Abstract

Low noise and high repetition rate optical frequency combs are desirable for many applications, from timekeeping to precision spectroscopy. For example, gigahertz repetition rate sources greatly increase the acquisition speed of spectra in a dual-comb modality when compared to lower repetition rate sources, while still maintaining sufficient instantaneous resolution to resolve ro-vibrational signatures from molecules in a variety of conditions. In this paper, we present the stabilization and characterization of a turnkey commercial 1 GHz mode-locked laser that operates at telecom wavelengths (1.56 µm). Fiber amplification and spectral broadening result in high signal-to-noise ratio detection and stabilization of fceo with 438 mrad of residual phase noise (integrated from 102 to 107 Hz). Simultaneously, we stabilize the beatnote between the nearest comb mode and a cavity stabilized continuous-wave laser at 1.55 µm with 41 mrad of residual phase noise (integrated from 102 to 107 Hz). This robust, self-referenced comb system is built with off-the-shelf polarization-maintaining fiber components and will be useful for a wide range of low noise frequency comb applications that benefit from the increased repetition rate.

© 2020 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

1. Introduction

Optical frequency combs (OFCs) provide a phase-coherent connection between oscillators across the full electromagnetic spectrum, from radio to optical frequencies [1,2]. This has enabled unique applications such as the readout and intercomparison of the next generation of optical atomic clocks [3,4], exceedingly low-noise microwave generation [58], precise free-space time transfer [9], and accurate broadband spectroscopy [1013].

Frequency comb spectroscopy is often performed in a dual-comb configuration which necessitates low phase noise performance [14]. Dual-comb spectroscopy (DCS) has been used in an assortment of applications including broadband long-distance standoff detection [15], as well as cavity-enhanced [16] and nonlinear spectroscopy [17], to name a few. In DCS, there is a trade off between the instantaneous resolution given by the comb mode spacing, and spectral acquisition speed, which scales with the square of the repetition rate [14]. Depending on the spectroscopic sample that is being studied, frequency combs with mode spacing from 10 MHz to 100 GHz may be appropriate, and a variety of frequency comb platforms are being developed along these lines. One interesting regime is gas-phase spectroscopy at high-temperatures and pressures (such as combustion), where a mode spacing of 1 GHz provides sufficient spectral sampling of ro-vibrational lines [18], while at the same time enabling acquisition over spectral bandwidths of 10 THz at rates approaching 100 kHz. Beyond these focused benefits for spectroscopy, frequency combs at 1 GHz repetition rate fall in a convenient operational space for other metrology applications by providing increased power per comb tooth (compared to 100 MHz), while still maintaining simplicity when it comes to electronic interfaces, digital sampling, and nonlinear spectral broadening in optical fiber (compared to 10 GHz and higher).

Over the past two decades there has been significant work on self-referenced frequency combs sources with $\sim$1 GHz mode spacing. These include combs built around laser gain provided by titanium at 0.8 µm [1921], ytterbium at 1 µm [2226], erbium at 1.56 µm [27,28], and chromium at 2.35 µm [29]. Of all these options, 1.56 µm is unique because technical developments driven by the telecommunications industry have resulted in inexpensive pump diodes, a wide range of off-the-shelf fiber components, dispersion compensating fibers, and commercial highly nonlinear fibers for spectral broadening. At lower repetition rates, this has enabled robust erbium fiber based frequency combs that can be used outside the lab [30,31] as well as for low noise long term comb operation for frequency measurements [32,33]. A noteworthy advancement at the 1 GHz repetition rate is a design built around a monolithic CaF2 cavity and 1.56 µm erbium-glass gain medium that resulted in ultra-low phase noise [28].

Building on these advances and motivations, in this paper, we demonstrate a fully phase stabilized frequency comb that utilizes a commercial turnkey 1 GHz mode-locked laser operating at 1.56 µm. Starting with the fiberized laser output, we employ a polarization maintaining (PM) dispersion managed amplifier [34] and PM highly nonlinear fiber (HNLF) to broaden the spectrum to an octave that spans from 1 µm to 2 µm. With this robust octave spanning source, we measure the carrier envelope offset frequency (f$_{\textit {ceo}}$) via an inline f-to-2f interferometer with nearly 40 dB signal to noise ratio (SNR) at 300 kHz resolution bandwidth (RBW) and phase lock it to an RF reference with 438 mrad of integrated phase noise (10$^2$ to 10$^7$ Hz). We then phase lock one tooth of the comb to a cavity stabilized laser at 1.55 µm resulting in an integrated phase noise of 40.6 mrad (10$^2$ to 10$^7$ Hz). This fully phase stabilized robust and turnkey source should be useful for applications including timing distribution, ultra-low noise microwave generation, optical clock comparisons, and fast-acquisition spectroscopy.

2. Experimental setup and results

The mode locked laser we use for this work is a commercially-available oscillator at 1.56 µm (MENHIR-1550; hereinafter referred to as OFC when stabilized or simply 1 GHz laser). The turnkey laser is in a sealed housing with output provided though an integrated PM fiber. It is powered with 5 V DC and draws <2 A current. The oscillator is passively mode locked, providing a sech$^2$ optical spectrum with pulses at 1 GHz, shown in Fig. 1. The duration of the chirped pulses at the end of the output fiber is approximately 300 fs. For the experiments that follow, we essentially treat this mode locked laser as a “black box" from which a fully-stabilized 1 GHz frequency comb is created.

 

Fig. 1. (a), Spectrum from the 1 GHz laser oscillator (black) and sech$^{2}$ fit (red dashed) showing an 11.6 nm full width at half maximum (FWHM) at 1563.0 nm. (b), RF spectrum of the output of a fast photodiode, showing clean harmonics of the fundamental 1 GHz repetition rate.

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The average output power of the oscillator is 60 mW, providing sufficient power to seed multiple optical amplifiers. To fully phase stabilize the 1 GHz laser we start by building a dispersion managed short pulse amplifier, and an inline f-to-2f interferometer. This design, Fig. 2, allows us to measure f$_{\textit {ceo}}$ as well as simultaneously beat the comb against a cavity stabilized CW laser for optical phase locking. The oscillator output, amplifier, and broadening stages all employ PM fiber and are designed with commercial components, allowing for reproducible and robust day-to-day operations.

 

Fig. 2. Experimental setup used for f$_{\textit {beat}}$ and f$_{\textit {ceo}}$ detection. After the turnkey oscillator, the pulses are amplified in a dispersion managed amplifier and spectrally broadened for f-to-2f measurement in periodically poled LiNbO$_3$ (PPLN). Both the 1 µm and 1.55 µm components are spectrally separated to allow for simultaneous locking of f$_{\textit {ceo}}$ and f$_{\textit {beat}}$.

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The oscillator’s output was sent through an isolator and 50/50 coupler (for the use of the comb in other experiments) and then into a dispersion-managed amplifier. With an input power of 12 mW, the gain of the amplifier was 17.5 dB providing an output power of 680 mW. Dispersion management before the amplifier was done with $\sim 1.5$ m of PM dispersion compensation fiber, Thorlabs PM-DCF with dispersion D = -100 $\textrm {ps}/(\textrm {nm}\cdot \textrm {km})$, and $\sim 3$ m of PM-1550 fiber. This amplifier was forward and backward pumped by four 1 W, 980 nm single mode pump diodes that are polarization multiplexed in pairs. We used 2 m of LIEKKI Er80-4/125-HD-PM gain fiber and the least amount of PM-1550 possible on the wavelength-division multiplexers. The input pulse chirp was optimized by adjusting the PM-1550 fiber length for a slight anomalous chirp into the amplifier to allow temporal compression and spectral broadening by self phase modulation (SPM) in the gain fiber of the amplifier.

The amplified pulse, which is normally chirped by the gain fiber, was compressed in 40 cm of PM-1550 fiber and its duration was measured via second harmonic generation frequency resolved optical gating (SHG-FROG). The retrieved pulse is presented in Fig. 3(a-c) and has a width of 89 fs, which then drives supercontinuum in the HNLF. For a strong f$_{\textit {ceo}}$ beat, a high power spectral density component is needed at 2 µm for generating second harmonic to overlap with the dispersive wave at 1 µm. We simulate propagation with the nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLSE) and settle on 1.7 m of HNLF, D = 5.7 $\textrm {ps}/(\textrm {nm}\cdot \textrm {km})$, to achieve the spectrum of Fig. 3(d), which includes a soliton component shifted to 2 µm for self referencing. The output of the amplifier is focused into a 1 mm periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN, with poling period $\Lambda$= 30.80 µm) to provide second harmonic generation at 2 µm and maintain temporal overlap to allow for a high signal to noise ratio beat without the need for a delay stage. After the PPLN, the short wave component ($\leq$1.2 µm) is spectrally separated and used for f$_{\textit {ceo}}$ detection. The remaining light is used for optically phase locking f$_{\textit {rep}}$.

 

Fig. 3. (a), Experimental second harmonic generation frequency resolved optical gating (SHG-FROG) measured at the output of the dispersion managed amplifier. (b), Reconstructed SHG-FROG with an error of 0.5%. (c), Temporal profile of the reconstructed pulse (inset: spectra from an optical spectrum analyzer (OSA) and FROG reconstruction). (d), Corresponding octave spanning spectrum and simulation results from the nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLSE) after broadening in HNLF.

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The shortwave components were focused onto a fast photodiode, and the corresponding RF spectrum (DC - 1.2 GHz) is shown in Fig. 4(a). The photodiode output was bandpass filtered at f$_{\textit {rep}}$-f$_{\textit {ceo}}\approx 700$ MHz, and amplified to provide 40 dB SNR at 300 kHz RBW, shown in Fig. 4(b). This high SNR shows that commercial and robust fiber technology can be easily adapted for measurement f$_{\textit {ceo}}$ on the 1 GHz oscillator. The f$_{\textit {ceo}}$ signal is then electronically divided by 32 and phase locked to a signal at 22 MHz from a low phase noise RF generator referenced to a hydrogen maser. The phase lock was completed with feedback to the pump current of the 1 GHz laser. The sensitivity of this tuning of f$_{\textit {ceo}}$ was 0.78 $\frac {\textrm {MHz}}{\textrm {V}}$, and a larger tuning range of 80 MHz could be achieved by changing the DC pump current, while still maintaining a mode-locked state. When locked, the residual phase noise on f$_{\textit {ceo}}$ was 438 mrad, integrated across 10$^2$-10$^7$ Hz (Fig. 4(c)). The pump current modulation bandwidth is 20 kHz, as shown by the servo bump present in the phase noise power spectral density (Fig. 4(c)). The locked f$_{\textit {ceo}}$ is shown in Fig. 4(d) with 70 kHz span and a 10 Hz RBW. The f$_{\textit {ceo}}$ of a second 1 GHz laser was measured using the same amplifier and f-to-2f interferometer. Both oscillators had nearly identical spectra, pulse duration and intracavity dispersion, resulting in similarly high SNR f$_{\textit {ceo}}$ signals for the same dispersion managed amplifier and f-to-2f interferometer.

 

Fig. 4. (a), RF spectrum from DC to 1.2 GHz showing f$_{\textit {ceo}}$, f$_{\textit {rep}}$-f$_{\textit {ceo}}$, and f$_{\textit {rep}}$ at 300 kHz RBW. (b), RF spectrum of f$_{\textit {ceo}}$ showing 40 dB SNR at 300 kHz RBW. (c), Solid lines: f$_{\textit {ceo}}$ phase noise power spectral density, dotted lines: integrated phase noise from high Fouier frequencies to DC (total: 438 mrad integrated from 10$^2$ to 10$^7$ Hz). (d), RF spectrum of f$_{\textit {ceo}}$ locked with 10 Hz RBW.

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With a tight lock on f$_{\textit {ceo}}$, we simultaneously optically phase lock one mode of the 1 GHz laser to a CW frequency-stabilized laser at 1550 nm. This effectively controls f$_{\textit {rep}}$ with high sensitivity since the frequency of a comb mode near 1550 nm is n$\cdot$f$_{\textit {rep}}$, where n is on order 2$\times$10$^5$. To generate the beat with the CW laser, we couple the residual spectrum around 1550 nm back into fiber, and measure a heterodyne beat with the CW light on a fast photodiode. In similar fashion to the stabilization of f$_{\textit {ceo}}$, the heterodyne beat f$_{\textit {beat}}$ is also phase locked to a signal from a low phase noise RF generator. However, in this case no additional frequency division was required. A fast piezo transducer on a cavity element is used to control the repetition rate. In fact, the 1 GHz laser has two intracavity piezos, allowing for fast/fine and slow/coarse modulation of the repetition rate over a range of 200 kHz with a modulation bandwidth close to 100 kHz. The fast and coarse piezos have a sensitivity of 3.72 $\frac {\textrm {Hz}}{\textrm {V}}$ and 1541.4 $\frac {\textrm {Hz}}{\textrm {V}}$ respectively.

With the servo loop closed, the residual phase noise on f$_{\textit {beat}}$ is 40.6 mrad, integrated across 10$^2$ to 10$^7$ Hz, as shown in Fig. 5(a). The peak at 20 kHz in the phase noise power spectral density is due to cross-coupling from the servo locking f$_{\textit {ceo}}$. The optically locked beat is shown in Fig. 5(b) with a 70 kHz span and a 10 Hz RBW. We note that the addition of an AOM (acousto-optic modulator) external to the laser could be used to further decrease the noise on f$_{\textit {ceo}}$, and servo bandwidths up to 300 kHz have been demonstrated [35]. While the center frequency of the 1550 nm CW laser is stable at the 1 Hz level, it has excess frequency noise >30 kHz, such that the plateau in the noise spectrum of Fig. 5 near 100 kHz and the peak near 1.2 MHz are not due to the OFC. This implies that the limit on the integrated phase noise f$_{\textit {beat}}$ could be less than 40.6 mrad.

 

Fig. 5. (a), Solid lines: f$_{\textit {beat}}$ phase noise power spectral density, dotted lines: integrated phase noise from high Fourier frequencies to DC (total: 40.6 mrad integrated from 10$^2$ to 10$^7$ Hz). (b), RF spectrum of f$_{\textit {beat}}$ locked at 10 Hz RBW.

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3. Conclusion

In summary, we fully phase stabilized a robust, turnkey 1 GHz oscillator. To do this, we built a PM dispersion managed amplifier with 17.5 dB of gain yielding 89 fs pules with 7.4 kW of peak power. With these short pulses, we are able to efficiently broaden in highly nonlinear fiber to achieve an octave of spectral bandwidth in order to stabilize the carrier envelope offset frequency. By careful fiber length management, an inline f-to-2f interferometer gives an f$_{\textit {ceo}}$ beat with 40 dB SNR at 300 kHz RBW, which is phase locked to a low noise RF source with 438 mrad of phase noise integrated from 10$^2$ to 10$^7$ Hz. The residual 1550 nm light from the f-to-2f interferometer is used to phase lock one tooth of the comb to a cavity stabilized laser with 40.6 mrad of phase noise integrated from 10$^2$ to 10$^7$ Hz.

In recent years, 1550 nm telecom OFCs have proved to be useful low noise pumps for nonlinear frequency conversion to the mid infrared (3 to 25 µm) frequency combs for applications such as spectroscopy in both the fingerprint (5 to 25 µm) [12,3638] and functional group (3 to 5 µm) [3941] regions. These sources can provide non-destructive high SNR measurements on chemical composition and reaction mechanisms for various processes [42]. This turnkey OFC higher repetition rate would enable 100 times faster data acquisition rates than a 100 MHz source when operated in a dual-comb configuration [14], while still providing access to spectroscopic absorption features relevant to combustion and atmospheric chemistry [43]. We see a clear path for utilizing these turnkey 1 GHz OFCs for performing mid-infrared spectroscopy on combustion systems.

Funding

Air Force Office of Scientific Research (FA9550-16-1-0016); Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (W31P4Q-15-1-0011); National Institute of Standards and Technology (70NANB18H006).

Acknowledgments

Commercial items and parts are identified in this paper for informational purposes only. Such identification does not imply recommendation or endorsement by the National Institute of Standards and Technology, nor is it intended to imply that the products identified are necessarily the best available for the purpose. The authors thank Thomas Schibli for his contributions, as well as Sida Xing and Nima Nader for their helpful comments. DMBL and AK are supported by the University of Colorado through award 70NANB18H006 from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). This research was further supported by NIST, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency SCOUT Program (W31P4Q-15-1-0011), and the Air Force Office of Scientific Research (FA9550-16-1-0016).

Disclosures

BR and FE: Menhir Photonics (I,E).

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References

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  1. J. L. Hall, “Nobel Lecture: Defining and measuring optical frequencies,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78(4), 1279–1295 (2006).
    [Crossref]
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  41. A. Sell, R. Scheu, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Huber, “Field-resolved detection of phase-locked infrared transients from a compact Er:fiber system tunable between 55 and 107 THz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(25), 251107 (2008).
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2020 (3)

M. Giunta, J. Yu, M. Lessing, M. Fischer, M. Lezius, X. Xie, G. Santarelli, Y. L. Coq, and R. Holzwarth, “Compact and ultrastable photonic microwave oscillator,” Opt. Lett. 45(5), 1140–1143 (2020).
[Crossref]

T. Nakamura, J. Davila-Rodriguez, H. Leopardi, J. A. Sherman, T. M. Fortier, X. Xie, J. C. Campbell, W. F. McGrew, X. Zhang, Y. S. Hassan, D. Nicolodi, K. Beloy, A. D. Ludlow, S. A. Diddams, and F. Quinlan, “Coherent optical clock down-conversion for microwave frequencies with 10-18 instability,” Science 368(6493), 889–892 (2020).
[Crossref]

A. J. Lind, A. Kowligy, H. Timmers, F. C. Cruz, N. Nader, M. C. Silfies, T. K. Allison, and S. A. Diddams, “Mid-Infrared Frequency Comb Generation and Spectroscopy with Few-Cycle Pulses and χ(2) Nonlinear Optics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 124(13), 133904 (2020).
[Crossref]

2019 (3)

2018 (3)

G. Ycas, F. R. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, I. Coddington, D. Herman, S. A. Diddams, and N. R. Newbury, “High-coherence mid-infrared dual-comb spectroscopy spanning 2.6 to 5.2 µm,” Nat. Photonics 12(4), 202–208 (2018).
[Crossref]

H. Timmers, A. Kowligy, A. Lind, F. C. Cruz, N. Nader, M. Silfies, G. Ycas, T. K. Allison, P. G. Schunemann, S. B. Papp, and S. A. Diddams, “Molecular fingerprinting with bright, broadband infrared frequency combs,” Optica 5(6), 727–732 (2018).
[Crossref]

V. Smolski, S. Vasilyev, I. Moskalev, M. Mirov, Q. Ru, A. Muraviev, P. Schunemann, S. Mirov, V. Gapontsev, and K. Vodopyanov, “Half-Watt average power femtosecond source spanning 3–8 µm based on subharmonic generation in GaAs,” Appl. Phys. B 124(6), 101 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (3)

2016 (4)

2015 (1)

2014 (2)

2013 (2)

T. Ideguchi, S. Holzner, B. Bernhardt, G. Guelachvili, N. Picqué, and T. W. Hänsch, “Coherent Raman spectro-imaging with laser frequency combs,” Nature 502(7471), 355–358 (2013).
[Crossref]

F. R. Giorgetta, W. C. Swann, L. C. Sinclair, E. Baumann, I. Coddington, and N. R. Newbury, “Optical two-way time and frequency transfer over free space,” Nat. Photonics 7(6), 434–438 (2013).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

2008 (5)

L.-J. Chen, A. J. Benedick, J. R. Birge, M. Y. Sander, and F. X. Kärtner, “Octave-spanning, dual-output 2.166 GHz Ti:sapphire laser,” Opt. Express 16(25), 20699–20705 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. Sell, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Huber, “Phase-locked generation and field-resolved detection of widely tunable terahertz pulses with amplitudes exceeding 100 MV/cm,” Opt. Lett. 33(23), 2767–2769 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. Sell, R. Scheu, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Huber, “Field-resolved detection of phase-locked infrared transients from a compact Er:fiber system tunable between 55 and 107 THz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(25), 251107 (2008).
[Crossref]

T. Rosenband, D. B. Hume, P. O. Schmidt, C. W. Chou, A. Brusch, L. Lorini, W. H. Oskay, R. E. Drullinger, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, W. C. Swann, N. R. Newbury, W. M. Itano, D. J. Wineland, and J. C. Bergquist, “Frequency Ratio of Al+ and Hg+ Single-Ion Optical Clocks; Metrology at the 17th Decimal Place,” Science 319(5871), 1808–1812 (2008).
[Crossref]

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, and N. R. Newbury, “Coherent Multiheterodyne Spectroscopy Using Stabilized Optical Frequency Combs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(1), 013902 (2008).
[Crossref]

2006 (5)

T. M. Fortier, A. Bartels, and S. A. Diddams, “Octave-spanning Ti:sapphire laser with a repetition rate >1 GHz for optical frequency measurements and comparisons,” Opt. Lett. 31(7), 1011–1013 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. L. Hall, “Nobel Lecture: Defining and measuring optical frequencies,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78(4), 1279–1295 (2006).
[Crossref]

T. W. Hänsch, “Nobel Lecture: Passion for precision,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78(4), 1297–1309 (2006).
[Crossref]

M. J. Thorpe, K. D. Moll, R. J. Jones, B. Safdi, and J. Ye, “Broadband Cavity Ringdown Spectroscopy for Sensitive and Rapid Molecular Detection,” Science 311(5767), 1595–1599 (2006).
[Crossref]

H. Inaba, Y. Daimon, F.-L. Hong, A. Onae, K. Minoshima, T. R. Schibli, H. Matsumoto, M. Hirano, T. Okuno, M. Onishi, and M. Nakazawa, “Long-term measurement of optical frequencies using a simple, robust and low-noise fiber based frequency comb,” Opt. Express 14(12), 5223 (2006).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

2001 (1)

S. A. Diddams, T. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, “An Optical Clock Based on a Single Trapped 199Hg+ Ion,” Science 293(5531), 825–828 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

M. E. Fermann, V. I. Kruglov, B. C. Thomsen, J. M. Dudley, and J. D. Harvey, “Self-Similar Propagation and Amplification of Parabolic Pulses in Optical Fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(26), 6010–6013 (2000).
[Crossref]

Alexandre, C.

X. Xie, R. Bouchand, D. Nicolodi, M. Giunta, W. Hänsel, M. Lezius, A. Joshi, S. Datta, C. Alexandre, M. Lours, P.-A. Tremblin, G. Santarelli, R. Holzwarth, and Y. Le Coq, “Photonic microwave signals with zeptosecond-level absolute timing noise,” Nat. Photonics 11(1), 44–47 (2017).
[Crossref]

Allison, T. K.

A. J. Lind, A. Kowligy, H. Timmers, F. C. Cruz, N. Nader, M. C. Silfies, T. K. Allison, and S. A. Diddams, “Mid-Infrared Frequency Comb Generation and Spectroscopy with Few-Cycle Pulses and χ(2) Nonlinear Optics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 124(13), 133904 (2020).
[Crossref]

H. Timmers, A. Kowligy, A. Lind, F. C. Cruz, N. Nader, M. Silfies, G. Ycas, T. K. Allison, P. G. Schunemann, S. B. Papp, and S. A. Diddams, “Molecular fingerprinting with bright, broadband infrared frequency combs,” Optica 5(6), 727–732 (2018).
[Crossref]

Anderson, T.

Bartels, A.

T. M. Fortier, A. Bartels, and S. A. Diddams, “Octave-spanning Ti:sapphire laser with a repetition rate >1 GHz for optical frequency measurements and comparisons,” Opt. Lett. 31(7), 1011–1013 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. A. Diddams, T. Udem, K. R. Vogel, C. W. Oates, E. A. Curtis, R. S. Windeler, A. Bartels, J. C. Bergquist, and L. W. Hollberg, “Compact femtosecond-laser-based optical clockwork,” in Laser Frequency Stabilization, Standards, Measurement, and Applications, vol. 4269 (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2001), pp. 77–83.

Baumann, E.

G. Ycas, F. R. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, I. Coddington, D. Herman, S. A. Diddams, and N. R. Newbury, “High-coherence mid-infrared dual-comb spectroscopy spanning 2.6 to 5.2 µm,” Nat. Photonics 12(4), 202–208 (2018).
[Crossref]

G. B. Rieker, F. R. Giorgetta, W. C. Swann, J. Kofler, A. M. Zolot, L. C. Sinclair, E. Baumann, C. Cromer, G. Petron, C. Sweeney, P. P. Tans, I. Coddington, and N. R. Newbury, “Frequency-comb-based remote sensing of greenhouse gases over kilometer air paths,” Optica 1(5), 290 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. R. Giorgetta, W. C. Swann, L. C. Sinclair, E. Baumann, I. Coddington, and N. R. Newbury, “Optical two-way time and frequency transfer over free space,” Nat. Photonics 7(6), 434–438 (2013).
[Crossref]

Beloy, K.

T. Nakamura, J. Davila-Rodriguez, H. Leopardi, J. A. Sherman, T. M. Fortier, X. Xie, J. C. Campbell, W. F. McGrew, X. Zhang, Y. S. Hassan, D. Nicolodi, K. Beloy, A. D. Ludlow, S. A. Diddams, and F. Quinlan, “Coherent optical clock down-conversion for microwave frequencies with 10-18 instability,” Science 368(6493), 889–892 (2020).
[Crossref]

Bender, C. F.

Benedick, A. J.

Bergquist, J. C.

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, “Generation of ultrastable microwaves via optical frequency division,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 425–429 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. Rosenband, D. B. Hume, P. O. Schmidt, C. W. Chou, A. Brusch, L. Lorini, W. H. Oskay, R. E. Drullinger, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, W. C. Swann, N. R. Newbury, W. M. Itano, D. J. Wineland, and J. C. Bergquist, “Frequency Ratio of Al+ and Hg+ Single-Ion Optical Clocks; Metrology at the 17th Decimal Place,” Science 319(5871), 1808–1812 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. A. Diddams, T. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, “An Optical Clock Based on a Single Trapped 199Hg+ Ion,” Science 293(5531), 825–828 (2001).
[Crossref]

S. A. Diddams, T. Udem, K. R. Vogel, C. W. Oates, E. A. Curtis, R. S. Windeler, A. Bartels, J. C. Bergquist, and L. W. Hollberg, “Compact femtosecond-laser-based optical clockwork,” in Laser Frequency Stabilization, Standards, Measurement, and Applications, vol. 4269 (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2001), pp. 77–83.

Bernhardt, B.

T. Ideguchi, S. Holzner, B. Bernhardt, G. Guelachvili, N. Picqué, and T. W. Hänsch, “Coherent Raman spectro-imaging with laser frequency combs,” Nature 502(7471), 355–358 (2013).
[Crossref]

Biegert, J.

A. S. Kowligy, H. Timmers, A. J. Lind, U. Elu, F. C. Cruz, P. G. Schunemann, J. Biegert, and S. A. Diddams, “Infrared electric field sampled frequency comb spectroscopy,” Sci. Adv. 5(6), eaaw8794 (2019).
[Crossref]

Birge, J. R.

Blakeslee, S.

Bouchand, R.

X. Xie, R. Bouchand, D. Nicolodi, M. Giunta, W. Hänsel, M. Lezius, A. Joshi, S. Datta, C. Alexandre, M. Lours, P.-A. Tremblin, G. Santarelli, R. Holzwarth, and Y. Le Coq, “Photonic microwave signals with zeptosecond-level absolute timing noise,” Nat. Photonics 11(1), 44–47 (2017).
[Crossref]

Brand, W.

Brochard, P.

Brusch, A.

T. Rosenband, D. B. Hume, P. O. Schmidt, C. W. Chou, A. Brusch, L. Lorini, W. H. Oskay, R. E. Drullinger, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, W. C. Swann, N. R. Newbury, W. M. Itano, D. J. Wineland, and J. C. Bergquist, “Frequency Ratio of Al+ and Hg+ Single-Ion Optical Clocks; Metrology at the 17th Decimal Place,” Science 319(5871), 1808–1812 (2008).
[Crossref]

Campbell, J. C.

T. Nakamura, J. Davila-Rodriguez, H. Leopardi, J. A. Sherman, T. M. Fortier, X. Xie, J. C. Campbell, W. F. McGrew, X. Zhang, Y. S. Hassan, D. Nicolodi, K. Beloy, A. D. Ludlow, S. A. Diddams, and F. Quinlan, “Coherent optical clock down-conversion for microwave frequencies with 10-18 instability,” Science 368(6493), 889–892 (2020).
[Crossref]

Carlson, D. R.

Chang, G.

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D. Chao, M. Y. Sander, G. Chang, J. L. Morse, J. A. Cox, G. S. Petrich, L. A. Kolodziejski, F. X. Kärtner, and E. P. Ippen, “Self-referenced Erbium fiber laser frequency comb at a GHz repetition rate,” in OFC/NFOEC, (2012), pp. 1–3.

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A. J. Lind, A. Kowligy, H. Timmers, F. C. Cruz, N. Nader, M. C. Silfies, T. K. Allison, and S. A. Diddams, “Mid-Infrared Frequency Comb Generation and Spectroscopy with Few-Cycle Pulses and χ(2) Nonlinear Optics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 124(13), 133904 (2020).
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A. S. Kowligy, H. Timmers, A. J. Lind, U. Elu, F. C. Cruz, P. G. Schunemann, J. Biegert, and S. A. Diddams, “Infrared electric field sampled frequency comb spectroscopy,” Sci. Adv. 5(6), eaaw8794 (2019).
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G. Ycas, F. R. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, I. Coddington, D. Herman, S. A. Diddams, and N. R. Newbury, “High-coherence mid-infrared dual-comb spectroscopy spanning 2.6 to 5.2 µm,” Nat. Photonics 12(4), 202–208 (2018).
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H. Timmers, A. Kowligy, A. Lind, F. C. Cruz, N. Nader, M. Silfies, G. Ycas, T. K. Allison, P. G. Schunemann, S. B. Papp, and S. A. Diddams, “Molecular fingerprinting with bright, broadband infrared frequency combs,” Optica 5(6), 727–732 (2018).
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S. A. Diddams, T. Udem, K. R. Vogel, C. W. Oates, E. A. Curtis, R. S. Windeler, A. Bartels, J. C. Bergquist, and L. W. Hollberg, “Compact femtosecond-laser-based optical clockwork,” in Laser Frequency Stabilization, Standards, Measurement, and Applications, vol. 4269 (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2001), pp. 77–83.

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T. Nakamura, J. Davila-Rodriguez, H. Leopardi, J. A. Sherman, T. M. Fortier, X. Xie, J. C. Campbell, W. F. McGrew, X. Zhang, Y. S. Hassan, D. Nicolodi, K. Beloy, A. D. Ludlow, S. A. Diddams, and F. Quinlan, “Coherent optical clock down-conversion for microwave frequencies with 10-18 instability,” Science 368(6493), 889–892 (2020).
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T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, “Generation of ultrastable microwaves via optical frequency division,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 425–429 (2011).
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F. R. Giorgetta, W. C. Swann, L. C. Sinclair, E. Baumann, I. Coddington, and N. R. Newbury, “Optical two-way time and frequency transfer over free space,” Nat. Photonics 7(6), 434–438 (2013).
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T. Ideguchi, S. Holzner, B. Bernhardt, G. Guelachvili, N. Picqué, and T. W. Hänsch, “Coherent Raman spectro-imaging with laser frequency combs,” Nature 502(7471), 355–358 (2013).
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I. Hartl, H. A. Mckay, R. Thapa, B. K. Thomas, A. Ruehl, L. Dong, and M. E. Fermann, “Fully stabilized GHz Yb-fiber laser frequency comb,” in Advanced Solid-State Photonics (2009), paper MF9, (Optical Society of America, 2009), p. MF9.

Harvey, J. D.

M. E. Fermann, V. I. Kruglov, B. C. Thomsen, J. M. Dudley, and J. D. Harvey, “Self-Similar Propagation and Amplification of Parabolic Pulses in Optical Fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(26), 6010–6013 (2000).
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T. Nakamura, J. Davila-Rodriguez, H. Leopardi, J. A. Sherman, T. M. Fortier, X. Xie, J. C. Campbell, W. F. McGrew, X. Zhang, Y. S. Hassan, D. Nicolodi, K. Beloy, A. D. Ludlow, S. A. Diddams, and F. Quinlan, “Coherent optical clock down-conversion for microwave frequencies with 10-18 instability,” Science 368(6493), 889–892 (2020).
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Herman, D.

G. Ycas, F. R. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, I. Coddington, D. Herman, S. A. Diddams, and N. R. Newbury, “High-coherence mid-infrared dual-comb spectroscopy spanning 2.6 to 5.2 µm,” Nat. Photonics 12(4), 202–208 (2018).
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S. A. Diddams, T. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, “An Optical Clock Based on a Single Trapped 199Hg+ Ion,” Science 293(5531), 825–828 (2001).
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T. Ideguchi, S. Holzner, B. Bernhardt, G. Guelachvili, N. Picqué, and T. W. Hänsch, “Coherent Raman spectro-imaging with laser frequency combs,” Nature 502(7471), 355–358 (2013).
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T. Rosenband, D. B. Hume, P. O. Schmidt, C. W. Chou, A. Brusch, L. Lorini, W. H. Oskay, R. E. Drullinger, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, W. C. Swann, N. R. Newbury, W. M. Itano, D. J. Wineland, and J. C. Bergquist, “Frequency Ratio of Al+ and Hg+ Single-Ion Optical Clocks; Metrology at the 17th Decimal Place,” Science 319(5871), 1808–1812 (2008).
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Silfies, M. C.

A. J. Lind, A. Kowligy, H. Timmers, F. C. Cruz, N. Nader, M. C. Silfies, T. K. Allison, and S. A. Diddams, “Mid-Infrared Frequency Comb Generation and Spectroscopy with Few-Cycle Pulses and χ(2) Nonlinear Optics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 124(13), 133904 (2020).
[Crossref]

Silverman, K. L.

Sinclair, L. C.

Smolski, V.

V. Smolski, S. Vasilyev, I. Moskalev, M. Mirov, Q. Ru, A. Muraviev, P. Schunemann, S. Mirov, V. Gapontsev, and K. Vodopyanov, “Half-Watt average power femtosecond source spanning 3–8 µm based on subharmonic generation in GaAs,” Appl. Phys. B 124(6), 101 (2018).
[Crossref]

Srinivasan, K.

Stalnaker, J. E.

T. Rosenband, D. B. Hume, P. O. Schmidt, C. W. Chou, A. Brusch, L. Lorini, W. H. Oskay, R. E. Drullinger, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, W. C. Swann, N. R. Newbury, W. M. Itano, D. J. Wineland, and J. C. Bergquist, “Frequency Ratio of Al+ and Hg+ Single-Ion Optical Clocks; Metrology at the 17th Decimal Place,” Science 319(5871), 1808–1812 (2008).
[Crossref]

Stefansson, G.

Sterner, D. A.

Südmeyer, T.

Swann, W.

Swann, W. C.

G. B. Rieker, F. R. Giorgetta, W. C. Swann, J. Kofler, A. M. Zolot, L. C. Sinclair, E. Baumann, C. Cromer, G. Petron, C. Sweeney, P. P. Tans, I. Coddington, and N. R. Newbury, “Frequency-comb-based remote sensing of greenhouse gases over kilometer air paths,” Optica 1(5), 290 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. C. Sinclair, I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, G. B. Rieker, A. Hati, K. Iwakuni, and N. R. Newbury, “Operation of an optically coherent frequency comb outside the metrology lab,” Opt. Express 22(6), 6996–7006 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. R. Giorgetta, W. C. Swann, L. C. Sinclair, E. Baumann, I. Coddington, and N. R. Newbury, “Optical two-way time and frequency transfer over free space,” Nat. Photonics 7(6), 434–438 (2013).
[Crossref]

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, and N. R. Newbury, “Coherent Multiheterodyne Spectroscopy Using Stabilized Optical Frequency Combs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(1), 013902 (2008).
[Crossref]

T. Rosenband, D. B. Hume, P. O. Schmidt, C. W. Chou, A. Brusch, L. Lorini, W. H. Oskay, R. E. Drullinger, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, W. C. Swann, N. R. Newbury, W. M. Itano, D. J. Wineland, and J. C. Bergquist, “Frequency Ratio of Al+ and Hg+ Single-Ion Optical Clocks; Metrology at the 17th Decimal Place,” Science 319(5871), 1808–1812 (2008).
[Crossref]

Sweeney, C.

Tans, P. P.

Taylor, J.

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, “Generation of ultrastable microwaves via optical frequency division,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 425–429 (2011).
[Crossref]

Terrien, R.

Thaller, A.

Thapa, R.

I. Hartl, H. A. Mckay, R. Thapa, B. K. Thomas, A. Ruehl, L. Dong, and M. E. Fermann, “Fully stabilized GHz Yb-fiber laser frequency comb,” in Advanced Solid-State Photonics (2009), paper MF9, (Optical Society of America, 2009), p. MF9.

Thomas, B. K.

I. Hartl, H. A. Mckay, R. Thapa, B. K. Thomas, A. Ruehl, L. Dong, and M. E. Fermann, “Fully stabilized GHz Yb-fiber laser frequency comb,” in Advanced Solid-State Photonics (2009), paper MF9, (Optical Society of America, 2009), p. MF9.

Thomsen, B. C.

M. E. Fermann, V. I. Kruglov, B. C. Thomsen, J. M. Dudley, and J. D. Harvey, “Self-Similar Propagation and Amplification of Parabolic Pulses in Optical Fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(26), 6010–6013 (2000).
[Crossref]

Thorpe, M. J.

M. J. Thorpe, K. D. Moll, R. J. Jones, B. Safdi, and J. Ye, “Broadband Cavity Ringdown Spectroscopy for Sensitive and Rapid Molecular Detection,” Science 311(5767), 1595–1599 (2006).
[Crossref]

Timmers, H.

A. J. Lind, A. Kowligy, H. Timmers, F. C. Cruz, N. Nader, M. C. Silfies, T. K. Allison, and S. A. Diddams, “Mid-Infrared Frequency Comb Generation and Spectroscopy with Few-Cycle Pulses and χ(2) Nonlinear Optics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 124(13), 133904 (2020).
[Crossref]

A. S. Kowligy, H. Timmers, A. J. Lind, U. Elu, F. C. Cruz, P. G. Schunemann, J. Biegert, and S. A. Diddams, “Infrared electric field sampled frequency comb spectroscopy,” Sci. Adv. 5(6), eaaw8794 (2019).
[Crossref]

H. Timmers, A. Kowligy, A. Lind, F. C. Cruz, N. Nader, M. Silfies, G. Ycas, T. K. Allison, P. G. Schunemann, S. B. Papp, and S. A. Diddams, “Molecular fingerprinting with bright, broadband infrared frequency combs,” Optica 5(6), 727–732 (2018).
[Crossref]

Tremblin, P.-A.

X. Xie, R. Bouchand, D. Nicolodi, M. Giunta, W. Hänsel, M. Lezius, A. Joshi, S. Datta, C. Alexandre, M. Lours, P.-A. Tremblin, G. Santarelli, R. Holzwarth, and Y. Le Coq, “Photonic microwave signals with zeptosecond-level absolute timing noise,” Nat. Photonics 11(1), 44–47 (2017).
[Crossref]

Udem, T.

S. A. Diddams, T. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, “An Optical Clock Based on a Single Trapped 199Hg+ Ion,” Science 293(5531), 825–828 (2001).
[Crossref]

S. A. Diddams, T. Udem, K. R. Vogel, C. W. Oates, E. A. Curtis, R. S. Windeler, A. Bartels, J. C. Bergquist, and L. W. Hollberg, “Compact femtosecond-laser-based optical clockwork,” in Laser Frequency Stabilization, Standards, Measurement, and Applications, vol. 4269 (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2001), pp. 77–83.

Vasilyev, S.

V. Smolski, S. Vasilyev, I. Moskalev, M. Mirov, Q. Ru, A. Muraviev, P. Schunemann, S. Mirov, V. Gapontsev, and K. Vodopyanov, “Half-Watt average power femtosecond source spanning 3–8 µm based on subharmonic generation in GaAs,” Appl. Phys. B 124(6), 101 (2018).
[Crossref]

Vodopyanov, K.

V. Smolski, S. Vasilyev, I. Moskalev, M. Mirov, Q. Ru, A. Muraviev, P. Schunemann, S. Mirov, V. Gapontsev, and K. Vodopyanov, “Half-Watt average power femtosecond source spanning 3–8 µm based on subharmonic generation in GaAs,” Appl. Phys. B 124(6), 101 (2018).
[Crossref]

Vogel, K. R.

S. A. Diddams, T. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, “An Optical Clock Based on a Single Trapped 199Hg+ Ion,” Science 293(5531), 825–828 (2001).
[Crossref]

S. A. Diddams, T. Udem, K. R. Vogel, C. W. Oates, E. A. Curtis, R. S. Windeler, A. Bartels, J. C. Bergquist, and L. W. Hollberg, “Compact femtosecond-laser-based optical clockwork,” in Laser Frequency Stabilization, Standards, Measurement, and Applications, vol. 4269 (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2001), pp. 77–83.

Wicht, A.

Wilken, T.

Windeler, R. S.

S. A. Diddams, T. Udem, K. R. Vogel, C. W. Oates, E. A. Curtis, R. S. Windeler, A. Bartels, J. C. Bergquist, and L. W. Hollberg, “Compact femtosecond-laser-based optical clockwork,” in Laser Frequency Stabilization, Standards, Measurement, and Applications, vol. 4269 (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2001), pp. 77–83.

Windpassinger, P.

Wineland, D. J.

T. Rosenband, D. B. Hume, P. O. Schmidt, C. W. Chou, A. Brusch, L. Lorini, W. H. Oskay, R. E. Drullinger, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, W. C. Swann, N. R. Newbury, W. M. Itano, D. J. Wineland, and J. C. Bergquist, “Frequency Ratio of Al+ and Hg+ Single-Ion Optical Clocks; Metrology at the 17th Decimal Place,” Science 319(5871), 1808–1812 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. A. Diddams, T. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, “An Optical Clock Based on a Single Trapped 199Hg+ Ion,” Science 293(5531), 825–828 (2001).
[Crossref]

Wittwer, V. J.

Wolszczan, A.

Wright, J. T.

Wu, T.-H.

Xie, W.

Xie, X.

T. Nakamura, J. Davila-Rodriguez, H. Leopardi, J. A. Sherman, T. M. Fortier, X. Xie, J. C. Campbell, W. F. McGrew, X. Zhang, Y. S. Hassan, D. Nicolodi, K. Beloy, A. D. Ludlow, S. A. Diddams, and F. Quinlan, “Coherent optical clock down-conversion for microwave frequencies with 10-18 instability,” Science 368(6493), 889–892 (2020).
[Crossref]

M. Giunta, J. Yu, M. Lessing, M. Fischer, M. Lezius, X. Xie, G. Santarelli, Y. L. Coq, and R. Holzwarth, “Compact and ultrastable photonic microwave oscillator,” Opt. Lett. 45(5), 1140–1143 (2020).
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X. Xie, R. Bouchand, D. Nicolodi, M. Giunta, W. Hänsel, M. Lezius, A. Joshi, S. Datta, C. Alexandre, M. Lours, P.-A. Tremblin, G. Santarelli, R. Holzwarth, and Y. Le Coq, “Photonic microwave signals with zeptosecond-level absolute timing noise,” Nat. Photonics 11(1), 44–47 (2017).
[Crossref]

Ycas, G.

Ye, J.

M. J. Thorpe, K. D. Moll, R. J. Jones, B. Safdi, and J. Ye, “Broadband Cavity Ringdown Spectroscopy for Sensitive and Rapid Molecular Detection,” Science 311(5767), 1595–1599 (2006).
[Crossref]

Yu, J.

Zdanowicz, A.

Zhang, X.

T. Nakamura, J. Davila-Rodriguez, H. Leopardi, J. A. Sherman, T. M. Fortier, X. Xie, J. C. Campbell, W. F. McGrew, X. Zhang, Y. S. Hassan, D. Nicolodi, K. Beloy, A. D. Ludlow, S. A. Diddams, and F. Quinlan, “Coherent optical clock down-conversion for microwave frequencies with 10-18 instability,” Science 368(6493), 889–892 (2020).
[Crossref]

Zolot, A. M.

Appl. Phys. B (1)

V. Smolski, S. Vasilyev, I. Moskalev, M. Mirov, Q. Ru, A. Muraviev, P. Schunemann, S. Mirov, V. Gapontsev, and K. Vodopyanov, “Half-Watt average power femtosecond source spanning 3–8 µm based on subharmonic generation in GaAs,” Appl. Phys. B 124(6), 101 (2018).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

A. Sell, R. Scheu, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Huber, “Field-resolved detection of phase-locked infrared transients from a compact Er:fiber system tunable between 55 and 107 THz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(25), 251107 (2008).
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Nat. Photonics (4)

G. Ycas, F. R. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, I. Coddington, D. Herman, S. A. Diddams, and N. R. Newbury, “High-coherence mid-infrared dual-comb spectroscopy spanning 2.6 to 5.2 µm,” Nat. Photonics 12(4), 202–208 (2018).
[Crossref]

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, “Generation of ultrastable microwaves via optical frequency division,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 425–429 (2011).
[Crossref]

X. Xie, R. Bouchand, D. Nicolodi, M. Giunta, W. Hänsel, M. Lezius, A. Joshi, S. Datta, C. Alexandre, M. Lours, P.-A. Tremblin, G. Santarelli, R. Holzwarth, and Y. Le Coq, “Photonic microwave signals with zeptosecond-level absolute timing noise,” Nat. Photonics 11(1), 44–47 (2017).
[Crossref]

F. R. Giorgetta, W. C. Swann, L. C. Sinclair, E. Baumann, I. Coddington, and N. R. Newbury, “Optical two-way time and frequency transfer over free space,” Nat. Photonics 7(6), 434–438 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

T. Ideguchi, S. Holzner, B. Bernhardt, G. Guelachvili, N. Picqué, and T. W. Hänsch, “Coherent Raman spectro-imaging with laser frequency combs,” Nature 502(7471), 355–358 (2013).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (9)

L. C. Sinclair, I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, G. B. Rieker, A. Hati, K. Iwakuni, and N. R. Newbury, “Operation of an optically coherent frequency comb outside the metrology lab,” Opt. Express 22(6), 6996–7006 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Inaba, Y. Daimon, F.-L. Hong, A. Onae, K. Minoshima, T. R. Schibli, H. Matsumoto, M. Hirano, T. Okuno, M. Onishi, and M. Nakazawa, “Long-term measurement of optical frequencies using a simple, robust and low-noise fiber based frequency comb,” Opt. Express 14(12), 5223 (2006).
[Crossref]

T.-H. Wu, K. Kieu, N. Peyghambarian, and R. J. Jones, “Low noise erbium fiber fs frequency comb based on a tapered-fiber carbon nanotube design,” Opt. Express 19(6), 5313–5318 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. J. Fleisher, D. A. Long, Z. D. Reed, J. T. Hodges, and D. F. Plusquellic, “Coherent cavity-enhanced dual-comb spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 24(10), 10424–10434 (2016).
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L.-J. Chen, A. J. Benedick, J. R. Birge, M. Y. Sander, and F. X. Kärtner, “Octave-spanning, dual-output 2.166 GHz Ti:sapphire laser,” Opt. Express 16(25), 20699–20705 (2008).
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S. Pekarek, T. Südmeyer, S. Lecomte, S. Kundermann, J. M. Dudley, and U. Keller, “Self-referenceable frequency comb from a gigahertz diode-pumped solid-state laser,” Opt. Express 19(17), 16491–16497 (2011).
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M. Endo, I. Ito, and Y. Kobayashi, “Direct 15-GHz mode-spacing optical frequency comb with a Kerr-lens mode-locked Yb:Y2O3 ceramic laser,” Opt. Express 23(2), 1276–1282 (2015).
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S. Hakobyan, V. J. Wittwer, P. Brochard, K. Gürel, S. Schilt, A. S. Mayer, U. Keller, and T. Südmeyer, “Full stabilization and characterization of an optical frequency comb from a diode-pumped solid-state laser with GHz repetition rate,” Opt. Express 25(17), 20437–20453 (2017).
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A. D. Draper, R. K. Cole, A. S. Makowiecki, J. Mohr, A. Zdanowicz, A. Marchese, N. Hoghooghi, and G. B. Rieker, “Broadband dual-frequency comb spectroscopy in a rapid compression machine,” Opt. Express 27(8), 10814–10825 (2019).
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Opt. Lett. (5)

Optica (6)

A. J. Metcalf, T. Anderson, C. F. Bender, S. Blakeslee, W. Brand, D. R. Carlson, W. D. Cochran, S. A. Diddams, M. Endl, C. Fredrick, S. Halverson, D. D. Hickstein, F. Hearty, J. Jennings, S. Kanodia, K. F. Kaplan, E. Levi, E. Lubar, S. Mahadevan, A. Monson, J. P. Ninan, C. Nitroy, S. Osterman, S. B. Papp, F. Quinlan, L. Ramsey, P. Robertson, A. Roy, C. Schwab, S. Sigurdsson, K. Srinivasan, G. Stefansson, D. A. Sterner, R. Terrien, A. Wolszczan, J. T. Wright, and G. Ycas, “Stellar spectroscopy in the near-infrared with a laser frequency comb,” Optica 6(2), 233–239 (2019).
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I. Coddington, N. Newbury, and W. Swann, “Dual-comb spectroscopy,” Optica 3(4), 414 (2016).
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G. B. Rieker, F. R. Giorgetta, W. C. Swann, J. Kofler, A. M. Zolot, L. C. Sinclair, E. Baumann, C. Cromer, G. Petron, C. Sweeney, P. P. Tans, I. Coddington, and N. R. Newbury, “Frequency-comb-based remote sensing of greenhouse gases over kilometer air paths,” Optica 1(5), 290 (2014).
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M. Lezius, T. Wilken, C. Deutsch, M. Giunta, O. Mandel, A. Thaller, V. Schkolnik, M. Schiemangk, A. Dinkelaker, A. Kohfeldt, A. Wicht, M. Krutzik, A. Peters, O. Hellmig, H. Duncker, K. Sengstock, P. Windpassinger, K. Lampmann, T. Hülsing, T. W. Hänsch, and R. Holzwarth, “Space-borne frequency comb metrology,” Optica 3(12), 1381–1387 (2016).
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H. Timmers, A. Kowligy, A. Lind, F. C. Cruz, N. Nader, M. Silfies, G. Ycas, T. K. Allison, P. G. Schunemann, S. B. Papp, and S. A. Diddams, “Molecular fingerprinting with bright, broadband infrared frequency combs,” Optica 5(6), 727–732 (2018).
[Crossref]

T. D. Shoji, W. Xie, K. L. Silverman, A. Feldman, T. Harvey, R. P. Mirin, and T. R. Schibli, “Ultra-low-noise monolithic mode-locked solid-state laser,” Optica 3(9), 995–998 (2016).
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Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

A. J. Lind, A. Kowligy, H. Timmers, F. C. Cruz, N. Nader, M. C. Silfies, T. K. Allison, and S. A. Diddams, “Mid-Infrared Frequency Comb Generation and Spectroscopy with Few-Cycle Pulses and χ(2) Nonlinear Optics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 124(13), 133904 (2020).
[Crossref]

M. E. Fermann, V. I. Kruglov, B. C. Thomsen, J. M. Dudley, and J. D. Harvey, “Self-Similar Propagation and Amplification of Parabolic Pulses in Optical Fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(26), 6010–6013 (2000).
[Crossref]

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, and N. R. Newbury, “Coherent Multiheterodyne Spectroscopy Using Stabilized Optical Frequency Combs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(1), 013902 (2008).
[Crossref]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (2)

J. L. Hall, “Nobel Lecture: Defining and measuring optical frequencies,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78(4), 1279–1295 (2006).
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T. W. Hänsch, “Nobel Lecture: Passion for precision,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78(4), 1297–1309 (2006).
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Sci. Adv. (1)

A. S. Kowligy, H. Timmers, A. J. Lind, U. Elu, F. C. Cruz, P. G. Schunemann, J. Biegert, and S. A. Diddams, “Infrared electric field sampled frequency comb spectroscopy,” Sci. Adv. 5(6), eaaw8794 (2019).
[Crossref]

Science (4)

M. J. Thorpe, K. D. Moll, R. J. Jones, B. Safdi, and J. Ye, “Broadband Cavity Ringdown Spectroscopy for Sensitive and Rapid Molecular Detection,” Science 311(5767), 1595–1599 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. A. Diddams, T. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, “An Optical Clock Based on a Single Trapped 199Hg+ Ion,” Science 293(5531), 825–828 (2001).
[Crossref]

T. Rosenband, D. B. Hume, P. O. Schmidt, C. W. Chou, A. Brusch, L. Lorini, W. H. Oskay, R. E. Drullinger, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, W. C. Swann, N. R. Newbury, W. M. Itano, D. J. Wineland, and J. C. Bergquist, “Frequency Ratio of Al+ and Hg+ Single-Ion Optical Clocks; Metrology at the 17th Decimal Place,” Science 319(5871), 1808–1812 (2008).
[Crossref]

T. Nakamura, J. Davila-Rodriguez, H. Leopardi, J. A. Sherman, T. M. Fortier, X. Xie, J. C. Campbell, W. F. McGrew, X. Zhang, Y. S. Hassan, D. Nicolodi, K. Beloy, A. D. Ludlow, S. A. Diddams, and F. Quinlan, “Coherent optical clock down-conversion for microwave frequencies with 10-18 instability,” Science 368(6493), 889–892 (2020).
[Crossref]

Other (6)

N. Hoghooghi, R. K. Cole, and G. B. Rieker, “11-µs Time-resolved, Continuous Dual-Comb Spectroscopy with Spectrally Filtered Mode-locked Frequency Combs,” arXiv:2005.13050 [physics] (2020).

S. A. Diddams, T. Udem, K. R. Vogel, C. W. Oates, E. A. Curtis, R. S. Windeler, A. Bartels, J. C. Bergquist, and L. W. Hollberg, “Compact femtosecond-laser-based optical clockwork,” in Laser Frequency Stabilization, Standards, Measurement, and Applications, vol. 4269 (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2001), pp. 77–83.

K. F. Lee, P. G. Schunemann, and M. E. Fermann, “Milliwatt midinfrared from intrapulse difference frequency with a single erbium fiber laser,” in Nonlinear Frequency Generation and Conversion: Materials and Devices XIX, vol. 11264 (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2020), p. 1126404.

I. Hartl, H. A. Mckay, R. Thapa, B. K. Thomas, A. Ruehl, L. Dong, and M. E. Fermann, “Fully stabilized GHz Yb-fiber laser frequency comb,” in Advanced Solid-State Photonics (2009), paper MF9, (Optical Society of America, 2009), p. MF9.

D. Chao, M. Y. Sander, G. Chang, J. L. Morse, J. A. Cox, G. S. Petrich, L. A. Kolodziejski, F. X. Kärtner, and E. P. Ippen, “Self-referenced Erbium fiber laser frequency comb at a GHz repetition rate,” in OFC/NFOEC, (2012), pp. 1–3.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a), Spectrum from the 1 GHz laser oscillator (black) and sech$^{2}$ fit (red dashed) showing an 11.6 nm full width at half maximum (FWHM) at 1563.0 nm. (b), RF spectrum of the output of a fast photodiode, showing clean harmonics of the fundamental 1 GHz repetition rate.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Experimental setup used for f$_{\textit {beat}}$ and f$_{\textit {ceo}}$ detection. After the turnkey oscillator, the pulses are amplified in a dispersion managed amplifier and spectrally broadened for f-to-2f measurement in periodically poled LiNbO$_3$ (PPLN). Both the 1 µm and 1.55 µm components are spectrally separated to allow for simultaneous locking of f$_{\textit {ceo}}$ and f$_{\textit {beat}}$.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a), Experimental second harmonic generation frequency resolved optical gating (SHG-FROG) measured at the output of the dispersion managed amplifier. (b), Reconstructed SHG-FROG with an error of 0.5%. (c), Temporal profile of the reconstructed pulse (inset: spectra from an optical spectrum analyzer (OSA) and FROG reconstruction). (d), Corresponding octave spanning spectrum and simulation results from the nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLSE) after broadening in HNLF.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a), RF spectrum from DC to 1.2 GHz showing f$_{\textit {ceo}}$, f$_{\textit {rep}}$-f$_{\textit {ceo}}$, and f$_{\textit {rep}}$ at 300 kHz RBW. (b), RF spectrum of f$_{\textit {ceo}}$ showing 40 dB SNR at 300 kHz RBW. (c), Solid lines: f$_{\textit {ceo}}$ phase noise power spectral density, dotted lines: integrated phase noise from high Fouier frequencies to DC (total: 438 mrad integrated from 10$^2$ to 10$^7$ Hz). (d), RF spectrum of f$_{\textit {ceo}}$ locked with 10 Hz RBW.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. (a), Solid lines: f$_{\textit {beat}}$ phase noise power spectral density, dotted lines: integrated phase noise from high Fourier frequencies to DC (total: 40.6 mrad integrated from 10$^2$ to 10$^7$ Hz). (b), RF spectrum of f$_{\textit {beat}}$ locked at 10 Hz RBW.

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