Abstract

In this research we present a basis for a solution for Age Related Macular Degeneration (AMD) patients. The proposed solution is a binocular passive optical device composed of a contact lens and spectacles, both coated by light-reflecting material in order to generate a Fabry-Perot-like resonator. This bounces the light rays several times between the two surfaces, achieving optical simultaneous magnifications for near and far distances as needed for AMD patients in early stages of the disease. Our work has two parts: numerical simulation of the magnification achieved by the device and a clinical experiment, with non-AMD patients, in which we examined visual skills with simultaneous magnifications. The numerical simulations proved mathematically that the device can produce several different magnifications simultaneously, Zemax simulations confirmed this. In the clinical study, simultaneous vision was found to have little effect on visual acuity, but slightly increased reaction time to stimuli. Thus, the proposed device may improve visual capabilities of AMD patients, allow patients in stages where the peripheral retina still functions to use these areas to maximize their remaining visual potential and thus function better in everyday life.

© 2021 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

1. Introduction

AMD is an irreversible eye condition affecting older people and involves the loss of the person's central field of vision, caused by the macula developing degenerative lesions. It is the most common cause of untreatable blindness in industrialized countries among the elderly population, and the third most frequent cause of blindness globally. Its prevalence before the age of 50 years is 0.05%, rising to 11.8% after 80 years of age. This prevalence is expected to increase dramatically in the near future with the increasing ageing of the population. AMD is typically bilateral, but vision loss may be asymmetrical in the two eyes [15]. Currently there is no available cure for AMD. Scientific studies have shown that vitamins and supplements may lower the risk of macular degeneration progressing toward the advanced stages of the disease. Yet the beneficial effects are limited, and the treatment has side effects [3,4,6,7].

The macula is the centrally located portion of the retina, responsible for high resolution and best acuity vision and thus the ability to discern fine details. In the early stages of AMD, patients suffer from degeneration of the central retina, impairing their ability to perform simple daily activities that require precise vision, such as driving, recognizing faces and reading. However, in the early stages of the disease peripheral retinal areas still function normally. As the disease develops, the peripheral retina may also degenerate leading to serious injury and eventually to blindness [811]. In the earlier stages of the disease, while the peripheral retina still functions, magnifiers can be adjusted to allow focusing of central stimuli on the peripheral retina, a solution that enables optimal realization of the patient's remaining visual potential. Usually, AMD patients need different magnifications required for different activities, for near and for far distances [1,2,1214].

“Simultaneous vision” relates to a situation in which different images are simultaneously projected onto the retina, with the final image formed resulting from the combination of the various images. Simultaneous vision is used in some optical solutions for various vision-related situations, such as bifocal or multifocal contact lenses for presbyopia and myopia control and IOLs implanted during cataract surgery. Implantation of a high-add IOL after cataract removal enables an approximately ×2.5 - ×3 magnification for near. These simultaneous vision lenses have multiple powers, creating different images reaching the retina at the same time [1525]. “Regular” IOL (positioned in the natural lens capsule) do not cause significant unwanted magnification.

These different magnifications and different contrasts of the images usually result in the simultaneous formation of focused (sharp) and defocused (blurred) images on the retina. Superimposing these images make them compete in the subject's visual system and may cause optical degradation produced by the image overlap [15]. If the patient is unable to suppress the defocused image, the large amount of blur generated may reduce the contrast sensitivity [18]. Thus, to be successful, a neural adaptation process is needed for the patient to learn how to process the image, by selectively ignoring or suppressing the defocused image components that are not desirable for a given task, while preserving the focused ones. An improvement over time in visual performance after adaptation to simultaneous vision has been reported [2123,26,27].

The treatment approach for AMD patients proposed here aims to create optical magnifications of the image seen by the eye, so as to allow the patient, whose central retina is damaged or nonfunctional, to use the peripheral retina. The treatment approach is based on a binocular passive optical device composed of a contact lens and spectacles (ophthalmic lens) worn by the patient. The external surface of the contact lens and the internal surface of the ophthalmic lens are coated in order to generate a Fabry-Perot-like resonator that bounces the optical rays several times between these two surfaces, creating different simultaneous magnifications of the image. Different magnifications are needed for the near and far distance vision of AMD patients, and simultaneous magnification meets this need [28].

This paper, presenting the device, is comprised of two parts: the numerical simulation of the magnifications achieved by the device and a clinical experiment in which we examined visual acuity and reaction time in healthy subjects when viewing simultaneous magnification.

2. Materials and methods

2.1 Numerical simulation of the magnification achieved by the two coated lenses

To create the required magnification for focusing the image on functional peripheral retina in AMD patients, the patient wears a contact lens coated with reflective coating on its external surface and an ophthalmic lens coated by reflective coating on its internal surface as demonstrated in Fig. 1.

 figure: Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Scheme of the device for AMD patients. The large optical magnification is achieved for AMD patients by coating the internal surface of an ophthalmic lens and the external surface of a contact lens.

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The realizable magnification factor can be computed as follows:

Due to geometric relations, we have:

$$\frac{{{2Z_2}}}({({N - 1} ){Z_1} + {Z_2}} )\approx \frac{L}{2}$$
where L is the size of the contact lens (e.g., L=16 mm), D is the diameter of the pupil (e.g., D=2 mm), Z1 is the vertex distance (the distance between the contact lens and the spectacles (e.g., Z1=12 mm) and Z2 is the depth dimension of the eye (e.g., Z2=17 mm). N is the number of times the rays travel between the coated surfaces of the ophthalmic lens and the contact lens (e.g., N=3). As the magnification M equals:
$$M \approx \frac{{N{Z_1} + {Z_2}}}{{{Z_2}}}$$
$$M \approx \frac{L}{D} + \frac{{{Z_1}}}{{{Z_2}}}$$
yielding M≈9 for the values given above. Simulations were carried out using Zemax optical design software and plotted as ray diagrams.

2.1 Clinical Experiment

2.2.1. Participants

A clinical experiment was conducted with ten subjects, healthy and without AMD or other ocular pathologies (20 eyes), in order to test visual system skills when multiple magnifications of the visual stimulus are presented, that is, in simultaneous viewing conditions. Informed consent was obtained from all subjects after the study was explained to them, and the approval of the ethics committee of Bar-Ilan University was obtained. Research procedures used in this study followed the tenets of the Declaration of Helsinki.

2.2.2. Procedure

A psychophysical task was conducted monocularly while the contralateral eye was covered. Visual stimuli were presented via a personal computer on a BENQ XL 2411 color monitor. Screen resolution was 1920 X 1080 pixels at a 120 Hz refresh rate, and gamma correction was applied. Viewing distance was 60 cm from the screen. The experiments were conducted in a dark environment in which the only ambient light came from the monitor. The “Tumbling-E pattern (TeVA) test” paradigm (Fig. 2) was used [2931]. Figure 3 shows a subject participating in the experiment.

 figure: Fig. 2.

Fig. 2. The “Tumbling-E” patterns that were presented in the experiment. Blue arrows show options of direction.

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 figure: Fig. 3.

Fig. 3. The clinical experiment: one of the subjects participating in the experiment.

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The stimuli consisted of 5 X 5 E-patterns, which correspond to a subset of the LogMAR chart, with a baseline pattern size (TeVA = 0) corresponding to the baseline 6/6 visual acuity. They were presented for 100 milliseconds, a very common duration in psychophysical experiments [32]. Subjects were asked to detect the direction of the open part of the E-letter, one of four directions as presented in Fig. 2, using the arrows on the keyboard.

A staircase with the pattern size modified by 0.1 log unit in each step was used to determine the size for 50% correct (chance was 25%) using a four-alternative forced-choice (4AFC) method. That is, subjects had to choose a direction and answer. The next stimulus was presented only after a response to the previous one. No feedback was given for correct or incorrect responses.

The experiment consisted of two stages with different stimulus colors, each performed twice. First, the visual acuity threshold and reaction time were measured for a single E-letter presented in one of the four directions shown in Fig. 2. The figure was shown in different sizes, and subjects were asked to detect its direction. In the second stage, the same E-letter was presented with a magnified constant size E-letter in the background for testing visual acuity and reaction time in the presence of a simultaneous magnified stimulus. The staircase for pattern size was performed only for the central E-letter, as tested in the first stage of the experiment.

In the first (“gray”) experiment the stimulus consisted of a single light gray E-pattern on a gray background (Fig. 4(a)). After measuring visual acuity threshold and reaction time, using different sizes and directions, the same gray E-letter was presented in the presence of a magnified darker gray E-letter in the background, again using different sizes and directions (Fig. 4(b)). Visual acuity and reaction time were measured again. This allowed comparing results for the single stimulus and the simultaneous vision condition.

 figure: Fig. 4.

Fig. 4. The stimuli of the experiment: (a) A single light gray E-letter on a gray background. (b) The same gray E-letter in the presence of a magnified darker E-letter in the background. (c) A single red E-letter on a black background. (d) The same red E-letter in the presence of a magnified green E-letter in the background.

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The same procedures as in the gray experiment were performed again but this time the stimulus consisted of a single red E-pattern on a black background (Fig. 4(c)). After measuring visual acuity threshold and reaction time, using different sizes and directions, the same red E-letter was presented in the presence of a magnified green E-letter in the background, again using different sizes and directions of the central E-letter (Fig. 4(d)). We chose to use red and green colors which are commonly used in studies [33,34]. Visual acuity and reaction time were measured.

Results of the experiments with a single stimulus were compared to those in the presence of the magnified ones in the background to show the differences, if any, in the visual acuity and reaction time between the two situations.

3. Results

3.1. Numerical simulation

The first simulation, plotted by the Zemax software as a ray diagram, is shown in Fig. 5 and validated the basic concept that light passing through different parts of the lens may be magnified differently. In this simulation the rays passing through the central part of the lenses were not magnified, while those passing peripherally through the lens were. A magnification of about X4 was realized for light passing through the peripheral part of the lenses. The effective focal length (EFL) for the simulated system was 65 mm and 17 mm for the unaided eye. Please note that the numerical Zemax simulations according to which we have concluded about the magnification factor do show a full numerical validation of the proposed concept since the magnification factors were extracted by computing the change in the EFL of the imaging module. One may for instance see in Fig. 5 that a sharp focus is obtained on the retinal plane while the optical rays traveled much longer optical path due to the back and forth reflections. The overall optical path was of 65 mm which is 4 times larger than what would have been obtained without the forth and back traveling and yet a sharp focus was generated as seen in our simulation.

 figure: Fig. 5.

Fig. 5. Ray diagram of the Zemax simulation of the proposed configuration to aid AMD patients by realizing external optical magnification.

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Figure 6 is the simulation of a design that can produce two different magnifications for central and peripheral rays of light, as desired in the case of AMD. In this simulation a smaller magnification for near objects and a largest magnification for far objects was achieved. In the simulations presented on the left of Fig. 6, the refractive central magnification was X2.8. The catadioptric peripheral magnification was X12. This is shown in the simulation on the right of Fig. 6.

 figure: Fig. 6.

Fig. 6. Zemax simulations Left: central magnification of X2.8. Right: peripheral magnification of X12.

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In the simulations, the external surface of the contact lens and the internal surface of the ophthalmic lens were coated in order to generate a Fabry-Perot-like resonator that would bounce the optical rays between the two surfaces to achieve optical magnification of the imaged point source. Figure 7 shows a zoomed simulation of the optical elements with these coatings.

 figure: Fig. 7.

Fig. 7. Ray diagrams from Zemax simulation of coated optical elements.

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The central field of view was narrowed to about 20 degrees. The typical energetic efficiency ratio of the proposed configuration was proportional to the ration between the area of the peripheral part of the lens and its central area. In the simulations of Fig. 7, this equals:

$$\eta = \frac{{{E_{peripheral}}}}{{{E_{central}}}} \propto \frac{{Are{a_{peripheral}}}}{{Are{a_{central}}}} \approx 3.57$$

We suggest that the magnification achieved by this configuration will allow people with AMD, whose macula is deteriorated, to read via the peripheral areas of the retina, which are still functional. Note that in the proposed solution large magnification is realized without any need for an invasive and implantable solution, as required by the common solution available today for AMD patients.

In Fig. 8 we present some preliminary experimental results taken from an optical bench. In the optical bench two partial reflection surfaces (50% reflectivity) were placed on both sides of the imaging lens. Instead of the retinal imaging plane a camera was placed. The optical system can be seen in Fig. 8(a). The right image of Fig. 8(b) shows a single passage through the optical system. One of the reflecting surfaces was intentionally slightly tilted to have the zoomed and the non-zoomed images side by side for comparison reasons. The left image shows 3 passages (forth, back and forth transmission). One can clearly see the magnification of the resolution chart. The measured magnification factor was of X1.3. The designed increase in the EFL was aimed for X1.35.

 figure: Fig. 8.

Fig. 8. Optical bench experimental results, (a). The optical setup. (b). Preliminary result.

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3.2. Clinical Experiment

The clinical experiment was comprised of two experiments performed under the same conditions with different stimulus colors, in order to make the test closer to realistic conditions. Visual acuity threshold and reaction time were first measured for a single grey E-letter, and then when this was presented with a magnified darker gray letter in the background (“gray experiment”). The same measurements were then made with a single red E-letter (“color experiment”), after which simultaneous vision was tested with a magnified green letter in the background. Each stimulus was presented for 100 milliseconds, and subjects were asked to detect the direction of the E-letter, using a staircase with the pattern size modified by a 0.1 log unit in each step. Visual acuities were measured monocularly and given in LogMAR units, as in the logarithmic ETDRS visual acuity chart. Each 0.1 LogMAR is equal to one acuity line in the ETDRS chart.

Visual acuity differences (TeVA elevation/reduction) and reaction time differences were computed for each eye as the difference between the visual acuities and reaction times with the E-letter in the presence of the magnified E-letter (simultaneous vision) and those with the single E-letter. These results are summarized in Figs. 9 and 10.

 figure: Fig. 9.

Fig. 9. Visual acuity differences between single and simultaneous stimuli (gray experiment). The difference was calculated by subtracting the result with the single stimulus from that with the simultaneous stimuli for each eye (difference on a log scale), i.e., normalizing the simultaneous condition to the acuity with a single pattern. Positive values describe deterioration of visual acuity, negative values describe improvement of visual acuity.

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 figure: Fig. 10.

Fig. 10. Reaction time differences between single and simultaneous gray stimuli. The difference was calculated for each eye by subtracting the results of the single stimulus from the result of the simultaneous stimuli (difference in milliseconds) to normalize the simultaneous condition to the single pattern.

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The average difference in visual acuity between the two types of presentation was −0.0615 log units, thus the simultaneous vision under these conditions resulted in improved visual acuity.

Reaction time was longer with simultaneous vision than with the single stimulus, with an average increase of 33.45 milliseconds.

In the “color experiment”, visual acuities and reaction times were again normalized to the single stimulus situation, as above. The results are summarized in Figs. 11 and 12.

 figure: Fig. 11.

Fig. 11. Visual acuity differences in the color experiment (central red E-letter, background green E-letter). Plotted as in Fig. 9. Positive values describe deterioration of visual acuity, negative values describe improvement of visual acuity.

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 figure: Fig. 12.

Fig. 12. Reaction time differences between single and simultaneous stimuli in the color experiment. Calculated as for Fig. 10.

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The average difference in visual acuity in the color experiment was 0.0605 log units. That is, when using colors, visual acuity was reduced on average in simultaneous vision, contrasting with the improvement of acuity seen with gray stimuli.

As in the gray experiment, reaction time was longer in simultaneous vision conditions than with a single stimulus. The average increase was 50.3 milliseconds.

4. Discussion and conclusions

This paper explores the possibility of a device for simultaneously creating different magnifications that would alleviate some of the problems of AMD patients. In this disease the center of the retina is damaged. To achieve better resolution for the different parts of the visual field and for different functions, the patient may require different degrees of magnification. Simultaneous magnifications may therefore allow the patient to utilize different parts of the visual field without the need for replacing magnifiers, which require different distances for different functions. We hypothesized that a binocular passive optical device based on the combination of a contact lens and spectacles (ophthalmic lenses) can achieve such magnifications and allow the patient to use undamaged peripheral retina. If the external surface of the contact lens and the internal surface of the ophthalmic lens are coated, we suggested that a Fabry-Perot-like resonator would be formed that creates the different magnifications needed. We suggest that simultaneous magnifications or simultaneous vision achieved by this device may lead to reasonable visual potential and visual skills that will improve the quality of life of AMD patients.

This paper did not examine binocular skills. However, it can be estimated that AMD patients’ binocular skills is primarily affected by the functional state of the two retinas. If the functional state of the two retinas is very different, i.e. when one eye is much more damaged than the contralateral one, binocular vision may be almost non-existent. In cases where the visual system is able to fuse figures from the peripheral retinas, we anticipate that when identical magnifications are given to the two eyes, by using the device on both eyes, binocular visual processing of the magnified figures projected on the peripheral retinas will be performed. Panum’s area, that is narrowest at the fixation point and becomes broader in the periphery, allows this retinal images fusion into a single object.

The numerical simulation proved that the coated lenses do create a Fabry-Perot-like resonator that functions like an external telescope to create different magnifications for peripheral and central parts of the visual field, as needed for AMD patients. Although actual coating was not attempted here, it can be achieved by surface roughening using nano-pillars that are generated inside the original grooves along the plane of the lens. These are sub-wavelength structures, which, due to surface tension and viscosity, prevent the tears from penetrating the surface grooves. As the nano-structures are sub-wavelength in size, they preserve the ophthalmic functionality of the contact lens without generating undesired diffraction and scattering effects.

The clinical experiment compared visual acuity and reaction time between simultaneous vision and a single stimulus in healthy subjects. Stimuli were presented in gray and in color to test different conditions and make the test more realistic. We expected visual acuity in both the gray and the color experiments to be poorer than acuities obtained in an optometric examination room, since stimuli were only presented for 100 milliseconds and were not static. Such “temporal visual acuity” is known to be reduced in comparison to non-temporal visual acuity tests with static stimuli [35,36].

In addition, the experiments were carried out in a dark environment in which the only ambient light came from the monitor (mesopic condition, without dark-adaptation). Mesopic vision is more complicated than photopic (day) vision or scotopic (night) vision. In scotopic vision, visual perception is rod-mediated, and perceptions are principally achromatic. The rod system has poorer spatial resolution, giving lower visual acuity and poorer temporal resolution. In photopic vision, visual perception is primarily cone-mediated and characterized by good visual acuity and color vision. Mesopic vision is an in-between condition in which rods and cones are active simultaneously, and visual perception depends on the relative activity of these two photoreceptor types and systems. Contrast sensitivity declines rapidly as the eye moves to mesopic operation and reaction time becomes longer [37,38]. In the experiments here, the reduced acuity due to mesopic conditions had no adverse effect, since mesopic limitations similarly influenced visual acuity for both single letter and simultaneous vision.

In the gray experiment, visual acuity of some of the subjects was improved in the simultaneous visual condition, while others’ visual acuity decreased. The average difference in visual acuity of the central E-letter between the two stimuli was an improvement of −0.0615 log units. A possible explanation is the better contrast between the central E-letter and the darker background E-letter, in comparison to the gray background for the single-letter presentation. The most widely used definition for physical contrast is the Michelson formula, which relates contrast sensitivity to the magnitude of the difference in light intensity between the light and dark areas in relation to the overall luminance of the stimulus [39]. In simultaneous vision the larger E-letter created increased contrast by increasing the gap between the stimulus and background light intensities.

Clinically this visual acuity improvement is almost negligible because it constitutes less than one visual acuity line on the ETDRS chart. Also, there was variability between subjects, with some showing better acuity with the background letter and others worse acuity. These results are reasonable due to individual differences in contrast sensitivity skills under these examination conditions of mesopic illumination that are not optimal for our visual system [40].

In the color experiment, the average difference in visual acuity between simultaneous stand single stimuli was 0.0605 log units. That is, the simultaneous vision under these conditions on average reduced visual acuity of the central E-letter, contrary to the results of the gray experiment. As mentioned above, under dim illumination, there is no obvious color vision due to reduced color perception of the rod system. Visual perceptions become graded variations of light and dark, which reduces visual acuity to colored stimuli. Like the improvement in the gray experiment, this reduction in visual acuity in the color experiment is also negligible, constituting less than one visual acuity line on the ETDRS chart. This experiment also showed individual variability, with some subjects having greater acuity with the magnified letter in the background, while in others visual acuity decreased. Again, these results are reasonable due to individual variation in contrast sensitivity skills under mesopic conditions.

Reaction time in the gray experiment was longer for simultaneous vision than for the single stimulus, with an average lengthening of 33.45 milliseconds. In the color experiment, reaction time lengthened by an average of 50.3 milliseconds in simultaneous vision conditions compared to single stimulus and was longer than the average reaction time in the gray experiment. The cause may have been the poorer temporal resolution of colored stimuli by the mesopic system.

Thus, this experiment showed that visual acuity was hardly affected by simultaneous vision. It was slightly improved with stimulus and background in different gray levels and was slightly reduced with colored stimuli. Both improvements and reductions in visual acuity are clinically negligible, representing about half a visual acuity line on a visual acuity examination chart. For AMD patients with central scotoma, the ability to use peripheral areas of the retina for different functions is much more important and effective than this difference in visual acuity in healthy subjects.

When healthy people look at an object in space, they unconsciously focus it on their fovea, the central part of the retina that allows high resolution vision, to achieve sharp and clear vision. In AMD, the center of the retina is damaged, and these patients have no means for achieving high resolution vision. However, in the early stages of the disease, peripheral retinal areas still function normally. Thus, one proposed solution for these patients is to use magnifiers that allow them to use the functional peripheral retina. The quality of vision in this case is not optimal, since the peripheral retina cannot provide high resolution vision. However, low resolution vision is still preferable for these patients and may improve their vision and quality of life.

Different functions and situations require different magnifications. The device proposed here creates magnifications which produce simultaneous vision and different simultaneous magnifications of the object the subject is looking at with the same eye (monocular simultaneous vision). The clinical experiment showed that the existence of another simultaneous figure does not significantly impair visual acuity. AMD patients would require adaptation to simultaneous vision, but if the patients eventually managed to deal with this form of vision and learned to focus on the desired figure while ignoring the other magnifications created, they would be able to maximally utilize their peripheral retina to achieve the best vision possible for them.

Disclosures

The authors declare that they do not have any conflict of interest.

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29. Y. S. Bonneh, D. Sagi, and U. Polat, “Local and non-local deficits in amblyopia: acuity and spatial interactions,” Vision Res. 44(27), 3099–3110 (2004). [CrossRef]  

30. R. Doron, M. Lev, T. Wygnanski-Jaffe, I. Moroz, and U. Polat, “Development of global visual processing: From the retina to the perceptive field,” PLoS One 15(8), e0238246 (2020). [CrossRef]  

31. R. Doron, A. Spierer, and U. Polat, “How crowding, masking, and contour interactions are related: A developmental approach,” Journal of Vision 15(8), 5–14 (2015). [CrossRef]  

32. Y. S. Bonneh and D. Sagi, “Effects of spatial configuration on contrast detection,” Vision Res. 38(22), 3541–3553 (1998). [CrossRef]  

33. A. Treisman, A. Vieira, and A. Hayes, “Automaticity and preattentive processing,” Am. J. Psychol. 105(2), 341–362 (1992). [CrossRef]  

34. W. Zhang and S. J. Luck, “Feature-based attention modulates feedforward visual processing,” Nat. Neurosci. 12(1), 24–25 (2009). [CrossRef]  

35. U. Polat, “Making perceptual learning practical to improve visual functions,” Vision Res. 49(21), 2566–2573 (2009). [CrossRef]  

36. M. Lev, K. Ludwig, S. Gilaie-Dotan, S. Voss, P. Sterzer, G. Hesselmann, and U. Polat, “Training improves visual processing speed and generalizes to untrained functions,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 7251 (2015). [CrossRef]  

37. A. J. Zele and D. Cao, “Vision under mesopic and scotopic illumination,” Front. Psychol. 5, 1594 (2015). [CrossRef]  

38. T. Hiraoka, S. Hoshi, Y. Okamoto, F. Okamoto, and T. Oshika, “Mesopic Functional Visual Acuity in Normal Subjects,” PLoS ONE 10(7), e0134505 (2015). [CrossRef]  

39. E. Peli, “Contrast in complex images,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 7(10), 2032–2040 (1990). [CrossRef]  

40. M. C. Puell, C. Palomo, C. Sánchez-Ramos, and C. Villena, “Normal values for photopic and mesopic letter contrast sensitivity,” JRS 20(5), 484–488 (2004). [CrossRef]  

References

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  1. P. T. V. M. De Jong, “Mechanisms of disease: Age-related macular degeneration,” N Engl J Med 355(14), 1474–1485 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  2. R. A. Mittra and L. J. Singerman, “Recent advances in the management of age-related macular degeneration,” Optom Vis Sci. 79(4), 218–224 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  3. M. M. De Angelis, L. A. Owen, M. A. Morrison, D. J. Morgan, M. Li, A. Shakoor, A. Vitale, S. Iyengar, D. Stambolian, I. K. Kim, and L. A. Farrer, “Genetics of age-related macular degeneration (AMD),” Hum Mol Genet. 26(R1), R45–R50 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  4. T. J. Stokkermans, “Treatment of age-related macular degeneration,” Clin Eye Vis Care. 12(1-2), 15–35 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  5. W. L. Wong, X. Su, X. Li, C. M. Cheung, R. Klein, C. Y. Cheng, and T. Y. Wong, “Global prevalence of age-related macular degeneration and disease burden projection for 2020 and 2040: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” Lancet Glob Health. 2(2), e106–e116 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  6. Age-Related Eye Disease Study Research Group, “A randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical trial of high-dose supplementation with vitamins C and E, beta carotene, and zinc for age-related macular degeneration and vision loss: AREDS report no. 8,” Arch Ophthalmol. 119(10), 1417–1436 (2001).
  7. E.Y. Chew, T. Clemons, J.P. SanGiovanni, R. Danis, A. Domalpally, W. McBee, and R. SperdutoF.L. Ferris; AREDS2 Research Group, “The Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2 (AREDS2): study design and baseline characteristics (AREDS2 report number 1),” Ophthalmology 119(11), 2282–2289 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  8. A. Domalpally, T. E. Clemons, R. P. Danis, S. V. R. Sadda, C. A. Cukras, C. A. Toth, T. R. Friberg, and E. Y. Chew, “Peripheral Retinal Changes Associated with Age-Related Macular Degeneration in the Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2,” Ophthalmology 124(4), 479–487 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  9. T. R. J. Forshaw, Å. S. Minör, Y. Subhi, and T. L. Sørensen, “Peripheral Retinal Lesions in Eyes with Age-Related Macular Degeneration Using Ultra-Widefield Imaging,” Ophthalmol Retina 3(9), 734–743 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  10. I. Laíns, D. H. Park, R. Mukai, R. Silverman, P. Oellers, S. Mach, I. K. Kim, D. G. Vavvas, J. W. Miller, J. B. Miller, and D. Husain, “Peripheral Changes Associated With Delayed Dark Adaptation in Age-related Macular Degeneration,” Am J Ophthalmol. 190, 113–124 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  11. . “Evaluation of Peripheral Retinal Changes on Ultra-Widefield Fundus Autofluorescence Images of Patients with Age-Related Macular Degeneration”. Turk J Ophthalmol. 50, 6-14 (2020).
  12. D. K. Decarlo, G. McGwin Jr, K. Searcey, L. Gao, M. Snow, L. Stevens, and C. Owsley, “Use of prescribed optical devices in age-related macular degeneration,” Optom Vis Sci. 89(9), 1336–1342 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  13. L. K. Cheung and A. Eaton, “Age-related macular degeneration,” Pharmacotherapy 33(8), 838–855 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  14. J. V. Forrester, “Macrophages eyed in macular degeneration,” Nat. Med. 9(11), 1350–1351 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  15. P. De Gracia, C. Dorronsoro, Á. Sánchez-González, L. Sawides, and S. Marcos, “Experimental simulation of simultaneous vision,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 54(1), 415–422 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  16. E. S. Bennett, “Contact lens correction of presbyopia,” Clin Exp Optom. 91(3), 265–278 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  17. K. J. Hoffer and G. Savini, Multifocal Intraocular Lenses: Historical Perspective. (Springer International Publishing Switzerland, 2014), 2nd edition
  18. E. Papadatou, A. J. Del Águila-Carrasco, I. Marín-Franch, and N. López-Gil, “Temporal multiplexing with adaptive optics for simultaneous vision,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(10), 4102–4113 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  19. T. A. Aller, M. Liu, and C. F. Wildsoet, “Myopia Control with Bifocal Contact Lenses: A Randomized Clinical Trial,” Optom Vis Sci. 93(4), 344–352 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  20. T. Yamauchi, H. Tabuchi, K. Takase, H. Ohsugi, Z. Ohara, and Y. Kiuchi, “Comparison of visual performance of multifocal intraocular lenses with same material monofocal intraocular lenses,” PLoS ONE 8(6), e68236 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  21. P. R. Fernandes, H. I. Neves, D. P. Lopes-Ferreira, J. M. JorgeM, and J. M. González-Meijome, “Adaptation to multifocal and monovision contact lens correction,” Optom Vis Sci. 90(3), 228–235 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  22. J. F. Alfonso, L. Fernández-Vega, A. Señaris, and R. Montés-Micó, “Prospective study of the Acri.LISA bifocal intraocular lens,” J Cataract Refract Surg 33(11), 1930–1935 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  23. M. S. Millán and F. Vega, “Through-Focus Energy Efficiency and Longitudinal Chromatic Aberration of Three Presbyopia-Correcting Intraocular Lenses,” Trans. Vis. Sci. Tech. 9(12), 13 (2020).
    [Crossref]
  24. A. F. Borkenstein and E. M. Borkenstein, “Borkenstein AF, Borkenstein EM. Cataract surgery with implantation of a high-add intraocular lens LENTIS® MAX LS-313 MF80 in end-stage, age-related macular degeneration: A case report of magnifying surgery,” Clin Case Rep 7(1), 74–78 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  25. A. F. Borkenstein and E. -M. Borkenstein, “Four Years of Observation to Evaluate Autonomy and Quality of Life after Implantation of a High-Add Intraocular Lens in Age-Related Macular Degeneration Patients,” Case Rep Ophthalmol 11(2), 448–456 (2020).
    [Crossref]
  26. A. Radhakrishnan, C. Dorronsoro, L. Sawides, and S. Marcos, “Short-term neural adaptation to simultaneous bifocal images,” PLoS ONE 9(3), e93089 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  27. M. Mon-Williams, J. R. Tresilian, N. C. Strang, P. Kochhar, and J. P. Wann, “Improving vision: neural compensation for optical defocus,” Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. B 265(1390), 71–77 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  28. Z. Zalevsky, D. Gotthilf-Nezri, and A. Zlotnik, “Spectacles and contact lens based solution for age related macular degeneration,” in Imaging and Applied Optics 2015, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper IM4A.4
  29. Y. S. Bonneh, D. Sagi, and U. Polat, “Local and non-local deficits in amblyopia: acuity and spatial interactions,” Vision Res. 44(27), 3099–3110 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  30. R. Doron, M. Lev, T. Wygnanski-Jaffe, I. Moroz, and U. Polat, “Development of global visual processing: From the retina to the perceptive field,” PLoS One 15(8), e0238246 (2020).
    [Crossref]
  31. R. Doron, A. Spierer, and U. Polat, “How crowding, masking, and contour interactions are related: A developmental approach,” Journal of Vision 15(8), 5–14 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  32. Y. S. Bonneh and D. Sagi, “Effects of spatial configuration on contrast detection,” Vision Res. 38(22), 3541–3553 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  33. A. Treisman, A. Vieira, and A. Hayes, “Automaticity and preattentive processing,” Am. J. Psychol. 105(2), 341–362 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  34. W. Zhang and S. J. Luck, “Feature-based attention modulates feedforward visual processing,” Nat. Neurosci. 12(1), 24–25 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  35. U. Polat, “Making perceptual learning practical to improve visual functions,” Vision Res. 49(21), 2566–2573 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  36. M. Lev, K. Ludwig, S. Gilaie-Dotan, S. Voss, P. Sterzer, G. Hesselmann, and U. Polat, “Training improves visual processing speed and generalizes to untrained functions,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 7251 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  37. A. J. Zele and D. Cao, “Vision under mesopic and scotopic illumination,” Front. Psychol. 5, 1594 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  38. T. Hiraoka, S. Hoshi, Y. Okamoto, F. Okamoto, and T. Oshika, “Mesopic Functional Visual Acuity in Normal Subjects,” PLoS ONE 10(7), e0134505 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  39. E. Peli, “Contrast in complex images,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 7(10), 2032–2040 (1990).
    [Crossref]
  40. M. C. Puell, C. Palomo, C. Sánchez-Ramos, and C. Villena, “Normal values for photopic and mesopic letter contrast sensitivity,” JRS 20(5), 484–488 (2004).
    [Crossref]

2020 (3)

M. S. Millán and F. Vega, “Through-Focus Energy Efficiency and Longitudinal Chromatic Aberration of Three Presbyopia-Correcting Intraocular Lenses,” Trans. Vis. Sci. Tech. 9(12), 13 (2020).
[Crossref]

A. F. Borkenstein and E. -M. Borkenstein, “Four Years of Observation to Evaluate Autonomy and Quality of Life after Implantation of a High-Add Intraocular Lens in Age-Related Macular Degeneration Patients,” Case Rep Ophthalmol 11(2), 448–456 (2020).
[Crossref]

R. Doron, M. Lev, T. Wygnanski-Jaffe, I. Moroz, and U. Polat, “Development of global visual processing: From the retina to the perceptive field,” PLoS One 15(8), e0238246 (2020).
[Crossref]

2019 (2)

A. F. Borkenstein and E. M. Borkenstein, “Borkenstein AF, Borkenstein EM. Cataract surgery with implantation of a high-add intraocular lens LENTIS® MAX LS-313 MF80 in end-stage, age-related macular degeneration: A case report of magnifying surgery,” Clin Case Rep 7(1), 74–78 (2019).
[Crossref]

T. R. J. Forshaw, Å. S. Minör, Y. Subhi, and T. L. Sørensen, “Peripheral Retinal Lesions in Eyes with Age-Related Macular Degeneration Using Ultra-Widefield Imaging,” Ophthalmol Retina 3(9), 734–743 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (1)

I. Laíns, D. H. Park, R. Mukai, R. Silverman, P. Oellers, S. Mach, I. K. Kim, D. G. Vavvas, J. W. Miller, J. B. Miller, and D. Husain, “Peripheral Changes Associated With Delayed Dark Adaptation in Age-related Macular Degeneration,” Am J Ophthalmol. 190, 113–124 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (2)

M. M. De Angelis, L. A. Owen, M. A. Morrison, D. J. Morgan, M. Li, A. Shakoor, A. Vitale, S. Iyengar, D. Stambolian, I. K. Kim, and L. A. Farrer, “Genetics of age-related macular degeneration (AMD),” Hum Mol Genet. 26(R1), R45–R50 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Domalpally, T. E. Clemons, R. P. Danis, S. V. R. Sadda, C. A. Cukras, C. A. Toth, T. R. Friberg, and E. Y. Chew, “Peripheral Retinal Changes Associated with Age-Related Macular Degeneration in the Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2,” Ophthalmology 124(4), 479–487 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (2)

E. Papadatou, A. J. Del Águila-Carrasco, I. Marín-Franch, and N. López-Gil, “Temporal multiplexing with adaptive optics for simultaneous vision,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(10), 4102–4113 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. A. Aller, M. Liu, and C. F. Wildsoet, “Myopia Control with Bifocal Contact Lenses: A Randomized Clinical Trial,” Optom Vis Sci. 93(4), 344–352 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (4)

M. Lev, K. Ludwig, S. Gilaie-Dotan, S. Voss, P. Sterzer, G. Hesselmann, and U. Polat, “Training improves visual processing speed and generalizes to untrained functions,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 7251 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. J. Zele and D. Cao, “Vision under mesopic and scotopic illumination,” Front. Psychol. 5, 1594 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Hiraoka, S. Hoshi, Y. Okamoto, F. Okamoto, and T. Oshika, “Mesopic Functional Visual Acuity in Normal Subjects,” PLoS ONE 10(7), e0134505 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Doron, A. Spierer, and U. Polat, “How crowding, masking, and contour interactions are related: A developmental approach,” Journal of Vision 15(8), 5–14 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

A. Radhakrishnan, C. Dorronsoro, L. Sawides, and S. Marcos, “Short-term neural adaptation to simultaneous bifocal images,” PLoS ONE 9(3), e93089 (2014).
[Crossref]

W. L. Wong, X. Su, X. Li, C. M. Cheung, R. Klein, C. Y. Cheng, and T. Y. Wong, “Global prevalence of age-related macular degeneration and disease burden projection for 2020 and 2040: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” Lancet Glob Health. 2(2), e106–e116 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (4)

T. Yamauchi, H. Tabuchi, K. Takase, H. Ohsugi, Z. Ohara, and Y. Kiuchi, “Comparison of visual performance of multifocal intraocular lenses with same material monofocal intraocular lenses,” PLoS ONE 8(6), e68236 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. R. Fernandes, H. I. Neves, D. P. Lopes-Ferreira, J. M. JorgeM, and J. M. González-Meijome, “Adaptation to multifocal and monovision contact lens correction,” Optom Vis Sci. 90(3), 228–235 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. K. Cheung and A. Eaton, “Age-related macular degeneration,” Pharmacotherapy 33(8), 838–855 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. De Gracia, C. Dorronsoro, Á. Sánchez-González, L. Sawides, and S. Marcos, “Experimental simulation of simultaneous vision,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 54(1), 415–422 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

E.Y. Chew, T. Clemons, J.P. SanGiovanni, R. Danis, A. Domalpally, W. McBee, and R. SperdutoF.L. Ferris; AREDS2 Research Group, “The Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2 (AREDS2): study design and baseline characteristics (AREDS2 report number 1),” Ophthalmology 119(11), 2282–2289 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. K. Decarlo, G. McGwin Jr, K. Searcey, L. Gao, M. Snow, L. Stevens, and C. Owsley, “Use of prescribed optical devices in age-related macular degeneration,” Optom Vis Sci. 89(9), 1336–1342 (2012).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

W. Zhang and S. J. Luck, “Feature-based attention modulates feedforward visual processing,” Nat. Neurosci. 12(1), 24–25 (2009).
[Crossref]

U. Polat, “Making perceptual learning practical to improve visual functions,” Vision Res. 49(21), 2566–2573 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

E. S. Bennett, “Contact lens correction of presbyopia,” Clin Exp Optom. 91(3), 265–278 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

J. F. Alfonso, L. Fernández-Vega, A. Señaris, and R. Montés-Micó, “Prospective study of the Acri.LISA bifocal intraocular lens,” J Cataract Refract Surg 33(11), 1930–1935 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

P. T. V. M. De Jong, “Mechanisms of disease: Age-related macular degeneration,” N Engl J Med 355(14), 1474–1485 (2006).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

Y. S. Bonneh, D. Sagi, and U. Polat, “Local and non-local deficits in amblyopia: acuity and spatial interactions,” Vision Res. 44(27), 3099–3110 (2004).
[Crossref]

M. C. Puell, C. Palomo, C. Sánchez-Ramos, and C. Villena, “Normal values for photopic and mesopic letter contrast sensitivity,” JRS 20(5), 484–488 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

J. V. Forrester, “Macrophages eyed in macular degeneration,” Nat. Med. 9(11), 1350–1351 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

R. A. Mittra and L. J. Singerman, “Recent advances in the management of age-related macular degeneration,” Optom Vis Sci. 79(4), 218–224 (2002).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

T. J. Stokkermans, “Treatment of age-related macular degeneration,” Clin Eye Vis Care. 12(1-2), 15–35 (2000).
[Crossref]

1998 (2)

M. Mon-Williams, J. R. Tresilian, N. C. Strang, P. Kochhar, and J. P. Wann, “Improving vision: neural compensation for optical defocus,” Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. B 265(1390), 71–77 (1998).
[Crossref]

Y. S. Bonneh and D. Sagi, “Effects of spatial configuration on contrast detection,” Vision Res. 38(22), 3541–3553 (1998).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

A. Treisman, A. Vieira, and A. Hayes, “Automaticity and preattentive processing,” Am. J. Psychol. 105(2), 341–362 (1992).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

E. Peli, “Contrast in complex images,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 7(10), 2032–2040 (1990).
[Crossref]

Alfonso, J. F.

J. F. Alfonso, L. Fernández-Vega, A. Señaris, and R. Montés-Micó, “Prospective study of the Acri.LISA bifocal intraocular lens,” J Cataract Refract Surg 33(11), 1930–1935 (2007).
[Crossref]

Aller, T. A.

T. A. Aller, M. Liu, and C. F. Wildsoet, “Myopia Control with Bifocal Contact Lenses: A Randomized Clinical Trial,” Optom Vis Sci. 93(4), 344–352 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bennett, E. S.

E. S. Bennett, “Contact lens correction of presbyopia,” Clin Exp Optom. 91(3), 265–278 (2008).
[Crossref]

Bonneh, Y. S.

Y. S. Bonneh, D. Sagi, and U. Polat, “Local and non-local deficits in amblyopia: acuity and spatial interactions,” Vision Res. 44(27), 3099–3110 (2004).
[Crossref]

Y. S. Bonneh and D. Sagi, “Effects of spatial configuration on contrast detection,” Vision Res. 38(22), 3541–3553 (1998).
[Crossref]

Borkenstein, A. F.

A. F. Borkenstein and E. -M. Borkenstein, “Four Years of Observation to Evaluate Autonomy and Quality of Life after Implantation of a High-Add Intraocular Lens in Age-Related Macular Degeneration Patients,” Case Rep Ophthalmol 11(2), 448–456 (2020).
[Crossref]

A. F. Borkenstein and E. M. Borkenstein, “Borkenstein AF, Borkenstein EM. Cataract surgery with implantation of a high-add intraocular lens LENTIS® MAX LS-313 MF80 in end-stage, age-related macular degeneration: A case report of magnifying surgery,” Clin Case Rep 7(1), 74–78 (2019).
[Crossref]

Borkenstein, E. M.

A. F. Borkenstein and E. M. Borkenstein, “Borkenstein AF, Borkenstein EM. Cataract surgery with implantation of a high-add intraocular lens LENTIS® MAX LS-313 MF80 in end-stage, age-related macular degeneration: A case report of magnifying surgery,” Clin Case Rep 7(1), 74–78 (2019).
[Crossref]

Borkenstein, E. -M.

A. F. Borkenstein and E. -M. Borkenstein, “Four Years of Observation to Evaluate Autonomy and Quality of Life after Implantation of a High-Add Intraocular Lens in Age-Related Macular Degeneration Patients,” Case Rep Ophthalmol 11(2), 448–456 (2020).
[Crossref]

Cao, D.

A. J. Zele and D. Cao, “Vision under mesopic and scotopic illumination,” Front. Psychol. 5, 1594 (2015).
[Crossref]

Cheng, C. Y.

W. L. Wong, X. Su, X. Li, C. M. Cheung, R. Klein, C. Y. Cheng, and T. Y. Wong, “Global prevalence of age-related macular degeneration and disease burden projection for 2020 and 2040: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” Lancet Glob Health. 2(2), e106–e116 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cheung, C. M.

W. L. Wong, X. Su, X. Li, C. M. Cheung, R. Klein, C. Y. Cheng, and T. Y. Wong, “Global prevalence of age-related macular degeneration and disease burden projection for 2020 and 2040: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” Lancet Glob Health. 2(2), e106–e116 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cheung, L. K.

L. K. Cheung and A. Eaton, “Age-related macular degeneration,” Pharmacotherapy 33(8), 838–855 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chew, E. Y.

A. Domalpally, T. E. Clemons, R. P. Danis, S. V. R. Sadda, C. A. Cukras, C. A. Toth, T. R. Friberg, and E. Y. Chew, “Peripheral Retinal Changes Associated with Age-Related Macular Degeneration in the Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2,” Ophthalmology 124(4), 479–487 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chew, E.Y.

E.Y. Chew, T. Clemons, J.P. SanGiovanni, R. Danis, A. Domalpally, W. McBee, and R. SperdutoF.L. Ferris; AREDS2 Research Group, “The Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2 (AREDS2): study design and baseline characteristics (AREDS2 report number 1),” Ophthalmology 119(11), 2282–2289 (2012).
[Crossref]

Clemons, T.

E.Y. Chew, T. Clemons, J.P. SanGiovanni, R. Danis, A. Domalpally, W. McBee, and R. SperdutoF.L. Ferris; AREDS2 Research Group, “The Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2 (AREDS2): study design and baseline characteristics (AREDS2 report number 1),” Ophthalmology 119(11), 2282–2289 (2012).
[Crossref]

Clemons, T. E.

A. Domalpally, T. E. Clemons, R. P. Danis, S. V. R. Sadda, C. A. Cukras, C. A. Toth, T. R. Friberg, and E. Y. Chew, “Peripheral Retinal Changes Associated with Age-Related Macular Degeneration in the Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2,” Ophthalmology 124(4), 479–487 (2017).
[Crossref]

Cukras, C. A.

A. Domalpally, T. E. Clemons, R. P. Danis, S. V. R. Sadda, C. A. Cukras, C. A. Toth, T. R. Friberg, and E. Y. Chew, “Peripheral Retinal Changes Associated with Age-Related Macular Degeneration in the Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2,” Ophthalmology 124(4), 479–487 (2017).
[Crossref]

Danis, R.

E.Y. Chew, T. Clemons, J.P. SanGiovanni, R. Danis, A. Domalpally, W. McBee, and R. SperdutoF.L. Ferris; AREDS2 Research Group, “The Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2 (AREDS2): study design and baseline characteristics (AREDS2 report number 1),” Ophthalmology 119(11), 2282–2289 (2012).
[Crossref]

Danis, R. P.

A. Domalpally, T. E. Clemons, R. P. Danis, S. V. R. Sadda, C. A. Cukras, C. A. Toth, T. R. Friberg, and E. Y. Chew, “Peripheral Retinal Changes Associated with Age-Related Macular Degeneration in the Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2,” Ophthalmology 124(4), 479–487 (2017).
[Crossref]

De Angelis, M. M.

M. M. De Angelis, L. A. Owen, M. A. Morrison, D. J. Morgan, M. Li, A. Shakoor, A. Vitale, S. Iyengar, D. Stambolian, I. K. Kim, and L. A. Farrer, “Genetics of age-related macular degeneration (AMD),” Hum Mol Genet. 26(R1), R45–R50 (2017).
[Crossref]

De Gracia, P.

P. De Gracia, C. Dorronsoro, Á. Sánchez-González, L. Sawides, and S. Marcos, “Experimental simulation of simultaneous vision,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 54(1), 415–422 (2013).
[Crossref]

De Jong, P. T. V. M.

P. T. V. M. De Jong, “Mechanisms of disease: Age-related macular degeneration,” N Engl J Med 355(14), 1474–1485 (2006).
[Crossref]

Decarlo, D. K.

D. K. Decarlo, G. McGwin Jr, K. Searcey, L. Gao, M. Snow, L. Stevens, and C. Owsley, “Use of prescribed optical devices in age-related macular degeneration,” Optom Vis Sci. 89(9), 1336–1342 (2012).
[Crossref]

Del Águila-Carrasco, A. J.

Domalpally, A.

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A. Radhakrishnan, C. Dorronsoro, L. Sawides, and S. Marcos, “Short-term neural adaptation to simultaneous bifocal images,” PLoS ONE 9(3), e93089 (2014).
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M. M. De Angelis, L. A. Owen, M. A. Morrison, D. J. Morgan, M. Li, A. Shakoor, A. Vitale, S. Iyengar, D. Stambolian, I. K. Kim, and L. A. Farrer, “Genetics of age-related macular degeneration (AMD),” Hum Mol Genet. 26(R1), R45–R50 (2017).
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I. Laíns, D. H. Park, R. Mukai, R. Silverman, P. Oellers, S. Mach, I. K. Kim, D. G. Vavvas, J. W. Miller, J. B. Miller, and D. Husain, “Peripheral Changes Associated With Delayed Dark Adaptation in Age-related Macular Degeneration,” Am J Ophthalmol. 190, 113–124 (2018).
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A. Radhakrishnan, C. Dorronsoro, L. Sawides, and S. Marcos, “Short-term neural adaptation to simultaneous bifocal images,” PLoS ONE 9(3), e93089 (2014).
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D. K. Decarlo, G. McGwin Jr, K. Searcey, L. Gao, M. Snow, L. Stevens, and C. Owsley, “Use of prescribed optical devices in age-related macular degeneration,” Optom Vis Sci. 89(9), 1336–1342 (2012).
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I. Laíns, D. H. Park, R. Mukai, R. Silverman, P. Oellers, S. Mach, I. K. Kim, D. G. Vavvas, J. W. Miller, J. B. Miller, and D. Husain, “Peripheral Changes Associated With Delayed Dark Adaptation in Age-related Macular Degeneration,” Am J Ophthalmol. 190, 113–124 (2018).
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T. R. J. Forshaw, Å. S. Minör, Y. Subhi, and T. L. Sørensen, “Peripheral Retinal Lesions in Eyes with Age-Related Macular Degeneration Using Ultra-Widefield Imaging,” Ophthalmol Retina 3(9), 734–743 (2019).
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R. A. Mittra and L. J. Singerman, “Recent advances in the management of age-related macular degeneration,” Optom Vis Sci. 79(4), 218–224 (2002).
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J. F. Alfonso, L. Fernández-Vega, A. Señaris, and R. Montés-Micó, “Prospective study of the Acri.LISA bifocal intraocular lens,” J Cataract Refract Surg 33(11), 1930–1935 (2007).
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M. Mon-Williams, J. R. Tresilian, N. C. Strang, P. Kochhar, and J. P. Wann, “Improving vision: neural compensation for optical defocus,” Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. B 265(1390), 71–77 (1998).
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M. M. De Angelis, L. A. Owen, M. A. Morrison, D. J. Morgan, M. Li, A. Shakoor, A. Vitale, S. Iyengar, D. Stambolian, I. K. Kim, and L. A. Farrer, “Genetics of age-related macular degeneration (AMD),” Hum Mol Genet. 26(R1), R45–R50 (2017).
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R. Doron, M. Lev, T. Wygnanski-Jaffe, I. Moroz, and U. Polat, “Development of global visual processing: From the retina to the perceptive field,” PLoS One 15(8), e0238246 (2020).
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M. M. De Angelis, L. A. Owen, M. A. Morrison, D. J. Morgan, M. Li, A. Shakoor, A. Vitale, S. Iyengar, D. Stambolian, I. K. Kim, and L. A. Farrer, “Genetics of age-related macular degeneration (AMD),” Hum Mol Genet. 26(R1), R45–R50 (2017).
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P. R. Fernandes, H. I. Neves, D. P. Lopes-Ferreira, J. M. JorgeM, and J. M. González-Meijome, “Adaptation to multifocal and monovision contact lens correction,” Optom Vis Sci. 90(3), 228–235 (2013).
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I. Laíns, D. H. Park, R. Mukai, R. Silverman, P. Oellers, S. Mach, I. K. Kim, D. G. Vavvas, J. W. Miller, J. B. Miller, and D. Husain, “Peripheral Changes Associated With Delayed Dark Adaptation in Age-related Macular Degeneration,” Am J Ophthalmol. 190, 113–124 (2018).
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T. Yamauchi, H. Tabuchi, K. Takase, H. Ohsugi, Z. Ohara, and Y. Kiuchi, “Comparison of visual performance of multifocal intraocular lenses with same material monofocal intraocular lenses,” PLoS ONE 8(6), e68236 (2013).
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T. Yamauchi, H. Tabuchi, K. Takase, H. Ohsugi, Z. Ohara, and Y. Kiuchi, “Comparison of visual performance of multifocal intraocular lenses with same material monofocal intraocular lenses,” PLoS ONE 8(6), e68236 (2013).
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T. Hiraoka, S. Hoshi, Y. Okamoto, F. Okamoto, and T. Oshika, “Mesopic Functional Visual Acuity in Normal Subjects,” PLoS ONE 10(7), e0134505 (2015).
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T. Hiraoka, S. Hoshi, Y. Okamoto, F. Okamoto, and T. Oshika, “Mesopic Functional Visual Acuity in Normal Subjects,” PLoS ONE 10(7), e0134505 (2015).
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M. M. De Angelis, L. A. Owen, M. A. Morrison, D. J. Morgan, M. Li, A. Shakoor, A. Vitale, S. Iyengar, D. Stambolian, I. K. Kim, and L. A. Farrer, “Genetics of age-related macular degeneration (AMD),” Hum Mol Genet. 26(R1), R45–R50 (2017).
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R. Doron, A. Spierer, and U. Polat, “How crowding, masking, and contour interactions are related: A developmental approach,” Journal of Vision 15(8), 5–14 (2015).
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M. C. Puell, C. Palomo, C. Sánchez-Ramos, and C. Villena, “Normal values for photopic and mesopic letter contrast sensitivity,” JRS 20(5), 484–488 (2004).
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A. Radhakrishnan, C. Dorronsoro, L. Sawides, and S. Marcos, “Short-term neural adaptation to simultaneous bifocal images,” PLoS ONE 9(3), e93089 (2014).
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A. Domalpally, T. E. Clemons, R. P. Danis, S. V. R. Sadda, C. A. Cukras, C. A. Toth, T. R. Friberg, and E. Y. Chew, “Peripheral Retinal Changes Associated with Age-Related Macular Degeneration in the Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2,” Ophthalmology 124(4), 479–487 (2017).
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P. De Gracia, C. Dorronsoro, Á. Sánchez-González, L. Sawides, and S. Marcos, “Experimental simulation of simultaneous vision,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 54(1), 415–422 (2013).
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M. C. Puell, C. Palomo, C. Sánchez-Ramos, and C. Villena, “Normal values for photopic and mesopic letter contrast sensitivity,” JRS 20(5), 484–488 (2004).
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A. Radhakrishnan, C. Dorronsoro, L. Sawides, and S. Marcos, “Short-term neural adaptation to simultaneous bifocal images,” PLoS ONE 9(3), e93089 (2014).
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P. De Gracia, C. Dorronsoro, Á. Sánchez-González, L. Sawides, and S. Marcos, “Experimental simulation of simultaneous vision,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 54(1), 415–422 (2013).
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D. K. Decarlo, G. McGwin Jr, K. Searcey, L. Gao, M. Snow, L. Stevens, and C. Owsley, “Use of prescribed optical devices in age-related macular degeneration,” Optom Vis Sci. 89(9), 1336–1342 (2012).
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J. F. Alfonso, L. Fernández-Vega, A. Señaris, and R. Montés-Micó, “Prospective study of the Acri.LISA bifocal intraocular lens,” J Cataract Refract Surg 33(11), 1930–1935 (2007).
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M. M. De Angelis, L. A. Owen, M. A. Morrison, D. J. Morgan, M. Li, A. Shakoor, A. Vitale, S. Iyengar, D. Stambolian, I. K. Kim, and L. A. Farrer, “Genetics of age-related macular degeneration (AMD),” Hum Mol Genet. 26(R1), R45–R50 (2017).
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I. Laíns, D. H. Park, R. Mukai, R. Silverman, P. Oellers, S. Mach, I. K. Kim, D. G. Vavvas, J. W. Miller, J. B. Miller, and D. Husain, “Peripheral Changes Associated With Delayed Dark Adaptation in Age-related Macular Degeneration,” Am J Ophthalmol. 190, 113–124 (2018).
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R. A. Mittra and L. J. Singerman, “Recent advances in the management of age-related macular degeneration,” Optom Vis Sci. 79(4), 218–224 (2002).
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D. K. Decarlo, G. McGwin Jr, K. Searcey, L. Gao, M. Snow, L. Stevens, and C. Owsley, “Use of prescribed optical devices in age-related macular degeneration,” Optom Vis Sci. 89(9), 1336–1342 (2012).
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T. R. J. Forshaw, Å. S. Minör, Y. Subhi, and T. L. Sørensen, “Peripheral Retinal Lesions in Eyes with Age-Related Macular Degeneration Using Ultra-Widefield Imaging,” Ophthalmol Retina 3(9), 734–743 (2019).
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R. Doron, A. Spierer, and U. Polat, “How crowding, masking, and contour interactions are related: A developmental approach,” Journal of Vision 15(8), 5–14 (2015).
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M. M. De Angelis, L. A. Owen, M. A. Morrison, D. J. Morgan, M. Li, A. Shakoor, A. Vitale, S. Iyengar, D. Stambolian, I. K. Kim, and L. A. Farrer, “Genetics of age-related macular degeneration (AMD),” Hum Mol Genet. 26(R1), R45–R50 (2017).
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M. Lev, K. Ludwig, S. Gilaie-Dotan, S. Voss, P. Sterzer, G. Hesselmann, and U. Polat, “Training improves visual processing speed and generalizes to untrained functions,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 7251 (2015).
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D. K. Decarlo, G. McGwin Jr, K. Searcey, L. Gao, M. Snow, L. Stevens, and C. Owsley, “Use of prescribed optical devices in age-related macular degeneration,” Optom Vis Sci. 89(9), 1336–1342 (2012).
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M. Mon-Williams, J. R. Tresilian, N. C. Strang, P. Kochhar, and J. P. Wann, “Improving vision: neural compensation for optical defocus,” Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. B 265(1390), 71–77 (1998).
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W. L. Wong, X. Su, X. Li, C. M. Cheung, R. Klein, C. Y. Cheng, and T. Y. Wong, “Global prevalence of age-related macular degeneration and disease burden projection for 2020 and 2040: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” Lancet Glob Health. 2(2), e106–e116 (2014).
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T. R. J. Forshaw, Å. S. Minör, Y. Subhi, and T. L. Sørensen, “Peripheral Retinal Lesions in Eyes with Age-Related Macular Degeneration Using Ultra-Widefield Imaging,” Ophthalmol Retina 3(9), 734–743 (2019).
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T. Yamauchi, H. Tabuchi, K. Takase, H. Ohsugi, Z. Ohara, and Y. Kiuchi, “Comparison of visual performance of multifocal intraocular lenses with same material monofocal intraocular lenses,” PLoS ONE 8(6), e68236 (2013).
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T. Yamauchi, H. Tabuchi, K. Takase, H. Ohsugi, Z. Ohara, and Y. Kiuchi, “Comparison of visual performance of multifocal intraocular lenses with same material monofocal intraocular lenses,” PLoS ONE 8(6), e68236 (2013).
[Crossref]

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A. Domalpally, T. E. Clemons, R. P. Danis, S. V. R. Sadda, C. A. Cukras, C. A. Toth, T. R. Friberg, and E. Y. Chew, “Peripheral Retinal Changes Associated with Age-Related Macular Degeneration in the Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2,” Ophthalmology 124(4), 479–487 (2017).
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A. Treisman, A. Vieira, and A. Hayes, “Automaticity and preattentive processing,” Am. J. Psychol. 105(2), 341–362 (1992).
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M. Mon-Williams, J. R. Tresilian, N. C. Strang, P. Kochhar, and J. P. Wann, “Improving vision: neural compensation for optical defocus,” Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. B 265(1390), 71–77 (1998).
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I. Laíns, D. H. Park, R. Mukai, R. Silverman, P. Oellers, S. Mach, I. K. Kim, D. G. Vavvas, J. W. Miller, J. B. Miller, and D. Husain, “Peripheral Changes Associated With Delayed Dark Adaptation in Age-related Macular Degeneration,” Am J Ophthalmol. 190, 113–124 (2018).
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M. S. Millán and F. Vega, “Through-Focus Energy Efficiency and Longitudinal Chromatic Aberration of Three Presbyopia-Correcting Intraocular Lenses,” Trans. Vis. Sci. Tech. 9(12), 13 (2020).
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A. Treisman, A. Vieira, and A. Hayes, “Automaticity and preattentive processing,” Am. J. Psychol. 105(2), 341–362 (1992).
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M. C. Puell, C. Palomo, C. Sánchez-Ramos, and C. Villena, “Normal values for photopic and mesopic letter contrast sensitivity,” JRS 20(5), 484–488 (2004).
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M. M. De Angelis, L. A. Owen, M. A. Morrison, D. J. Morgan, M. Li, A. Shakoor, A. Vitale, S. Iyengar, D. Stambolian, I. K. Kim, and L. A. Farrer, “Genetics of age-related macular degeneration (AMD),” Hum Mol Genet. 26(R1), R45–R50 (2017).
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Voss, S.

M. Lev, K. Ludwig, S. Gilaie-Dotan, S. Voss, P. Sterzer, G. Hesselmann, and U. Polat, “Training improves visual processing speed and generalizes to untrained functions,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 7251 (2015).
[Crossref]

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M. Mon-Williams, J. R. Tresilian, N. C. Strang, P. Kochhar, and J. P. Wann, “Improving vision: neural compensation for optical defocus,” Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. B 265(1390), 71–77 (1998).
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T. A. Aller, M. Liu, and C. F. Wildsoet, “Myopia Control with Bifocal Contact Lenses: A Randomized Clinical Trial,” Optom Vis Sci. 93(4), 344–352 (2016).
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W. L. Wong, X. Su, X. Li, C. M. Cheung, R. Klein, C. Y. Cheng, and T. Y. Wong, “Global prevalence of age-related macular degeneration and disease burden projection for 2020 and 2040: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” Lancet Glob Health. 2(2), e106–e116 (2014).
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W. L. Wong, X. Su, X. Li, C. M. Cheung, R. Klein, C. Y. Cheng, and T. Y. Wong, “Global prevalence of age-related macular degeneration and disease burden projection for 2020 and 2040: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” Lancet Glob Health. 2(2), e106–e116 (2014).
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R. Doron, M. Lev, T. Wygnanski-Jaffe, I. Moroz, and U. Polat, “Development of global visual processing: From the retina to the perceptive field,” PLoS One 15(8), e0238246 (2020).
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T. Yamauchi, H. Tabuchi, K. Takase, H. Ohsugi, Z. Ohara, and Y. Kiuchi, “Comparison of visual performance of multifocal intraocular lenses with same material monofocal intraocular lenses,” PLoS ONE 8(6), e68236 (2013).
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Z. Zalevsky, D. Gotthilf-Nezri, and A. Zlotnik, “Spectacles and contact lens based solution for age related macular degeneration,” in Imaging and Applied Optics 2015, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper IM4A.4

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A. J. Zele and D. Cao, “Vision under mesopic and scotopic illumination,” Front. Psychol. 5, 1594 (2015).
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W. Zhang and S. J. Luck, “Feature-based attention modulates feedforward visual processing,” Nat. Neurosci. 12(1), 24–25 (2009).
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Z. Zalevsky, D. Gotthilf-Nezri, and A. Zlotnik, “Spectacles and contact lens based solution for age related macular degeneration,” in Imaging and Applied Optics 2015, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper IM4A.4

Am J Ophthalmol. (1)

I. Laíns, D. H. Park, R. Mukai, R. Silverman, P. Oellers, S. Mach, I. K. Kim, D. G. Vavvas, J. W. Miller, J. B. Miller, and D. Husain, “Peripheral Changes Associated With Delayed Dark Adaptation in Age-related Macular Degeneration,” Am J Ophthalmol. 190, 113–124 (2018).
[Crossref]

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A. Treisman, A. Vieira, and A. Hayes, “Automaticity and preattentive processing,” Am. J. Psychol. 105(2), 341–362 (1992).
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Biomed. Opt. Express (1)

Case Rep Ophthalmol (1)

A. F. Borkenstein and E. -M. Borkenstein, “Four Years of Observation to Evaluate Autonomy and Quality of Life after Implantation of a High-Add Intraocular Lens in Age-Related Macular Degeneration Patients,” Case Rep Ophthalmol 11(2), 448–456 (2020).
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Clin Exp Optom. (1)

E. S. Bennett, “Contact lens correction of presbyopia,” Clin Exp Optom. 91(3), 265–278 (2008).
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Clin Eye Vis Care. (1)

T. J. Stokkermans, “Treatment of age-related macular degeneration,” Clin Eye Vis Care. 12(1-2), 15–35 (2000).
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A. J. Zele and D. Cao, “Vision under mesopic and scotopic illumination,” Front. Psychol. 5, 1594 (2015).
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M. M. De Angelis, L. A. Owen, M. A. Morrison, D. J. Morgan, M. Li, A. Shakoor, A. Vitale, S. Iyengar, D. Stambolian, I. K. Kim, and L. A. Farrer, “Genetics of age-related macular degeneration (AMD),” Hum Mol Genet. 26(R1), R45–R50 (2017).
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P. De Gracia, C. Dorronsoro, Á. Sánchez-González, L. Sawides, and S. Marcos, “Experimental simulation of simultaneous vision,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 54(1), 415–422 (2013).
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Journal of Vision (1)

R. Doron, A. Spierer, and U. Polat, “How crowding, masking, and contour interactions are related: A developmental approach,” Journal of Vision 15(8), 5–14 (2015).
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JRS (1)

M. C. Puell, C. Palomo, C. Sánchez-Ramos, and C. Villena, “Normal values for photopic and mesopic letter contrast sensitivity,” JRS 20(5), 484–488 (2004).
[Crossref]

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W. L. Wong, X. Su, X. Li, C. M. Cheung, R. Klein, C. Y. Cheng, and T. Y. Wong, “Global prevalence of age-related macular degeneration and disease burden projection for 2020 and 2040: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” Lancet Glob Health. 2(2), e106–e116 (2014).
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P. T. V. M. De Jong, “Mechanisms of disease: Age-related macular degeneration,” N Engl J Med 355(14), 1474–1485 (2006).
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J. V. Forrester, “Macrophages eyed in macular degeneration,” Nat. Med. 9(11), 1350–1351 (2003).
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W. Zhang and S. J. Luck, “Feature-based attention modulates feedforward visual processing,” Nat. Neurosci. 12(1), 24–25 (2009).
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Ophthalmol Retina (1)

T. R. J. Forshaw, Å. S. Minör, Y. Subhi, and T. L. Sørensen, “Peripheral Retinal Lesions in Eyes with Age-Related Macular Degeneration Using Ultra-Widefield Imaging,” Ophthalmol Retina 3(9), 734–743 (2019).
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Ophthalmology (2)

E.Y. Chew, T. Clemons, J.P. SanGiovanni, R. Danis, A. Domalpally, W. McBee, and R. SperdutoF.L. Ferris; AREDS2 Research Group, “The Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2 (AREDS2): study design and baseline characteristics (AREDS2 report number 1),” Ophthalmology 119(11), 2282–2289 (2012).
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A. Domalpally, T. E. Clemons, R. P. Danis, S. V. R. Sadda, C. A. Cukras, C. A. Toth, T. R. Friberg, and E. Y. Chew, “Peripheral Retinal Changes Associated with Age-Related Macular Degeneration in the Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2,” Ophthalmology 124(4), 479–487 (2017).
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R. A. Mittra and L. J. Singerman, “Recent advances in the management of age-related macular degeneration,” Optom Vis Sci. 79(4), 218–224 (2002).
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P. R. Fernandes, H. I. Neves, D. P. Lopes-Ferreira, J. M. JorgeM, and J. M. González-Meijome, “Adaptation to multifocal and monovision contact lens correction,” Optom Vis Sci. 90(3), 228–235 (2013).
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T. A. Aller, M. Liu, and C. F. Wildsoet, “Myopia Control with Bifocal Contact Lenses: A Randomized Clinical Trial,” Optom Vis Sci. 93(4), 344–352 (2016).
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T. Yamauchi, H. Tabuchi, K. Takase, H. Ohsugi, Z. Ohara, and Y. Kiuchi, “Comparison of visual performance of multifocal intraocular lenses with same material monofocal intraocular lenses,” PLoS ONE 8(6), e68236 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Radhakrishnan, C. Dorronsoro, L. Sawides, and S. Marcos, “Short-term neural adaptation to simultaneous bifocal images,” PLoS ONE 9(3), e93089 (2014).
[Crossref]

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T. Hiraoka, S. Hoshi, Y. Okamoto, F. Okamoto, and T. Oshika, “Mesopic Functional Visual Acuity in Normal Subjects,” PLoS ONE 10(7), e0134505 (2015).
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Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. B (1)

M. Mon-Williams, J. R. Tresilian, N. C. Strang, P. Kochhar, and J. P. Wann, “Improving vision: neural compensation for optical defocus,” Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. B 265(1390), 71–77 (1998).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (1)

M. Lev, K. Ludwig, S. Gilaie-Dotan, S. Voss, P. Sterzer, G. Hesselmann, and U. Polat, “Training improves visual processing speed and generalizes to untrained functions,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 7251 (2015).
[Crossref]

Trans. Vis. Sci. Tech. (1)

M. S. Millán and F. Vega, “Through-Focus Energy Efficiency and Longitudinal Chromatic Aberration of Three Presbyopia-Correcting Intraocular Lenses,” Trans. Vis. Sci. Tech. 9(12), 13 (2020).
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Z. Zalevsky, D. Gotthilf-Nezri, and A. Zlotnik, “Spectacles and contact lens based solution for age related macular degeneration,” in Imaging and Applied Optics 2015, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper IM4A.4

. “Evaluation of Peripheral Retinal Changes on Ultra-Widefield Fundus Autofluorescence Images of Patients with Age-Related Macular Degeneration”. Turk J Ophthalmol. 50, 6-14 (2020).

K. J. Hoffer and G. Savini, Multifocal Intraocular Lenses: Historical Perspective. (Springer International Publishing Switzerland, 2014), 2nd edition

Age-Related Eye Disease Study Research Group, “A randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical trial of high-dose supplementation with vitamins C and E, beta carotene, and zinc for age-related macular degeneration and vision loss: AREDS report no. 8,” Arch Ophthalmol. 119(10), 1417–1436 (2001).

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Scheme of the device for AMD patients. The large optical magnification is achieved for AMD patients by coating the internal surface of an ophthalmic lens and the external surface of a contact lens.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. The “Tumbling-E” patterns that were presented in the experiment. Blue arrows show options of direction.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. The clinical experiment: one of the subjects participating in the experiment.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. The stimuli of the experiment: (a) A single light gray E-letter on a gray background. (b) The same gray E-letter in the presence of a magnified darker E-letter in the background. (c) A single red E-letter on a black background. (d) The same red E-letter in the presence of a magnified green E-letter in the background.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Ray diagram of the Zemax simulation of the proposed configuration to aid AMD patients by realizing external optical magnification.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Zemax simulations Left: central magnification of X2.8. Right: peripheral magnification of X12.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Ray diagrams from Zemax simulation of coated optical elements.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. Optical bench experimental results, (a). The optical setup. (b). Preliminary result.
Fig. 9.
Fig. 9. Visual acuity differences between single and simultaneous stimuli (gray experiment). The difference was calculated by subtracting the result with the single stimulus from that with the simultaneous stimuli for each eye (difference on a log scale), i.e., normalizing the simultaneous condition to the acuity with a single pattern. Positive values describe deterioration of visual acuity, negative values describe improvement of visual acuity.
Fig. 10.
Fig. 10. Reaction time differences between single and simultaneous gray stimuli. The difference was calculated for each eye by subtracting the results of the single stimulus from the result of the simultaneous stimuli (difference in milliseconds) to normalize the simultaneous condition to the single pattern.
Fig. 11.
Fig. 11. Visual acuity differences in the color experiment (central red E-letter, background green E-letter). Plotted as in Fig. 9. Positive values describe deterioration of visual acuity, negative values describe improvement of visual acuity.
Fig. 12.
Fig. 12. Reaction time differences between single and simultaneous stimuli in the color experiment. Calculated as for Fig. 10.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

$$\frac{{{2Z_2}}}({({N - 1} ){Z_1} + {Z_2}} )\approx \frac{L}{2}$$
$$M \approx \frac{{N{Z_1} + {Z_2}}}{{{Z_2}}}$$
$$M \approx \frac{L}{D} + \frac{{{Z_1}}}{{{Z_2}}}$$
$$\eta = \frac{{{E_{peripheral}}}}{{{E_{central}}}} \propto \frac{{Are{a_{peripheral}}}}{{Are{a_{central}}}} \approx 3.57$$