Abstract

This work demonstrates a Q-switched ytterbium-doped fiber laser (YDFL) by using an organic material as a saturable absorber (SA). The organic material is FIrpic and it was embedded into polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) to form a thin film. The SA thin film was incorporated into the cavity to act as a Q-switcher. The Q-switching operation has a minimum pulse width of 2.4 µs at a central wavelength of 1067 nm. The maximum peak power and pulse energy were 193.9 mW and 465 nJ, respectively. The Q-switch operation was stable and showed a high signal to noise ratio of 66.4 dB. To the best of authors’ knowledge, this the first time that FIrpic has been used as a SA in the 1 µm region.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

1. Introduction

Q-switched ytterbium-doped fiber lasers (YDFLs) are of great research interest as they are the most reliable and robust type of fiber lasers [1]. They have an excellent power conversion efficiency and also broad gain bandwidth [2]. Additionally, Q-switched YDFL can be used in various applications such as medicine, manufacturing, sensing and communications to name a few [3,4]. Q-switching can be demonstrated by the insertion of a saturable absorber (SA) inside the cavity to acts as a self-operating Q-switcher [5]. Many types of SAs have been successfully demonstrated so far for various fiber laser applications such as semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphene. SESAM is considered the most popular SA [6]. However, CNTs suppressed the dominance of SESAMs [7] due to their wider operating wavelength range and easier fabrication process [8]. Graphene, have also become a dominant choice for SAs [9], that is due to its ultrafast recovery time and high damage threshold [10]. However, both CNT and graphene nanomaterials have some disadvantages. CNT suffers from a complex bandgap control which limits its operation in certain applications [11] while graphene has a small optical absorption range and suffer from the difficulty to create an optical bandgap [12].

Transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) have attracted much attention as well. They have been used as SAs for fiber laser applications [13,14] , but TMD has a limited performance for a laser operating at the mid-infrared and near-infrared range due to their relatively large bandgap [15]. There has been an increasing concern about the effect of long-term exposure of these nanomaterials as they might be dangerous on human health [16]. On the other hand, organics materials (as a bio-compatible alternative) might have the potential to be used as a high-performance SA [17]. Organics materials have a large and ultrafast nonlinear response and they have broad spectral tunability as well as simple and low-cost fabrication process [1820]. Furthermore, organic materials are environmentally-friendly and non-hazardous and they could increase the applications in biomedical laser processing and sensing [21]. Moreover, organic materials have the advantages of versatile molecular design and ease of control of physical properties [19]. Due to these attractive features, different areas have utilized organic materials, such as solar cells [2224], light-emitting diodes [25,26], bistable memory devices [27,28] and organic thin film transistor [29,30].

In present work, we have used an organic material, that is Bis[2-(4,6-difluorophenyl) pyridinato-C2, N] (picolinato) iridium(III) (FIrpic), as SA in YDFL cavity to generate Q-switching pulses in 1 µm region. FIrpic has excellent stability and shows favourable electrochemical properties, additionally, it can be produced by a straightforward fabrication process. FIrpic has a high emission efficiency and suitable energy level and it remains stable during deposition regardless of the surface morphology [31].

2. Experimental setup

FIrpic was embedded in polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) to form a thin film. Pristine PVA and FIrpic-PVA thin films were prepared by solvent-casting technique. A 10 mg of FIrpic was added to 1 ml of deionized (DI) water and stirred for 60 minutes at 50° C. Then two 2 drops of acetone were added in order to distribute the FIrpic inside the solution equally. Next, 5 ml of PVA solution was added to the FIrpic solution. The PVA solution was produced by adding 100 mg of PVA into 10 ml of DI water following by ultra-sonication for 60 minutes at room temperature. The mixture was then stirred for 180 minutes. The mixture was poured into a well-covered borosilicate glass petri dish and left in room temperature for 72 h. The thickness and diameter of the thin film are about 50 µm and 60 mm, respectively. The mass fraction of FIrpic is about 16.7wt%, which was obtained by $\frac{{{w_{FIpric}}}}{{({{w_{FIpric}} + {w_{PVA}}} )}} \times 100$ , where ${w_{FIpric}}$ and ${w_{PVA}}$ are the weights of FIrpic and PVA, respectively [32].

The PVA and FIrpic-PVA thin films were characterized to analyze the chemical groups by using Perkin Elmer Spectrum 400 Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) Spectrometer. The FTIR spectrum recorded within the range of 4000 to 450 cm−1 with a resolution of 2 cm−1. Figure 1 (a) shows the FTIR Spectrum of PVA and FIrpic-PVA thin films. The PVA spectrum peaks at 3298 cm−1 and shows strong and broad absorption at 3000–3600 cm−1, which is attributed to the symmetrical stretching vibration of O–H from the intramolecular and intermolecular hydrogen bonds.

 

Fig. 1. (a) FTIR spectra (b) FTIR fingerprint region of FIrpic-PVA and PVA thin films

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The peaks in the PVA spectrum at 2925, 2852, 1729, 1089, 1023 and 839 cm−1 correspond to stretching vibration of CH2, CH, C = O, C-O-C, C-O and C-C, respectively, while the peaks at 1437, 1370, 1242, 946 and 605 cm−1 are attributed to the CH2 bending, (CH + OH) bending, CH wagging and CH2 rocking and (OH) wagging of PVA, respectively [3235]. FIrpic-PVA thin film spectrum shows two peaks at 1641 and 1602 cm−1 which belong to the stretching vibration of C = C and C = N in the FIpric molecules, respectively [3638]. The fingerprint region of FTIR spectrum (1500-500 cm−1) is illustrated in Fig. 1(b). The figure shows vibration peaks of small intensities which is due to the small fraction of the organic material. The peaks at the range of 1400−1000 cm−1 correspond to C-F, C-N and C-O stretching vibration, while the peaks at the range between 1000-500 cm−1 are attributed to the bending vibration of C-H and O-H bonds [3941].

Figure 2(a) shows the optical absorbance spectrum of FIrpic-PVA thin film. The figure shows two asymmetric and broaden peaks centred at 388 and 1047 nm, which could belong to the absorption band of FIrpic and PVA doped with FIrpic molecules, respectively. The absorption band of FIrpic in CH2Cl2 solution was reported by Baranoff and Curchod to be at 256 nm [31]. The redshift of the FIrpic absorption band is attributed to its embedment in PVA polymer and the formation of the microparticles during fabrication. The PVA absorption band comes from the doped material. The optical band gap (${E_g}$) of the thin film can be obtained from ${({\alpha hv} )^n} = B({hv - {E_g}} )$, $\alpha $ is the absorption value, $hv$ is the photon energy, B is a constant, and n = 2 (as for direct transition). We can obtain the optical band gap which is equal to $h\nu $ (through linear extrapolation at the horizontal axis of ${({\alpha h\nu } )^2}$ against $h\nu $). The FIpric:PVA thin film shows two band gaps at about 2.73 and 2.14 eV, as can be seen in Fig. 2(b). These band gaps are attributed to the PVA doped by FIrpic and micro-particles of FIrpic. The bandgap of the PVA can be modified when it is doped with other materials to be 6.28 eV as reported in Ref. [42]. So, 16.7wt% of FIrpic significantly decreases the band gap of the PVA.

 

Fig. 2. (a) Optical absorption spectrum of FIrpic-PVA thin film (b) the calculated optical band gap (c) SEM image of FIrpic-PVA thin film (d) The power-dependent transmission of FIrpic-PVA

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Figure 2(c) shows SEM image of FIrpic-PVA thin film. The image shows a homogenous surface with some micron-sized particles in the range of 2−12 µm, the homogenous surface indicates a uniform distribution of FIrpic molecules along the polymer, while the particles might be attributed to FIrpic agglomeration powder. The saturable absorption was investigated as well to determine the nonlinear transmission performance of the prepared FIrpic-PVA thin film. The saturation intensity as well as modulation depth of the FIrpic-PVA are 5.5 MW/cm2 and 12.8%, respectively as shown in Fig. 2(d).

Figure 3 illustrates the cavity setup. A 1.3 m of ytterbium-doped fiber (YDF) was used as a gain medium. The YDF has doping level and ion absorption of 1500 ppm and 280 dB/m at 920 nm, respectively. The fiber laser was pumped with a 980-nm laser diode (LD) through a 980/1064 wavelength division multiplexer (WDM). A small piece of 1 mm2 of the fabricated FIrpic: PVA thin film was sandwiched between two FC/PC connectors in order to function as Q-switcher. An isolator was utilized to maintain unidirectional light propagation in the cavity, while a 50/50 optical coupler (OC) was used to output 50% of the light and keep 50% to oscillate inside the cavity. The rest of the cavity consists of standard SMF fiber making the cavity length about 5.5 m.

 

Fig. 3. Cavity Setup for YDFL laser

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3. Results and discussion

For the initial phases of the experiment, the laser operated in continuous wave (CW) regime at an incident pump power of 60 mW. Stable Q-switched operation was then observed when the LD power was raised to a threshold value of 86 mW and maintained its operation as the LD power was further increased up 147 mW. The spectrum of Q-switched fibre laser was measured by an optical spectrum analyzer. The central wavelength and 3-dB bandwidth were 1067 nm and 0.14 nm, respectively, as shown in Fig. 4(a).

 

Fig. 4. characteristics of Q-switched YDFL. (a) Output optical spectrum, (b) pulse train at 86 mW and shows and repetition rate of 46.2 kHz, inset figure shows a single pulse profile with a pulse width of 4.9 µs, (c) pulse train at 117 mW and shows and repetition rate of 54.6 kHz, inset figure shows a single pulse profile with a pulse width of 3.2 µs, (d) pulse train at147 mW and shows and repetition rate of 59.1 kHz, inset figure shows a pulse profile with a pulse width of 2.4 µs, (e) pulse width duration and repetition rate against input incident power, (f) pulse energy and output power versus input incident power, (g) peak power versus input power and (h) RF spectrum at maximum input incident power.

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The pulse trains of the Q-switching operation were recorded through 350-MHz oscilloscope together with a 2-GHz photodetector. Figure 4(b), (c) and (d) shows the output pulse trains of the Q-switching operation at different pump power inputs of 86, 117 and 147 mW, the figure show pulse widths of 4.9 µs, 3.2 µs and 2.4 µs, respectively. The decreasing pulse duration is due to gain compression in the cavity [43]. The pulse train shows uniform pulse peak intensity with no fluctuation nor distortion during this evolution process, which proves the high stability of the Q-switching operation. The inset in each figure shows a single-pulse profile and pulse width. The fiber laser showed a decrement in the pulse width (from 4.9 µs to 2.4 µs) and an increment in the repetition rate (from 46.2 kHz to 59.1 kHz) as the LD power was raised from threshold value to 147 mW, see Fig. 4(e). The pulse width can be reduced further through shortening the overall cavity length and enhance the cavity birefringence [44].

The pulse energy and average output power were relatively high, as illustrated in Fig. 4(f). That is due to the low inter-cavity loss and the low insertion loss and high performance of the SA [43], additionally, the 50:50 OC extract a large portion of signal power from the cavity. The pulse energy and the output power were increased from 195 to 465 nJ and 9 to 27.5 mW respectively, as the incident input power was increased from 86 mW to 147 mW. Figure 4(g) Illustrates the peak power performance of the fiber laser versus incident pump power, the peak power was relatively high and showed a linear increment from 39.8 to 193.9 mW.

The radio frequency (RF) spectrum was investigated (at 147 mW LD power) through 7.8 GHz RF spectrum analyzer, see Fig. 4(h). The inset figure shows the signal to noise ratio (SNR) of 66.4 dB, which indicates the stability of the fibre laser. It is also worth to notice that the proposed Q-switched laser operated stably in the laboratory condition for at least 48 hours without any noticeable degradation of performances such as the SNR. Based on the absorption spectrum of Fig. 2(a), it is expected that the Q-switching operation could also be achieved at longer wavelength region. It is worthy to mention that we have also repeated the experiment by incorporating the FIrpic SA in an erbium-doped fiber laser (EDFL) cavity. It is found that the Q-switching operation was also achieved in the EDFL cavity to operate at 1.5 µm wavelength region.

4. Conclusion

We demonstrated passive Q-switch fiber laser by using FIrpic as SA in 1 µm region. The SA thin film was prepared through the solvent-casting technique and was inserted between two FC/PC to act as Q-switcher in YDFL cavity. A stable passively Q-switched operation was achieved at a central wavelength of 1067 nm. The pulse width duration reduced from 4.9 to 2.4 and the repetition rate increased from 46.2 to 59.1 kHz as the incident power was varied between 86 to 147 mW. The peak power and pulse energy were relatively high and increased linearly to maximum values of 193.9 mW and 465 nJ, respectively. The results suggest that FIrpic, as an organic, bio-compatible and non- hazardous martial, can be used as SA in a YDFL cavity.

Funding

Imam Ja'afar Al-Sadiq University.

Acknowledgement

Imam Ja'afar Al-Sadiq University in Baghdad, Iraq has supported this work financially.

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References

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  1. Z. Luo, Y. Huang, M. Zhong, Y. Li, J. Wu, B. Xu, H. Xu, Z. Cai, J. Peng, and J. Weng, “1-, 1.5-, and 2-µm fiber lasers Q-switched by a broadband few-layer MoS 2 saturable absorber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(24), 4679–4686 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  2. R. Paschotta, J. Nilsson, A. C. Tropper, and D. C. Hanna, “Ytterbium-doped fiber amplifiers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33(7), 1049–1056 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  3. M. Leigh, W. Shi, J. Zong, J. Wang, S. Jiang, and N. Peyghambarian, “Compact, single-frequency all-fiber Q-switched laser at 1 µm,” Opt. Lett. 32(8), 897–899 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  4. Z. Luo, Y. Huang, J. Weng, H. Cheng, Z. Lin, B. Xu, Z. Cai, and H. Xu, “1.06 µm Q-switched ytterbium-doped fiber laser using few-layer topological insulator Bi 2 Se 3 as a saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 21(24), 29516–29522 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  5. R. Zhao, J. He, X. Su, Y. Wang, X. Sun, H. Nie, B. Zhang, and K. Yang, “Tunable High-Power Q-Switched Fiber Laser Based on BP-PVA Saturable Absorber,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24(3), 1–5 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  6. X. Shi-Xiang, L. Wen-Xue, H. Qiang, Z. Hui, and Z. He-Ping, “Efficient laser-diode end-pumped passively Q-switched mode-locked Yb: LYSO laser based on SESAM,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 25(2), 548–551 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  7. Y. Gao, T. Zhao, C. Li, W. Ge, Q. Wu, Z. Shi, G. Niu, J. Yu, Z. Fan, and Y. J. O. C. Wang, “Diode-side-pumped passively Q-switched Nd: YAG laser at 1123 nm with reflective single walled carbon nanotube saturable absorber,” Opt. Commun. 286(1), 261–264 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  8. A. Schmidt, S. Rivier, G. Steinmeyer, J. H. Yim, W. B. Cho, S. Lee, F. Rotermund, M. C. Pujol, X. Mateos, and M. Aguiló, “Passive mode locking of Yb: KLuW using a single-walled carbon nanotube saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 33(7), 729–731 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  9. J. Liu, S. Wu, Q.-H. Yang, and P. Wang, “Stable nanosecond pulse generation from a graphene-based passively Q-switched Yb-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 36(20), 4008–4010 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  10. L. Wei, D.-P. Zhou, H. Y. Fan, and W.-K. Liu, “Graphene-based $ Q $-switched erbium-doped fiber laser with wide pulse-repetition-rate range,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(4), 309–311 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  11. Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  12. P. Yan, A. Liu, Y. Chen, J. Wang, S. Ruan, H. Chen, and J. Ding, “Passively mode-locked fiber laser by a cell-type WS 2 nanosheets saturable absorber,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 12587 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  13. Y. Shi, H. Long, S. Liu, Y. H. Tsang, and Q. Wen, “Ultrasmall 2D NbSe 2 based quantum dots used for low threshold ultrafast lasers,” J. Mater. Chem. C 6(46), 12638–12642 (2018).
    [Crossref]
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  18. J. Boulet, A. Mohammadpour, and K. Shankar, “Insights into the solution crystallization of oriented Alq3 and Znq2 microprisms and nanorods,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 15(9), 6680–6689 (2015).
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  27. M.-J. Jung, E. Jeong, Y. Kim, and Y.-S. Lee, “Influence of the textual properties of activated carbon nanofibers on the performance of electric double-layer capacitors,” J. Ind. Eng. Chem. 19(4), 1315–1319 (2013).
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  35. I. Omkaram, R. S. Chakradhar, and J. L. Rao, “EPR, optical, infrared and Raman studies of VO2+ ions in polyvinylalcohol films,” Phys. B 388(1-2), 318–325 (2007).
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  36. K. Lei, F. Li, C. Mu, J. Wang, Q. Zhao, C. Chen, and J. Chen, “High K-storage performance based on the synergy of dipotassium terephthalate and ether-based electrolytes,” Energy Environ. Sci. 10(2), 552–557 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  37. W. L. Li, Y. C. Kong, G. W. Chen, and H. R. Yang, “Coexistence of conventional solitons and stretched pulses in a fiber laser mode-locked by carbon nanotubes,” Laser Phys. 25(4), 045103 (2015).
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  38. P. Hammer, M. Baker, C. Lenardi, and W. Gissler, “Synthesis of carbon nitride films at low temperatures,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol., A 15(1), 107–112 (1997).
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    [Crossref]
  40. Y. Yap, S. Kida, T. Aoyama, Y. Mori, and T. Sasaki, “Influence of negative dc bias voltage on structural transformation of carbon nitride at 600 C,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(7), 915–917 (1998).
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  42. O. G. Abdullah, S. B. Aziz, K. M. Omer, and Y. M. Salih, “Reducing the optical band gap of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) based nanocomposite,” J. Mater. Sci.: Mater. Electron. 26(7), 5303–5309 (2015).
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2019 (1)

B. Huang, L. Du, Q. Yi, L. Yang, J. Li, L. Miao, C. Zhao, and S. Wen, “Bulk-structured PtSe 2 for femtosecond fiber laser mode-locking,” Sci. Rep. 27(3), 2604–2611 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (2)

R. Zhao, J. He, X. Su, Y. Wang, X. Sun, H. Nie, B. Zhang, and K. Yang, “Tunable High-Power Q-Switched Fiber Laser Based on BP-PVA Saturable Absorber,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24(3), 1–5 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Shi, H. Long, S. Liu, Y. H. Tsang, and Q. Wen, “Ultrasmall 2D NbSe 2 based quantum dots used for low threshold ultrafast lasers,” J. Mater. Chem. C 6(46), 12638–12642 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (2)

R. Khazaeinezhad, S. Hosseinzadeh Kassani, B. Paulson, H. Jeong, J. Gwak, F. Rotermund, D.-I. Yeom, and K. Oh, “Ultrafast nonlinear optical properties of thin-solid DNA film and their application as a saturable absorber in femtosecond mode-locked fiber laser,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 41480 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Lei, F. Li, C. Mu, J. Wang, Q. Zhao, C. Chen, and J. Chen, “High K-storage performance based on the synergy of dipotassium terephthalate and ether-based electrolytes,” Energy Environ. Sci. 10(2), 552–557 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (3)

O. G. Abdullah, S. B. Aziz, and M. A. Rasheed, “Structural and optical characterization of PVA: KMnO4 based solid polymer electrolyte,” Results Phys. 6, 1103–1108 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. A. Hamdalla and T. A. Hanafy, “Optical properties studies for PVA/Gd, La, Er or Y chlorides based on structural modification,” Optik 127(2), 878–882 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Mehta, P. Vinayak, S. K. Tuteja, V. A. Chhabra, N. Bhardwaj, A. Paul, K.-H. Kim, and A. Deep, “Graphene modified screen printed immunosensor for highly sensitive detection of parathion,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 83, 339–346 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (5)

E. Baranoff and B. F. Curchod, “FIrpic: archetypal blue phosphorescent emitter for electroluminescence,” Dalton Trans. 44(18), 8318–8329 (2015).
[Crossref]

O. G. Abdullah, S. B. Aziz, K. M. Omer, and Y. M. Salih, “Reducing the optical band gap of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) based nanocomposite,” J. Mater. Sci.: Mater. Electron. 26(7), 5303–5309 (2015).
[Crossref]

W. L. Li, Y. C. Kong, G. W. Chen, and H. R. Yang, “Coexistence of conventional solitons and stretched pulses in a fiber laser mode-locked by carbon nanotubes,” Laser Phys. 25(4), 045103 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Boulet, A. Mohammadpour, and K. Shankar, “Insights into the solution crystallization of oriented Alq3 and Znq2 microprisms and nanorods,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 15(9), 6680–6689 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Yan, A. Liu, Y. Chen, J. Wang, S. Ruan, H. Chen, and J. Ding, “Passively mode-locked fiber laser by a cell-type WS 2 nanosheets saturable absorber,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 12587 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

Z. Luo, Y. Huang, M. Zhong, Y. Li, J. Wu, B. Xu, H. Xu, Z. Cai, J. Peng, and J. Weng, “1-, 1.5-, and 2-µm fiber lasers Q-switched by a broadband few-layer MoS 2 saturable absorber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(24), 4679–4686 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (4)

Z. Luo, Y. Huang, J. Weng, H. Cheng, Z. Lin, B. Xu, Z. Cai, and H. Xu, “1.06 µm Q-switched ytterbium-doped fiber laser using few-layer topological insulator Bi 2 Se 3 as a saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 21(24), 29516–29522 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Gao, T. Zhao, C. Li, W. Ge, Q. Wu, Z. Shi, G. Niu, J. Yu, Z. Fan, and Y. J. O. C. Wang, “Diode-side-pumped passively Q-switched Nd: YAG laser at 1123 nm with reflective single walled carbon nanotube saturable absorber,” Opt. Commun. 286(1), 261–264 (2013).
[Crossref]

M.-J. Jung, E. Jeong, Y. Kim, and Y.-S. Lee, “Influence of the textual properties of activated carbon nanofibers on the performance of electric double-layer capacitors,” J. Ind. Eng. Chem. 19(4), 1315–1319 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. B. DeCoste and G. W. Peterson, “Preparation of hydrophobic metal-organic frameworks via plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition of perfluoroalkanes for the removal of ammonia,” J. Visualized Exp. 80, 51175 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (7)

C. Zhao, Y. Zou, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, S. Lu, H. Zhang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Wavelength-tunable picosecond soliton fiber laser with topological insulator: Bi 2 Se 3 as a mode locker,” Opt. Express 20(25), 27888–27895 (2012).
[Crossref]

O. Y. Kim and J. Y. Lee, “High efficiency deep blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes using a tetraphenylsilane based phosphine oxide host material,” J. Ind. Eng. Chem. 18(3), 1029–1032 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Singhal, M. Kaur, K. Dubey, Y. Bhardwaj, D. Jain, C. Pillai, and A. Tyagi, “Polyvinyl alcohol–In 2 O 3 nanocomposite films: synthesis, characterization and gas sensing properties,” RSC Adv. 2(18), 7180–7189 (2012).
[Crossref]

H.-K. Choi, S.-H. Jin, J.-W. Park, S. Y. Kim, and Y.-S. Gal, “Electro-optical and electrochemical properties of poly(2-ethynylthiophene),” J. Ind. Eng. Chem. 18(2), 814–817 (2012).
[Crossref]

J.-M. Kim, S. K. Jha, D.-H. Lee, R. Chand, J.-H. Jeun, and Y.-S. Kim, “A flexible pentacene thin film transistors as disposable DNA hybridization sensor,” J. Ind. Eng. Chem. 18(5), 1642–1646 (2012).
[Crossref]

L. Wei, D.-P. Zhou, H. Y. Fan, and W.-K. Liu, “Graphene-based $ Q $-switched erbium-doped fiber laser with wide pulse-repetition-rate range,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(4), 309–311 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211106 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

2010 (1)

J. Clark and G. Lanzani, “Organic photonics for communications,” Nat. Photonics 4(7), 438–446 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (3)

2007 (3)

M. Leigh, W. Shi, J. Zong, J. Wang, S. Jiang, and N. Peyghambarian, “Compact, single-frequency all-fiber Q-switched laser at 1 µm,” Opt. Lett. 32(8), 897–899 (2007).
[Crossref]

I. Omkaram, R. S. Chakradhar, and J. L. Rao, “EPR, optical, infrared and Raman studies of VO2+ ions in polyvinylalcohol films,” Phys. B 388(1-2), 318–325 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Y. Kim, K. Lee, N. E. Coates, D. Moses, T.-Q. Nguyen, M. Dante, and A. J. Heeger, “Efficient tandem polymer solar cells fabricated by all-solution processing,” Science 317(5835), 222–225 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

A. L. Briseno, S. C. Mannsfeld, M. M. Ling, S. Liu, R. J. Tseng, C. Reese, M. E. Roberts, Y. Yang, F. Wudl, and Z. Bao, “Patterning organic single-crystal transistor arrays,” Nature 444(7121), 913–917 (2006).
[Crossref]

A. Nel, T. Xia, L. Mädler, and N. Li, “Toxic potential of materials at the nanolevel,” Science 311(5761), 622–627 (2006).
[Crossref]

2003 (2)

R. Holmes, S. Forrest, Y.-J. Tung, R. Kwong, J. Brown, S. Garon, and M. Thompson, “Blue organic electrophosphorescence using exothermic host–guest energy transfer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(15), 2422–2424 (2003).
[Crossref]

P. Peumans, S. Uchida, and S. R. Forrest, “Efficient bulk heterojunction photovoltaic cells using small-molecular-weight organic thin films,” Nature 425(6954), 158–162 (2003).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

Y. Yap, S. Kida, T. Aoyama, Y. Mori, and T. Sasaki, “Influence of negative dc bias voltage on structural transformation of carbon nitride at 600 C,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(7), 915–917 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (2)

P. Hammer, M. Baker, C. Lenardi, and W. Gissler, “Synthesis of carbon nitride films at low temperatures,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol., A 15(1), 107–112 (1997).
[Crossref]

R. Paschotta, J. Nilsson, A. C. Tropper, and D. C. Hanna, “Ytterbium-doped fiber amplifiers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33(7), 1049–1056 (1997).
[Crossref]

Abdullah, O. G.

O. G. Abdullah, S. B. Aziz, and M. A. Rasheed, “Structural and optical characterization of PVA: KMnO4 based solid polymer electrolyte,” Results Phys. 6, 1103–1108 (2016).
[Crossref]

O. G. Abdullah, S. B. Aziz, K. M. Omer, and Y. M. Salih, “Reducing the optical band gap of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) based nanocomposite,” J. Mater. Sci.: Mater. Electron. 26(7), 5303–5309 (2015).
[Crossref]

Aguiló, M.

Alani, I.

S. Wadi Harun, S. Salam, A. Al-Masoodi, m. hazaa, A. H. H. Al-Masoodi, W. Haliza Abdul Majid, M. Yasin, W. Ru Wong, and I. Alani, Tris-(8-Hydroxyquinoline) Aluminum Thin Film as Saturable Absorber for Passively Q-Switched Erbium-Doped Fiber Laser (2019).

Al-Masoodi, A.

S. Wadi Harun, S. Salam, A. Al-Masoodi, m. hazaa, A. H. H. Al-Masoodi, W. Haliza Abdul Majid, M. Yasin, W. Ru Wong, and I. Alani, Tris-(8-Hydroxyquinoline) Aluminum Thin Film as Saturable Absorber for Passively Q-Switched Erbium-Doped Fiber Laser (2019).

Al-Masoodi, A. H. H.

S. Wadi Harun, S. Salam, A. Al-Masoodi, m. hazaa, A. H. H. Al-Masoodi, W. Haliza Abdul Majid, M. Yasin, W. Ru Wong, and I. Alani, Tris-(8-Hydroxyquinoline) Aluminum Thin Film as Saturable Absorber for Passively Q-Switched Erbium-Doped Fiber Laser (2019).

Aoyama, T.

Y. Yap, S. Kida, T. Aoyama, Y. Mori, and T. Sasaki, “Influence of negative dc bias voltage on structural transformation of carbon nitride at 600 C,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(7), 915–917 (1998).
[Crossref]

Aziz, S. B.

O. G. Abdullah, S. B. Aziz, and M. A. Rasheed, “Structural and optical characterization of PVA: KMnO4 based solid polymer electrolyte,” Results Phys. 6, 1103–1108 (2016).
[Crossref]

O. G. Abdullah, S. B. Aziz, K. M. Omer, and Y. M. Salih, “Reducing the optical band gap of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) based nanocomposite,” J. Mater. Sci.: Mater. Electron. 26(7), 5303–5309 (2015).
[Crossref]

Baker, M.

P. Hammer, M. Baker, C. Lenardi, and W. Gissler, “Synthesis of carbon nitride films at low temperatures,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol., A 15(1), 107–112 (1997).
[Crossref]

Bao, Q.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bao, Z.

A. L. Briseno, S. C. Mannsfeld, M. M. Ling, S. Liu, R. J. Tseng, C. Reese, M. E. Roberts, Y. Yang, F. Wudl, and Z. Bao, “Patterning organic single-crystal transistor arrays,” Nature 444(7121), 913–917 (2006).
[Crossref]

Baranoff, E.

E. Baranoff and B. F. Curchod, “FIrpic: archetypal blue phosphorescent emitter for electroluminescence,” Dalton Trans. 44(18), 8318–8329 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bhardwaj, N.

J. Mehta, P. Vinayak, S. K. Tuteja, V. A. Chhabra, N. Bhardwaj, A. Paul, K.-H. Kim, and A. Deep, “Graphene modified screen printed immunosensor for highly sensitive detection of parathion,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 83, 339–346 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bhardwaj, Y.

A. Singhal, M. Kaur, K. Dubey, Y. Bhardwaj, D. Jain, C. Pillai, and A. Tyagi, “Polyvinyl alcohol–In 2 O 3 nanocomposite films: synthesis, characterization and gas sensing properties,” RSC Adv. 2(18), 7180–7189 (2012).
[Crossref]

Boulet, J.

J. Boulet, A. Mohammadpour, and K. Shankar, “Insights into the solution crystallization of oriented Alq3 and Znq2 microprisms and nanorods,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 15(9), 6680–6689 (2015).
[Crossref]

Briseno, A. L.

A. L. Briseno, S. C. Mannsfeld, M. M. Ling, S. Liu, R. J. Tseng, C. Reese, M. E. Roberts, Y. Yang, F. Wudl, and Z. Bao, “Patterning organic single-crystal transistor arrays,” Nature 444(7121), 913–917 (2006).
[Crossref]

Brown, J.

R. Holmes, S. Forrest, Y.-J. Tung, R. Kwong, J. Brown, S. Garon, and M. Thompson, “Blue organic electrophosphorescence using exothermic host–guest energy transfer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(15), 2422–2424 (2003).
[Crossref]

Cai, Z.

Z. Luo, Y. Huang, M. Zhong, Y. Li, J. Wu, B. Xu, H. Xu, Z. Cai, J. Peng, and J. Weng, “1-, 1.5-, and 2-µm fiber lasers Q-switched by a broadband few-layer MoS 2 saturable absorber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(24), 4679–4686 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. Luo, Y. Huang, J. Weng, H. Cheng, Z. Lin, B. Xu, Z. Cai, and H. Xu, “1.06 µm Q-switched ytterbium-doped fiber laser using few-layer topological insulator Bi 2 Se 3 as a saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 21(24), 29516–29522 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chakradhar, R. S.

I. Omkaram, R. S. Chakradhar, and J. L. Rao, “EPR, optical, infrared and Raman studies of VO2+ ions in polyvinylalcohol films,” Phys. B 388(1-2), 318–325 (2007).
[Crossref]

Chand, R.

J.-M. Kim, S. K. Jha, D.-H. Lee, R. Chand, J.-H. Jeun, and Y.-S. Kim, “A flexible pentacene thin film transistors as disposable DNA hybridization sensor,” J. Ind. Eng. Chem. 18(5), 1642–1646 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chen, C.

K. Lei, F. Li, C. Mu, J. Wang, Q. Zhao, C. Chen, and J. Chen, “High K-storage performance based on the synergy of dipotassium terephthalate and ether-based electrolytes,” Energy Environ. Sci. 10(2), 552–557 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chen, G. W.

W. L. Li, Y. C. Kong, G. W. Chen, and H. R. Yang, “Coexistence of conventional solitons and stretched pulses in a fiber laser mode-locked by carbon nanotubes,” Laser Phys. 25(4), 045103 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, H.

P. Yan, A. Liu, Y. Chen, J. Wang, S. Ruan, H. Chen, and J. Ding, “Passively mode-locked fiber laser by a cell-type WS 2 nanosheets saturable absorber,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 12587 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, J.

K. Lei, F. Li, C. Mu, J. Wang, Q. Zhao, C. Chen, and J. Chen, “High K-storage performance based on the synergy of dipotassium terephthalate and ether-based electrolytes,” Energy Environ. Sci. 10(2), 552–557 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.

P. Yan, A. Liu, Y. Chen, J. Wang, S. Ruan, H. Chen, and J. Ding, “Passively mode-locked fiber laser by a cell-type WS 2 nanosheets saturable absorber,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 12587 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211106 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. Zhao, Y. Zou, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, S. Lu, H. Zhang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Wavelength-tunable picosecond soliton fiber laser with topological insulator: Bi 2 Se 3 as a mode locker,” Opt. Express 20(25), 27888–27895 (2012).
[Crossref]

Cheng, H.

Chhabra, V. A.

J. Mehta, P. Vinayak, S. K. Tuteja, V. A. Chhabra, N. Bhardwaj, A. Paul, K.-H. Kim, and A. Deep, “Graphene modified screen printed immunosensor for highly sensitive detection of parathion,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 83, 339–346 (2016).
[Crossref]

Cho, W. B.

Choi, H.-K.

H.-K. Choi, S.-H. Jin, J.-W. Park, S. Y. Kim, and Y.-S. Gal, “Electro-optical and electrochemical properties of poly(2-ethynylthiophene),” J. Ind. Eng. Chem. 18(2), 814–817 (2012).
[Crossref]

Clark, J.

J. Clark and G. Lanzani, “Organic photonics for communications,” Nat. Photonics 4(7), 438–446 (2010).
[Crossref]

Coates, N. E.

J. Y. Kim, K. Lee, N. E. Coates, D. Moses, T.-Q. Nguyen, M. Dante, and A. J. Heeger, “Efficient tandem polymer solar cells fabricated by all-solution processing,” Science 317(5835), 222–225 (2007).
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Curchod, B. F.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) FTIR spectra (b) FTIR fingerprint region of FIrpic-PVA and PVA thin films
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) Optical absorption spectrum of FIrpic-PVA thin film (b) the calculated optical band gap (c) SEM image of FIrpic-PVA thin film (d) The power-dependent transmission of FIrpic-PVA
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Cavity Setup for YDFL laser
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. characteristics of Q-switched YDFL. (a) Output optical spectrum, (b) pulse train at 86 mW and shows and repetition rate of 46.2 kHz, inset figure shows a single pulse profile with a pulse width of 4.9 µs, (c) pulse train at 117 mW and shows and repetition rate of 54.6 kHz, inset figure shows a single pulse profile with a pulse width of 3.2 µs, (d) pulse train at147 mW and shows and repetition rate of 59.1 kHz, inset figure shows a pulse profile with a pulse width of 2.4 µs, (e) pulse width duration and repetition rate against input incident power, (f) pulse energy and output power versus input incident power, (g) peak power versus input power and (h) RF spectrum at maximum input incident power.

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