Abstract

An optical filter, having a maximum transmission of 71% at single mode, with salient out-of-band rejection is designed with a combination of corrugated waveguide and nano-disk resonators. Plasmonic resonances of different bandwidths adjusted at different wavelengths have been achieved by varying the structural parameters (waveguide width, coupling gap, and resonator dimensions). Finally, a combined integrated structure is proposed as an optical filter for exciting multiple modes, which can extend the operating wavelength range (max. 2200 nm). The resonance wavelength and bandwidth of this filter can be adjusted further by tailoring the structural geometry, paving the way for highly efficient and compact optical devices and sensors.

© 2020 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

1. Introduction

Surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs), having the ability to manipulate light at subwavelength level and conquering the classical diffraction limit have gained significant attention in recent times. This concept proves to be particularly valuable to plethora of applications ranging from optics [1], data storage [2], plasmonic sensing [3,4], to solar cells [5] and biosensors [6]. SPPs are generated along the metal- dielectric interfaces with field components decaying exponentially with distance off the boundary. These electromagnetic waves are generated from the interaction between free electrons in the metal oscillating in resonance with electromagnetic fields in dielectrics [7]. Waveguide structures based on SPPs include metal-insulator-metal (MIM) and insulator-metal-insulator (IMI) structures. Planar SPP IMI (insulator-metal-insulator) waveguides lack the ability to confine light; however, MIM (metal-insulator-metal) waveguides show efficient coupling with considerable propagation length providing possibilities for designing optical devices with smaller size and high degree of confinement [8,9]. For subwavelength confinement, addition of grooves on the waveguide benefits over planar waveguide due to efficient light-momentum coupling. Photonic metallic structures based on SPPs offer framework for the exploration of nano-optical devices such as demultiplexers, switches, sensors, optical amplifiers, modulators, splitters, optical couplers, resonators and filters [1020].

In recent years, optical filters, based on MIM waveguides, have become one of the most prominent components of machine vision systems, fluorescent microscopy, wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) and telecommunication applications. Among the passband types, the MIM structure filters can be divided into narrow-band band-stop type, narrow-band band-pass type, flat-top band-pass type, and flat-bottom band-stop type categories. For multispectral applications, Liang et al. [21] proposed free-standing periodic metal-dielectric-metal (MDM) stack geometry that was used to design ultra-thin near-infrared filter with high transmission efficiency. Gao et al. [22] designed a novel non-porous composite grating array with anomalous transmission to get high-performance plasmonic filter with a narrower line width by using the coupling of different propagation-type SPPs. Plasmonic bandpass filter and band stop filter using MIM waveguide used to realize multifunctionalities was designed in [2327]. Plasmonic optical filters (PFs) have also been explored using circular and ring shaped nano-resonator [18,28], circular ring cavity (CRC) [29], CRC with elliptical core [30], square ring cavity [31] and hexagonal ring cavity [32]. However, most structures showed inherent multi-mode property and lacked tunability of resonance wavelength. In [33], hexagonal nano-resonator (HNR) is reported showing resonance transmittance mode at higher wavelength. Despite having better performance, this design suffers from complex nanofabrication process. To realize a simple PF design, while achieving high performance, rectangular nano-resonator (RNR) can be a good candidate. RNR has certain minimum requirements for critical dimension uniformity and corrugated MIM waveguide rather than simple waveguide shows the flexibility to control the cutoff frequency shift providing efficient filtering and de-multiplexing properties.

In this paper, we propose a novel single mode plasmonic filter which is based on corrugated MIM waveguide coupled to RNR. The design has been optimized by varying parameters (length, width and spacing) to control the change of peak wavelength, maximum transmission, and bandwidth of the resonance spectrum. By optimizing structural parameters, the proposed filter is ideal for multispectral filtering applications. A cascaded design, combining simple and corrugated waveguide (CW), both coupled to their respective RNRs, is also explored. The cascaded structure provides dual modes and extended alteration property of resonance wavelengths.

2. Filter design and simulation setup

To design a plasmonic filter, combination of MIM (silver-air-silver) corrugated waveguide and RNR have been used. A two-dimensional geometry of the proposed structure is implemented considering continuous along z axis (see Fig. 1(a)). The TM polarized broadband light having near infrared wavelength range (750 - 2500 nm) is illuminated at input port (IN) (Fig. 1). We chose an inward grating profile for the corrugated waveguide since such slow wave periodic design can strongly couple the surface wave along the interface. For the design, the width of the waveguide, Wg is apodized gradually along the propagation length, l, which is referred to as the gradient corrugated waveguide in this paper. The varying depth of the corrugation on both silver-air interface is designed to increase by 5 nm than that of the previous one till the maximum depth of grating, d, is achieved. The width of the corrugation is defined as the period, S. The output waveguide is the mirror of the input one.

 

Fig. 1. Geometry of a waveguide coupled RNR based optical filter. a) 3D schematic of corrugated waveguide coupled to rectangular shaped nano resonator. b) Simulation setup of corrugated waveguide in 2D at transverse magnetic transmission mode. c) RNR coupled to simple rectangular waveguide. A broadband light is illuminated at the input port (IN); transmitted through the waveguide and output signal is collected at output port (OUT).

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To consider the dispersion properties of the materials firstly the relative permittivity (εd) of air is set to 1. Permittivity of silver is characterized using [34] six-pole Lorentz-Drude model (LDM) [as in Eq. (1)],

$${\varepsilon _r}(\omega ) = 1 - \frac{{{f_o}\omega _p^2}}{{{\omega ^2} - j{\Gamma _o}\omega }} + \sum \nolimits_{i = 1}^k\frac{{{f_i}\omega _p^2}}{{\omega _i^2 + j{\Gamma _i}\omega - {\omega ^2}}}$$
where ωp= 13.69 PHz indicates the plasma frequency, k (equal to 5 in this case) is the number of oscillators with frequency ωi, strength fi and 1/Γi is the lifetime, associated with intra-band transitions with oscillator strength f0 and damping constant Γ0.

The dielectric air grating couple the electromagnetic excitation to the nano-disk resonator. Light coupling and mode excitation from the rectangular waveguide to rectangular disk strongly depend on the gap width, g. The dimensions (width, Wg, maximum depth of grating d, and period of grating, S) of waveguides are optimized to ensure efficient coupling of SPP modes at the interface of silver and air grating. The performance of the corrugated waveguide based RNR (CWRNR) is numerically analyzed using an in house 2D Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method-based software. Since only the effects of SPP at the metal dielectric interface are being observed here therefore in the 2D model, effect of substrate has not been considered in the simulation domain. It has also significantly reduced computational burden. The transmission efficiency is defined as [35],

$$T = \frac{{{P_{out}}}}{{{P_{in}}}}$$
Pin presents the incident power at the input and Pout is the output power. Power transmission is calculated as the cross product of electric field vector and magnetic field vector [36], as the following,
$$S \equiv \frac{1}{\mu }E \times B$$
where, μ = permeability of medium. Extinction ratio, ER, can also be calculated by the following formula in dB,
$$ER = 10 \times \log ({{\raise0.7ex\hbox{${{P_{out}}}$} \!\mathord{\left/ {\vphantom {{{P_{out}}} {{P_{in}}}}} \right.}\!\lower0.7ex\hbox{${{P_{in}}}$}}} )$$
A Perfectly Matched Layer Absorbing Boundary Condition (PML-ABC) is considered to truncate the simulation domain to evaluate the performance of the proposed filter.

3. Performance optimization and analysis

To enable this integrated design of waveguide and RNR, firstly a comparative analysis is made among rectangular waveguide, corrugated waveguide and the combined MIM structures of waveguide and RNR, as shown in Fig. 2. With the help of a corrugated structure, we can control the cutoff frequency of the filter [25], which is not possible using simple waveguide in such a wide range. By changing the geometrical parameters of corrugated waveguide like maximum depth of grating, d and grating period, S, shown in Fig. 2(a) and (b) respectively, we can estimate higher order SP resonance mode of a band pass filter (BPF). From the analysis using these waveguide-based filters, it is apparent that at d = 40 nm, corrugated waveguide offers least noise while suppressing the higher order modes. For simple waveguide, SPs have inherent short lifetime due to the damped electron oscillation effects and create a broadband of resonance spectrum, whereas grating in the corrugated one ensures single mode SP resonance with increased transmission. Having this consideration, later S is varied from 5 nm to 25 nm with maximum d fixed to 40 nm. As in Fig. 2(b), (S) = 15 nm clearly ensures smooth transmission curve at almost same bandwidth. Transmission characteristics of the RNR coupled to corrugated waveguide (CWRNR) is also compared with RNR of same dimensions coupled to a simple waveguide (SWRNR) in Fig. 2(c). The transmission profile for the SWRNR clearly shows dual mode property, whereas the CWRNR has only single mode with 17% increase in transmission at the near infrared wavelength range than SWRNR. Next, we investigate the effect of the gap, g, between corrugated waveguide and RNR, by varying it from 5 nm to 25 nm, with L = 450 nm and W = 400 nm (as in Fig. 2(d)). It is observed that by reducing g, the coupling between the waveguide and RNR gets stronger and transmission increases. When g increases, full width at half maximum (FWHM) corresponding to half of its maximum amplitude is decreased, resulting in a high Q-factor at the expense of a lower transmission.

 

Fig. 2. Transmission spectra of (a) simple and corrugated waveguides of Wg = 100 nm with varying depth of grating, d, (b) corrugated waveguide of Wg = 100 nm with varying period of grating, S, (c) RNR coupled to simple and corrugated waveguide having S = 15 nm and d = 40 nm. (d) CWRNR with varying gap, g.

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The transmission spectra at resonance wavelength in plasmonic BPF can also be characterized using the temporal coupled mode theory, and the maximum transmission Tmax, in terms of quality factors can be described as [37]:

$${T_{\max }}({\mathrm{\omega }_o}\textrm{) = }{\left( {\frac{1}{{1 + {{{Q_w}} / {{Q_i}}}}}} \right)^2}$$
Here, Qi and Qw indicate cavity quality factors related to intrinsic loss and waveguide coupling loss, respectively. From Eq. (5), we can infer that, when Qw/Qi ratio decreases, transmission increases and vice versa. As g decreases, the quality factor Qw decreases, causing Qw/Qi to decrease and transmission to increase. However, to keep the gap width as low as 5 nm is not practically feasible during fabrication. Therefore, the next best result, at g = 10 nm, and transmission efficiency of 65.3% (ER = −1.85 dB) is considered as a more realistic design. As for other parameters, the length, L and width, W of the RNR is varied to select the desired wavelength and bandwidth of the filter (see Fig. 3 and 4).

 

Fig. 3. (a) Transmission spectrum of RNR coupled to corrugate waveguide having Wg = 100 nm for different values of W, while keeping the other parameters constant; (b) Comparison of relationship of FWHM and peak transmission varying with W, (c), (d) Normalized magnetic field profile, |Hz| at resonance wavelength 1111 nm and non-resonance wavelength 650 nm respectively with L = 450 nm and W = 450 nm.

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Fig. 4. (a) Transmission spectrum of RNR coupled to corrugate waveguide having Wg = 100 nm for different values of L, while keeping the other parameters constant; (b) Comparison of relationship of FWHM and peak transmission varying with L, (c), (d) Normalized magnetic field profile, |Hz| at resonance wavelength 1070 nm and non-resonance wavelength 650 nm respectively with L = 450 nm and W = 350 nm.

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The transmission spectra corresponding to variation of W and L is shown in Fig. 3(a) and 4(a) respectively. For a fixed length of resonator (L), variation of W from 200 nm to 450 nm changes the transmission efficiency of CWRNR from 71% to 61% (ER = −1.487 dB to −2.147 dB) (as in Fig. 3(a)). This range of high values were only achievable in previous studies if Drude model is used [30,31,35], which overestimates transmission, whereas in this study, more accurate analysis is presented using LDM. The single mode transmission reported in recent study using LDM [33] is also significantly lower and lacks bandwidth tuning as compared to our proposed structure. FWHM of the proposed filter can be adjusted from 175 nm to 85 nm (as in Fig. 3(b)) with nearly 5% variation in resonance wavelength from 1111 nm to 1056 nm by changing W. Normalized magnetic field profile |Hz|, at resonance and non-resonance wavelength, 1111 nm and 650 nm is shown in Fig. 3(c) and (d) respectively. When width of the dielectric increases, coupling between charge density oscillations decreases, which results in lower coupling efficiency and narrower bandwidth as in Fig. 5(a), showing normalized electric field |E| at resonance wavelength of 1111 nm with L = W = 450 nm.

 

Fig. 5. (a) A zoomed view of normalized electric field |E| at resonance wavelength of 1111 nm with L = W = 450 nm, (c) Comparison of simulation result with Eq. (6) varying W and L.

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Next, we explore the effect of varying L and found a broad range of shift in resonance wavelength from 750 nm to 1070 nm, while keeping W and g at 350 nm and 10 nm, respectively. It is observed that as L increases, operating wavelength increases with nearly 30% variation in resonance wavelength. Figure 4(a) depicts the transmission spectra and 4(b) shows the FWHM and transmission peak, for a range of L. Maximum transmission of 66% (ER = −1.81 dB) at a wavelength of 1070 nm is obtained when L = 450 nm, which also results in a FWHM value of 100 nm. Increase in L slows down decay rate of intrinsic loss, which ultimately causes Qi to increase and hence transmission increases and slight change in FWHM is observed in Fig. 4(a) for g = 10 nm and W = 350 nm. Normalized magnetic field profile, |Hz|, is verified at resonance wavelength 1070 nm and non-resonance wavelength 650 nm with L = 450 nm and W = 350 nm in Fig. 4(c) and (d) respectively.

Based on the simulation results for the proposed CWRNR filter, the relationship between the geometrical parameters and corresponding resonance wavelength can be formulated into the following equation:

$${\lambda _{res}} = \frac{{{k_1}[2 + {{(L} / {W)]}}(L + W){\eta _{eff}}}}{{m - {\phi / {2\pi }}}}$$
where m and ϕ/2π correspond to the order of the resonance mode and phase shift around the edges of RNR, respectively. The factor k1 (∼0.38) is a geometry dependent variable, which corresponds to the rectangular shaped cavity. Effective refractive index in the MIM resonator ηeff is defined as [38],
$${\eta _{eff}} = \sqrt {{\varepsilon _d}} {\left( {1 + \frac{\lambda }{{\pi w\sqrt { - {\varepsilon_m}} }}\sqrt {1 + \frac{{{\varepsilon_d}}}{{ - {\varepsilon_m}}}} } \right)^{{1 / 2}}}$$
A zoomed version of fringing normalized electric field |E| of the waveguide grating to validate coupling efficiency at 1111 nm resonance wavelength is given in Fig. 5(a). The validation of Eq. (6) is shown in Fig. 5(b), where numerically calculated resonance wavelength ${\lambda _{res}}$ is plotted against the variation of L and W. The flexibility to change resonance wavelength and transmission properties by simply changing L and W, gives the proposed design significant advantage over other plasmonic single mode filters already proposed in literature [31,33,35].

A cascaded structure is proposed in Fig. 6(a) to offer a wider range of frequency selection. Here, a SWRNR and a CWRNR are connected in series. The length, Lmw and width, Wmw of interconnecting waveguide are crucial in controlling the performance of this cascaded device, as shown in Fig. 6(b) and (c). Lmw and Wmw can be optimized to tune mode 1, over a range of wavelengths, from 400-700 nm, while in mode 2 a negligible shift of 20-40 nm is observed. Another efficient way to control the modes is to vary the length to width ratio of the first cavity, L1/W1. Figure 6(d) shows the shifting of mode 1 over 250 nm wavelength range and unlike Fig. 6(b) and (c), the inset shows mode 2 shifting by about 100 nm when L1/W1 ratio changes. The proposed cascaded device can, therefore, be a potential frequency selector in optical communication applications.

 

Fig. 6. (a) Schematic of the cascaded SWRNR and CWRNR PF structure. Transmission spectrum for (b) varying Lmw, (c) varying Wmw, and (d) varying cavity’s L1/W1 ratio (Inset: mode 2 of the transmission spectrum).

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Table 1 compares the performance of our proposed design with previously reported filters. Other reported papers shown in the Table 1 used the Drude model, which is less accurate than the LD model [39] and thus got higher transmission than ours. Applying the Lorentz-Drude model into the proposed design, a transmission efficiency of 71% has been achieved for single mode transmission. This is higher than the transmission efficiencies reported by Khani et al. [33,39] in recent times. Cascaded design also shows its novelty by controlling dual mode property of the filter. Different promising techniques, for example, plasmonic lithography along with multi patterning technique [40] is now providing high resolution, precision and accuracy with low line edge error (LER) in case of nanopatterning. This leads to a high possibility to realize the performance of the proposed filter considering negligible error.

Tables Icon

Table 1. Performance comparison of proposed filter structure with other reported works

4. Conclusion

A highly efficient, and single mode plasmonic filter is proposed based on RNR coupled to a basic MIM corrugated waveguide, having inward apodized grating profile. Light coupling property is numerically analyzed for optimized waveguide dimensions (depth and period of grating), as well as RNR dimensions (length, width and gap of resonator). Numerical FDTD analysis shows single mode transmission having 71% efficiency at resonance peak wavelength of 1111 nm. FWHM varies from 85 nm to 175 nm with change in W, while resonance wavelength changes from 750 nm to 1070 nm when L is varied. A cascaded device, combining SWRNR and CWRNR achieves tuning ability of dual resonance modes by varying Lmw, Wmw, and L1/W1. Finally, we anticipate that, both our proposed single mode and cascaded plasmonic filter may find potential applications in optical devices, integrated photonic circuits and sensors.

Acknowledgment

The authors thankfully acknowledge the support from Fab Lab DU, at University of Dhaka, for providing the necessary computational resources for this simulation study.

Disclosures

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

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References

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  1. S. Wang, X.-Y. Wang, B. Li, H.-Z. Chen, Y.-L. Wang, L. Dai, R. F. Oulton, and R.-M. Ma, “Unusual scaling laws for plasmonic nanolasers beyond the diffraction limit,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 1–8 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  2. G. C. Phan-Quang, X. Han, C. S. L. Koh, H. Y. F. Sim, C. L. Lay, S. X. Leong, Y. H. Lee, N. Pazos-Perez, R. A. Alvarez-Puebla, and X. Y. Ling, “Three-Dimensional Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Platforms: Large-Scale Plasmonic Hotspots for New Applications in Sensing, Microreaction, and Data Storage,” Acc. Chem. Res. 52(7), 1844–1854 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  3. Y.-Y. Xie, Y.-X. Huang, W.-L. Zhao, W.-H. Xu, and C. He, “A novel plasmonic sensor based on metal–insulator–metal waveguide with side-coupled hexagonal cavity,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(2), 1–12 (2015).
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  4. A. A. Rifat, R. Ahmed, A. K. Yetisen, H. Butt, A. Sabouri, G. A. Mahdiraji, S. H. Yun, and F. M. Adikan, “Photonic crystal fiber based plasmonic sensors,” Sens. Actuators, B 243, 311–325 (2017).
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  5. C. Jiang, Y. Chen, J. Sun, L. Jing, M. Liu, T. Liu, Y. Pan, X. Pu, B. Ma, and W. Hu, “Enhanced photocurrent in InGaN/GaN MQWs solar cells by coupling plasmonic with piezo-phototronic effect,” Nano Energy 57, 300–306 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  6. A. Prasad, J. Choi, Z. Jia, S. Park, and M. R. Gartia, “Nanohole array plasmonic biosensors: Emerging point-of-care applications,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 130, 185–203 (2019).
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  7. P. Johns, K. Yu, M. S. Devadas, and G. V. Hartland, “Role of resonances in the transmission of surface plasmon polaritons between nanostructures,” ACS Nano 10(3), 3375–3381 (2016).
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  12. M. Butt, N. Kazanskiy, and S. Khonina, “Label-free detection of ambient refractive index based on plasmonic Bragg gratings embedded resonator cavity sensor,” J. Mod. Opt. 66(19), 1920–1925 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  13. M. Butt, S. Khonina, and N. Kazanskiy, “Plasmonic refractive index sensor based on metal–insulator-metal waveguides with high sensitivity,” J. Mod. Opt. 66(9), 1038–1043 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  14. I. De Leon and P. Berini, “Amplification of long-range surface plasmons by a dipolar gain medium,” Nat. Photonics 4(6), 382–387 (2010).
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  15. X. Guo, R. Liu, D. Hu, H. Hu, Z. Wei, R. Wang, Y. Dai, Y. Cheng, K. Chen, and K. Liu, “Efficient All-Optical Plasmonic Modulators with Atomically Thin Van Der Waals Heterostructures,” Adv. Mater. 32(11), 1907105 (2020).
    [Crossref]
  16. M. T. Rahman and A. Khaleque, “Ultra-short polarization splitter based on a plasmonic dual-core photonic crystal fiber with an ultra-broad bandwidth,” Appl. Opt. 58(34), 9426–9433 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  17. K. M. Krishna, M. Z. U. Rahman, and S. Y. Fathima, “A new plasmonic broadband branch-line coupler for nanoscale wireless links,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(18), 1568–1571 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  18. R. Ahmed, A. A. Rifat, A. K. Yetisen, M. S. Salem, S.-H. Yun, and H. Butt, “Optical microring resonator based corrosion sensing,” RSC Adv. 6(61), 56127–56133 (2016).
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  19. X. Zhou and L. Zhou, “Analysis of subwavelength bandpass plasmonic filters based on single and coupled slot nanocavities,” Appl. Opt. 52(3), 480–488 (2013).
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  20. A. Tavousi, M. A. Mansouri-Birjandi, and M. Janfaza, “Optoelectronic application of graphene nanoribbon for mid-infrared bandpass filtering,” Appl. Opt. 57(20), 5800–5805 (2018).
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  21. Y. Liang, S. Zhang, X. Cao, Y. Lu, and T. Xu, “Free-standing plasmonic metal-dielectric-metal bandpass filter with high transmission efficiency,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 1–8 (2017).
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  22. J. Gao, J. Gao, H. Yang, H. Liu, X. Wang, K. Wang, X. Liu, Q. Li, Y. Wang, and Z. Li, “Cavity-driven hybrid plasmonic ultra-narrow bandpass filter,” Opt. Express 27(15), 20397–20411 (2019).
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  23. Y. Feng, Y. Liu, X. Wang, D. Dong, Y. Shi, S. Hua, H. Zhang, and L. Tang, “Compact nanofilters based on plasmonics waveguide with Archimedes’ spiral nanostructure,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(5), 1–8 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  24. L. Yang, Y. J. Zhou, C. Zhang, and Q. X. Xiao, “Compact wideband plasmonic filter with flat-top transmission response based on corrugated metal-insulator-metal ring resonator,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 1–10 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  25. S. M. Ebadi, J. Örtegren, M. S. Bayati, and S. B. Ram, “A Multipurpose and Highly-Compact Plasmonic Filter Based on Metal-Insulator-Metal Waveguides,” IEEE Photonics J. 12(3), 1–9 (2020).
    [Crossref]
  26. H. Li and R.-z. Jiao, “Plasmonic band-stop filters based on tooth structure,” Opt. Commun. 439, 201–205 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  27. M. Zheng, H. Li, H. Xu, Z. He, Z. Chen, and M. Zhao, “Filtering property based on ultra-wide stopband in double sector/sectorial-ring stub resonator coupled to plasmonic waveguide,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(5), 1–8 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  28. S. Shi, Z. Wei, Z. Lu, X. Zhang, X. Li, H. Liu, and R. Liang, “Enhanced plasmonic band-pass filter with symmetric dual side-coupled nanodisk resonators,” J. Appl. Phys. 118(14), 143103 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  29. S. Pang, Y. Zhang, Y. Huo, Y. Xie, L. Hao, and T. Zhang, “The filter characteristic research of metal-insulator-metal waveguide with double overlapping annular rings,” Plasmonics 10(6), 1723–1728 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  30. B. Liu, Y.-F. Liu, S.-J. Li, and X.-D. He, “Rotation and conversion of transmission mode based on a rotatable elliptical core ring resonator,” Opt. Commun. 369, 44–49 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  31. M. Zavvari, M. Taleb Hesami Azar, and A. Arashmehr, “Tunable band-stop plasmonic filter based on square ring resonators in a metal-insulator-metal structure,” J. Mod. Opt. 64(20), 2221–2227 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  32. M. R. Rakhshani and M. A. Mansouri-Birjandi, “High-sensitivity plasmonic sensor based on metal–insulator–metal waveguide and hexagonal-ring cavity,” IEEE Sens. J. 16(9), 3041–3046 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  33. S. Khani, M. Danaie, and P. Rezaei, “Design of a single-mode plasmonic bandpass filter using a hexagonal resonator coupled to graded-stub waveguides,” Plasmonics 14(1), 53–62 (2019).
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  34. A. D. Rakić, A. B. Djurišić, J. M. Elazar, and M. L. Majewski, “Optical properties of metallic films for vertical-cavity optoelectronic devices,” Appl. Opt. 37(22), 5271–5283 (1998).
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  35. H. Lu, X. Liu, D. Mao, L. Wang, and Y. Gong, “Tunable band-pass plasmonic waveguide filters with nanodisk resonators,” Opt. Express 18(17), 17922–17927 (2010).
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  36. P. Kinsler, A. Favaro, and M. W. McCall, “Four poynting theorems,” Eur. J. Phys. 30(5), 983–993 (2009).
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  37. Q. Li, T. Wang, Y. Su, M. Yan, and M. Qiu, “Coupled mode theory analysis of mode-splitting in coupled cavity system,” Opt. Express 18(8), 8367–8382 (2010).
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  38. S. Collin, F. Pardo, and J.-L. Pelouard, “Waveguiding in nanoscale metallic apertures,” Opt. Express 15(7), 4310–4320 (2007).
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  39. S. Khani, M. Danaie, and P. Rezaei, “Realization of single-mode plasmonic bandpass filters using improved nanodisk resonators,” Opt. Commun. 420, 147–156 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  40. P. Gao, M. Pu, X. Ma, X. Li, Y. Guo, C. Wang, Z. Zhao, and X. Luo, “Plasmonic lithography for the fabrication of surface nanostructures with a feature size down to 9 nm,” Nanoscale 12(4), 2415–2421 (2020).
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  41. A. Setayesh, S. R. Mirnaziry, and M. S. Abrishamian, “Numerical investigation of tunable band-pass\band-stop plasmonic filters with hollow-core circular ring resonator,” J. Opt. Soc. Korea 15(1), 82–89 (2011).
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  42. G. Zhan, R. Liang, H. Liang, J. Luo, and R. Zhao, “Asymmetric band-pass plasmonic nanodisk filter with mode inhibition and spectrally splitting capabilities,” Opt. Express 22(8), 9912–9919 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  43. A. Dolatabady and N. Granpayeh, “L-shaped filter, mode separator and power divider based on plasmonic waveguides with nanocavity resonators,” IET Optoelectron. 9(6), 289–293 (2015).
    [Crossref]

2020 (3)

X. Guo, R. Liu, D. Hu, H. Hu, Z. Wei, R. Wang, Y. Dai, Y. Cheng, K. Chen, and K. Liu, “Efficient All-Optical Plasmonic Modulators with Atomically Thin Van Der Waals Heterostructures,” Adv. Mater. 32(11), 1907105 (2020).
[Crossref]

S. M. Ebadi, J. Örtegren, M. S. Bayati, and S. B. Ram, “A Multipurpose and Highly-Compact Plasmonic Filter Based on Metal-Insulator-Metal Waveguides,” IEEE Photonics J. 12(3), 1–9 (2020).
[Crossref]

P. Gao, M. Pu, X. Ma, X. Li, Y. Guo, C. Wang, Z. Zhao, and X. Luo, “Plasmonic lithography for the fabrication of surface nanostructures with a feature size down to 9 nm,” Nanoscale 12(4), 2415–2421 (2020).
[Crossref]

2019 (9)

H. Li and R.-z. Jiao, “Plasmonic band-stop filters based on tooth structure,” Opt. Commun. 439, 201–205 (2019).
[Crossref]

J. Gao, J. Gao, H. Yang, H. Liu, X. Wang, K. Wang, X. Liu, Q. Li, Y. Wang, and Z. Li, “Cavity-driven hybrid plasmonic ultra-narrow bandpass filter,” Opt. Express 27(15), 20397–20411 (2019).
[Crossref]

S. Khani, M. Danaie, and P. Rezaei, “Design of a single-mode plasmonic bandpass filter using a hexagonal resonator coupled to graded-stub waveguides,” Plasmonics 14(1), 53–62 (2019).
[Crossref]

M. T. Rahman and A. Khaleque, “Ultra-short polarization splitter based on a plasmonic dual-core photonic crystal fiber with an ultra-broad bandwidth,” Appl. Opt. 58(34), 9426–9433 (2019).
[Crossref]

M. Butt, N. Kazanskiy, and S. Khonina, “Label-free detection of ambient refractive index based on plasmonic Bragg gratings embedded resonator cavity sensor,” J. Mod. Opt. 66(19), 1920–1925 (2019).
[Crossref]

M. Butt, S. Khonina, and N. Kazanskiy, “Plasmonic refractive index sensor based on metal–insulator-metal waveguides with high sensitivity,” J. Mod. Opt. 66(9), 1038–1043 (2019).
[Crossref]

G. C. Phan-Quang, X. Han, C. S. L. Koh, H. Y. F. Sim, C. L. Lay, S. X. Leong, Y. H. Lee, N. Pazos-Perez, R. A. Alvarez-Puebla, and X. Y. Ling, “Three-Dimensional Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Platforms: Large-Scale Plasmonic Hotspots for New Applications in Sensing, Microreaction, and Data Storage,” Acc. Chem. Res. 52(7), 1844–1854 (2019).
[Crossref]

C. Jiang, Y. Chen, J. Sun, L. Jing, M. Liu, T. Liu, Y. Pan, X. Pu, B. Ma, and W. Hu, “Enhanced photocurrent in InGaN/GaN MQWs solar cells by coupling plasmonic with piezo-phototronic effect,” Nano Energy 57, 300–306 (2019).
[Crossref]

A. Prasad, J. Choi, Z. Jia, S. Park, and M. R. Gartia, “Nanohole array plasmonic biosensors: Emerging point-of-care applications,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 130, 185–203 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (2)

A. Tavousi, M. A. Mansouri-Birjandi, and M. Janfaza, “Optoelectronic application of graphene nanoribbon for mid-infrared bandpass filtering,” Appl. Opt. 57(20), 5800–5805 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Khani, M. Danaie, and P. Rezaei, “Realization of single-mode plasmonic bandpass filters using improved nanodisk resonators,” Opt. Commun. 420, 147–156 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (7)

Y. Liang, S. Zhang, X. Cao, Y. Lu, and T. Xu, “Free-standing plasmonic metal-dielectric-metal bandpass filter with high transmission efficiency,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 1–8 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Zheng, H. Li, H. Xu, Z. He, Z. Chen, and M. Zhao, “Filtering property based on ultra-wide stopband in double sector/sectorial-ring stub resonator coupled to plasmonic waveguide,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(5), 1–8 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. Yang, Y. J. Zhou, C. Zhang, and Q. X. Xiao, “Compact wideband plasmonic filter with flat-top transmission response based on corrugated metal-insulator-metal ring resonator,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 1–10 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Zavvari, M. Taleb Hesami Azar, and A. Arashmehr, “Tunable band-stop plasmonic filter based on square ring resonators in a metal-insulator-metal structure,” J. Mod. Opt. 64(20), 2221–2227 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Wang, X.-Y. Wang, B. Li, H.-Z. Chen, Y.-L. Wang, L. Dai, R. F. Oulton, and R.-M. Ma, “Unusual scaling laws for plasmonic nanolasers beyond the diffraction limit,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 1–8 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. A. Rifat, R. Ahmed, A. K. Yetisen, H. Butt, A. Sabouri, G. A. Mahdiraji, S. H. Yun, and F. M. Adikan, “Photonic crystal fiber based plasmonic sensors,” Sens. Actuators, B 243, 311–325 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. M. Krishna, M. Z. U. Rahman, and S. Y. Fathima, “A new plasmonic broadband branch-line coupler for nanoscale wireless links,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(18), 1568–1571 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (5)

R. Ahmed, A. A. Rifat, A. K. Yetisen, M. S. Salem, S.-H. Yun, and H. Butt, “Optical microring resonator based corrosion sensing,” RSC Adv. 6(61), 56127–56133 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. Johns, K. Yu, M. S. Devadas, and G. V. Hartland, “Role of resonances in the transmission of surface plasmon polaritons between nanostructures,” ACS Nano 10(3), 3375–3381 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. R. Rakhshani and M. A. Mansouri-Birjandi, “High-sensitivity plasmonic sensor based on metal–insulator–metal waveguide and hexagonal-ring cavity,” IEEE Sens. J. 16(9), 3041–3046 (2016).
[Crossref]

B. Liu, Y.-F. Liu, S.-J. Li, and X.-D. He, “Rotation and conversion of transmission mode based on a rotatable elliptical core ring resonator,” Opt. Commun. 369, 44–49 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Feng, Y. Liu, X. Wang, D. Dong, Y. Shi, S. Hua, H. Zhang, and L. Tang, “Compact nanofilters based on plasmonics waveguide with Archimedes’ spiral nanostructure,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(5), 1–8 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (4)

S. Shi, Z. Wei, Z. Lu, X. Zhang, X. Li, H. Liu, and R. Liang, “Enhanced plasmonic band-pass filter with symmetric dual side-coupled nanodisk resonators,” J. Appl. Phys. 118(14), 143103 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Pang, Y. Zhang, Y. Huo, Y. Xie, L. Hao, and T. Zhang, “The filter characteristic research of metal-insulator-metal waveguide with double overlapping annular rings,” Plasmonics 10(6), 1723–1728 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y.-Y. Xie, Y.-X. Huang, W.-L. Zhao, W.-H. Xu, and C. He, “A novel plasmonic sensor based on metal–insulator–metal waveguide with side-coupled hexagonal cavity,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(2), 1–12 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Dolatabady and N. Granpayeh, “L-shaped filter, mode separator and power divider based on plasmonic waveguides with nanocavity resonators,” IET Optoelectron. 9(6), 289–293 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

2013 (1)

2011 (3)

2010 (3)

2009 (1)

P. Kinsler, A. Favaro, and M. W. McCall, “Four poynting theorems,” Eur. J. Phys. 30(5), 983–993 (2009).
[Crossref]

2007 (3)

1998 (1)

Abrishamian, M. S.

Adikan, F. M.

A. A. Rifat, R. Ahmed, A. K. Yetisen, H. Butt, A. Sabouri, G. A. Mahdiraji, S. H. Yun, and F. M. Adikan, “Photonic crystal fiber based plasmonic sensors,” Sens. Actuators, B 243, 311–325 (2017).
[Crossref]

Ahmed, R.

A. A. Rifat, R. Ahmed, A. K. Yetisen, H. Butt, A. Sabouri, G. A. Mahdiraji, S. H. Yun, and F. M. Adikan, “Photonic crystal fiber based plasmonic sensors,” Sens. Actuators, B 243, 311–325 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. Ahmed, A. A. Rifat, A. K. Yetisen, M. S. Salem, S.-H. Yun, and H. Butt, “Optical microring resonator based corrosion sensing,” RSC Adv. 6(61), 56127–56133 (2016).
[Crossref]

Alvarez-Puebla, R. A.

G. C. Phan-Quang, X. Han, C. S. L. Koh, H. Y. F. Sim, C. L. Lay, S. X. Leong, Y. H. Lee, N. Pazos-Perez, R. A. Alvarez-Puebla, and X. Y. Ling, “Three-Dimensional Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Platforms: Large-Scale Plasmonic Hotspots for New Applications in Sensing, Microreaction, and Data Storage,” Acc. Chem. Res. 52(7), 1844–1854 (2019).
[Crossref]

Arashmehr, A.

M. Zavvari, M. Taleb Hesami Azar, and A. Arashmehr, “Tunable band-stop plasmonic filter based on square ring resonators in a metal-insulator-metal structure,” J. Mod. Opt. 64(20), 2221–2227 (2017).
[Crossref]

Bayati, M. S.

S. M. Ebadi, J. Örtegren, M. S. Bayati, and S. B. Ram, “A Multipurpose and Highly-Compact Plasmonic Filter Based on Metal-Insulator-Metal Waveguides,” IEEE Photonics J. 12(3), 1–9 (2020).
[Crossref]

Berini, P.

I. De Leon and P. Berini, “Amplification of long-range surface plasmons by a dipolar gain medium,” Nat. Photonics 4(6), 382–387 (2010).
[Crossref]

Butt, H.

A. A. Rifat, R. Ahmed, A. K. Yetisen, H. Butt, A. Sabouri, G. A. Mahdiraji, S. H. Yun, and F. M. Adikan, “Photonic crystal fiber based plasmonic sensors,” Sens. Actuators, B 243, 311–325 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. Ahmed, A. A. Rifat, A. K. Yetisen, M. S. Salem, S.-H. Yun, and H. Butt, “Optical microring resonator based corrosion sensing,” RSC Adv. 6(61), 56127–56133 (2016).
[Crossref]

Butt, M.

M. Butt, N. Kazanskiy, and S. Khonina, “Label-free detection of ambient refractive index based on plasmonic Bragg gratings embedded resonator cavity sensor,” J. Mod. Opt. 66(19), 1920–1925 (2019).
[Crossref]

M. Butt, S. Khonina, and N. Kazanskiy, “Plasmonic refractive index sensor based on metal–insulator-metal waveguides with high sensitivity,” J. Mod. Opt. 66(9), 1038–1043 (2019).
[Crossref]

Cao, X.

Y. Liang, S. Zhang, X. Cao, Y. Lu, and T. Xu, “Free-standing plasmonic metal-dielectric-metal bandpass filter with high transmission efficiency,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 1–8 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chen, H.-Z.

S. Wang, X.-Y. Wang, B. Li, H.-Z. Chen, Y.-L. Wang, L. Dai, R. F. Oulton, and R.-M. Ma, “Unusual scaling laws for plasmonic nanolasers beyond the diffraction limit,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 1–8 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chen, K.

X. Guo, R. Liu, D. Hu, H. Hu, Z. Wei, R. Wang, Y. Dai, Y. Cheng, K. Chen, and K. Liu, “Efficient All-Optical Plasmonic Modulators with Atomically Thin Van Der Waals Heterostructures,” Adv. Mater. 32(11), 1907105 (2020).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.

C. Jiang, Y. Chen, J. Sun, L. Jing, M. Liu, T. Liu, Y. Pan, X. Pu, B. Ma, and W. Hu, “Enhanced photocurrent in InGaN/GaN MQWs solar cells by coupling plasmonic with piezo-phototronic effect,” Nano Energy 57, 300–306 (2019).
[Crossref]

Chen, Z.

M. Zheng, H. Li, H. Xu, Z. He, Z. Chen, and M. Zhao, “Filtering property based on ultra-wide stopband in double sector/sectorial-ring stub resonator coupled to plasmonic waveguide,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(5), 1–8 (2017).
[Crossref]

Cheng, Y.

X. Guo, R. Liu, D. Hu, H. Hu, Z. Wei, R. Wang, Y. Dai, Y. Cheng, K. Chen, and K. Liu, “Efficient All-Optical Plasmonic Modulators with Atomically Thin Van Der Waals Heterostructures,” Adv. Mater. 32(11), 1907105 (2020).
[Crossref]

Choi, J.

A. Prasad, J. Choi, Z. Jia, S. Park, and M. R. Gartia, “Nanohole array plasmonic biosensors: Emerging point-of-care applications,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 130, 185–203 (2019).
[Crossref]

Collin, S.

Dai, L.

S. Wang, X.-Y. Wang, B. Li, H.-Z. Chen, Y.-L. Wang, L. Dai, R. F. Oulton, and R.-M. Ma, “Unusual scaling laws for plasmonic nanolasers beyond the diffraction limit,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 1–8 (2017).
[Crossref]

Dai, Y.

X. Guo, R. Liu, D. Hu, H. Hu, Z. Wei, R. Wang, Y. Dai, Y. Cheng, K. Chen, and K. Liu, “Efficient All-Optical Plasmonic Modulators with Atomically Thin Van Der Waals Heterostructures,” Adv. Mater. 32(11), 1907105 (2020).
[Crossref]

Danaie, M.

S. Khani, M. Danaie, and P. Rezaei, “Design of a single-mode plasmonic bandpass filter using a hexagonal resonator coupled to graded-stub waveguides,” Plasmonics 14(1), 53–62 (2019).
[Crossref]

S. Khani, M. Danaie, and P. Rezaei, “Realization of single-mode plasmonic bandpass filters using improved nanodisk resonators,” Opt. Commun. 420, 147–156 (2018).
[Crossref]

De Leon, I.

I. De Leon and P. Berini, “Amplification of long-range surface plasmons by a dipolar gain medium,” Nat. Photonics 4(6), 382–387 (2010).
[Crossref]

Devadas, M. S.

P. Johns, K. Yu, M. S. Devadas, and G. V. Hartland, “Role of resonances in the transmission of surface plasmon polaritons between nanostructures,” ACS Nano 10(3), 3375–3381 (2016).
[Crossref]

Djurišic, A. B.

Dolatabady, A.

A. Dolatabady and N. Granpayeh, “L-shaped filter, mode separator and power divider based on plasmonic waveguides with nanocavity resonators,” IET Optoelectron. 9(6), 289–293 (2015).
[Crossref]

Dong, D.

Y. Feng, Y. Liu, X. Wang, D. Dong, Y. Shi, S. Hua, H. Zhang, and L. Tang, “Compact nanofilters based on plasmonics waveguide with Archimedes’ spiral nanostructure,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(5), 1–8 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ebadi, S. M.

S. M. Ebadi, J. Örtegren, M. S. Bayati, and S. B. Ram, “A Multipurpose and Highly-Compact Plasmonic Filter Based on Metal-Insulator-Metal Waveguides,” IEEE Photonics J. 12(3), 1–9 (2020).
[Crossref]

Elazar, J. M.

Fan, S.

Fathima, S. Y.

K. M. Krishna, M. Z. U. Rahman, and S. Y. Fathima, “A new plasmonic broadband branch-line coupler for nanoscale wireless links,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(18), 1568–1571 (2017).
[Crossref]

Favaro, A.

P. Kinsler, A. Favaro, and M. W. McCall, “Four poynting theorems,” Eur. J. Phys. 30(5), 983–993 (2009).
[Crossref]

Feng, Y.

Y. Feng, Y. Liu, X. Wang, D. Dong, Y. Shi, S. Hua, H. Zhang, and L. Tang, “Compact nanofilters based on plasmonics waveguide with Archimedes’ spiral nanostructure,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(5), 1–8 (2016).
[Crossref]

Forsberg, E.

Z. Han, E. Forsberg, and S. He, “Surface plasmon Bragg gratings formed in metal-insulator-metal waveguides,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19(2), 91–93 (2007).
[Crossref]

Gao, J.

Gao, P.

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H. Li and R.-z. Jiao, “Plasmonic band-stop filters based on tooth structure,” Opt. Commun. 439, 201–205 (2019).
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Li, Q.

Li, S.-J.

B. Liu, Y.-F. Liu, S.-J. Li, and X.-D. He, “Rotation and conversion of transmission mode based on a rotatable elliptical core ring resonator,” Opt. Commun. 369, 44–49 (2016).
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Liang, H.

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C. Jiang, Y. Chen, J. Sun, L. Jing, M. Liu, T. Liu, Y. Pan, X. Pu, B. Ma, and W. Hu, “Enhanced photocurrent in InGaN/GaN MQWs solar cells by coupling plasmonic with piezo-phototronic effect,” Nano Energy 57, 300–306 (2019).
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Liu, Y.

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B. Liu, Y.-F. Liu, S.-J. Li, and X.-D. He, “Rotation and conversion of transmission mode based on a rotatable elliptical core ring resonator,” Opt. Commun. 369, 44–49 (2016).
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Lu, Y.

Y. Liang, S. Zhang, X. Cao, Y. Lu, and T. Xu, “Free-standing plasmonic metal-dielectric-metal bandpass filter with high transmission efficiency,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 1–8 (2017).
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C. Jiang, Y. Chen, J. Sun, L. Jing, M. Liu, T. Liu, Y. Pan, X. Pu, B. Ma, and W. Hu, “Enhanced photocurrent in InGaN/GaN MQWs solar cells by coupling plasmonic with piezo-phototronic effect,” Nano Energy 57, 300–306 (2019).
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S. Wang, X.-Y. Wang, B. Li, H.-Z. Chen, Y.-L. Wang, L. Dai, R. F. Oulton, and R.-M. Ma, “Unusual scaling laws for plasmonic nanolasers beyond the diffraction limit,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 1–8 (2017).
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P. Gao, M. Pu, X. Ma, X. Li, Y. Guo, C. Wang, Z. Zhao, and X. Luo, “Plasmonic lithography for the fabrication of surface nanostructures with a feature size down to 9 nm,” Nanoscale 12(4), 2415–2421 (2020).
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A. A. Rifat, R. Ahmed, A. K. Yetisen, H. Butt, A. Sabouri, G. A. Mahdiraji, S. H. Yun, and F. M. Adikan, “Photonic crystal fiber based plasmonic sensors,” Sens. Actuators, B 243, 311–325 (2017).
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P. Kinsler, A. Favaro, and M. W. McCall, “Four poynting theorems,” Eur. J. Phys. 30(5), 983–993 (2009).
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S. Wang, X.-Y. Wang, B. Li, H.-Z. Chen, Y.-L. Wang, L. Dai, R. F. Oulton, and R.-M. Ma, “Unusual scaling laws for plasmonic nanolasers beyond the diffraction limit,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 1–8 (2017).
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C. Jiang, Y. Chen, J. Sun, L. Jing, M. Liu, T. Liu, Y. Pan, X. Pu, B. Ma, and W. Hu, “Enhanced photocurrent in InGaN/GaN MQWs solar cells by coupling plasmonic with piezo-phototronic effect,” Nano Energy 57, 300–306 (2019).
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Park, S.

A. Prasad, J. Choi, Z. Jia, S. Park, and M. R. Gartia, “Nanohole array plasmonic biosensors: Emerging point-of-care applications,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 130, 185–203 (2019).
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C. Jiang, Y. Chen, J. Sun, L. Jing, M. Liu, T. Liu, Y. Pan, X. Pu, B. Ma, and W. Hu, “Enhanced photocurrent in InGaN/GaN MQWs solar cells by coupling plasmonic with piezo-phototronic effect,” Nano Energy 57, 300–306 (2019).
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Rahman, M. T.

Rahman, M. Z. U.

K. M. Krishna, M. Z. U. Rahman, and S. Y. Fathima, “A new plasmonic broadband branch-line coupler for nanoscale wireless links,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(18), 1568–1571 (2017).
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M. R. Rakhshani and M. A. Mansouri-Birjandi, “High-sensitivity plasmonic sensor based on metal–insulator–metal waveguide and hexagonal-ring cavity,” IEEE Sens. J. 16(9), 3041–3046 (2016).
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Ram, S. B.

S. M. Ebadi, J. Örtegren, M. S. Bayati, and S. B. Ram, “A Multipurpose and Highly-Compact Plasmonic Filter Based on Metal-Insulator-Metal Waveguides,” IEEE Photonics J. 12(3), 1–9 (2020).
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S. Khani, M. Danaie, and P. Rezaei, “Design of a single-mode plasmonic bandpass filter using a hexagonal resonator coupled to graded-stub waveguides,” Plasmonics 14(1), 53–62 (2019).
[Crossref]

S. Khani, M. Danaie, and P. Rezaei, “Realization of single-mode plasmonic bandpass filters using improved nanodisk resonators,” Opt. Commun. 420, 147–156 (2018).
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A. A. Rifat, R. Ahmed, A. K. Yetisen, H. Butt, A. Sabouri, G. A. Mahdiraji, S. H. Yun, and F. M. Adikan, “Photonic crystal fiber based plasmonic sensors,” Sens. Actuators, B 243, 311–325 (2017).
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Shi, Y.

Y. Feng, Y. Liu, X. Wang, D. Dong, Y. Shi, S. Hua, H. Zhang, and L. Tang, “Compact nanofilters based on plasmonics waveguide with Archimedes’ spiral nanostructure,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(5), 1–8 (2016).
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Sim, H. Y. F.

G. C. Phan-Quang, X. Han, C. S. L. Koh, H. Y. F. Sim, C. L. Lay, S. X. Leong, Y. H. Lee, N. Pazos-Perez, R. A. Alvarez-Puebla, and X. Y. Ling, “Three-Dimensional Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Platforms: Large-Scale Plasmonic Hotspots for New Applications in Sensing, Microreaction, and Data Storage,” Acc. Chem. Res. 52(7), 1844–1854 (2019).
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Sun, J.

C. Jiang, Y. Chen, J. Sun, L. Jing, M. Liu, T. Liu, Y. Pan, X. Pu, B. Ma, and W. Hu, “Enhanced photocurrent in InGaN/GaN MQWs solar cells by coupling plasmonic with piezo-phototronic effect,” Nano Energy 57, 300–306 (2019).
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Y. Feng, Y. Liu, X. Wang, D. Dong, Y. Shi, S. Hua, H. Zhang, and L. Tang, “Compact nanofilters based on plasmonics waveguide with Archimedes’ spiral nanostructure,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(5), 1–8 (2016).
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Veronis, G.

Wang, C.

P. Gao, M. Pu, X. Ma, X. Li, Y. Guo, C. Wang, Z. Zhao, and X. Luo, “Plasmonic lithography for the fabrication of surface nanostructures with a feature size down to 9 nm,” Nanoscale 12(4), 2415–2421 (2020).
[Crossref]

Wang, G.

Wang, K.

Wang, L.

Wang, R.

X. Guo, R. Liu, D. Hu, H. Hu, Z. Wei, R. Wang, Y. Dai, Y. Cheng, K. Chen, and K. Liu, “Efficient All-Optical Plasmonic Modulators with Atomically Thin Van Der Waals Heterostructures,” Adv. Mater. 32(11), 1907105 (2020).
[Crossref]

Wang, S.

S. Wang, X.-Y. Wang, B. Li, H.-Z. Chen, Y.-L. Wang, L. Dai, R. F. Oulton, and R.-M. Ma, “Unusual scaling laws for plasmonic nanolasers beyond the diffraction limit,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 1–8 (2017).
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Wang, T.

Wang, X.

J. Gao, J. Gao, H. Yang, H. Liu, X. Wang, K. Wang, X. Liu, Q. Li, Y. Wang, and Z. Li, “Cavity-driven hybrid plasmonic ultra-narrow bandpass filter,” Opt. Express 27(15), 20397–20411 (2019).
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[Crossref]

Wang, X.-Y.

S. Wang, X.-Y. Wang, B. Li, H.-Z. Chen, Y.-L. Wang, L. Dai, R. F. Oulton, and R.-M. Ma, “Unusual scaling laws for plasmonic nanolasers beyond the diffraction limit,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 1–8 (2017).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y.

Wang, Y.-L.

S. Wang, X.-Y. Wang, B. Li, H.-Z. Chen, Y.-L. Wang, L. Dai, R. F. Oulton, and R.-M. Ma, “Unusual scaling laws for plasmonic nanolasers beyond the diffraction limit,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 1–8 (2017).
[Crossref]

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X. Guo, R. Liu, D. Hu, H. Hu, Z. Wei, R. Wang, Y. Dai, Y. Cheng, K. Chen, and K. Liu, “Efficient All-Optical Plasmonic Modulators with Atomically Thin Van Der Waals Heterostructures,” Adv. Mater. 32(11), 1907105 (2020).
[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

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L. Yang, Y. J. Zhou, C. Zhang, and Q. X. Xiao, “Compact wideband plasmonic filter with flat-top transmission response based on corrugated metal-insulator-metal ring resonator,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 1–10 (2017).
[Crossref]

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S. Pang, Y. Zhang, Y. Huo, Y. Xie, L. Hao, and T. Zhang, “The filter characteristic research of metal-insulator-metal waveguide with double overlapping annular rings,” Plasmonics 10(6), 1723–1728 (2015).
[Crossref]

Xie, Y.-Y.

Y.-Y. Xie, Y.-X. Huang, W.-L. Zhao, W.-H. Xu, and C. He, “A novel plasmonic sensor based on metal–insulator–metal waveguide with side-coupled hexagonal cavity,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(2), 1–12 (2015).
[Crossref]

Xu, H.

M. Zheng, H. Li, H. Xu, Z. He, Z. Chen, and M. Zhao, “Filtering property based on ultra-wide stopband in double sector/sectorial-ring stub resonator coupled to plasmonic waveguide,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(5), 1–8 (2017).
[Crossref]

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Y. Liang, S. Zhang, X. Cao, Y. Lu, and T. Xu, “Free-standing plasmonic metal-dielectric-metal bandpass filter with high transmission efficiency,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 1–8 (2017).
[Crossref]

Xu, W.-H.

Y.-Y. Xie, Y.-X. Huang, W.-L. Zhao, W.-H. Xu, and C. He, “A novel plasmonic sensor based on metal–insulator–metal waveguide with side-coupled hexagonal cavity,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(2), 1–12 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yan, M.

Yang, H.

Yang, L.

L. Yang, Y. J. Zhou, C. Zhang, and Q. X. Xiao, “Compact wideband plasmonic filter with flat-top transmission response based on corrugated metal-insulator-metal ring resonator,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 1–10 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yetisen, A. K.

A. A. Rifat, R. Ahmed, A. K. Yetisen, H. Butt, A. Sabouri, G. A. Mahdiraji, S. H. Yun, and F. M. Adikan, “Photonic crystal fiber based plasmonic sensors,” Sens. Actuators, B 243, 311–325 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. Ahmed, A. A. Rifat, A. K. Yetisen, M. S. Salem, S.-H. Yun, and H. Butt, “Optical microring resonator based corrosion sensing,” RSC Adv. 6(61), 56127–56133 (2016).
[Crossref]

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P. Johns, K. Yu, M. S. Devadas, and G. V. Hartland, “Role of resonances in the transmission of surface plasmon polaritons between nanostructures,” ACS Nano 10(3), 3375–3381 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yun, S. H.

A. A. Rifat, R. Ahmed, A. K. Yetisen, H. Butt, A. Sabouri, G. A. Mahdiraji, S. H. Yun, and F. M. Adikan, “Photonic crystal fiber based plasmonic sensors,” Sens. Actuators, B 243, 311–325 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yun, S.-H.

R. Ahmed, A. A. Rifat, A. K. Yetisen, M. S. Salem, S.-H. Yun, and H. Butt, “Optical microring resonator based corrosion sensing,” RSC Adv. 6(61), 56127–56133 (2016).
[Crossref]

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M. Zavvari, M. Taleb Hesami Azar, and A. Arashmehr, “Tunable band-stop plasmonic filter based on square ring resonators in a metal-insulator-metal structure,” J. Mod. Opt. 64(20), 2221–2227 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhan, G.

Zhang, C.

L. Yang, Y. J. Zhou, C. Zhang, and Q. X. Xiao, “Compact wideband plasmonic filter with flat-top transmission response based on corrugated metal-insulator-metal ring resonator,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 1–10 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhang, H.

Y. Feng, Y. Liu, X. Wang, D. Dong, Y. Shi, S. Hua, H. Zhang, and L. Tang, “Compact nanofilters based on plasmonics waveguide with Archimedes’ spiral nanostructure,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(5), 1–8 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhang, S.

Y. Liang, S. Zhang, X. Cao, Y. Lu, and T. Xu, “Free-standing plasmonic metal-dielectric-metal bandpass filter with high transmission efficiency,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 1–8 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhang, T.

S. Pang, Y. Zhang, Y. Huo, Y. Xie, L. Hao, and T. Zhang, “The filter characteristic research of metal-insulator-metal waveguide with double overlapping annular rings,” Plasmonics 10(6), 1723–1728 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.

S. Shi, Z. Wei, Z. Lu, X. Zhang, X. Li, H. Liu, and R. Liang, “Enhanced plasmonic band-pass filter with symmetric dual side-coupled nanodisk resonators,” J. Appl. Phys. 118(14), 143103 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y.

S. Pang, Y. Zhang, Y. Huo, Y. Xie, L. Hao, and T. Zhang, “The filter characteristic research of metal-insulator-metal waveguide with double overlapping annular rings,” Plasmonics 10(6), 1723–1728 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhao, M.

M. Zheng, H. Li, H. Xu, Z. He, Z. Chen, and M. Zhao, “Filtering property based on ultra-wide stopband in double sector/sectorial-ring stub resonator coupled to plasmonic waveguide,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(5), 1–8 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhao, R.

Zhao, W.-L.

Y.-Y. Xie, Y.-X. Huang, W.-L. Zhao, W.-H. Xu, and C. He, “A novel plasmonic sensor based on metal–insulator–metal waveguide with side-coupled hexagonal cavity,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(2), 1–12 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhao, Z.

P. Gao, M. Pu, X. Ma, X. Li, Y. Guo, C. Wang, Z. Zhao, and X. Luo, “Plasmonic lithography for the fabrication of surface nanostructures with a feature size down to 9 nm,” Nanoscale 12(4), 2415–2421 (2020).
[Crossref]

Zheng, M.

M. Zheng, H. Li, H. Xu, Z. He, Z. Chen, and M. Zhao, “Filtering property based on ultra-wide stopband in double sector/sectorial-ring stub resonator coupled to plasmonic waveguide,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(5), 1–8 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhou, L.

Zhou, X.

Zhou, Y. J.

L. Yang, Y. J. Zhou, C. Zhang, and Q. X. Xiao, “Compact wideband plasmonic filter with flat-top transmission response based on corrugated metal-insulator-metal ring resonator,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 1–10 (2017).
[Crossref]

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P. Johns, K. Yu, M. S. Devadas, and G. V. Hartland, “Role of resonances in the transmission of surface plasmon polaritons between nanostructures,” ACS Nano 10(3), 3375–3381 (2016).
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Adv. Mater. (1)

X. Guo, R. Liu, D. Hu, H. Hu, Z. Wei, R. Wang, Y. Dai, Y. Cheng, K. Chen, and K. Liu, “Efficient All-Optical Plasmonic Modulators with Atomically Thin Van Der Waals Heterostructures,” Adv. Mater. 32(11), 1907105 (2020).
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Y.-Y. Xie, Y.-X. Huang, W.-L. Zhao, W.-H. Xu, and C. He, “A novel plasmonic sensor based on metal–insulator–metal waveguide with side-coupled hexagonal cavity,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(2), 1–12 (2015).
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S. Shi, Z. Wei, Z. Lu, X. Zhang, X. Li, H. Liu, and R. Liang, “Enhanced plasmonic band-pass filter with symmetric dual side-coupled nanodisk resonators,” J. Appl. Phys. 118(14), 143103 (2015).
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[Crossref]

Nat. Commun. (1)

S. Wang, X.-Y. Wang, B. Li, H.-Z. Chen, Y.-L. Wang, L. Dai, R. F. Oulton, and R.-M. Ma, “Unusual scaling laws for plasmonic nanolasers beyond the diffraction limit,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 1–8 (2017).
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S. Khani, M. Danaie, and P. Rezaei, “Design of a single-mode plasmonic bandpass filter using a hexagonal resonator coupled to graded-stub waveguides,” Plasmonics 14(1), 53–62 (2019).
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S. Pang, Y. Zhang, Y. Huo, Y. Xie, L. Hao, and T. Zhang, “The filter characteristic research of metal-insulator-metal waveguide with double overlapping annular rings,” Plasmonics 10(6), 1723–1728 (2015).
[Crossref]

RSC Adv. (1)

R. Ahmed, A. A. Rifat, A. K. Yetisen, M. S. Salem, S.-H. Yun, and H. Butt, “Optical microring resonator based corrosion sensing,” RSC Adv. 6(61), 56127–56133 (2016).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (2)

Y. Liang, S. Zhang, X. Cao, Y. Lu, and T. Xu, “Free-standing plasmonic metal-dielectric-metal bandpass filter with high transmission efficiency,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 1–8 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. Yang, Y. J. Zhou, C. Zhang, and Q. X. Xiao, “Compact wideband plasmonic filter with flat-top transmission response based on corrugated metal-insulator-metal ring resonator,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 1–10 (2017).
[Crossref]

Sens. Actuators, B (1)

A. A. Rifat, R. Ahmed, A. K. Yetisen, H. Butt, A. Sabouri, G. A. Mahdiraji, S. H. Yun, and F. M. Adikan, “Photonic crystal fiber based plasmonic sensors,” Sens. Actuators, B 243, 311–325 (2017).
[Crossref]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Geometry of a waveguide coupled RNR based optical filter. a) 3D schematic of corrugated waveguide coupled to rectangular shaped nano resonator. b) Simulation setup of corrugated waveguide in 2D at transverse magnetic transmission mode. c) RNR coupled to simple rectangular waveguide. A broadband light is illuminated at the input port (IN); transmitted through the waveguide and output signal is collected at output port (OUT).
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Transmission spectra of (a) simple and corrugated waveguides of Wg = 100 nm with varying depth of grating, d, (b) corrugated waveguide of Wg = 100 nm with varying period of grating, S, (c) RNR coupled to simple and corrugated waveguide having S = 15 nm and d = 40 nm. (d) CWRNR with varying gap, g.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) Transmission spectrum of RNR coupled to corrugate waveguide having Wg = 100 nm for different values of W, while keeping the other parameters constant; (b) Comparison of relationship of FWHM and peak transmission varying with W, (c), (d) Normalized magnetic field profile, |Hz| at resonance wavelength 1111 nm and non-resonance wavelength 650 nm respectively with L = 450 nm and W = 450 nm.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a) Transmission spectrum of RNR coupled to corrugate waveguide having Wg = 100 nm for different values of L, while keeping the other parameters constant; (b) Comparison of relationship of FWHM and peak transmission varying with L, (c), (d) Normalized magnetic field profile, |Hz| at resonance wavelength 1070 nm and non-resonance wavelength 650 nm respectively with L = 450 nm and W = 350 nm.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. (a) A zoomed view of normalized electric field |E| at resonance wavelength of 1111 nm with L = W = 450 nm, (c) Comparison of simulation result with Eq. (6) varying W and L.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. (a) Schematic of the cascaded SWRNR and CWRNR PF structure. Transmission spectrum for (b) varying Lmw, (c) varying Wmw, and (d) varying cavity’s L1/W1 ratio (Inset: mode 2 of the transmission spectrum).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Performance comparison of proposed filter structure with other reported works

Equations (7)

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ε r ( ω ) = 1 f o ω p 2 ω 2 j Γ o ω + i = 1 k f i ω p 2 ω i 2 + j Γ i ω ω 2
T = P o u t P i n
S 1 μ E × B
E R = 10 × log ( P o u t / P o u t P i n P i n )
T max ( ω o ) =  ( 1 1 + Q w / Q i ) 2
λ r e s = k 1 [ 2 + ( L / W ) ] ( L + W ) η e f f m ϕ / 2 π
η e f f = ε d ( 1 + λ π w ε m 1 + ε d ε m ) 1 / 2