Abstract

A soliton mode-locked lead selenide (PbSe) quantum-dot-doped fiber laser (QDFL) is proposed and investigated by numerical simulation for the first time. Buildup dynamics in time and spectral domains are studied. Output properties starting from Gaussian and noise-like signals are characterized. The optimum quantum-dot-doped fiber lengths are revealed under various PbSe quantum dot doping concentrations. The evolutions of the pulse and spectrum in the resonator at the steady state are discussed. The results obtained facilitate the understanding of the operating principle of QDFL for solving emission wavelength problem.

© 2020 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

1. Introduction

Owing to their high peak power and extremely short pulse duration, ultrashort pulses are crucial in many fields, such as multiphoton microscopy [1,2], laser microprocessing [3,4], efficient nonlinear frequency conversion [5,6], and laser filamentation [7,8]. Mode locking is the most efficient approach for creating stable ultrashort pulses. Fiber lasers are ideal sources for achieving excellent beam quality at low cost [913]. Mode-locked fiber lasers have become the commercial ultrashort pulse source with excellent beam quality, compact configuration, free alignment, and low cost.

However, it is difficult to emit several particular wavelengths from the present mode-locked fiber lasers owing to the limitation of emission wavelengths from rare-earth-doped gain media in fiber lasers [14]. For instance, rare-earth ions can radiate wavelengths of 1 μm, 1.5 μm, 2 μm, etc. However, there is no emission cross-section or extremely low emission cross-section at a number of particular wavelengths, such as the important biomedical wavelength of 1.7 μm [15,16]. This fact leads to a difficulty of obtaining 1.7 μm from a mode-locked rare-earth-doped fiber laser directly.

Quantum dots (QDs), a quasi-zero-dimensional semiconductor nanocrystal [1719], is a promising candidate as a gain medium in fiber lasers for obtaining particular wavelengths; they are not included in rare-earth ion-doped fiber lasers. Because the emission wavelengths of QDs can be shifted continuously by only changing the QDs size, a QD-doped fiber laser (QDFL) can easily achieve a particular wavelength. To date, IV-VI PbSe QDs, which have large emission cross sections, high quantum yields, broad adjustable spectra, and can be easily embedded in fiber, are an interesting material for obtaining efficient particular-wavelength output from fiber lasers [20,21]. Recently, studies regarding continuous PbSe QDFL and amplifiers have been performed [22,23]; however, the mode-locked PbSe QDFL has not been studied yet.

Herein, a soliton mode-locked PbSe QDFL is proposed and investigated by numerical simulation for the first time. Combining the rate equation with the generalized Ginzburg–Landau equation (GLE) while using the split-step Fourier method, PbSe QD-doped fiber (QDF)-related parameters were optimized to obtain a stable soliton pulse train. It was discovered that optimum lengths existed for different doping concentrations of PbSe QDF. The pulse and spectrum evolutions in the resonator at the steady state are discussed in the final section. The results obtained facilitate the understanding of the operating principle of QDFL to achieve the emission of a particular wavelength from a mode-locked fiber laser.

2. Modeling

The proposed soliton mode-locked PbSe QDFL is schematically shown in Fig. 1(a). This ring laser comprised a laser diode pump source with a central wavelength of 980 nm, a 980 nm/1700nm wavelength division multiplexer (WDM), a piece of QDF with an emission peak wavelength of 1700nm, a fiber-pigtailed isolator (ISO), an output fiber coupler (OC), a saturable absorber (SA), and four pieces of single-mode passive fibers (SMFs). A total loss was set in our model, including splicing loss, insertion loss, etc.In addition, all fibers had the same numerical aperture and core diameter.

 

Fig. 1. (a) Schematics of PbSe QDFL. (b) Schematics of simulated pulse tracking.

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The numerical simulation process is shown in Fig. 1(b). The pulse evolution started from the PbSe QDF. To describe the pulse propagation, we use the following generalized GLE [2426]:

$$\frac{{\partial A}}{{\partial z}} = \frac{{g(z)}}{\textrm{2}}A + \frac{{g(z)}}{{\textrm{2}\Omega _g^2}}\frac{{{\partial ^2}A}}{{\partial {t^2}}} + i\gamma {|A |^2}A\textrm{ - }i\frac{{{\beta _2}}}{2}\frac{{{\partial ^2}A}}{{\partial {t^2}}}\textrm{,}$$
where A denotes the envelop of the optical pulse, β2 the second-order dispersion, γ the third-order nonlinear coefficient, and Ωg the gain bandwidth. g(z) is the gain coefficient, which can be described by
$$g(z) = \frac{{{g_0}(z)}}{{1 + {E_{pulse}}/{E_{sat}}}},$$
where Esat is the gain saturation energy that depends on the pump power, Epulse is the pulse energy, and g0(z) can be expressed as
$${g_0}(z) = {\Gamma _L}N({\sigma _{eL}}{n_2}(z) - {\sigma _{\alpha L}}{n_1}(z)),$$
where z is the position of the PbSe QDF, N the doping concentration of the PbSe QDF, ΓL the laser overlap factor, σeL the laser emission cross section, σαL the laser absorption cross section, n1 the percentage of number of upper level particles, n2 the percentage of number of ground state particles. Furthermore, n1 + n2 = 1, where n2 can be described by the following rate equation [27,28]:
$${n_2} = \frac{{\frac{{{\sigma _{\alpha P}}{\Gamma _P}{\lambda _P}{P_P}(z )}}{{hcArea}} + \frac{{{\sigma _{\alpha L}}{\Gamma _L}{\lambda _L}{P_L}(z )}}{{hcArea}}}}{{\frac{{({\sigma _{\alpha P}} + {\sigma _{eP}}){\Gamma _P}{\lambda _P}{P_P}(z )}}{{hcArea}} + \frac{1}{\tau } + \frac{{({\sigma _{\alpha L}} + {\sigma _{eL}}){\Gamma _L}{\lambda _L}{P_P}(z )}}{{hcArea}}}},$$

Table 1 shows the parameters used in the rate equation.

Tables Icon

Table 1. Parameters Used in Rate Equationa

When laser pulses pass through the SMF, g is treated as 0. As pulses pass through the ISO and OC separately, the pulse energy will decrease by a fixed percentage of each element. When the pulses pass through the SA, the SA can be modeled by the following simplified transfer function:

$$T = 1 - ({\alpha _{ns}} + {\alpha _0}\frac{1}{{1 + {{|A |}^\textrm{2}}/{P_{sat}}}}),$$
where T is the transmittance, αns the absorption coefficient, α0 the modulation depth, Psat the saturated power, and |A|2 the instantaneous pulse power. The output pulse from the SA is the input pulse of the PbSe QDF after passing through the SMF, which is used to connect the two elements. The soliton is obtained when the output pulse and spectrum from the OC are stable.

Table 2 shows the parameters used in the GLE.

Tables Icon

Table 2. Parameters Used in GLE

3. Simulation results and analysis

The soliton buildup dynamics starting from a Gaussian signal and a noise-like signal were investigated in depth and characterized, as shown in Fig. 2. Figs. 2(a) and 2(b) illustrate the soliton buildup dynamics in time and spectral domains starting from a Gaussian signal. For pulse transformation, the pulse duration decreased, and the peak power increased at a low speed from the start to the 350th roundtrip, followed by a rapid narrowing and power increase from the 400th to 450th roundtrip, whereas a relaxation oscillation-like behavior was observed before a stable pulse was obtained at approximately the 500th roundtrip. Meanwhile, the spectrum evolution was narrow, i.e., less than 1 nm, without the Kelly sideband from the starting roundtrip to the 350th roundtrip, followed by the full-width at half maximum (FWHM) increasing significantly from the 400th to 450th roundtrips with a Kelly sideband (see Visualization 1). Meanwhile, the oscillation occurred before a stable spectrum was obtained at approximately the 500th roundtrip. Generally speaking, from the soliton buildup dynamics of Gaussian signal, it could be seen that the spectrum widens rapidly owing to peak power induced self phase modulation, before negative dispersion slows down the peak power to make a stable soliton pulse output.

 

Fig. 2. Soliton buildup dynamics in (a) time and (b) spectral domains starting from Gaussian signal. Soliton buildup dynamics in (c) time and (d) spectral domains of noise-like signal.

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Figures 2(c) and 2(d) show that the soliton buildup dynamics in time and spectral domains started from a noise-like signal. Compared with the evolution from the Gaussian signal, in the time domain, fewer roundtrips were required to form a stable pulse and the competition between pulses in noise-like signals was evident during the initial roundtrips, which resulted in the random pulse time coordinate (see Visualization 2). In the spectral domain, the initial noise spectrum bandwidth narrowed first because of the limit of Ωg, and then broadened quickly along the Kelly sideband, and a stable spectrum was obtained.

Figures 3(a) and 3(b) demonstrate the stable output pulse and spectrum starting from a Gaussian signal. The pulse had a pulse duration of 328 fs and a peak power of 156.1 W, whereas the spectra had an FWHM of 13.4 nm along the Kelly sideband. Figures 3(c) and 3(d) show the stable output pulse and spectrum started from noise-like signal. Identical pulse and spectrum characteristics were exhibited even though the pulse started from different initial signals. In other words, the output properties of the pulse and spectrum were independent of the initial signal, and coordinate position of stable pulse is uncertain while pulse was initialed from noise-like signal. Therefore, a Gaussian pulse was set as the initial signal in the following numerical analysis.

 

Fig. 3. Output (a) pulse and (b) spectrum starting from Gaussian signal. Output (c) pulse and (d) spectrum starting from noise-like signal.

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Based on a pump power fixed to 100 mW, the effects of the QDF length and doping concentration on the output peak power and pulse duration were investigated in this study. Figure 4 illustrates the peak power and pulse duration with respect to the QDF length under different PbSe QD doping concentrations. It was evident that an optimum QDF length existed for obtaining the maximum peak power under all selected doping concentrations. Meanwhile, with an increase in concentration, the optimum QDF length decreased. The optimum QDF lengths were approximately 0.6, 0.4, 0.3, and 0.25 m under N1, N2, N3, and N4, respectively. Furthermore, the optimum QDF lengths matched the shortest pulse durations of 242, 242, 241, 239 fs, under N1, N2, N3, and N4, respectively. In addition, compared with Hyperbolic Secant and Polynomial fitting, Gaussian fitting met the data of peak power and pulse duration more precisely.

 

Fig. 4. Peak power and pulse duration with respect to QDF length under different PbSe QD doping concentrations. (a) N1 = 6 × 1021 m-3. (b) N2 = 9 × 1021 m-3. (c) N3 = 12 × 1021 m-3. (d) N4 = 15 × 1021 m-3.

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To investigate the relationship between the spectrum and QDF length, spectra at various QDF lengths were compared, as shown in Fig. 5, while the pump power and doping concentration were fixed at 100 mW and 9 × 1021 m-3, respectively. As the QDF length increased from 0.2 to 0.4 m, the FWHM increased nonlinearly from 12.3 to 16.7 nm. Subsequently, as the QDF length increased from 0.4 to 0.6 m, the FWHM decreased nonlinearly from 16.7 to 10.4 nm.

 

Fig. 5. Comparison between spectra at various QDF lengths.

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Finally, the pulse and spectrum evolutions in one round trip at steady state were investigated. A doping concentration of 9 × 1021 m-3 and a QDF length of 0.4 m were set for this simulation. The time domain results are shown in Figs. 6(a) and 6(b), and the spectral domain results are shown in Figs. 6(c) and 6(d). The peak power and pulse duration increased as the pulse passed through the QDF, followed by the peak power decreasing after the pulse passing the elements successively. Compared with the pulse evolution, the spectrum evolution exhibited only a slight change in the Kelly sideband with almost the same spectral FWHM.

 

Fig. 6. (a) Pulse and (c) spectrum evolution in resonator at steady state. (b) Pulse and (d) spectrum after passing through elements.

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4. Conclusion

In summary, a soliton mode-locked PbSe QDFL was proposed and investigated through numerical simulation for the first time. To achieve a simulation that was similar to the real experimental situation, the gain coefficient g(z), which is a function of position in PbSe QDF, was applied. The buildup dynamics in time and spectral domains were investigated in depth. It was discovered that different initial signals resulted in different buildup dynamics but the same output property at the steady state. The peak power and pulse duration with respect to the QDF length under different PbSe QD doping concentrations were investigated. An optimum QDF length under a fixed pump power and doping concentration was determined. The results presented herein will facilitate the understanding of the operating principle of this novel laser, which further facilitates the optimization of resonator design and the development of the mode-locked fiber laser at particular wavelength.

Funding

National Natural Science Foundation of China (61705056, 61605039, 81601530); Natural Science Foundation of Zhejiang Province (LGF20F050004, LQ16F050002, LY20F050005, 2017C33143); Scientific Research Fund of Zhejiang Provincial Education Department (Y201533689).

Disclosures

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

References

1. W. Liu, S. H. Chia, H. Y. Chung, R. Greinert, F. X. Kaertner, and G. Q. Chang, “Energetic ultrafast fiber laser sources tunable in 1030-1215 nm for deep tissue multi-photon microscopy,” Opt. Express 25(6), 6822–6831 (2017). [CrossRef]  

2. F. Akhoundi and N. Peyghambarian, “Single-cavity dual-wavelength all-fiber femtosecond laser for multimodal multiphoton microscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express 11(5), 2761–2767 (2020). [CrossRef]  

3. R. B. Wu, J. T. Lin, M. Wang, Z. W. Fang, W. Chu, J. H. Zhang, J. H. Zhang, and Y. Cheng, “Fabrication of a multifunctional photonic integrated chip on lithium niobate on insulator using femtosecond laser-assisted chemomechanical polish,” Opt. Lett. 44(19), 4698–4701 (2019). [CrossRef]  

4. F. T. Zhang, Z. G. Nie, H. X. Huang, L. Ma, H. Tang, M. M. Hao, and J. R. Qiu, “Self-assembled three-dimensional periodic micro-nano structures in bulk quartz crystal induced by femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express 27(5), 6442–6450 (2019). [CrossRef]  

5. P. M. Dansette, R. Burokas, L. Veselis, A. Zaukevicius, A. Michailovas, and N. Rusteika, “Peculiarities of second harmonic generation with chirped femtosecond pulses at high conversion efficiency,” Opt. Commun. 455(15), 124462 (2020). [CrossRef]  

6. H. L. Bao, A. Cooper, M. Rowley, L. D. Lauro, J. S. T. Gongora, S. T. Chu, B. E. Little, G. L. Oppo, R. Morandotti, D. J. Moss, B. Wetzel, M. Peccianti, and A. Pasquazi, “Laser cavity-soliton microcombs,” Nat. Photonics 13(6), 384–389 (2019). [CrossRef]  

7. J. Y. Zhao, W. W. Liu, S. C. Li, D. Lu, Y. Z. Zhang, Y. Peng, Y. M. Zhu, and S. L. Zhuang, “Clue to a thorough understanding of terahertz pulse generation by femtosecond laser filamentation,” Photonics Res. 6(4), 296–306 (2018). [CrossRef]  

8. A. Schmitt-Sody, H. G. Kurz, L. Berge, S. Skupin, and P. Polynkin, “Picosecond laser filamentation in air,” New J. Phys. 18(9), 093005 (2016). [CrossRef]  

9. W. Liu, C. Li, Z. G. Zhang, F. X. Kaertner, and G. Q. Chang, “Self-phase modulation enabled, wavelength-tunable ultrafast fiber laser sources: an energy scalable approach,” Opt. Express 24(14), 15328–15340 (2016). [CrossRef]  

10. W. J. Liu, M. L. Liu, X. T. Wang, T. Shen, G. Q. Chang, M. Lei, H. X. Deng, Z. G. Wei, and Z. Y. Wei, “Thickness-dependent ultrafast photonics of SnS2 nanolayers for optimizing fiber lasers,” ACS Appl. Nano Mater. 2(5), 2697–2705 (2019). [CrossRef]  

11. A. Chong, W. H. Renninger, and F. W. Wise, “All-normal-dispersion femtosecond fiber laser with pulse energy above 20 nJ,” Opt. Lett. 32(16), 2408–2410 (2007). [CrossRef]  

12. T. Chen, J. Wu, W. M. Xu, Z. P. He, L. Q. Qian, and R. Shu, “Linearly polarized, dual wavelength frequency-modulated continuous-wave fiber laser for simultaneous coherent distance and speed measurements,” Laser Phys. Lett. 13(7), 075105 (2016). [CrossRef]  

13. H. Y. Luo, Y. Xu, J. F. Li, and Y. Luo, “Gain-switched dysprosium fiber laser tunable from 2.8 to 3.1 μm,” Opt. Express 27(19), 27151–17158 (2019). [CrossRef]  

14. K. H. Wei, S. H. Fan, Q. G. Chen, and X. M. Lai, “Passively mode-locked Yb fiber laser with PbSe colloidal quantum dots as saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 25(21), 24901–24906 (2017). [CrossRef]  

15. H. Kawagoe, M. Yamanaka, and N. Nishizawa, “Axial resolution and signal-to-noise ratio in deep-tissue imaging with 1.7 μm high-resolution optical coherence tomography with an ultrabroadband laser source,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(8), 085002 (2017). [CrossRef]  

16. S. P. Chong, C. W. Merkle, D. F. Cooke, T. F. Zhang, H. Radhakrishnan, L. Krubitzer, and V. J. Srinivasan, “Noninvasive, in vivo imaging of subcortical mouse brain regions with 1.7 μm optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 40(21), 4911–4914 (2015). [CrossRef]  

17. H. Y. Liu, C. C. Gu, W. W. Xiong, and M. Z. Zhang, “A sensitive hydrogen peroxide biosensor using ultra-small CuInS2 nanocrystals as peroxidase mimics,” Sens. Actuators, B 209, 670–676 (2015). [CrossRef]  

18. S. Pradhan, F. D. Stasio, Y. Bi, S. Gupta, S. Christodoulou, A. Stavrinadis, and G. Konstantatos, “High-efficiency colloidal quantum dot infrared light-emitting diodes via engineering at the supra-nanocrystalline level,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 14(1), 72–79 (2019). [CrossRef]  

19. X. J. Huang, Z. J. Fang, Z. X. Peng, Z. J. Ma, H. T. Guo, J. R. Qiu, and G. P. Dong, “Formation, element-migration and broadband luminescence in quantum dot-doped glass fibers,” Opt. Express 25(17), 19691–19700 (2017). [CrossRef]  

20. K. H. Wei, L. Zhang, Q. G. Chen, and S. H. Fan, “Numerical simulation of PbSe quantum dots doped fiber ring laser with 1.7 μm wavelength,” Laser Phys. 30(3), 035106 (2020). [CrossRef]  

21. S. Sadeghi, S. K. Abkenar, C. W. Qw-Yang, and S. Nizamoglu, “Efficient white LEDs using liquid-state magic-sized CdSe quantum dots,” Sci. Rep. 9(1), 10061 (2019). [CrossRef]  

22. C. Cheng, F. J. Wang, and X. Y. Cheng, “PbSe quantum-dot-doped broadband fiber amplifier based on sodium-aluminum-borosilicate-silicate glass,” Opt. Laser Technol. 122, 105812 (2020). [CrossRef]  

23. C. Cheng, N. S. Hu, and X. Y. Cheng, “Experimental realization of a PbSe quantum dot doped fiber amplifier with ultra-bandwidth characteristic,” Opt. Commun. 382, 470–476 (2017). [CrossRef]  

24. Z. C. Cheng, H. H. Li, and P. Wang, “Simulation of generation of dissipative soliton, dissipative soliton resonance and noise-like pulse in Yb-doped mode-locked fiber lasers,” Opt. Express 23(5), 5972–5981 (2015). [CrossRef]  

25. B. G. Bale and S. Wabnitz, “Strong spectral filtering for a mode-locked similariton fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 35(14), 2466–2468 (2010). [CrossRef]  

26. Y. Z. Wang, J. F. Li, L. J. Hong, G. Y. Li, F. Liu, X. J. Zhou, and Y. Liu, “Coexistence of dissipative soliton and stretched pulse in dual-wavelength mode-locked Tm-doped fiber laser with strong third-order dispersion,” Opt. Express 26(14), 18190–18201 (2018). [CrossRef]  

27. S. Naderi, I. Dajani, T. madden, and C. Robin, “Investigations of modal instabilities in fiber amplifiers through detailed numerical simulations,” Opt. Express 21(13), 16111–16129 (2013). [CrossRef]  

28. C. Cheng, F. Yuan, and X. Y. Cheng, “Study of an Unsaturated PbSe QD-Doped Fiber Laser by Numerical Simulation and Experiment,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 50(11), 1–8 (2014). [CrossRef]  

References

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  1. W. Liu, S. H. Chia, H. Y. Chung, R. Greinert, F. X. Kaertner, and G. Q. Chang, “Energetic ultrafast fiber laser sources tunable in 1030-1215 nm for deep tissue multi-photon microscopy,” Opt. Express 25(6), 6822–6831 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  2. F. Akhoundi and N. Peyghambarian, “Single-cavity dual-wavelength all-fiber femtosecond laser for multimodal multiphoton microscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express 11(5), 2761–2767 (2020).
    [Crossref]
  3. R. B. Wu, J. T. Lin, M. Wang, Z. W. Fang, W. Chu, J. H. Zhang, J. H. Zhang, and Y. Cheng, “Fabrication of a multifunctional photonic integrated chip on lithium niobate on insulator using femtosecond laser-assisted chemomechanical polish,” Opt. Lett. 44(19), 4698–4701 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  4. F. T. Zhang, Z. G. Nie, H. X. Huang, L. Ma, H. Tang, M. M. Hao, and J. R. Qiu, “Self-assembled three-dimensional periodic micro-nano structures in bulk quartz crystal induced by femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express 27(5), 6442–6450 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  5. P. M. Dansette, R. Burokas, L. Veselis, A. Zaukevicius, A. Michailovas, and N. Rusteika, “Peculiarities of second harmonic generation with chirped femtosecond pulses at high conversion efficiency,” Opt. Commun. 455(15), 124462 (2020).
    [Crossref]
  6. H. L. Bao, A. Cooper, M. Rowley, L. D. Lauro, J. S. T. Gongora, S. T. Chu, B. E. Little, G. L. Oppo, R. Morandotti, D. J. Moss, B. Wetzel, M. Peccianti, and A. Pasquazi, “Laser cavity-soliton microcombs,” Nat. Photonics 13(6), 384–389 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  7. J. Y. Zhao, W. W. Liu, S. C. Li, D. Lu, Y. Z. Zhang, Y. Peng, Y. M. Zhu, and S. L. Zhuang, “Clue to a thorough understanding of terahertz pulse generation by femtosecond laser filamentation,” Photonics Res. 6(4), 296–306 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  8. A. Schmitt-Sody, H. G. Kurz, L. Berge, S. Skupin, and P. Polynkin, “Picosecond laser filamentation in air,” New J. Phys. 18(9), 093005 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  9. W. Liu, C. Li, Z. G. Zhang, F. X. Kaertner, and G. Q. Chang, “Self-phase modulation enabled, wavelength-tunable ultrafast fiber laser sources: an energy scalable approach,” Opt. Express 24(14), 15328–15340 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  10. W. J. Liu, M. L. Liu, X. T. Wang, T. Shen, G. Q. Chang, M. Lei, H. X. Deng, Z. G. Wei, and Z. Y. Wei, “Thickness-dependent ultrafast photonics of SnS2 nanolayers for optimizing fiber lasers,” ACS Appl. Nano Mater. 2(5), 2697–2705 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  11. A. Chong, W. H. Renninger, and F. W. Wise, “All-normal-dispersion femtosecond fiber laser with pulse energy above 20 nJ,” Opt. Lett. 32(16), 2408–2410 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  12. T. Chen, J. Wu, W. M. Xu, Z. P. He, L. Q. Qian, and R. Shu, “Linearly polarized, dual wavelength frequency-modulated continuous-wave fiber laser for simultaneous coherent distance and speed measurements,” Laser Phys. Lett. 13(7), 075105 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  13. H. Y. Luo, Y. Xu, J. F. Li, and Y. Luo, “Gain-switched dysprosium fiber laser tunable from 2.8 to 3.1 μm,” Opt. Express 27(19), 27151–17158 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  14. K. H. Wei, S. H. Fan, Q. G. Chen, and X. M. Lai, “Passively mode-locked Yb fiber laser with PbSe colloidal quantum dots as saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 25(21), 24901–24906 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  15. H. Kawagoe, M. Yamanaka, and N. Nishizawa, “Axial resolution and signal-to-noise ratio in deep-tissue imaging with 1.7 μm high-resolution optical coherence tomography with an ultrabroadband laser source,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(8), 085002 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  16. S. P. Chong, C. W. Merkle, D. F. Cooke, T. F. Zhang, H. Radhakrishnan, L. Krubitzer, and V. J. Srinivasan, “Noninvasive, in vivo imaging of subcortical mouse brain regions with 1.7 μm optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 40(21), 4911–4914 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  17. H. Y. Liu, C. C. Gu, W. W. Xiong, and M. Z. Zhang, “A sensitive hydrogen peroxide biosensor using ultra-small CuInS2 nanocrystals as peroxidase mimics,” Sens. Actuators, B 209, 670–676 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  18. S. Pradhan, F. D. Stasio, Y. Bi, S. Gupta, S. Christodoulou, A. Stavrinadis, and G. Konstantatos, “High-efficiency colloidal quantum dot infrared light-emitting diodes via engineering at the supra-nanocrystalline level,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 14(1), 72–79 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  19. X. J. Huang, Z. J. Fang, Z. X. Peng, Z. J. Ma, H. T. Guo, J. R. Qiu, and G. P. Dong, “Formation, element-migration and broadband luminescence in quantum dot-doped glass fibers,” Opt. Express 25(17), 19691–19700 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  20. K. H. Wei, L. Zhang, Q. G. Chen, and S. H. Fan, “Numerical simulation of PbSe quantum dots doped fiber ring laser with 1.7 μm wavelength,” Laser Phys. 30(3), 035106 (2020).
    [Crossref]
  21. S. Sadeghi, S. K. Abkenar, C. W. Qw-Yang, and S. Nizamoglu, “Efficient white LEDs using liquid-state magic-sized CdSe quantum dots,” Sci. Rep. 9(1), 10061 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  22. C. Cheng, F. J. Wang, and X. Y. Cheng, “PbSe quantum-dot-doped broadband fiber amplifier based on sodium-aluminum-borosilicate-silicate glass,” Opt. Laser Technol. 122, 105812 (2020).
    [Crossref]
  23. C. Cheng, N. S. Hu, and X. Y. Cheng, “Experimental realization of a PbSe quantum dot doped fiber amplifier with ultra-bandwidth characteristic,” Opt. Commun. 382, 470–476 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  24. Z. C. Cheng, H. H. Li, and P. Wang, “Simulation of generation of dissipative soliton, dissipative soliton resonance and noise-like pulse in Yb-doped mode-locked fiber lasers,” Opt. Express 23(5), 5972–5981 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  25. B. G. Bale and S. Wabnitz, “Strong spectral filtering for a mode-locked similariton fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 35(14), 2466–2468 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  26. Y. Z. Wang, J. F. Li, L. J. Hong, G. Y. Li, F. Liu, X. J. Zhou, and Y. Liu, “Coexistence of dissipative soliton and stretched pulse in dual-wavelength mode-locked Tm-doped fiber laser with strong third-order dispersion,” Opt. Express 26(14), 18190–18201 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  27. S. Naderi, I. Dajani, T. madden, and C. Robin, “Investigations of modal instabilities in fiber amplifiers through detailed numerical simulations,” Opt. Express 21(13), 16111–16129 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  28. C. Cheng, F. Yuan, and X. Y. Cheng, “Study of an Unsaturated PbSe QD-Doped Fiber Laser by Numerical Simulation and Experiment,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 50(11), 1–8 (2014).
    [Crossref]

2020 (4)

P. M. Dansette, R. Burokas, L. Veselis, A. Zaukevicius, A. Michailovas, and N. Rusteika, “Peculiarities of second harmonic generation with chirped femtosecond pulses at high conversion efficiency,” Opt. Commun. 455(15), 124462 (2020).
[Crossref]

F. Akhoundi and N. Peyghambarian, “Single-cavity dual-wavelength all-fiber femtosecond laser for multimodal multiphoton microscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express 11(5), 2761–2767 (2020).
[Crossref]

C. Cheng, F. J. Wang, and X. Y. Cheng, “PbSe quantum-dot-doped broadband fiber amplifier based on sodium-aluminum-borosilicate-silicate glass,” Opt. Laser Technol. 122, 105812 (2020).
[Crossref]

K. H. Wei, L. Zhang, Q. G. Chen, and S. H. Fan, “Numerical simulation of PbSe quantum dots doped fiber ring laser with 1.7 μm wavelength,” Laser Phys. 30(3), 035106 (2020).
[Crossref]

2019 (7)

S. Sadeghi, S. K. Abkenar, C. W. Qw-Yang, and S. Nizamoglu, “Efficient white LEDs using liquid-state magic-sized CdSe quantum dots,” Sci. Rep. 9(1), 10061 (2019).
[Crossref]

R. B. Wu, J. T. Lin, M. Wang, Z. W. Fang, W. Chu, J. H. Zhang, J. H. Zhang, and Y. Cheng, “Fabrication of a multifunctional photonic integrated chip on lithium niobate on insulator using femtosecond laser-assisted chemomechanical polish,” Opt. Lett. 44(19), 4698–4701 (2019).
[Crossref]

F. T. Zhang, Z. G. Nie, H. X. Huang, L. Ma, H. Tang, M. M. Hao, and J. R. Qiu, “Self-assembled three-dimensional periodic micro-nano structures in bulk quartz crystal induced by femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express 27(5), 6442–6450 (2019).
[Crossref]

W. J. Liu, M. L. Liu, X. T. Wang, T. Shen, G. Q. Chang, M. Lei, H. X. Deng, Z. G. Wei, and Z. Y. Wei, “Thickness-dependent ultrafast photonics of SnS2 nanolayers for optimizing fiber lasers,” ACS Appl. Nano Mater. 2(5), 2697–2705 (2019).
[Crossref]

H. L. Bao, A. Cooper, M. Rowley, L. D. Lauro, J. S. T. Gongora, S. T. Chu, B. E. Little, G. L. Oppo, R. Morandotti, D. J. Moss, B. Wetzel, M. Peccianti, and A. Pasquazi, “Laser cavity-soliton microcombs,” Nat. Photonics 13(6), 384–389 (2019).
[Crossref]

H. Y. Luo, Y. Xu, J. F. Li, and Y. Luo, “Gain-switched dysprosium fiber laser tunable from 2.8 to 3.1 μm,” Opt. Express 27(19), 27151–17158 (2019).
[Crossref]

S. Pradhan, F. D. Stasio, Y. Bi, S. Gupta, S. Christodoulou, A. Stavrinadis, and G. Konstantatos, “High-efficiency colloidal quantum dot infrared light-emitting diodes via engineering at the supra-nanocrystalline level,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 14(1), 72–79 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (2)

J. Y. Zhao, W. W. Liu, S. C. Li, D. Lu, Y. Z. Zhang, Y. Peng, Y. M. Zhu, and S. L. Zhuang, “Clue to a thorough understanding of terahertz pulse generation by femtosecond laser filamentation,” Photonics Res. 6(4), 296–306 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Z. Wang, J. F. Li, L. J. Hong, G. Y. Li, F. Liu, X. J. Zhou, and Y. Liu, “Coexistence of dissipative soliton and stretched pulse in dual-wavelength mode-locked Tm-doped fiber laser with strong third-order dispersion,” Opt. Express 26(14), 18190–18201 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (5)

2016 (3)

T. Chen, J. Wu, W. M. Xu, Z. P. He, L. Q. Qian, and R. Shu, “Linearly polarized, dual wavelength frequency-modulated continuous-wave fiber laser for simultaneous coherent distance and speed measurements,” Laser Phys. Lett. 13(7), 075105 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Schmitt-Sody, H. G. Kurz, L. Berge, S. Skupin, and P. Polynkin, “Picosecond laser filamentation in air,” New J. Phys. 18(9), 093005 (2016).
[Crossref]

W. Liu, C. Li, Z. G. Zhang, F. X. Kaertner, and G. Q. Chang, “Self-phase modulation enabled, wavelength-tunable ultrafast fiber laser sources: an energy scalable approach,” Opt. Express 24(14), 15328–15340 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (3)

2014 (1)

C. Cheng, F. Yuan, and X. Y. Cheng, “Study of an Unsaturated PbSe QD-Doped Fiber Laser by Numerical Simulation and Experiment,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 50(11), 1–8 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

2010 (1)

2007 (1)

Abkenar, S. K.

S. Sadeghi, S. K. Abkenar, C. W. Qw-Yang, and S. Nizamoglu, “Efficient white LEDs using liquid-state magic-sized CdSe quantum dots,” Sci. Rep. 9(1), 10061 (2019).
[Crossref]

Akhoundi, F.

Bale, B. G.

Bao, H. L.

H. L. Bao, A. Cooper, M. Rowley, L. D. Lauro, J. S. T. Gongora, S. T. Chu, B. E. Little, G. L. Oppo, R. Morandotti, D. J. Moss, B. Wetzel, M. Peccianti, and A. Pasquazi, “Laser cavity-soliton microcombs,” Nat. Photonics 13(6), 384–389 (2019).
[Crossref]

Berge, L.

A. Schmitt-Sody, H. G. Kurz, L. Berge, S. Skupin, and P. Polynkin, “Picosecond laser filamentation in air,” New J. Phys. 18(9), 093005 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bi, Y.

S. Pradhan, F. D. Stasio, Y. Bi, S. Gupta, S. Christodoulou, A. Stavrinadis, and G. Konstantatos, “High-efficiency colloidal quantum dot infrared light-emitting diodes via engineering at the supra-nanocrystalline level,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 14(1), 72–79 (2019).
[Crossref]

Burokas, R.

P. M. Dansette, R. Burokas, L. Veselis, A. Zaukevicius, A. Michailovas, and N. Rusteika, “Peculiarities of second harmonic generation with chirped femtosecond pulses at high conversion efficiency,” Opt. Commun. 455(15), 124462 (2020).
[Crossref]

Chang, G. Q.

Chen, Q. G.

K. H. Wei, L. Zhang, Q. G. Chen, and S. H. Fan, “Numerical simulation of PbSe quantum dots doped fiber ring laser with 1.7 μm wavelength,” Laser Phys. 30(3), 035106 (2020).
[Crossref]

K. H. Wei, S. H. Fan, Q. G. Chen, and X. M. Lai, “Passively mode-locked Yb fiber laser with PbSe colloidal quantum dots as saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 25(21), 24901–24906 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chen, T.

T. Chen, J. Wu, W. M. Xu, Z. P. He, L. Q. Qian, and R. Shu, “Linearly polarized, dual wavelength frequency-modulated continuous-wave fiber laser for simultaneous coherent distance and speed measurements,” Laser Phys. Lett. 13(7), 075105 (2016).
[Crossref]

Cheng, C.

C. Cheng, F. J. Wang, and X. Y. Cheng, “PbSe quantum-dot-doped broadband fiber amplifier based on sodium-aluminum-borosilicate-silicate glass,” Opt. Laser Technol. 122, 105812 (2020).
[Crossref]

C. Cheng, N. S. Hu, and X. Y. Cheng, “Experimental realization of a PbSe quantum dot doped fiber amplifier with ultra-bandwidth characteristic,” Opt. Commun. 382, 470–476 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Cheng, F. Yuan, and X. Y. Cheng, “Study of an Unsaturated PbSe QD-Doped Fiber Laser by Numerical Simulation and Experiment,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 50(11), 1–8 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cheng, X. Y.

C. Cheng, F. J. Wang, and X. Y. Cheng, “PbSe quantum-dot-doped broadband fiber amplifier based on sodium-aluminum-borosilicate-silicate glass,” Opt. Laser Technol. 122, 105812 (2020).
[Crossref]

C. Cheng, N. S. Hu, and X. Y. Cheng, “Experimental realization of a PbSe quantum dot doped fiber amplifier with ultra-bandwidth characteristic,” Opt. Commun. 382, 470–476 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Cheng, F. Yuan, and X. Y. Cheng, “Study of an Unsaturated PbSe QD-Doped Fiber Laser by Numerical Simulation and Experiment,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 50(11), 1–8 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cheng, Y.

Cheng, Z. C.

Chia, S. H.

Chong, A.

Chong, S. P.

Christodoulou, S.

S. Pradhan, F. D. Stasio, Y. Bi, S. Gupta, S. Christodoulou, A. Stavrinadis, and G. Konstantatos, “High-efficiency colloidal quantum dot infrared light-emitting diodes via engineering at the supra-nanocrystalline level,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 14(1), 72–79 (2019).
[Crossref]

Chu, S. T.

H. L. Bao, A. Cooper, M. Rowley, L. D. Lauro, J. S. T. Gongora, S. T. Chu, B. E. Little, G. L. Oppo, R. Morandotti, D. J. Moss, B. Wetzel, M. Peccianti, and A. Pasquazi, “Laser cavity-soliton microcombs,” Nat. Photonics 13(6), 384–389 (2019).
[Crossref]

Chu, W.

Chung, H. Y.

Cooke, D. F.

Cooper, A.

H. L. Bao, A. Cooper, M. Rowley, L. D. Lauro, J. S. T. Gongora, S. T. Chu, B. E. Little, G. L. Oppo, R. Morandotti, D. J. Moss, B. Wetzel, M. Peccianti, and A. Pasquazi, “Laser cavity-soliton microcombs,” Nat. Photonics 13(6), 384–389 (2019).
[Crossref]

Dajani, I.

Dansette, P. M.

P. M. Dansette, R. Burokas, L. Veselis, A. Zaukevicius, A. Michailovas, and N. Rusteika, “Peculiarities of second harmonic generation with chirped femtosecond pulses at high conversion efficiency,” Opt. Commun. 455(15), 124462 (2020).
[Crossref]

Deng, H. X.

W. J. Liu, M. L. Liu, X. T. Wang, T. Shen, G. Q. Chang, M. Lei, H. X. Deng, Z. G. Wei, and Z. Y. Wei, “Thickness-dependent ultrafast photonics of SnS2 nanolayers for optimizing fiber lasers,” ACS Appl. Nano Mater. 2(5), 2697–2705 (2019).
[Crossref]

Dong, G. P.

Fan, S. H.

K. H. Wei, L. Zhang, Q. G. Chen, and S. H. Fan, “Numerical simulation of PbSe quantum dots doped fiber ring laser with 1.7 μm wavelength,” Laser Phys. 30(3), 035106 (2020).
[Crossref]

K. H. Wei, S. H. Fan, Q. G. Chen, and X. M. Lai, “Passively mode-locked Yb fiber laser with PbSe colloidal quantum dots as saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 25(21), 24901–24906 (2017).
[Crossref]

Fang, Z. J.

Fang, Z. W.

Gongora, J. S. T.

H. L. Bao, A. Cooper, M. Rowley, L. D. Lauro, J. S. T. Gongora, S. T. Chu, B. E. Little, G. L. Oppo, R. Morandotti, D. J. Moss, B. Wetzel, M. Peccianti, and A. Pasquazi, “Laser cavity-soliton microcombs,” Nat. Photonics 13(6), 384–389 (2019).
[Crossref]

Greinert, R.

Gu, C. C.

H. Y. Liu, C. C. Gu, W. W. Xiong, and M. Z. Zhang, “A sensitive hydrogen peroxide biosensor using ultra-small CuInS2 nanocrystals as peroxidase mimics,” Sens. Actuators, B 209, 670–676 (2015).
[Crossref]

Guo, H. T.

Gupta, S.

S. Pradhan, F. D. Stasio, Y. Bi, S. Gupta, S. Christodoulou, A. Stavrinadis, and G. Konstantatos, “High-efficiency colloidal quantum dot infrared light-emitting diodes via engineering at the supra-nanocrystalline level,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 14(1), 72–79 (2019).
[Crossref]

Hao, M. M.

He, Z. P.

T. Chen, J. Wu, W. M. Xu, Z. P. He, L. Q. Qian, and R. Shu, “Linearly polarized, dual wavelength frequency-modulated continuous-wave fiber laser for simultaneous coherent distance and speed measurements,” Laser Phys. Lett. 13(7), 075105 (2016).
[Crossref]

Hong, L. J.

Hu, N. S.

C. Cheng, N. S. Hu, and X. Y. Cheng, “Experimental realization of a PbSe quantum dot doped fiber amplifier with ultra-bandwidth characteristic,” Opt. Commun. 382, 470–476 (2017).
[Crossref]

Huang, H. X.

Huang, X. J.

Kaertner, F. X.

Kawagoe, H.

H. Kawagoe, M. Yamanaka, and N. Nishizawa, “Axial resolution and signal-to-noise ratio in deep-tissue imaging with 1.7 μm high-resolution optical coherence tomography with an ultrabroadband laser source,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(8), 085002 (2017).
[Crossref]

Konstantatos, G.

S. Pradhan, F. D. Stasio, Y. Bi, S. Gupta, S. Christodoulou, A. Stavrinadis, and G. Konstantatos, “High-efficiency colloidal quantum dot infrared light-emitting diodes via engineering at the supra-nanocrystalline level,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 14(1), 72–79 (2019).
[Crossref]

Krubitzer, L.

Kurz, H. G.

A. Schmitt-Sody, H. G. Kurz, L. Berge, S. Skupin, and P. Polynkin, “Picosecond laser filamentation in air,” New J. Phys. 18(9), 093005 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lai, X. M.

Lauro, L. D.

H. L. Bao, A. Cooper, M. Rowley, L. D. Lauro, J. S. T. Gongora, S. T. Chu, B. E. Little, G. L. Oppo, R. Morandotti, D. J. Moss, B. Wetzel, M. Peccianti, and A. Pasquazi, “Laser cavity-soliton microcombs,” Nat. Photonics 13(6), 384–389 (2019).
[Crossref]

Lei, M.

W. J. Liu, M. L. Liu, X. T. Wang, T. Shen, G. Q. Chang, M. Lei, H. X. Deng, Z. G. Wei, and Z. Y. Wei, “Thickness-dependent ultrafast photonics of SnS2 nanolayers for optimizing fiber lasers,” ACS Appl. Nano Mater. 2(5), 2697–2705 (2019).
[Crossref]

Li, C.

Li, G. Y.

Li, H. H.

Li, J. F.

Li, S. C.

J. Y. Zhao, W. W. Liu, S. C. Li, D. Lu, Y. Z. Zhang, Y. Peng, Y. M. Zhu, and S. L. Zhuang, “Clue to a thorough understanding of terahertz pulse generation by femtosecond laser filamentation,” Photonics Res. 6(4), 296–306 (2018).
[Crossref]

Lin, J. T.

Little, B. E.

H. L. Bao, A. Cooper, M. Rowley, L. D. Lauro, J. S. T. Gongora, S. T. Chu, B. E. Little, G. L. Oppo, R. Morandotti, D. J. Moss, B. Wetzel, M. Peccianti, and A. Pasquazi, “Laser cavity-soliton microcombs,” Nat. Photonics 13(6), 384–389 (2019).
[Crossref]

Liu, F.

Liu, H. Y.

H. Y. Liu, C. C. Gu, W. W. Xiong, and M. Z. Zhang, “A sensitive hydrogen peroxide biosensor using ultra-small CuInS2 nanocrystals as peroxidase mimics,” Sens. Actuators, B 209, 670–676 (2015).
[Crossref]

Liu, M. L.

W. J. Liu, M. L. Liu, X. T. Wang, T. Shen, G. Q. Chang, M. Lei, H. X. Deng, Z. G. Wei, and Z. Y. Wei, “Thickness-dependent ultrafast photonics of SnS2 nanolayers for optimizing fiber lasers,” ACS Appl. Nano Mater. 2(5), 2697–2705 (2019).
[Crossref]

Liu, W.

Liu, W. J.

W. J. Liu, M. L. Liu, X. T. Wang, T. Shen, G. Q. Chang, M. Lei, H. X. Deng, Z. G. Wei, and Z. Y. Wei, “Thickness-dependent ultrafast photonics of SnS2 nanolayers for optimizing fiber lasers,” ACS Appl. Nano Mater. 2(5), 2697–2705 (2019).
[Crossref]

Liu, W. W.

J. Y. Zhao, W. W. Liu, S. C. Li, D. Lu, Y. Z. Zhang, Y. Peng, Y. M. Zhu, and S. L. Zhuang, “Clue to a thorough understanding of terahertz pulse generation by femtosecond laser filamentation,” Photonics Res. 6(4), 296–306 (2018).
[Crossref]

Liu, Y.

Lu, D.

J. Y. Zhao, W. W. Liu, S. C. Li, D. Lu, Y. Z. Zhang, Y. Peng, Y. M. Zhu, and S. L. Zhuang, “Clue to a thorough understanding of terahertz pulse generation by femtosecond laser filamentation,” Photonics Res. 6(4), 296–306 (2018).
[Crossref]

Luo, H. Y.

Luo, Y.

Ma, L.

Ma, Z. J.

madden, T.

Merkle, C. W.

Michailovas, A.

P. M. Dansette, R. Burokas, L. Veselis, A. Zaukevicius, A. Michailovas, and N. Rusteika, “Peculiarities of second harmonic generation with chirped femtosecond pulses at high conversion efficiency,” Opt. Commun. 455(15), 124462 (2020).
[Crossref]

Morandotti, R.

H. L. Bao, A. Cooper, M. Rowley, L. D. Lauro, J. S. T. Gongora, S. T. Chu, B. E. Little, G. L. Oppo, R. Morandotti, D. J. Moss, B. Wetzel, M. Peccianti, and A. Pasquazi, “Laser cavity-soliton microcombs,” Nat. Photonics 13(6), 384–389 (2019).
[Crossref]

Moss, D. J.

H. L. Bao, A. Cooper, M. Rowley, L. D. Lauro, J. S. T. Gongora, S. T. Chu, B. E. Little, G. L. Oppo, R. Morandotti, D. J. Moss, B. Wetzel, M. Peccianti, and A. Pasquazi, “Laser cavity-soliton microcombs,” Nat. Photonics 13(6), 384–389 (2019).
[Crossref]

Naderi, S.

Nie, Z. G.

Nishizawa, N.

H. Kawagoe, M. Yamanaka, and N. Nishizawa, “Axial resolution and signal-to-noise ratio in deep-tissue imaging with 1.7 μm high-resolution optical coherence tomography with an ultrabroadband laser source,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(8), 085002 (2017).
[Crossref]

Nizamoglu, S.

S. Sadeghi, S. K. Abkenar, C. W. Qw-Yang, and S. Nizamoglu, “Efficient white LEDs using liquid-state magic-sized CdSe quantum dots,” Sci. Rep. 9(1), 10061 (2019).
[Crossref]

Oppo, G. L.

H. L. Bao, A. Cooper, M. Rowley, L. D. Lauro, J. S. T. Gongora, S. T. Chu, B. E. Little, G. L. Oppo, R. Morandotti, D. J. Moss, B. Wetzel, M. Peccianti, and A. Pasquazi, “Laser cavity-soliton microcombs,” Nat. Photonics 13(6), 384–389 (2019).
[Crossref]

Pasquazi, A.

H. L. Bao, A. Cooper, M. Rowley, L. D. Lauro, J. S. T. Gongora, S. T. Chu, B. E. Little, G. L. Oppo, R. Morandotti, D. J. Moss, B. Wetzel, M. Peccianti, and A. Pasquazi, “Laser cavity-soliton microcombs,” Nat. Photonics 13(6), 384–389 (2019).
[Crossref]

Peccianti, M.

H. L. Bao, A. Cooper, M. Rowley, L. D. Lauro, J. S. T. Gongora, S. T. Chu, B. E. Little, G. L. Oppo, R. Morandotti, D. J. Moss, B. Wetzel, M. Peccianti, and A. Pasquazi, “Laser cavity-soliton microcombs,” Nat. Photonics 13(6), 384–389 (2019).
[Crossref]

Peng, Y.

J. Y. Zhao, W. W. Liu, S. C. Li, D. Lu, Y. Z. Zhang, Y. Peng, Y. M. Zhu, and S. L. Zhuang, “Clue to a thorough understanding of terahertz pulse generation by femtosecond laser filamentation,” Photonics Res. 6(4), 296–306 (2018).
[Crossref]

Peng, Z. X.

Peyghambarian, N.

Polynkin, P.

A. Schmitt-Sody, H. G. Kurz, L. Berge, S. Skupin, and P. Polynkin, “Picosecond laser filamentation in air,” New J. Phys. 18(9), 093005 (2016).
[Crossref]

Pradhan, S.

S. Pradhan, F. D. Stasio, Y. Bi, S. Gupta, S. Christodoulou, A. Stavrinadis, and G. Konstantatos, “High-efficiency colloidal quantum dot infrared light-emitting diodes via engineering at the supra-nanocrystalline level,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 14(1), 72–79 (2019).
[Crossref]

Qian, L. Q.

T. Chen, J. Wu, W. M. Xu, Z. P. He, L. Q. Qian, and R. Shu, “Linearly polarized, dual wavelength frequency-modulated continuous-wave fiber laser for simultaneous coherent distance and speed measurements,” Laser Phys. Lett. 13(7), 075105 (2016).
[Crossref]

Qiu, J. R.

Qw-Yang, C. W.

S. Sadeghi, S. K. Abkenar, C. W. Qw-Yang, and S. Nizamoglu, “Efficient white LEDs using liquid-state magic-sized CdSe quantum dots,” Sci. Rep. 9(1), 10061 (2019).
[Crossref]

Radhakrishnan, H.

Renninger, W. H.

Robin, C.

Rowley, M.

H. L. Bao, A. Cooper, M. Rowley, L. D. Lauro, J. S. T. Gongora, S. T. Chu, B. E. Little, G. L. Oppo, R. Morandotti, D. J. Moss, B. Wetzel, M. Peccianti, and A. Pasquazi, “Laser cavity-soliton microcombs,” Nat. Photonics 13(6), 384–389 (2019).
[Crossref]

Rusteika, N.

P. M. Dansette, R. Burokas, L. Veselis, A. Zaukevicius, A. Michailovas, and N. Rusteika, “Peculiarities of second harmonic generation with chirped femtosecond pulses at high conversion efficiency,” Opt. Commun. 455(15), 124462 (2020).
[Crossref]

Sadeghi, S.

S. Sadeghi, S. K. Abkenar, C. W. Qw-Yang, and S. Nizamoglu, “Efficient white LEDs using liquid-state magic-sized CdSe quantum dots,” Sci. Rep. 9(1), 10061 (2019).
[Crossref]

Schmitt-Sody, A.

A. Schmitt-Sody, H. G. Kurz, L. Berge, S. Skupin, and P. Polynkin, “Picosecond laser filamentation in air,” New J. Phys. 18(9), 093005 (2016).
[Crossref]

Shen, T.

W. J. Liu, M. L. Liu, X. T. Wang, T. Shen, G. Q. Chang, M. Lei, H. X. Deng, Z. G. Wei, and Z. Y. Wei, “Thickness-dependent ultrafast photonics of SnS2 nanolayers for optimizing fiber lasers,” ACS Appl. Nano Mater. 2(5), 2697–2705 (2019).
[Crossref]

Shu, R.

T. Chen, J. Wu, W. M. Xu, Z. P. He, L. Q. Qian, and R. Shu, “Linearly polarized, dual wavelength frequency-modulated continuous-wave fiber laser for simultaneous coherent distance and speed measurements,” Laser Phys. Lett. 13(7), 075105 (2016).
[Crossref]

Skupin, S.

A. Schmitt-Sody, H. G. Kurz, L. Berge, S. Skupin, and P. Polynkin, “Picosecond laser filamentation in air,” New J. Phys. 18(9), 093005 (2016).
[Crossref]

Srinivasan, V. J.

Stasio, F. D.

S. Pradhan, F. D. Stasio, Y. Bi, S. Gupta, S. Christodoulou, A. Stavrinadis, and G. Konstantatos, “High-efficiency colloidal quantum dot infrared light-emitting diodes via engineering at the supra-nanocrystalline level,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 14(1), 72–79 (2019).
[Crossref]

Stavrinadis, A.

S. Pradhan, F. D. Stasio, Y. Bi, S. Gupta, S. Christodoulou, A. Stavrinadis, and G. Konstantatos, “High-efficiency colloidal quantum dot infrared light-emitting diodes via engineering at the supra-nanocrystalline level,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 14(1), 72–79 (2019).
[Crossref]

Tang, H.

Veselis, L.

P. M. Dansette, R. Burokas, L. Veselis, A. Zaukevicius, A. Michailovas, and N. Rusteika, “Peculiarities of second harmonic generation with chirped femtosecond pulses at high conversion efficiency,” Opt. Commun. 455(15), 124462 (2020).
[Crossref]

Wabnitz, S.

Wang, F. J.

C. Cheng, F. J. Wang, and X. Y. Cheng, “PbSe quantum-dot-doped broadband fiber amplifier based on sodium-aluminum-borosilicate-silicate glass,” Opt. Laser Technol. 122, 105812 (2020).
[Crossref]

Wang, M.

Wang, P.

Wang, X. T.

W. J. Liu, M. L. Liu, X. T. Wang, T. Shen, G. Q. Chang, M. Lei, H. X. Deng, Z. G. Wei, and Z. Y. Wei, “Thickness-dependent ultrafast photonics of SnS2 nanolayers for optimizing fiber lasers,” ACS Appl. Nano Mater. 2(5), 2697–2705 (2019).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y. Z.

Wei, K. H.

K. H. Wei, L. Zhang, Q. G. Chen, and S. H. Fan, “Numerical simulation of PbSe quantum dots doped fiber ring laser with 1.7 μm wavelength,” Laser Phys. 30(3), 035106 (2020).
[Crossref]

K. H. Wei, S. H. Fan, Q. G. Chen, and X. M. Lai, “Passively mode-locked Yb fiber laser with PbSe colloidal quantum dots as saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 25(21), 24901–24906 (2017).
[Crossref]

Wei, Z. G.

W. J. Liu, M. L. Liu, X. T. Wang, T. Shen, G. Q. Chang, M. Lei, H. X. Deng, Z. G. Wei, and Z. Y. Wei, “Thickness-dependent ultrafast photonics of SnS2 nanolayers for optimizing fiber lasers,” ACS Appl. Nano Mater. 2(5), 2697–2705 (2019).
[Crossref]

Wei, Z. Y.

W. J. Liu, M. L. Liu, X. T. Wang, T. Shen, G. Q. Chang, M. Lei, H. X. Deng, Z. G. Wei, and Z. Y. Wei, “Thickness-dependent ultrafast photonics of SnS2 nanolayers for optimizing fiber lasers,” ACS Appl. Nano Mater. 2(5), 2697–2705 (2019).
[Crossref]

Wetzel, B.

H. L. Bao, A. Cooper, M. Rowley, L. D. Lauro, J. S. T. Gongora, S. T. Chu, B. E. Little, G. L. Oppo, R. Morandotti, D. J. Moss, B. Wetzel, M. Peccianti, and A. Pasquazi, “Laser cavity-soliton microcombs,” Nat. Photonics 13(6), 384–389 (2019).
[Crossref]

Wise, F. W.

Wu, J.

T. Chen, J. Wu, W. M. Xu, Z. P. He, L. Q. Qian, and R. Shu, “Linearly polarized, dual wavelength frequency-modulated continuous-wave fiber laser for simultaneous coherent distance and speed measurements,” Laser Phys. Lett. 13(7), 075105 (2016).
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Xiong, W. W.

H. Y. Liu, C. C. Gu, W. W. Xiong, and M. Z. Zhang, “A sensitive hydrogen peroxide biosensor using ultra-small CuInS2 nanocrystals as peroxidase mimics,” Sens. Actuators, B 209, 670–676 (2015).
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Xu, W. M.

T. Chen, J. Wu, W. M. Xu, Z. P. He, L. Q. Qian, and R. Shu, “Linearly polarized, dual wavelength frequency-modulated continuous-wave fiber laser for simultaneous coherent distance and speed measurements,” Laser Phys. Lett. 13(7), 075105 (2016).
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Xu, Y.

Yamanaka, M.

H. Kawagoe, M. Yamanaka, and N. Nishizawa, “Axial resolution and signal-to-noise ratio in deep-tissue imaging with 1.7 μm high-resolution optical coherence tomography with an ultrabroadband laser source,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(8), 085002 (2017).
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Yuan, F.

C. Cheng, F. Yuan, and X. Y. Cheng, “Study of an Unsaturated PbSe QD-Doped Fiber Laser by Numerical Simulation and Experiment,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 50(11), 1–8 (2014).
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Zaukevicius, A.

P. M. Dansette, R. Burokas, L. Veselis, A. Zaukevicius, A. Michailovas, and N. Rusteika, “Peculiarities of second harmonic generation with chirped femtosecond pulses at high conversion efficiency,” Opt. Commun. 455(15), 124462 (2020).
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Zhang, F. T.

Zhang, J. H.

Zhang, L.

K. H. Wei, L. Zhang, Q. G. Chen, and S. H. Fan, “Numerical simulation of PbSe quantum dots doped fiber ring laser with 1.7 μm wavelength,” Laser Phys. 30(3), 035106 (2020).
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Zhang, M. Z.

H. Y. Liu, C. C. Gu, W. W. Xiong, and M. Z. Zhang, “A sensitive hydrogen peroxide biosensor using ultra-small CuInS2 nanocrystals as peroxidase mimics,” Sens. Actuators, B 209, 670–676 (2015).
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Zhang, T. F.

Zhang, Y. Z.

J. Y. Zhao, W. W. Liu, S. C. Li, D. Lu, Y. Z. Zhang, Y. Peng, Y. M. Zhu, and S. L. Zhuang, “Clue to a thorough understanding of terahertz pulse generation by femtosecond laser filamentation,” Photonics Res. 6(4), 296–306 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Z. G.

Zhao, J. Y.

J. Y. Zhao, W. W. Liu, S. C. Li, D. Lu, Y. Z. Zhang, Y. Peng, Y. M. Zhu, and S. L. Zhuang, “Clue to a thorough understanding of terahertz pulse generation by femtosecond laser filamentation,” Photonics Res. 6(4), 296–306 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zhou, X. J.

Zhu, Y. M.

J. Y. Zhao, W. W. Liu, S. C. Li, D. Lu, Y. Z. Zhang, Y. Peng, Y. M. Zhu, and S. L. Zhuang, “Clue to a thorough understanding of terahertz pulse generation by femtosecond laser filamentation,” Photonics Res. 6(4), 296–306 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zhuang, S. L.

J. Y. Zhao, W. W. Liu, S. C. Li, D. Lu, Y. Z. Zhang, Y. Peng, Y. M. Zhu, and S. L. Zhuang, “Clue to a thorough understanding of terahertz pulse generation by femtosecond laser filamentation,” Photonics Res. 6(4), 296–306 (2018).
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ACS Appl. Nano Mater. (1)

W. J. Liu, M. L. Liu, X. T. Wang, T. Shen, G. Q. Chang, M. Lei, H. X. Deng, Z. G. Wei, and Z. Y. Wei, “Thickness-dependent ultrafast photonics of SnS2 nanolayers for optimizing fiber lasers,” ACS Appl. Nano Mater. 2(5), 2697–2705 (2019).
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Biomed. Opt. Express (1)

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

C. Cheng, F. Yuan, and X. Y. Cheng, “Study of an Unsaturated PbSe QD-Doped Fiber Laser by Numerical Simulation and Experiment,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 50(11), 1–8 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

H. Kawagoe, M. Yamanaka, and N. Nishizawa, “Axial resolution and signal-to-noise ratio in deep-tissue imaging with 1.7 μm high-resolution optical coherence tomography with an ultrabroadband laser source,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(8), 085002 (2017).
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Laser Phys. (1)

K. H. Wei, L. Zhang, Q. G. Chen, and S. H. Fan, “Numerical simulation of PbSe quantum dots doped fiber ring laser with 1.7 μm wavelength,” Laser Phys. 30(3), 035106 (2020).
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Laser Phys. Lett. (1)

T. Chen, J. Wu, W. M. Xu, Z. P. He, L. Q. Qian, and R. Shu, “Linearly polarized, dual wavelength frequency-modulated continuous-wave fiber laser for simultaneous coherent distance and speed measurements,” Laser Phys. Lett. 13(7), 075105 (2016).
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Nat. Nanotechnol. (1)

S. Pradhan, F. D. Stasio, Y. Bi, S. Gupta, S. Christodoulou, A. Stavrinadis, and G. Konstantatos, “High-efficiency colloidal quantum dot infrared light-emitting diodes via engineering at the supra-nanocrystalline level,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 14(1), 72–79 (2019).
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H. L. Bao, A. Cooper, M. Rowley, L. D. Lauro, J. S. T. Gongora, S. T. Chu, B. E. Little, G. L. Oppo, R. Morandotti, D. J. Moss, B. Wetzel, M. Peccianti, and A. Pasquazi, “Laser cavity-soliton microcombs,” Nat. Photonics 13(6), 384–389 (2019).
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New J. Phys. (1)

A. Schmitt-Sody, H. G. Kurz, L. Berge, S. Skupin, and P. Polynkin, “Picosecond laser filamentation in air,” New J. Phys. 18(9), 093005 (2016).
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P. M. Dansette, R. Burokas, L. Veselis, A. Zaukevicius, A. Michailovas, and N. Rusteika, “Peculiarities of second harmonic generation with chirped femtosecond pulses at high conversion efficiency,” Opt. Commun. 455(15), 124462 (2020).
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Opt. Express (9)

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F. T. Zhang, Z. G. Nie, H. X. Huang, L. Ma, H. Tang, M. M. Hao, and J. R. Qiu, “Self-assembled three-dimensional periodic micro-nano structures in bulk quartz crystal induced by femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express 27(5), 6442–6450 (2019).
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Photonics Res. (1)

J. Y. Zhao, W. W. Liu, S. C. Li, D. Lu, Y. Z. Zhang, Y. Peng, Y. M. Zhu, and S. L. Zhuang, “Clue to a thorough understanding of terahertz pulse generation by femtosecond laser filamentation,” Photonics Res. 6(4), 296–306 (2018).
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Sens. Actuators, B (1)

H. Y. Liu, C. C. Gu, W. W. Xiong, and M. Z. Zhang, “A sensitive hydrogen peroxide biosensor using ultra-small CuInS2 nanocrystals as peroxidase mimics,” Sens. Actuators, B 209, 670–676 (2015).
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Supplementary Material (2)

NameDescription
» Visualization 1       Soliton buildup dynamics in time and spectral domains starting from Gauss signal
» Visualization 2       Soliton buildup dynamics in time and spectral domains of noise-like signal

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) Schematics of PbSe QDFL. (b) Schematics of simulated pulse tracking.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Soliton buildup dynamics in (a) time and (b) spectral domains starting from Gaussian signal. Soliton buildup dynamics in (c) time and (d) spectral domains of noise-like signal.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Output (a) pulse and (b) spectrum starting from Gaussian signal. Output (c) pulse and (d) spectrum starting from noise-like signal.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Peak power and pulse duration with respect to QDF length under different PbSe QD doping concentrations. (a) N1 = 6 × 1021 m-3. (b) N2 = 9 × 1021 m-3. (c) N3 = 12 × 1021 m-3. (d) N4 = 15 × 1021 m-3.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Comparison between spectra at various QDF lengths.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. (a) Pulse and (c) spectrum evolution in resonator at steady state. (b) Pulse and (d) spectrum after passing through elements.

Tables (2)

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Table 1. Parameters Used in Rate Equationa

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Table 2. Parameters Used in GLE

Equations (5)

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A z = g ( z ) 2 A + g ( z ) 2 Ω g 2 2 A t 2 + i γ | A | 2 A  -  i β 2 2 2 A t 2 ,
g ( z ) = g 0 ( z ) 1 + E p u l s e / E s a t ,
g 0 ( z ) = Γ L N ( σ e L n 2 ( z ) σ α L n 1 ( z ) ) ,
n 2 = σ α P Γ P λ P P P ( z ) h c A r e a + σ α L Γ L λ L P L ( z ) h c A r e a ( σ α P + σ e P ) Γ P λ P P P ( z ) h c A r e a + 1 τ + ( σ α L + σ e L ) Γ L λ L P P ( z ) h c A r e a ,
T = 1 ( α n s + α 0 1 1 + | A | 2 / P s a t ) ,

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