weng, A. V. G. Chizmeshya, J. Menendez, and J. Kouvetakis, “Molecular approaches to p-and n-nanoscale doping of Ge1−ySny semiconductors: structural, electrical and transport properties,” Solid State Electron. 53, 816–823 (2009).

Superficies y Vacio (1)

H. P. L. de Guevara, H. Navarro-Contreras, and M. A. Vidal, “Growth and characterization of Ge1−xSnx alloys grown by magnetron sputter deposition,” Superficies y Vacio 16, 22–24 (2003).

Thin Solid Films (5)

M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, M. Gollhofer, M. Oehme, J. Werner, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “Franz–Keldysh effect of germanium-on-silicon p–i–n diodes within a wide temperature range,” Thin Solid Films 525, 110–114 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, R. Camacho-Aguilera, J. T. Bessette, X. Sun, X. Wang, Y. Cai, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Ge-on-Si optoelectronics,” Thin Solid Films 520, 3354–3360 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Cook, S. Zollner, M. R. Bauer, P. Aella, John Kouvetakis, and J. Menendez, “Optical constants and interband transitions of Ge1−xSnx alloys (x−0.2) grown on Si by UHV-CVD,” Thin Solid Films 455–456, 217–221 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Harwit, P. R. Pukite, J. Angilello, and S. S. Iyer, “Properties of diamond structure SnGe films grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Thin Solid Films 184, 395–401 (1990).
[CrossRef]

E. Kasper, J. Werner, M. Oehme, S. Escoubas, N. Burle, and J. Schulze, “Growth of silicon based germanium tin alloys,” Thin Solid Films 520, 3195–3200 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

S. Su, ISCAS, Beijing (personal communication, 2011).

A. K. Okyay, “Si-Ge photodetection technologies for integrated optoelectronics,” Ph.D. dissertation (Stanford University, 2007).

H. Jorke, Segregation of Ge and dopant atoms during growth of SiGe layers in Properties of Strained and Relaxed SiGe, E. Kasper and K. Lyutovich eds. (INSPEC, Institution of Electrical Engineers, 2000), pp. 287–301.

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Si photonics scheme on an SOI wafer. Waveguides are from Si. Active devices are from Ge on Si.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Indirect bandgap EgL as function of atomic number (third root) Z1/3.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Energy difference ΔEg (L/Γ) between the indirect and direct gaps as a function of Z1/3. ΔEg=0 marks the crossover to a direct semiconductor.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Heteroepitaxial GeSn/Ge layers on Si and SOI substrates for photonic devices. The interfaces with misfit dislocation networks are marked.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Equilibrium phase diagram of Ge–Sn. Shown is the Ge rich side up to 15% Sn.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Critical epitaxial thickness h1 as function of the Sn fraction x in GeSn/Si (relaxed GeSn) and GeSn/Ge (compressive strained GeSn). Inset shows data from Bratland et al. [35].

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Extraction of direct bandgap for different Sn contents of GeSn from responsivity Ropt measurements.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Decrease of ΔEg of the direct bandgap with GeSn of increasing Sn content. Compared are experiment values with theory.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

EL spectra of compressively strained GeSn LEDs on Ge VS with different Sn content. The intensity maximum was normalized to 100% to make clear the infrared shift (lower energy) obtained with few percent Sn incorporation.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Ellipsometry of epitaxial GeSn layers up to 20% Sn content. Shown are the refractive index n and the absorption constant k as functions of the wavelength.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

Maximum position (wavelength) of the refractive index as a function of the lattice constants of SiGe and GeSn.

Fig. 12.
Fig. 12.

In situ reflection measurements of epitaxial GeSn on Si at wavelengths of 470 and 950 nm.

Fig. 13.
Fig. 13.

Raman scattering of GeSn on Si. Shown is the region around the Ge–Sn phonon peak.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Summary of the Properties Ega ΔEb, and a0c for the Elements Si, Ge, and α-Sn

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Eg=Eg1ΔEg·xb(1x)x,
ns=ΔS·n.
α2=A2(hfEgdir).
α=4πkλ.

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