Abstract

We report a functionality-switchable terahertz polarization converter based on an L-shaped planar metamaterial arranged on the graphene/hBN/Si/SiO2/Ag substrate. By dynamically controlling the chemical potential of the graphene sheet, we demonstrate a functional switch from a high-performance quarter-wave plate (ellipticity more than 0.97) to a high-performance half-wave plate (PCR>97%) within a working bandwidth from 4.80 THz to 5.10 THz. The physical mechanism of our proposed active terahertz device is well explained from both macroscopic and microscopic sides. This functionality-switchable terahertz polarization converter shows a compact structure and is convenient in fabrication and gate-voltage operation, which may be applied in practical terahertz imaging, detection, and communication.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

1. Introduction

In the electromagnetic spectrum, the typical terahertz band is in the frequency range of 1011–1013 Hz, which is located between the edges of far-infrared and microwave bands. Terahertz beam has low radiation, good transmission, perfect directivity and large communication capacity, thus it is of great significance in both civilian and military fields, such as bio-imaging, material component analysis, security check, military target detection and short-range communication [1–4]. As a result, over the past two decades, great efforts have been made by researchers from all over the world to develop the terahertz related sources, modulators and detectors [5–10]. Among them, terahertz polarization converters based on planar metamaterials have drawn extensive attentions and the studies have been concentrated on two main directions. One direction is broadening the working bandwidth of terahertz polarization converters [11–28]. In particular, recent studies have demonstrated that the working bandwidth of terahertz quarter-wave and half-wave plates can be broadened by carefully designing the unit cell of planar metamaterials or using multilayer and hybrid planar metamaterials [11,12,16,21,25,27,28].

The other direction is realizing tunable terahertz polarization converters by integrating the phase-change material or electro-optic material with planar metamaterials [29–36]. For example, Wang et al. [29] used the phase-change material to modulate the working frequency of a quarter-wave plate. When the temperature was increased from 300 K to 400 K, the working frequency was changed from 0.468 THz to 0.502 THz. Zhang et al. [33] used graphene-strip metamaterial to control the working state of a quarter-wave plate. When the chemical potential of graphene is 0 eV, the planar metamaterial does not change the linear polarization state of an incident terahertz beam, while the planar metamaterial works as a quarter-wave plate when the chemical potential of graphene is 0.5 eV. Ji et al. [34] demonstrated a broadband controllable THz quarter-wave plate with double layers of graphene grating and a layer of liquid crystals, where the ‘on’ and ‘off’ states of quarter-wave plate can be controlled by the graphene gratings and the working frequency of quarter-wave plate can be modulated by the liquid crystals. Besides these tunable single-function terahertz polarization converters, functionality-switchable polarization converters have also been reported recently. For instance, Vasić et al. [37] proposed an electrically tunable terahertz polarization converter based on over coupled metal isolator-metal metamaterials infiltrated with liquid crystals and realized a switch from half-wave plate to quarter-wave plate at frequency of 2.32 THz when different external gate voltages were applied. Yu et al. [38] proposed a graphene-wire integrated planar metamaterial model and demonstrated a switch from half-wave plate to quarter-wave plate with a working bandwidth of 0.12 THz.

In the current study, we would like to report a new functionality-switchable terahertz polarization converter from quarter-wave plate to half-wave plate based on a planar metamaterial integrated with a single-layer graphene. In contrast to the phase-change material and liquid crystal, graphene-based polarization converter can be designed more compactly and operated in a safer manner. In contrast to the graphene wires, a graphene sheet is more practical in fabrication and it can work more conveniently and reliably when applying an external gate voltage to change its chemical potential. In addition, we will show that our proposed functionality-switchable polarization converter has improved response in bandwidth and performance simultaneously.

2. Models and methods

Figure 1(a) shows the schematic of the terahertz tunable polarization converter. A planar metamaterial is arranged on a graphene/hBN/Si/SiO2/Ag substrate. The unit cell of the planar metamaterial is composed of an L-shaped gold resonator, as shown in Fig. 1(b). The length and width of each arm of the L pattern are l and w, respectively. The periodical constant is a. A single layer of graphene is used to modulate the function of polarization converter. A single layer of graphene can be treated as an ultra-thin active layer and its conductivity and permittivity can be modulated by changing its chemical potential, which can be controlled on purpose by applying a gate voltage (a static electric field) or by means of chemical doping.

 figure: Fig. 1

Fig. 1 (a) Schematic of the terahertz tunable polarization converter based on a planar metamaterial integrated with a graphene sheet on the hBN/Si/SiO2/Ag substrate. (b) Unit cell of the planar metamaterial.

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The conductivity of graphene contains the intraband electron-phonon scattering term σintra and the interband electron transition term σinter, which can be derived from the Kubo formula [39]:

σ(ω,Γ,μc,T)=σintra(ω,Γ,μc,T)+σinter(ω,Γ,μc,T),
σintra(ω,Γ,μc,T)=ie2kBTπ2(ω+i2Γ)[μckBT+2ln(exp(μckBT)+1)],
σinter(ω,Γ,μc,T)=ie24π2ln(2|μc|(ω+i2Γ)2|μc|+(ω+i2Γ)),
where ω is the angular frequency, Γ = 1/2τ (τ is relaxation time) represents scattering rate. The relaxation time and the temperature are assumed to be τ = 2 ps and T = 300 K, respectively [40,41]. μc, e, ħ and kB are the chemical potential, the electron charge, the reduced Plank constant and the Boltzmann constant, respectively. In the terahertz region, graphene behaves like a Drude-type material and the intraband conductivity plays a dominated role since the photon energy ω is far less than EF. In order to obtain large-scale and high-purity monolayer graphene with a long relaxation time, the graphene sheet can be fabricated by the chemical vapour deposition (CVD) method on hBN substrate. The chemical potential of graphene can be controlled by applying an external gate voltage, which can be described by [32]:
EF=μcνfπεrε0Vgets,
where εr and ts are the dielectric constant and thickness of the insulating layer, respectively.ε0 is the dielectric constant of vacuum. νf is the Fermi velocity (1.1 × 106 m/s in graphene). Vg and e are external voltage and electron charge, respectively. In our model, in order to achieving a practical external gate voltage, a 3nm-thick hBN insulating layer (εr = 2.95) [42] is used between the graphene sheet and a 5nm-thick silicon conducting layer. In our simulation, we considered a medium-level doped silicon with a conductivity less than 103 S/m, under which condition, the loss from doped silicon is insignificant and thus the doped silicon can be treated as a dielectric with a fixed refractive index (n = 3.4) [43]. For application purpose, the maximum chemical potential of graphene is limited to be 0.45 eV and the corresponding transverse field is far below the breakdown electric field of the thin hBN layer [44]. The silver mirror used here can also be replaced by a gold mirror. Both of them can work as a high-performance mirror at terahertz region.

At the same time, graphene can be modeled by using a uniaxial anisotropic permittivity. The permittivity tensor contains two in-plane (x-y plane) components and one out-of-plane (z direction) component, which can be described by [45]:

εxx=εyy=εr+iσintra(ω,Γ,μc,T)ε0ωtandεzz=εr,
where ε0 is the vacuum permittivity, εr is the relative permittivity of background media, and t is the thickness of the graphene sheet.

We employed a commercial three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain (3D-FDTD) software package, “Lumerical FDTD Solutions,” for the simulation of polarization converter. In simulations, a periodic boundary condition was set along both x and y directions and a perfectly matched layer (PML) absorbing boundary condition was used along z direction. The mesh step is 100 nm along all three directions. A single layer of graphene was treated as a 2D material, the thickness of which can be ignored.

3. Results and discussion

3.1 High-performance quarter-wave plate design

We first designed a quarter-wave plate based on the model in Fig. 1(a) by assuming that the chemical potential of graphene is zero. When the planar metamaterial is illuminated by x-polarized plane waves, the horizontal arm of Au L resonator becomes an x resonator along with partial energy transferred to the horizontal arm (y resonator) through near-field scattering. Then, terahertz wave transmitting through the planar metamaterial and underlying layers will be reflected by the bottom silver mirror. At last, scattering waves from top resonators and reflected waves from bottom mirror will superpose in the backward far-field free space to realize a quarter-wave plate function when the strengths of x and y polarization components are the same and their phase difference is equal to odd times of π/2. It should be noted that both near-field scattering from top resonators and reflected waves from bottom mirror can be modulated by the graphene sheet, hBN insulating layer, silicon conducting layer, and SiO2 spacer. As a result, when graphene is unbiased, the SiO2 spacer will play a vital role in designing a quarter-wave plate [46,47].

For terahertz application, we employed an optimized L-shape resonator from ref. 46 with ten times enlarged structural parameters, i.e., l = 12.2 μm, w = 1.2 μm, and a = 15.5 μm. The thicknesses of gold pattern and Ag reflector are 0.12 μm and 0.3 μm, respectively. We then scanned the thickness of SiO2 from 7 μm to 11 μm to find the thickness dependent amplitude ratio and phase difference of x and y polarization components in the far-field reflected waves. As shown in Figs. 2(a) and 2(b), when the thickness of SiO2 is near 9 μm (white dotted line), the amplitude ratio of ryx/rxx is close to 1 (yellow area) and the phase difference is near 90 degrees (yellow area). In particular, we found the maximum range of the phase difference equal to 90 degree can be obtained at the thickness of 8.94 μm. More details about the amplitude ratio and phase difference are given by Figs. 2(c) and 2(d), from which we can confirm a quarter-wave plate with an optimal working bandwidth from about 4.80 THz to 5.10 THz. As shown in Fig. 2(e), the linearly polarized incident terahertz beam can be converted into a circularly polarized one, having an ellipticity more than 0.97 within this bandwidth. We calculated the sliced spatial distributions of |E|, Ex, and Ey at the central frequency of 4.95 THz, as shown in Figs. 2(f)–2(n). When the chemical potential of graphene is zero, the electric field is strongly localized in the near field of two arms and the contribution from Ex and Ey is almost uniform in the x-y plane for the quarter-wave plate. It can also be found from the x-z and y-z planes that the resonance mainly occurs at the Au/graphene interface and there is no resonance in the dielectric spacer.

 figure: Fig. 2

Fig. 2 (a) and (b) Dependences of the amplitude ratio (a) and phase difference (b) between x and y polarization components in the reflected light on SiO2’s thickness. (c)-(e) Polarization separated reflection spectra (c), phase difference (d) and the ellipticity (e) at the thickness of 8.94 μm. rxx and ryx are reflectivity. Spatial distributions of |E|, Ex, and Ey in x-y [(f)-(h)], x-z [(i)-(k)], and y-z [(l)-(n)] planes at the central frequency of 4.95 THz when the chemical potential of graphene is zero. Sliced position of x-y plane is at the Au/graphene interface and sliced positions of x-z and y-z planes are represented by the dashed lines in (f).

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3.2 High-performance functionality-switchable polarization converter

We then studied the effect of graphene’s chemical potential on the working performance of quarter-wave plate. We initially roughly scanned the polarization separated reflection spectra when the chemical potential of graphene is changed from 0.1 eV to 0.45 eV with a step of 0.05 eV. We found that a small chemical potential of 0.1 eV can cause a drastic change in x and y polarization components. When the chemical potential is increased to 0.3 eV [Figs. 3(a)], an apparent reversal of ryx and rxx can be observed, which means a half-wave plate can be realized at this chemical potential value. When the chemical potential reaches the maximum value of 0.45 eV [Figs. 3(b)], the reversal response still occurs but the reflectivity of the x polarization component is no longer efficiently suppressed, which means the performance of half-wave plate is not satisfactory at relatively large chemical potential values.

 figure: Fig. 3

Fig. 3 (a)-(d) Polarization separated reflection spectra when the chemical potential of graphene is 0.3 eV, 0.45 eV, 0.32 eV, and 0.36 eV, respectively.

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In order to find the acceptable range of chemical potential that can support a half-wave plate with overlapped band to the quarter-wave plate in Fig. 2, we further elaborately scanned the polarization separated reflection spectra when the chemical potential is increased from 0.3 eV to 0.4 eV with a fine step of 0.02 eV. The optimal range of chemical potential for supporting high-performance half-wave plate is found from 0.32 eV [Figs. 3(c)] to 0.36 eV [Figs. 3(d)], where the rxx keeps almost zero in a broad band. The corresponding external gate voltage is calculated from 45 V to 57 V, which is realistic in experiment. At the same time, it is not hard to find that the effective working frequency band of the half-wave plate is gradually blue shifted as the chemical potential increases. We will explain this blue shift behavior later.

Figures 4(a) and 4(b) show the linearity and polarization angle of the half-wave plate under different chemical potentials. Linearity can be used to evaluate the linearly polarized light and it is defined as the axial ratio of the polarization ellipse in the far-field reflection space, i.e., Along-axis/Ashort-axis. At the same time, the polarization conversion rate (PCR) which is defined as PCR = ryx/(ryx + rxx) is usually used to evaluate the performance of a half-wave plate. As shown in Fig. 4(a), when the chemical potential is 0.32 eV, 0.34 eV and 0.36 eV, the corresponding working bandwidth with linearity over 10 (dashed line) for the half-wave plate is 4.40 ~4.90 THz (PCR>98.5%), 4.90 ~5.02 THz (PCR>98%) and 5.02 ~5.10 THz (PCR>97%), respectively. At the same time, as shown in Fig. 4(b), the polarization angle keeps near 90 degrees in a broad band and it is less influenced by the chemical potential. Figures 4(c)–4(k) show the spatial distributions of |E|, Ex, and Ey in x-y, x-z, and y-z planes at the frequency of 4.98 THz when μc is 0.34 eV. We can find that the electric field is mainly distributed in the far field of two arms and the contribution from Ey is critical for the half-wave plate. Meanwhile, the resonant energy is mainly localized at the Au/graphene interface and there is no resonance in the dielectric spacer, which is in agreement with the quarter-wave plate case in Fig. 2. As a result, a high-performance terahertz half-wave plate can be demonstrated with a tunable working bandwidth from 4.40 ~5.10 THz, which has fully covered the working bandwidth (4.80 ~5.10 THz) of the quarter-wave plate in Fig. 2(c). In another word, a functionality-switchable polarization converter between quarter-wave and half-wave plates can be realized by tuning the chemical potential of graphene from zero to a proper range.

 figure: Fig. 4

Fig. 4 (a) and (b) Linearity and polarization angle of half-wave plate when the chemical potential is 0.32 eV, 0.34 eV and 0.36 eV. Spatial distributions of |E|, Ex, and Ey in x-y [(c)-(e)], x-z [(f)-(h)], and y-z [(i)-(k)] planes at the central frequency of 4.98 THz when the chemical potential of graphene is 0.34 eV. Sliced position of x-y plane is at the Au/graphene interface and sliced positions of x-z and y-z planes are represented by the dashed lines in (c).

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As shown in Table 1, we compared our design with other recently reported tunable and functionality-switchable wave plate designs. Compared with the tunable wave plate, the functionality-switchable wave designs currently still show clear disadvantage in bandwidth. As compared to the similar models in previous works, our model based on a single layer graphene sheet has shown improved response in bandwidth and performance simultaneously, making it more practical in terahertz applications. However, the reflection efficiency of our model is inferior to the graphene wire model [38] due to higher absorption at the Au/graphene interface.

Tables Icon

Table 1. A Comparison Between Our Polarization Converters and Reported Tunable and Functionality-Switchable Wave Plate Designs

3.3 Physical mechanism

The physical mechanism of our designed functionality-switchable polarization converter can be explained from both macroscopic and microscopic sides. As we know, one basic thought for wave-plate functional switch design relies on the broken of different polarization components. For example, in previous work [38], a graphene wire is arranged along one direction to change the structure symmetry and two orthotropic polarization components were generated under 45°-polarized excitation. When the graphene wire is biased, the balance of two orthotropic polarization components can be effectively broken. In our model, L resonator shows symmetry along x and y directions and the presence of graphene sheet does not change the structure symmetry. Two orthotropic polarization components were generated through near-field scattering coupling under x-polarized excitation and their amplitude ratio and phase difference can be modulated by the substrate of top L-shape resonators. Specifically, the realization of quarter wave plate function with unbiased graphene sheet is due to co-contribution from the top L-shape resonators and underlying layers, where the thickness of dielectric spacer is vital for the modulation of amplitude ratio and phase difference of different polarization components. When graphene sheet is in biased state, both near-field scattering from top resonators and reflected waves from bottom mirror will be mainly modulated by the active graphene rather than the dielectric spacer since the spacer’s thickness is fixed. As a result, the realization of half wave plate function is determined by the coupling efficiency of near-field scattering since the phase difference makes no sense for cross-polarization conversion.

The near-field scattering coupling from horizontal arm to vertical one in L-shape resonator can be simply described as:

Ex=E0ej(ωt+φ0),
Ey=κyxEx=ηyxejΔφEx,
where κyx is the coupling function. ηyx and Δφ are related to the amplitude ratio and phase difference between x and y components, respectively. Both ηyx and Δφ are sensitive to the dielectric constant of the background, which can be manipulated dynamically by the graphene’s conductivity.

Figures 5(a) and 5(b) show the dispersion relation of graphene’s conductivity for different chemical potentials. When the chemical potential is 0 eV, the real and imaginary parts of graphene’s conductivity will gradually decrease and increase with the growing frequency, respectively. When the chemical potential is gradually increased to 0.1 eV, 0.3 eV, and 0.45 eV, for a specific frequency, the real part of graphene’s conductivity will first decrease at μc = 0.1 eV and then gradually increase, while the imaginary part is consistently growing. According to Eq. (5), the real and imaginary parts of graphene’s in-plane dielectric constant are determined by the imaginary and real parts of graphene’s conductivity, respectively. Since the imaginary part of graphene’s conductivity is much larger than the real part, the performance of polarization converter is mainly affected by the former one. When the chemical potential is increased from 0 eV to 0.45 eV, the imaginary part of graphene’s conductivity is enhanced more than 10 times, so it will strongly modulate the ηyx and Δφ which are critical for realizing a switchable polarization converter from a quarter-wave plate to a half-wave plate [Figs. 3(a)–3(d)]. In particular, when the chemical potential is increased from 0.32 eV to 0.36 eV, a gradually enhanced imaginary part of graphene’s conductivity will bring a growingΔφ. Since the half-wave plate should satisfy a quite similar phase difference condition [Fig. 5(c)], the effective working frequency band of half-wave plate is forced to move to higher frequencies to satisfy the phase condition and thus causes a blue-shifted behavior in Figs. 3(e)–3(h).

 figure: Fig. 5

Fig. 5 (a) and (b) Real and imaginary parts of graphene’s conductivity plotted as a function of frequency for different chemical potentials. (c) Phase difference of the half-wave plate when the chemical potential is 0.32 eV, 0.34 eV and 0.36 eV. (d) Real part of gold’s permittivity at different plasmon frequencies based on the Drude model ε(ω) = ε-ωp2/(ω2 + iωγ), where ε = 9.1 and γ is 1.07E14.

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From the microscopic side, the growing graphene’s conductivity could improve the electron density (n) and plasmon frequency (ωp2 = ne2/εrme) of the adjacent gold film. As shown in Fig. 5(d), a growing plasmon frequency of gold will cause a decrease of the real part of gold’s permittivity and result in a blue shift of resonant frequency based on the well-known Drude model and Mie scattering theory [48].

4. Conclusions

In conclusion, we have demonstrated an idea of functionality-switchable terahertz polarization converter based on a planar metamaterial integrated with a single-layer graphene on the hBN/Si/SiO2/Ag substrate. When the graphene sheet is in the unbiased state, by carefully designing the thickness of SiO2, we obtained a high-performance quarter-wave plate (ellipticity more than 0.97) with a working bandwidth from 4.80 THz to 5.10 THz. When the graphene sheet is in the biased state, a growing chemical potential allows a dynamically switch from a quarter-wave plate to a half-wave plate. In particular, the best range of chemical potential for a high-performance half-wave plate (PCR>97%) is from 0.32 eV to 0.36 eV, during which the working bandwidth of the half-wave plate is gradually blue-shifted as chemical potential grows and the superposed working bandwidth can fully covered the working bandwidth of the quarter-wave plate. Our proposed active terahertz polarization converter not only is working with high performance but also is compact in structure as well as convenient in fabrication and gate-voltage operation, which shows a practical value in terahertz imaging, detection, and communication.

Funding

National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) (61675096, 61205042); Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province (BK2014021828).

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33. Y. Zhang, Y. Feng, B. Zhu, J. Zhao, and T. Jiang, “Switchable quarter-wave plate with graphene based metamaterial for broadband terahertz wave manipulation,” Opt. Express 23(21), 27230–27239 (2015). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

34. Y. Y. Ji, F. Fan, X. H. Wang, and S. J. Chang, “Broadband controllable terahertz quarter-wave plate based on graphene gratings with liquid crystals,” Opt. Express 26(10), 12852–12862 (2018). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

35. Y. Y. Ji, F. Fan, M. Chen, L. Yang, and S. J. Chang, “Terahertz artificial birefringence and tunable phase shifter based on dielectric metasurface with compound lattice,” Opt. Express 25(10), 11405–11413 (2017). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

36. H. Jiang, W. Y. Zhao, and Y. Y. Jiang, “Frequency-tunable and functionality-switchable polarization device using silicon strip array integrated with a graphene sheet,” Opt. Mater. Express 7(12), 4277–4285 (2017). [CrossRef]  

37. B. Vasić, D. C. Zografopoulos, G. Isić, R. Beccherelli, and R. Gajić, “Electrically tunable terahertz polarization converter based on overcoupled metal-isolator-metal metamaterials infiltrated with liquid crystals,” Nanotechnology 28(12), 124002 (2017). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

38. X. Y. Yu, X. Gao, W. Qiao, L. L. Wen, and W. L. Yang, “Broadband tunable polarization converter realized by graphene-based metamaterial,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 28(21), 2399–2402 (2016). [CrossRef]  

39. G. W. Hanson, “Dyadic Green’s functions and guided surface waves for a surface conductivity model of graphene,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(6), 064302 (2008). [CrossRef]  

40. J. Jiang, X. Zhang, W. Zhang, S. Liang, H. Wu, L. Jiang, and X. Li, “Out-of-plane focusing and manipulation of terahertz beams based on a silicon/copper grating covered by monolayer graphene,” Opt. Express 25(14), 16867–16878 (2017). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

41. X. Gao, W. Yang, W. Cao, M. Chen, Y. Jiang, X. Yu, and H. Li, “Bandwidth broadening of a graphene-based circular polarization converter by phase compensation,” Opt. Express 25(20), 23945–23954 (2017). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

42. Y. Q. Cai, L. T. Zhang, Q. F. Zeng, L. F. Cheng, and Y. D. Xu, “Infrared reflectance spectrum of BN calculated from first principles,” Solid State Commun. 141(5), 262–266 (2007). [CrossRef]  

43. B. Z. Xu, C. Q. Gu, Z. Li, and Z. Y. Niu, “A novel structure for tunable terahertz absorber based on graphene,” Opt. Express 21(20), 23803–23811 (2013). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

44. L. Viti, J. Hu, D. Coquillat, A. Politano, C. Consejo, W. Knap, and M. S. Vitiello, “Heterostructured hBN-BP-hBN nanodetectors at terahertz frequencies,” Adv. Mater. 28(34), 7390–7396 (2016). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

45. L. A. Falkovsky, “Optical properties of graphene,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 129, 012004 (2008). [CrossRef]  

46. T. Li, S. M. Wang, J. X. Cao, H. Liu, and S. N. Zhu, “Cavity-involved plasmonic metamaterial for optical polarization conversion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(26), 261113 (2010). [CrossRef]  

47. S. C. Jiang, X. Xiong, Y. S. Hu, Y. H. Hu, G. B. Ma, R. W. Peng, C. Sun, and M. Wang, “Controlling the Polarization state of light with a dispersion-free metastructure,” Phys. Rev. X 4(2), 021026 (2014). [CrossRef]  

48. S. A. Maier, Plasmonics: Fundamentals and Applications (Springer-Verlag, 2007).

References

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  4. I. F. Akyildiz, J. M. Jornet, and C. Han, “Terahertz band: Next frontier for wireless communications,” Phys. Commun. 12, 16–32 (2014).
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  9. M. Rahm, J. S. Li, and W. J. Padilla, “THz wave modulators: a brief review on different modulation techniques,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 34(1), 1–27 (2013).
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  10. F. Sizov and A. Rogalski, “THz detectors,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 34(5), 278–347 (2010).
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  12. L. Q. Cong, W. Cao, X. Q. Zhang, Z. Tian, J. Q. Gu, R. Singh, J. G. Han, and W. L. Zhang, “A perfect metamaterial polarization rotator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(17), 171107 (2013).
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  13. X. Wen and J. Zheng, “Broadband THz reflective polarization rotator by multiple plasmon resonances,” Opt. Express 22(23), 28292–28300 (2014).
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  15. J. W. He, Z. W. Xie, S. Wang, X. K. Wang, Q. Kan, and Y. Zhang, “Terahertz polarization modulator based on metasurface,” J. Opt. 17(10), 105107 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  16. W. Liu, S. Chen, Z. Li, H. Cheng, P. Yu, J. Li, and J. Tian, “Realization of broadband cross-polarization conversion in transmission mode in the terahertz region using a single-layer metasurface,” Opt. Lett. 40(13), 3185–3188 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. W. Mo, X. Wei, K. Wang, Y. Li, and J. Liu, “Ultrathin flexible terahertz polarization converter based on metasurfaces,” Opt. Express 24(12), 13621–13627 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. H. Zhao, X. Wang, J. He, J. Guo, J. Ye, Q. Kan, and Y. Zhang, “High-efficiency terahertz devices based on cross-polarization converter,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 17882 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. Y. Nakata, Y. Taira, T. Nakanishi, and F. Miyamaru, “Freestanding transparent terahertz half-wave plate using subwavelength cut-wire pairs,” Opt. Express 25(3), 2107–2114 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. S. T. Xu, F. Fan, M. Chen, Y. Y. Ji, and S. J. Chang, “Terahertz polarization mode conversion in compound metasurface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(3), 031107 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  21. R. Xia, X. F. Jing, X. C. Gui, Y. Tian, and Z. Hong, “Broadband terahertz half-wave plate based on anisotropic polarization conversion metamaterials,” Opt. Mater. Express 7(3), 977–988 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  22. P. Weis, O. Paul, C. Imhof, R. Beigang, and M. Rahm, “Strongly birefringent metamaterials as negative index terahertz wave plates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(17), 171104 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  23. A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, H. Tao, D. V. Pilon, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Comparison of birefringent electric split-ring resonator and meanderline structures as quarter-wave plates at terahertz frequencies,” Opt. Express 17(1), 136–149 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  24. X. G. Peralta, E. I. Smirnova, A. K. Azad, H. T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, I. Brener, and J. F. O’Hara, “Metamaterials for THz polarimetric devices,” Opt. Express 17(2), 773–783 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  25. L. Q. Cong, N. N. Xu, J. Q. Gu, R. Singh, J. G. Han, and W. L. Zhang, “Highly flexible broadband terahertz metamaterial quarter-wave plate,” Laser Photon. Rev. 8(4), 626–632 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  26. D. Wang, Y. Gu, Y. Gong, C. W. Qiu, and M. Hong, “An ultrathin terahertz quarter-wave plate using planar babinet-inverted metasurface,” Opt. Express 23(9), 11114–11122 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  27. Y. Jiang, L. Wang, J. Wang, C. N. Akwuruoha, and W. Cao, “Ultra-wideband high-efficiency reflective linear-to-circular polarization converter based on metasurface at terahertz frequencies,” Opt. Express 25(22), 27616–27623 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  28. S. T. Xu, F. T. Hu, M. Chen, F. Fan, and S. J. Chang, “Broadband terahertz polarization converter and asymmetric transmission based on coupled dielectric-metal grating,” Ann. Phys. 529(10), 1700151 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  29. D. Wang, L. Zhang, Y. Gu, M. Q. Mehmood, Y. Gong, A. Srivastava, L. Jian, T. Venkatesan, C. W. Qiu, and M. Hong, “Switchable ultrathin quarter-wave plate in terahertz using active phase-change metasurface,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 15020 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  30. D. C. Wang, L. C. Zhang, Y. D. Gong, L. K. Jian, T. Venkatesan, C. W. Qiu, and M. H. Hong, “Multiband switchable terahertz quarter-wave plates via phase-change metasurfaces,” IEEE Photon. J. 8(1), 5500308 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  31. Z. Y. Xiao, H. L. Zou, X. X. Zheng, X. Y. Ling, and L. Wang, “A tunable reflective polarization converter based on hybrid metamaterial,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 49(12), 401 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  32. Y. Zhang, Y. Feng, B. Zhu, J. Zhao, and T. Jiang, “Graphene based tunable metamaterial absorber and polarization modulation in terahertz frequency,” Opt. Express 22(19), 22743–22752 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  33. Y. Zhang, Y. Feng, B. Zhu, J. Zhao, and T. Jiang, “Switchable quarter-wave plate with graphene based metamaterial for broadband terahertz wave manipulation,” Opt. Express 23(21), 27230–27239 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  34. Y. Y. Ji, F. Fan, X. H. Wang, and S. J. Chang, “Broadband controllable terahertz quarter-wave plate based on graphene gratings with liquid crystals,” Opt. Express 26(10), 12852–12862 (2018).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  35. Y. Y. Ji, F. Fan, M. Chen, L. Yang, and S. J. Chang, “Terahertz artificial birefringence and tunable phase shifter based on dielectric metasurface with compound lattice,” Opt. Express 25(10), 11405–11413 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  36. H. Jiang, W. Y. Zhao, and Y. Y. Jiang, “Frequency-tunable and functionality-switchable polarization device using silicon strip array integrated with a graphene sheet,” Opt. Mater. Express 7(12), 4277–4285 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  37. B. Vasić, D. C. Zografopoulos, G. Isić, R. Beccherelli, and R. Gajić, “Electrically tunable terahertz polarization converter based on overcoupled metal-isolator-metal metamaterials infiltrated with liquid crystals,” Nanotechnology 28(12), 124002 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  38. X. Y. Yu, X. Gao, W. Qiao, L. L. Wen, and W. L. Yang, “Broadband tunable polarization converter realized by graphene-based metamaterial,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 28(21), 2399–2402 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  39. G. W. Hanson, “Dyadic Green’s functions and guided surface waves for a surface conductivity model of graphene,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(6), 064302 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  40. J. Jiang, X. Zhang, W. Zhang, S. Liang, H. Wu, L. Jiang, and X. Li, “Out-of-plane focusing and manipulation of terahertz beams based on a silicon/copper grating covered by monolayer graphene,” Opt. Express 25(14), 16867–16878 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  41. X. Gao, W. Yang, W. Cao, M. Chen, Y. Jiang, X. Yu, and H. Li, “Bandwidth broadening of a graphene-based circular polarization converter by phase compensation,” Opt. Express 25(20), 23945–23954 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  42. Y. Q. Cai, L. T. Zhang, Q. F. Zeng, L. F. Cheng, and Y. D. Xu, “Infrared reflectance spectrum of BN calculated from first principles,” Solid State Commun. 141(5), 262–266 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  43. B. Z. Xu, C. Q. Gu, Z. Li, and Z. Y. Niu, “A novel structure for tunable terahertz absorber based on graphene,” Opt. Express 21(20), 23803–23811 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  44. L. Viti, J. Hu, D. Coquillat, A. Politano, C. Consejo, W. Knap, and M. S. Vitiello, “Heterostructured hBN-BP-hBN nanodetectors at terahertz frequencies,” Adv. Mater. 28(34), 7390–7396 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  45. L. A. Falkovsky, “Optical properties of graphene,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 129, 012004 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  46. T. Li, S. M. Wang, J. X. Cao, H. Liu, and S. N. Zhu, “Cavity-involved plasmonic metamaterial for optical polarization conversion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(26), 261113 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  47. S. C. Jiang, X. Xiong, Y. S. Hu, Y. H. Hu, G. B. Ma, R. W. Peng, C. Sun, and M. Wang, “Controlling the Polarization state of light with a dispersion-free metastructure,” Phys. Rev. X 4(2), 021026 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  48. S. A. Maier, Plasmonics: Fundamentals and Applications (Springer-Verlag, 2007).

2018 (1)

2017 (12)

Y. Y. Ji, F. Fan, M. Chen, L. Yang, and S. J. Chang, “Terahertz artificial birefringence and tunable phase shifter based on dielectric metasurface with compound lattice,” Opt. Express 25(10), 11405–11413 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Jiang, W. Y. Zhao, and Y. Y. Jiang, “Frequency-tunable and functionality-switchable polarization device using silicon strip array integrated with a graphene sheet,” Opt. Mater. Express 7(12), 4277–4285 (2017).
[Crossref]

B. Vasić, D. C. Zografopoulos, G. Isić, R. Beccherelli, and R. Gajić, “Electrically tunable terahertz polarization converter based on overcoupled metal-isolator-metal metamaterials infiltrated with liquid crystals,” Nanotechnology 28(12), 124002 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Y. Xiao, H. L. Zou, X. X. Zheng, X. Y. Ling, and L. Wang, “A tunable reflective polarization converter based on hybrid metamaterial,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 49(12), 401 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Zhao, X. Wang, J. He, J. Guo, J. Ye, Q. Kan, and Y. Zhang, “High-efficiency terahertz devices based on cross-polarization converter,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 17882 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Nakata, Y. Taira, T. Nakanishi, and F. Miyamaru, “Freestanding transparent terahertz half-wave plate using subwavelength cut-wire pairs,” Opt. Express 25(3), 2107–2114 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. T. Xu, F. Fan, M. Chen, Y. Y. Ji, and S. J. Chang, “Terahertz polarization mode conversion in compound metasurface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(3), 031107 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. Xia, X. F. Jing, X. C. Gui, Y. Tian, and Z. Hong, “Broadband terahertz half-wave plate based on anisotropic polarization conversion metamaterials,” Opt. Mater. Express 7(3), 977–988 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Jiang, L. Wang, J. Wang, C. N. Akwuruoha, and W. Cao, “Ultra-wideband high-efficiency reflective linear-to-circular polarization converter based on metasurface at terahertz frequencies,” Opt. Express 25(22), 27616–27623 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. T. Xu, F. T. Hu, M. Chen, F. Fan, and S. J. Chang, “Broadband terahertz polarization converter and asymmetric transmission based on coupled dielectric-metal grating,” Ann. Phys. 529(10), 1700151 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Jiang, X. Zhang, W. Zhang, S. Liang, H. Wu, L. Jiang, and X. Li, “Out-of-plane focusing and manipulation of terahertz beams based on a silicon/copper grating covered by monolayer graphene,” Opt. Express 25(14), 16867–16878 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Gao, W. Yang, W. Cao, M. Chen, Y. Jiang, X. Yu, and H. Li, “Bandwidth broadening of a graphene-based circular polarization converter by phase compensation,” Opt. Express 25(20), 23945–23954 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (4)

L. Viti, J. Hu, D. Coquillat, A. Politano, C. Consejo, W. Knap, and M. S. Vitiello, “Heterostructured hBN-BP-hBN nanodetectors at terahertz frequencies,” Adv. Mater. 28(34), 7390–7396 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. C. Wang, L. C. Zhang, Y. D. Gong, L. K. Jian, T. Venkatesan, C. W. Qiu, and M. H. Hong, “Multiband switchable terahertz quarter-wave plates via phase-change metasurfaces,” IEEE Photon. J. 8(1), 5500308 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Y. Yu, X. Gao, W. Qiao, L. L. Wen, and W. L. Yang, “Broadband tunable polarization converter realized by graphene-based metamaterial,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 28(21), 2399–2402 (2016).
[Crossref]

W. Mo, X. Wei, K. Wang, Y. Li, and J. Liu, “Ultrathin flexible terahertz polarization converter based on metasurfaces,” Opt. Express 24(12), 13621–13627 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (6)

R. H. Fan, Y. Zhou, X. P. Ren, R. W. Peng, S. C. Jiang, D. H. Xu, X. Xiong, X. R. Huang, and M. Wang, “Freely tunable broadband polarization rotator for terahertz waves,” Adv. Mater. 27(7), 1201–1206 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. W. He, Z. W. Xie, S. Wang, X. K. Wang, Q. Kan, and Y. Zhang, “Terahertz polarization modulator based on metasurface,” J. Opt. 17(10), 105107 (2015).
[Crossref]

W. Liu, S. Chen, Z. Li, H. Cheng, P. Yu, J. Li, and J. Tian, “Realization of broadband cross-polarization conversion in transmission mode in the terahertz region using a single-layer metasurface,” Opt. Lett. 40(13), 3185–3188 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zhang, Y. Feng, B. Zhu, J. Zhao, and T. Jiang, “Switchable quarter-wave plate with graphene based metamaterial for broadband terahertz wave manipulation,” Opt. Express 23(21), 27230–27239 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Wang, L. Zhang, Y. Gu, M. Q. Mehmood, Y. Gong, A. Srivastava, L. Jian, T. Venkatesan, C. W. Qiu, and M. Hong, “Switchable ultrathin quarter-wave plate in terahertz using active phase-change metasurface,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 15020 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Wang, Y. Gu, Y. Gong, C. W. Qiu, and M. Hong, “An ultrathin terahertz quarter-wave plate using planar babinet-inverted metasurface,” Opt. Express 23(9), 11114–11122 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (5)

L. Q. Cong, N. N. Xu, J. Q. Gu, R. Singh, J. G. Han, and W. L. Zhang, “Highly flexible broadband terahertz metamaterial quarter-wave plate,” Laser Photon. Rev. 8(4), 626–632 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhang, Y. Feng, B. Zhu, J. Zhao, and T. Jiang, “Graphene based tunable metamaterial absorber and polarization modulation in terahertz frequency,” Opt. Express 22(19), 22743–22752 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Wen and J. Zheng, “Broadband THz reflective polarization rotator by multiple plasmon resonances,” Opt. Express 22(23), 28292–28300 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. F. Akyildiz, J. M. Jornet, and C. Han, “Terahertz band: Next frontier for wireless communications,” Phys. Commun. 12, 16–32 (2014).

S. C. Jiang, X. Xiong, Y. S. Hu, Y. H. Hu, G. B. Ma, R. W. Peng, C. Sun, and M. Wang, “Controlling the Polarization state of light with a dispersion-free metastructure,” Phys. Rev. X 4(2), 021026 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (4)

B. Z. Xu, C. Q. Gu, Z. Li, and Z. Y. Niu, “A novel structure for tunable terahertz absorber based on graphene,” Opt. Express 21(20), 23803–23811 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Rahm, J. S. Li, and W. J. Padilla, “THz wave modulators: a brief review on different modulation techniques,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 34(1), 1–27 (2013).
[Crossref]

N. K. Grady, J. E. Heyes, D. R. Chowdhury, Y. Zeng, M. T. Reiten, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, D. A. R. Dalvit, and H. T. Chen, “Terahertz metamaterials for linear polarization conversion and anomalous refraction,” Science 340(6138), 1304–1307 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Q. Cong, W. Cao, X. Q. Zhang, Z. Tian, J. Q. Gu, R. Singh, J. G. Han, and W. L. Zhang, “A perfect metamaterial polarization rotator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(17), 171107 (2013).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

F. Sizov and A. Rogalski, “THz detectors,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 34(5), 278–347 (2010).
[Crossref]

T. Li, S. M. Wang, J. X. Cao, H. Liu, and S. N. Zhu, “Cavity-involved plasmonic metamaterial for optical polarization conversion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(26), 261113 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (4)

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, M. J. Cich, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Taylor, “A metamaterial solid-state terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 148–151 (2009).
[Crossref]

P. Weis, O. Paul, C. Imhof, R. Beigang, and M. Rahm, “Strongly birefringent metamaterials as negative index terahertz wave plates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(17), 171104 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, H. Tao, D. V. Pilon, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Comparison of birefringent electric split-ring resonator and meanderline structures as quarter-wave plates at terahertz frequencies,” Opt. Express 17(1), 136–149 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. G. Peralta, E. I. Smirnova, A. K. Azad, H. T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, I. Brener, and J. F. O’Hara, “Metamaterials for THz polarimetric devices,” Opt. Express 17(2), 773–783 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

G. W. Hanson, “Dyadic Green’s functions and guided surface waves for a surface conductivity model of graphene,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(6), 064302 (2008).
[Crossref]

K. B. Cooper, R. J. Dengler, N. Llombart, T. Bryllert, G. Chattopadhyay, E. Schlecht, J. Gill, C. Lee, A. Skalare, I. Mehdi, and P. H. Siegel, “Penetrating 3-D imaging at 4-and 25-m range using a submillimeter-wave radar,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 56(12), 2771–2778 (2008).
[Crossref]

L. A. Falkovsky, “Optical properties of graphene,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 129, 012004 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

Y. Q. Cai, L. T. Zhang, Q. F. Zeng, L. F. Cheng, and Y. D. Xu, “Infrared reflectance spectrum of BN calculated from first principles,” Solid State Commun. 141(5), 262–266 (2007).
[Crossref]

L. Ozyuzer, A. E. Koshelev, C. Kurter, N. Gopalsami, Q. Li, M. Tachiki, K. Kadowaki, T. Yamamoto, H. Minami, H. Yamaguchi, T. Tachiki, K. E. Gray, W. K. Kwok, and U. Welp, “Emission of coherent THz radiation from superconductors,” Science 318(5854), 1291–1293 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, “THz imaging and sensing for security applications - explosives, weapons and drugs,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20(7), S266–S280 (2005).
[Crossref]

2002 (3)

B. Ferguson and X. C. Zhang, “Materials for terahertz science and technology,” Nat. Mater. 1(1), 26–33 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417(6885), 156–159 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. H. Siegel, “Terahertz technology,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 50(3), 910–928 (2002).
[Crossref]

Akwuruoha, C. N.

Akyildiz, I. F.

I. F. Akyildiz, J. M. Jornet, and C. Han, “Terahertz band: Next frontier for wireless communications,” Phys. Commun. 12, 16–32 (2014).

Averitt, R. D.

Azad, A. K.

N. K. Grady, J. E. Heyes, D. R. Chowdhury, Y. Zeng, M. T. Reiten, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, D. A. R. Dalvit, and H. T. Chen, “Terahertz metamaterials for linear polarization conversion and anomalous refraction,” Science 340(6138), 1304–1307 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, M. J. Cich, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Taylor, “A metamaterial solid-state terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 148–151 (2009).
[Crossref]

X. G. Peralta, E. I. Smirnova, A. K. Azad, H. T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, I. Brener, and J. F. O’Hara, “Metamaterials for THz polarimetric devices,” Opt. Express 17(2), 773–783 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barat, R.

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, “THz imaging and sensing for security applications - explosives, weapons and drugs,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20(7), S266–S280 (2005).
[Crossref]

Beccherelli, R.

B. Vasić, D. C. Zografopoulos, G. Isić, R. Beccherelli, and R. Gajić, “Electrically tunable terahertz polarization converter based on overcoupled metal-isolator-metal metamaterials infiltrated with liquid crystals,” Nanotechnology 28(12), 124002 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beere, H. E.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417(6885), 156–159 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beigang, R.

P. Weis, O. Paul, C. Imhof, R. Beigang, and M. Rahm, “Strongly birefringent metamaterials as negative index terahertz wave plates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(17), 171104 (2009).
[Crossref]

Beltram, F.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417(6885), 156–159 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brener, I.

Bryllert, T.

K. B. Cooper, R. J. Dengler, N. Llombart, T. Bryllert, G. Chattopadhyay, E. Schlecht, J. Gill, C. Lee, A. Skalare, I. Mehdi, and P. H. Siegel, “Penetrating 3-D imaging at 4-and 25-m range using a submillimeter-wave radar,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 56(12), 2771–2778 (2008).
[Crossref]

Cai, Y. Q.

Y. Q. Cai, L. T. Zhang, Q. F. Zeng, L. F. Cheng, and Y. D. Xu, “Infrared reflectance spectrum of BN calculated from first principles,” Solid State Commun. 141(5), 262–266 (2007).
[Crossref]

Cao, J. X.

T. Li, S. M. Wang, J. X. Cao, H. Liu, and S. N. Zhu, “Cavity-involved plasmonic metamaterial for optical polarization conversion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(26), 261113 (2010).
[Crossref]

Cao, W.

Chang, S. J.

Y. Y. Ji, F. Fan, X. H. Wang, and S. J. Chang, “Broadband controllable terahertz quarter-wave plate based on graphene gratings with liquid crystals,” Opt. Express 26(10), 12852–12862 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Y. Ji, F. Fan, M. Chen, L. Yang, and S. J. Chang, “Terahertz artificial birefringence and tunable phase shifter based on dielectric metasurface with compound lattice,” Opt. Express 25(10), 11405–11413 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. T. Xu, F. T. Hu, M. Chen, F. Fan, and S. J. Chang, “Broadband terahertz polarization converter and asymmetric transmission based on coupled dielectric-metal grating,” Ann. Phys. 529(10), 1700151 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. T. Xu, F. Fan, M. Chen, Y. Y. Ji, and S. J. Chang, “Terahertz polarization mode conversion in compound metasurface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(3), 031107 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chattopadhyay, G.

K. B. Cooper, R. J. Dengler, N. Llombart, T. Bryllert, G. Chattopadhyay, E. Schlecht, J. Gill, C. Lee, A. Skalare, I. Mehdi, and P. H. Siegel, “Penetrating 3-D imaging at 4-and 25-m range using a submillimeter-wave radar,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 56(12), 2771–2778 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chen, H. T.

N. K. Grady, J. E. Heyes, D. R. Chowdhury, Y. Zeng, M. T. Reiten, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, D. A. R. Dalvit, and H. T. Chen, “Terahertz metamaterials for linear polarization conversion and anomalous refraction,” Science 340(6138), 1304–1307 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, M. J. Cich, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Taylor, “A metamaterial solid-state terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 148–151 (2009).
[Crossref]

X. G. Peralta, E. I. Smirnova, A. K. Azad, H. T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, I. Brener, and J. F. O’Hara, “Metamaterials for THz polarimetric devices,” Opt. Express 17(2), 773–783 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, M.

S. T. Xu, F. Fan, M. Chen, Y. Y. Ji, and S. J. Chang, “Terahertz polarization mode conversion in compound metasurface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(3), 031107 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. T. Xu, F. T. Hu, M. Chen, F. Fan, and S. J. Chang, “Broadband terahertz polarization converter and asymmetric transmission based on coupled dielectric-metal grating,” Ann. Phys. 529(10), 1700151 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Y. Ji, F. Fan, M. Chen, L. Yang, and S. J. Chang, “Terahertz artificial birefringence and tunable phase shifter based on dielectric metasurface with compound lattice,” Opt. Express 25(10), 11405–11413 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Gao, W. Yang, W. Cao, M. Chen, Y. Jiang, X. Yu, and H. Li, “Bandwidth broadening of a graphene-based circular polarization converter by phase compensation,” Opt. Express 25(20), 23945–23954 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, S.

Cheng, H.

Cheng, L. F.

Y. Q. Cai, L. T. Zhang, Q. F. Zeng, L. F. Cheng, and Y. D. Xu, “Infrared reflectance spectrum of BN calculated from first principles,” Solid State Commun. 141(5), 262–266 (2007).
[Crossref]

Chowdhury, D. R.

N. K. Grady, J. E. Heyes, D. R. Chowdhury, Y. Zeng, M. T. Reiten, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, D. A. R. Dalvit, and H. T. Chen, “Terahertz metamaterials for linear polarization conversion and anomalous refraction,” Science 340(6138), 1304–1307 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cich, M. J.

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, M. J. Cich, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Taylor, “A metamaterial solid-state terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 148–151 (2009).
[Crossref]

Cong, L. Q.

L. Q. Cong, N. N. Xu, J. Q. Gu, R. Singh, J. G. Han, and W. L. Zhang, “Highly flexible broadband terahertz metamaterial quarter-wave plate,” Laser Photon. Rev. 8(4), 626–632 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Q. Cong, W. Cao, X. Q. Zhang, Z. Tian, J. Q. Gu, R. Singh, J. G. Han, and W. L. Zhang, “A perfect metamaterial polarization rotator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(17), 171107 (2013).
[Crossref]

Consejo, C.

L. Viti, J. Hu, D. Coquillat, A. Politano, C. Consejo, W. Knap, and M. S. Vitiello, “Heterostructured hBN-BP-hBN nanodetectors at terahertz frequencies,” Adv. Mater. 28(34), 7390–7396 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cooper, K. B.

K. B. Cooper, R. J. Dengler, N. Llombart, T. Bryllert, G. Chattopadhyay, E. Schlecht, J. Gill, C. Lee, A. Skalare, I. Mehdi, and P. H. Siegel, “Penetrating 3-D imaging at 4-and 25-m range using a submillimeter-wave radar,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 56(12), 2771–2778 (2008).
[Crossref]

Coquillat, D.

L. Viti, J. Hu, D. Coquillat, A. Politano, C. Consejo, W. Knap, and M. S. Vitiello, “Heterostructured hBN-BP-hBN nanodetectors at terahertz frequencies,” Adv. Mater. 28(34), 7390–7396 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dalvit, D. A. R.

N. K. Grady, J. E. Heyes, D. R. Chowdhury, Y. Zeng, M. T. Reiten, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, D. A. R. Dalvit, and H. T. Chen, “Terahertz metamaterials for linear polarization conversion and anomalous refraction,” Science 340(6138), 1304–1307 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Davies, A. G.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417(6885), 156–159 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dengler, R. J.

K. B. Cooper, R. J. Dengler, N. Llombart, T. Bryllert, G. Chattopadhyay, E. Schlecht, J. Gill, C. Lee, A. Skalare, I. Mehdi, and P. H. Siegel, “Penetrating 3-D imaging at 4-and 25-m range using a submillimeter-wave radar,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 56(12), 2771–2778 (2008).
[Crossref]

Falkovsky, L. A.

L. A. Falkovsky, “Optical properties of graphene,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 129, 012004 (2008).
[Crossref]

Fan, F.

Y. Y. Ji, F. Fan, X. H. Wang, and S. J. Chang, “Broadband controllable terahertz quarter-wave plate based on graphene gratings with liquid crystals,” Opt. Express 26(10), 12852–12862 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Y. Ji, F. Fan, M. Chen, L. Yang, and S. J. Chang, “Terahertz artificial birefringence and tunable phase shifter based on dielectric metasurface with compound lattice,” Opt. Express 25(10), 11405–11413 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. T. Xu, F. T. Hu, M. Chen, F. Fan, and S. J. Chang, “Broadband terahertz polarization converter and asymmetric transmission based on coupled dielectric-metal grating,” Ann. Phys. 529(10), 1700151 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. T. Xu, F. Fan, M. Chen, Y. Y. Ji, and S. J. Chang, “Terahertz polarization mode conversion in compound metasurface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(3), 031107 (2017).
[Crossref]

Fan, K.

Fan, R. H.

R. H. Fan, Y. Zhou, X. P. Ren, R. W. Peng, S. C. Jiang, D. H. Xu, X. Xiong, X. R. Huang, and M. Wang, “Freely tunable broadband polarization rotator for terahertz waves,” Adv. Mater. 27(7), 1201–1206 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Federici, J. F.

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, “THz imaging and sensing for security applications - explosives, weapons and drugs,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20(7), S266–S280 (2005).
[Crossref]

Feng, Y.

Ferguson, B.

B. Ferguson and X. C. Zhang, “Materials for terahertz science and technology,” Nat. Mater. 1(1), 26–33 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gajic, R.

B. Vasić, D. C. Zografopoulos, G. Isić, R. Beccherelli, and R. Gajić, “Electrically tunable terahertz polarization converter based on overcoupled metal-isolator-metal metamaterials infiltrated with liquid crystals,” Nanotechnology 28(12), 124002 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gao, X.

X. Gao, W. Yang, W. Cao, M. Chen, Y. Jiang, X. Yu, and H. Li, “Bandwidth broadening of a graphene-based circular polarization converter by phase compensation,” Opt. Express 25(20), 23945–23954 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Y. Yu, X. Gao, W. Qiao, L. L. Wen, and W. L. Yang, “Broadband tunable polarization converter realized by graphene-based metamaterial,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 28(21), 2399–2402 (2016).
[Crossref]

Gary, D.

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, “THz imaging and sensing for security applications - explosives, weapons and drugs,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20(7), S266–S280 (2005).
[Crossref]

Gill, J.

K. B. Cooper, R. J. Dengler, N. Llombart, T. Bryllert, G. Chattopadhyay, E. Schlecht, J. Gill, C. Lee, A. Skalare, I. Mehdi, and P. H. Siegel, “Penetrating 3-D imaging at 4-and 25-m range using a submillimeter-wave radar,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 56(12), 2771–2778 (2008).
[Crossref]

Gong, Y.

D. Wang, L. Zhang, Y. Gu, M. Q. Mehmood, Y. Gong, A. Srivastava, L. Jian, T. Venkatesan, C. W. Qiu, and M. Hong, “Switchable ultrathin quarter-wave plate in terahertz using active phase-change metasurface,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 15020 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Wang, Y. Gu, Y. Gong, C. W. Qiu, and M. Hong, “An ultrathin terahertz quarter-wave plate using planar babinet-inverted metasurface,” Opt. Express 23(9), 11114–11122 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gong, Y. D.

D. C. Wang, L. C. Zhang, Y. D. Gong, L. K. Jian, T. Venkatesan, C. W. Qiu, and M. H. Hong, “Multiband switchable terahertz quarter-wave plates via phase-change metasurfaces,” IEEE Photon. J. 8(1), 5500308 (2016).
[Crossref]

Gopalsami, N.

L. Ozyuzer, A. E. Koshelev, C. Kurter, N. Gopalsami, Q. Li, M. Tachiki, K. Kadowaki, T. Yamamoto, H. Minami, H. Yamaguchi, T. Tachiki, K. E. Gray, W. K. Kwok, and U. Welp, “Emission of coherent THz radiation from superconductors,” Science 318(5854), 1291–1293 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grady, N. K.

N. K. Grady, J. E. Heyes, D. R. Chowdhury, Y. Zeng, M. T. Reiten, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, D. A. R. Dalvit, and H. T. Chen, “Terahertz metamaterials for linear polarization conversion and anomalous refraction,” Science 340(6138), 1304–1307 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gray, K. E.

L. Ozyuzer, A. E. Koshelev, C. Kurter, N. Gopalsami, Q. Li, M. Tachiki, K. Kadowaki, T. Yamamoto, H. Minami, H. Yamaguchi, T. Tachiki, K. E. Gray, W. K. Kwok, and U. Welp, “Emission of coherent THz radiation from superconductors,” Science 318(5854), 1291–1293 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gu, C. Q.

Gu, J. Q.

L. Q. Cong, N. N. Xu, J. Q. Gu, R. Singh, J. G. Han, and W. L. Zhang, “Highly flexible broadband terahertz metamaterial quarter-wave plate,” Laser Photon. Rev. 8(4), 626–632 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Q. Cong, W. Cao, X. Q. Zhang, Z. Tian, J. Q. Gu, R. Singh, J. G. Han, and W. L. Zhang, “A perfect metamaterial polarization rotator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(17), 171107 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gu, Y.

D. Wang, Y. Gu, Y. Gong, C. W. Qiu, and M. Hong, “An ultrathin terahertz quarter-wave plate using planar babinet-inverted metasurface,” Opt. Express 23(9), 11114–11122 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Wang, L. Zhang, Y. Gu, M. Q. Mehmood, Y. Gong, A. Srivastava, L. Jian, T. Venkatesan, C. W. Qiu, and M. Hong, “Switchable ultrathin quarter-wave plate in terahertz using active phase-change metasurface,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 15020 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gui, X. C.

Guo, J.

H. Zhao, X. Wang, J. He, J. Guo, J. Ye, Q. Kan, and Y. Zhang, “High-efficiency terahertz devices based on cross-polarization converter,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 17882 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Han, C.

I. F. Akyildiz, J. M. Jornet, and C. Han, “Terahertz band: Next frontier for wireless communications,” Phys. Commun. 12, 16–32 (2014).

Han, J. G.

L. Q. Cong, N. N. Xu, J. Q. Gu, R. Singh, J. G. Han, and W. L. Zhang, “Highly flexible broadband terahertz metamaterial quarter-wave plate,” Laser Photon. Rev. 8(4), 626–632 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Q. Cong, W. Cao, X. Q. Zhang, Z. Tian, J. Q. Gu, R. Singh, J. G. Han, and W. L. Zhang, “A perfect metamaterial polarization rotator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(17), 171107 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hanson, G. W.

G. W. Hanson, “Dyadic Green’s functions and guided surface waves for a surface conductivity model of graphene,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(6), 064302 (2008).
[Crossref]

He, J.

H. Zhao, X. Wang, J. He, J. Guo, J. Ye, Q. Kan, and Y. Zhang, “High-efficiency terahertz devices based on cross-polarization converter,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 17882 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

He, J. W.

J. W. He, Z. W. Xie, S. Wang, X. K. Wang, Q. Kan, and Y. Zhang, “Terahertz polarization modulator based on metasurface,” J. Opt. 17(10), 105107 (2015).
[Crossref]

Heyes, J. E.

N. K. Grady, J. E. Heyes, D. R. Chowdhury, Y. Zeng, M. T. Reiten, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, D. A. R. Dalvit, and H. T. Chen, “Terahertz metamaterials for linear polarization conversion and anomalous refraction,” Science 340(6138), 1304–1307 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hong, M.

D. Wang, Y. Gu, Y. Gong, C. W. Qiu, and M. Hong, “An ultrathin terahertz quarter-wave plate using planar babinet-inverted metasurface,” Opt. Express 23(9), 11114–11122 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Wang, L. Zhang, Y. Gu, M. Q. Mehmood, Y. Gong, A. Srivastava, L. Jian, T. Venkatesan, C. W. Qiu, and M. Hong, “Switchable ultrathin quarter-wave plate in terahertz using active phase-change metasurface,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 15020 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hong, M. H.

D. C. Wang, L. C. Zhang, Y. D. Gong, L. K. Jian, T. Venkatesan, C. W. Qiu, and M. H. Hong, “Multiband switchable terahertz quarter-wave plates via phase-change metasurfaces,” IEEE Photon. J. 8(1), 5500308 (2016).
[Crossref]

Hong, Z.

Hu, F. T.

S. T. Xu, F. T. Hu, M. Chen, F. Fan, and S. J. Chang, “Broadband terahertz polarization converter and asymmetric transmission based on coupled dielectric-metal grating,” Ann. Phys. 529(10), 1700151 (2017).
[Crossref]

Hu, J.

L. Viti, J. Hu, D. Coquillat, A. Politano, C. Consejo, W. Knap, and M. S. Vitiello, “Heterostructured hBN-BP-hBN nanodetectors at terahertz frequencies,” Adv. Mater. 28(34), 7390–7396 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hu, Y. H.

S. C. Jiang, X. Xiong, Y. S. Hu, Y. H. Hu, G. B. Ma, R. W. Peng, C. Sun, and M. Wang, “Controlling the Polarization state of light with a dispersion-free metastructure,” Phys. Rev. X 4(2), 021026 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hu, Y. S.

S. C. Jiang, X. Xiong, Y. S. Hu, Y. H. Hu, G. B. Ma, R. W. Peng, C. Sun, and M. Wang, “Controlling the Polarization state of light with a dispersion-free metastructure,” Phys. Rev. X 4(2), 021026 (2014).
[Crossref]

Huang, F.

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, “THz imaging and sensing for security applications - explosives, weapons and drugs,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20(7), S266–S280 (2005).
[Crossref]

Huang, X. R.

R. H. Fan, Y. Zhou, X. P. Ren, R. W. Peng, S. C. Jiang, D. H. Xu, X. Xiong, X. R. Huang, and M. Wang, “Freely tunable broadband polarization rotator for terahertz waves,” Adv. Mater. 27(7), 1201–1206 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Imhof, C.

P. Weis, O. Paul, C. Imhof, R. Beigang, and M. Rahm, “Strongly birefringent metamaterials as negative index terahertz wave plates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(17), 171104 (2009).
[Crossref]

Iotti, R. C.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417(6885), 156–159 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Isic, G.

B. Vasić, D. C. Zografopoulos, G. Isić, R. Beccherelli, and R. Gajić, “Electrically tunable terahertz polarization converter based on overcoupled metal-isolator-metal metamaterials infiltrated with liquid crystals,” Nanotechnology 28(12), 124002 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ji, Y. Y.

Jian, L.

D. Wang, L. Zhang, Y. Gu, M. Q. Mehmood, Y. Gong, A. Srivastava, L. Jian, T. Venkatesan, C. W. Qiu, and M. Hong, “Switchable ultrathin quarter-wave plate in terahertz using active phase-change metasurface,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 15020 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jian, L. K.

D. C. Wang, L. C. Zhang, Y. D. Gong, L. K. Jian, T. Venkatesan, C. W. Qiu, and M. H. Hong, “Multiband switchable terahertz quarter-wave plates via phase-change metasurfaces,” IEEE Photon. J. 8(1), 5500308 (2016).
[Crossref]

Jiang, H.

Jiang, J.

Jiang, L.

Jiang, S. C.

R. H. Fan, Y. Zhou, X. P. Ren, R. W. Peng, S. C. Jiang, D. H. Xu, X. Xiong, X. R. Huang, and M. Wang, “Freely tunable broadband polarization rotator for terahertz waves,” Adv. Mater. 27(7), 1201–1206 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. C. Jiang, X. Xiong, Y. S. Hu, Y. H. Hu, G. B. Ma, R. W. Peng, C. Sun, and M. Wang, “Controlling the Polarization state of light with a dispersion-free metastructure,” Phys. Rev. X 4(2), 021026 (2014).
[Crossref]

Jiang, T.

Jiang, Y.

Jiang, Y. Y.

Jing, X. F.

Jornet, J. M.

I. F. Akyildiz, J. M. Jornet, and C. Han, “Terahertz band: Next frontier for wireless communications,” Phys. Commun. 12, 16–32 (2014).

Kadowaki, K.

L. Ozyuzer, A. E. Koshelev, C. Kurter, N. Gopalsami, Q. Li, M. Tachiki, K. Kadowaki, T. Yamamoto, H. Minami, H. Yamaguchi, T. Tachiki, K. E. Gray, W. K. Kwok, and U. Welp, “Emission of coherent THz radiation from superconductors,” Science 318(5854), 1291–1293 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kan, Q.

H. Zhao, X. Wang, J. He, J. Guo, J. Ye, Q. Kan, and Y. Zhang, “High-efficiency terahertz devices based on cross-polarization converter,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 17882 (2017).
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J. W. He, Z. W. Xie, S. Wang, X. K. Wang, Q. Kan, and Y. Zhang, “Terahertz polarization modulator based on metasurface,” J. Opt. 17(10), 105107 (2015).
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Knap, W.

L. Viti, J. Hu, D. Coquillat, A. Politano, C. Consejo, W. Knap, and M. S. Vitiello, “Heterostructured hBN-BP-hBN nanodetectors at terahertz frequencies,” Adv. Mater. 28(34), 7390–7396 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Köhler, R.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417(6885), 156–159 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Koshelev, A. E.

L. Ozyuzer, A. E. Koshelev, C. Kurter, N. Gopalsami, Q. Li, M. Tachiki, K. Kadowaki, T. Yamamoto, H. Minami, H. Yamaguchi, T. Tachiki, K. E. Gray, W. K. Kwok, and U. Welp, “Emission of coherent THz radiation from superconductors,” Science 318(5854), 1291–1293 (2007).
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Kurter, C.

L. Ozyuzer, A. E. Koshelev, C. Kurter, N. Gopalsami, Q. Li, M. Tachiki, K. Kadowaki, T. Yamamoto, H. Minami, H. Yamaguchi, T. Tachiki, K. E. Gray, W. K. Kwok, and U. Welp, “Emission of coherent THz radiation from superconductors,” Science 318(5854), 1291–1293 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kwok, W. K.

L. Ozyuzer, A. E. Koshelev, C. Kurter, N. Gopalsami, Q. Li, M. Tachiki, K. Kadowaki, T. Yamamoto, H. Minami, H. Yamaguchi, T. Tachiki, K. E. Gray, W. K. Kwok, and U. Welp, “Emission of coherent THz radiation from superconductors,” Science 318(5854), 1291–1293 (2007).
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Lee, C.

K. B. Cooper, R. J. Dengler, N. Llombart, T. Bryllert, G. Chattopadhyay, E. Schlecht, J. Gill, C. Lee, A. Skalare, I. Mehdi, and P. H. Siegel, “Penetrating 3-D imaging at 4-and 25-m range using a submillimeter-wave radar,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 56(12), 2771–2778 (2008).
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Li, H.

Li, J.

Li, J. S.

M. Rahm, J. S. Li, and W. J. Padilla, “THz wave modulators: a brief review on different modulation techniques,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 34(1), 1–27 (2013).
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Li, Q.

L. Ozyuzer, A. E. Koshelev, C. Kurter, N. Gopalsami, Q. Li, M. Tachiki, K. Kadowaki, T. Yamamoto, H. Minami, H. Yamaguchi, T. Tachiki, K. E. Gray, W. K. Kwok, and U. Welp, “Emission of coherent THz radiation from superconductors,” Science 318(5854), 1291–1293 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, T.

T. Li, S. M. Wang, J. X. Cao, H. Liu, and S. N. Zhu, “Cavity-involved plasmonic metamaterial for optical polarization conversion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(26), 261113 (2010).
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Li, X.

Li, Y.

Li, Z.

Liang, S.

Linfield, E. H.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417(6885), 156–159 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ling, X. Y.

Z. Y. Xiao, H. L. Zou, X. X. Zheng, X. Y. Ling, and L. Wang, “A tunable reflective polarization converter based on hybrid metamaterial,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 49(12), 401 (2017).
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Liu, H.

T. Li, S. M. Wang, J. X. Cao, H. Liu, and S. N. Zhu, “Cavity-involved plasmonic metamaterial for optical polarization conversion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(26), 261113 (2010).
[Crossref]

Liu, J.

Liu, W.

Llombart, N.

K. B. Cooper, R. J. Dengler, N. Llombart, T. Bryllert, G. Chattopadhyay, E. Schlecht, J. Gill, C. Lee, A. Skalare, I. Mehdi, and P. H. Siegel, “Penetrating 3-D imaging at 4-and 25-m range using a submillimeter-wave radar,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 56(12), 2771–2778 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ma, G. B.

S. C. Jiang, X. Xiong, Y. S. Hu, Y. H. Hu, G. B. Ma, R. W. Peng, C. Sun, and M. Wang, “Controlling the Polarization state of light with a dispersion-free metastructure,” Phys. Rev. X 4(2), 021026 (2014).
[Crossref]

Mehdi, I.

K. B. Cooper, R. J. Dengler, N. Llombart, T. Bryllert, G. Chattopadhyay, E. Schlecht, J. Gill, C. Lee, A. Skalare, I. Mehdi, and P. H. Siegel, “Penetrating 3-D imaging at 4-and 25-m range using a submillimeter-wave radar,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 56(12), 2771–2778 (2008).
[Crossref]

Mehmood, M. Q.

D. Wang, L. Zhang, Y. Gu, M. Q. Mehmood, Y. Gong, A. Srivastava, L. Jian, T. Venkatesan, C. W. Qiu, and M. Hong, “Switchable ultrathin quarter-wave plate in terahertz using active phase-change metasurface,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 15020 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Minami, H.

L. Ozyuzer, A. E. Koshelev, C. Kurter, N. Gopalsami, Q. Li, M. Tachiki, K. Kadowaki, T. Yamamoto, H. Minami, H. Yamaguchi, T. Tachiki, K. E. Gray, W. K. Kwok, and U. Welp, “Emission of coherent THz radiation from superconductors,” Science 318(5854), 1291–1293 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Miyamaru, F.

Mo, W.

Nakanishi, T.

Nakata, Y.

Niu, Z. Y.

O’Hara, J. F.

Oliveira, F.

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, “THz imaging and sensing for security applications - explosives, weapons and drugs,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20(7), S266–S280 (2005).
[Crossref]

Ozyuzer, L.

L. Ozyuzer, A. E. Koshelev, C. Kurter, N. Gopalsami, Q. Li, M. Tachiki, K. Kadowaki, T. Yamamoto, H. Minami, H. Yamaguchi, T. Tachiki, K. E. Gray, W. K. Kwok, and U. Welp, “Emission of coherent THz radiation from superconductors,” Science 318(5854), 1291–1293 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Padilla, W. J.

M. Rahm, J. S. Li, and W. J. Padilla, “THz wave modulators: a brief review on different modulation techniques,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 34(1), 1–27 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, M. J. Cich, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Taylor, “A metamaterial solid-state terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 148–151 (2009).
[Crossref]

Paul, O.

P. Weis, O. Paul, C. Imhof, R. Beigang, and M. Rahm, “Strongly birefringent metamaterials as negative index terahertz wave plates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(17), 171104 (2009).
[Crossref]

Peng, R. W.

R. H. Fan, Y. Zhou, X. P. Ren, R. W. Peng, S. C. Jiang, D. H. Xu, X. Xiong, X. R. Huang, and M. Wang, “Freely tunable broadband polarization rotator for terahertz waves,” Adv. Mater. 27(7), 1201–1206 (2015).
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S. C. Jiang, X. Xiong, Y. S. Hu, Y. H. Hu, G. B. Ma, R. W. Peng, C. Sun, and M. Wang, “Controlling the Polarization state of light with a dispersion-free metastructure,” Phys. Rev. X 4(2), 021026 (2014).
[Crossref]

Peralta, X. G.

Pilon, D. V.

Politano, A.

L. Viti, J. Hu, D. Coquillat, A. Politano, C. Consejo, W. Knap, and M. S. Vitiello, “Heterostructured hBN-BP-hBN nanodetectors at terahertz frequencies,” Adv. Mater. 28(34), 7390–7396 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Qiao, W.

X. Y. Yu, X. Gao, W. Qiao, L. L. Wen, and W. L. Yang, “Broadband tunable polarization converter realized by graphene-based metamaterial,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 28(21), 2399–2402 (2016).
[Crossref]

Qiu, C. W.

D. C. Wang, L. C. Zhang, Y. D. Gong, L. K. Jian, T. Venkatesan, C. W. Qiu, and M. H. Hong, “Multiband switchable terahertz quarter-wave plates via phase-change metasurfaces,” IEEE Photon. J. 8(1), 5500308 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Wang, Y. Gu, Y. Gong, C. W. Qiu, and M. Hong, “An ultrathin terahertz quarter-wave plate using planar babinet-inverted metasurface,” Opt. Express 23(9), 11114–11122 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Wang, L. Zhang, Y. Gu, M. Q. Mehmood, Y. Gong, A. Srivastava, L. Jian, T. Venkatesan, C. W. Qiu, and M. Hong, “Switchable ultrathin quarter-wave plate in terahertz using active phase-change metasurface,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 15020 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rahm, M.

M. Rahm, J. S. Li, and W. J. Padilla, “THz wave modulators: a brief review on different modulation techniques,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 34(1), 1–27 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Weis, O. Paul, C. Imhof, R. Beigang, and M. Rahm, “Strongly birefringent metamaterials as negative index terahertz wave plates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(17), 171104 (2009).
[Crossref]

Reiten, M. T.

N. K. Grady, J. E. Heyes, D. R. Chowdhury, Y. Zeng, M. T. Reiten, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, D. A. R. Dalvit, and H. T. Chen, “Terahertz metamaterials for linear polarization conversion and anomalous refraction,” Science 340(6138), 1304–1307 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ren, X. P.

R. H. Fan, Y. Zhou, X. P. Ren, R. W. Peng, S. C. Jiang, D. H. Xu, X. Xiong, X. R. Huang, and M. Wang, “Freely tunable broadband polarization rotator for terahertz waves,” Adv. Mater. 27(7), 1201–1206 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ritchie, D. A.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417(6885), 156–159 (2002).
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Rogalski, A.

F. Sizov and A. Rogalski, “THz detectors,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 34(5), 278–347 (2010).
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Rossi, F.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417(6885), 156–159 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schlecht, E.

K. B. Cooper, R. J. Dengler, N. Llombart, T. Bryllert, G. Chattopadhyay, E. Schlecht, J. Gill, C. Lee, A. Skalare, I. Mehdi, and P. H. Siegel, “Penetrating 3-D imaging at 4-and 25-m range using a submillimeter-wave radar,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 56(12), 2771–2778 (2008).
[Crossref]

Schulkin, B.

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, “THz imaging and sensing for security applications - explosives, weapons and drugs,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20(7), S266–S280 (2005).
[Crossref]

Siegel, P. H.

K. B. Cooper, R. J. Dengler, N. Llombart, T. Bryllert, G. Chattopadhyay, E. Schlecht, J. Gill, C. Lee, A. Skalare, I. Mehdi, and P. H. Siegel, “Penetrating 3-D imaging at 4-and 25-m range using a submillimeter-wave radar,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 56(12), 2771–2778 (2008).
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P. H. Siegel, “Terahertz technology,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 50(3), 910–928 (2002).
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Singh, R.

L. Q. Cong, N. N. Xu, J. Q. Gu, R. Singh, J. G. Han, and W. L. Zhang, “Highly flexible broadband terahertz metamaterial quarter-wave plate,” Laser Photon. Rev. 8(4), 626–632 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Q. Cong, W. Cao, X. Q. Zhang, Z. Tian, J. Q. Gu, R. Singh, J. G. Han, and W. L. Zhang, “A perfect metamaterial polarization rotator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(17), 171107 (2013).
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Sizov, F.

F. Sizov and A. Rogalski, “THz detectors,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 34(5), 278–347 (2010).
[Crossref]

Skalare, A.

K. B. Cooper, R. J. Dengler, N. Llombart, T. Bryllert, G. Chattopadhyay, E. Schlecht, J. Gill, C. Lee, A. Skalare, I. Mehdi, and P. H. Siegel, “Penetrating 3-D imaging at 4-and 25-m range using a submillimeter-wave radar,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 56(12), 2771–2778 (2008).
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Smirnova, E. I.

Srivastava, A.

D. Wang, L. Zhang, Y. Gu, M. Q. Mehmood, Y. Gong, A. Srivastava, L. Jian, T. Venkatesan, C. W. Qiu, and M. Hong, “Switchable ultrathin quarter-wave plate in terahertz using active phase-change metasurface,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 15020 (2015).
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Strikwerda, A. C.

Sun, C.

S. C. Jiang, X. Xiong, Y. S. Hu, Y. H. Hu, G. B. Ma, R. W. Peng, C. Sun, and M. Wang, “Controlling the Polarization state of light with a dispersion-free metastructure,” Phys. Rev. X 4(2), 021026 (2014).
[Crossref]

Tachiki, M.

L. Ozyuzer, A. E. Koshelev, C. Kurter, N. Gopalsami, Q. Li, M. Tachiki, K. Kadowaki, T. Yamamoto, H. Minami, H. Yamaguchi, T. Tachiki, K. E. Gray, W. K. Kwok, and U. Welp, “Emission of coherent THz radiation from superconductors,” Science 318(5854), 1291–1293 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tachiki, T.

L. Ozyuzer, A. E. Koshelev, C. Kurter, N. Gopalsami, Q. Li, M. Tachiki, K. Kadowaki, T. Yamamoto, H. Minami, H. Yamaguchi, T. Tachiki, K. E. Gray, W. K. Kwok, and U. Welp, “Emission of coherent THz radiation from superconductors,” Science 318(5854), 1291–1293 (2007).
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Taira, Y.

Tao, H.

Taylor, A. J.

N. K. Grady, J. E. Heyes, D. R. Chowdhury, Y. Zeng, M. T. Reiten, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, D. A. R. Dalvit, and H. T. Chen, “Terahertz metamaterials for linear polarization conversion and anomalous refraction,” Science 340(6138), 1304–1307 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, M. J. Cich, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Taylor, “A metamaterial solid-state terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 148–151 (2009).
[Crossref]

X. G. Peralta, E. I. Smirnova, A. K. Azad, H. T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, I. Brener, and J. F. O’Hara, “Metamaterials for THz polarimetric devices,” Opt. Express 17(2), 773–783 (2009).
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Tian, J.

Tian, Y.

Tian, Z.

L. Q. Cong, W. Cao, X. Q. Zhang, Z. Tian, J. Q. Gu, R. Singh, J. G. Han, and W. L. Zhang, “A perfect metamaterial polarization rotator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(17), 171107 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tredicucci, A.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417(6885), 156–159 (2002).
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Vasic, B.

B. Vasić, D. C. Zografopoulos, G. Isić, R. Beccherelli, and R. Gajić, “Electrically tunable terahertz polarization converter based on overcoupled metal-isolator-metal metamaterials infiltrated with liquid crystals,” Nanotechnology 28(12), 124002 (2017).
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Venkatesan, T.

D. C. Wang, L. C. Zhang, Y. D. Gong, L. K. Jian, T. Venkatesan, C. W. Qiu, and M. H. Hong, “Multiband switchable terahertz quarter-wave plates via phase-change metasurfaces,” IEEE Photon. J. 8(1), 5500308 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Wang, L. Zhang, Y. Gu, M. Q. Mehmood, Y. Gong, A. Srivastava, L. Jian, T. Venkatesan, C. W. Qiu, and M. Hong, “Switchable ultrathin quarter-wave plate in terahertz using active phase-change metasurface,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 15020 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Viti, L.

L. Viti, J. Hu, D. Coquillat, A. Politano, C. Consejo, W. Knap, and M. S. Vitiello, “Heterostructured hBN-BP-hBN nanodetectors at terahertz frequencies,” Adv. Mater. 28(34), 7390–7396 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vitiello, M. S.

L. Viti, J. Hu, D. Coquillat, A. Politano, C. Consejo, W. Knap, and M. S. Vitiello, “Heterostructured hBN-BP-hBN nanodetectors at terahertz frequencies,” Adv. Mater. 28(34), 7390–7396 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, D.

D. Wang, L. Zhang, Y. Gu, M. Q. Mehmood, Y. Gong, A. Srivastava, L. Jian, T. Venkatesan, C. W. Qiu, and M. Hong, “Switchable ultrathin quarter-wave plate in terahertz using active phase-change metasurface,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 15020 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Wang, Y. Gu, Y. Gong, C. W. Qiu, and M. Hong, “An ultrathin terahertz quarter-wave plate using planar babinet-inverted metasurface,” Opt. Express 23(9), 11114–11122 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, D. C.

D. C. Wang, L. C. Zhang, Y. D. Gong, L. K. Jian, T. Venkatesan, C. W. Qiu, and M. H. Hong, “Multiband switchable terahertz quarter-wave plates via phase-change metasurfaces,” IEEE Photon. J. 8(1), 5500308 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wang, J.

Wang, K.

Wang, L.

Y. Jiang, L. Wang, J. Wang, C. N. Akwuruoha, and W. Cao, “Ultra-wideband high-efficiency reflective linear-to-circular polarization converter based on metasurface at terahertz frequencies,” Opt. Express 25(22), 27616–27623 (2017).
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Z. Y. Xiao, H. L. Zou, X. X. Zheng, X. Y. Ling, and L. Wang, “A tunable reflective polarization converter based on hybrid metamaterial,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 49(12), 401 (2017).
[Crossref]

Wang, M.

R. H. Fan, Y. Zhou, X. P. Ren, R. W. Peng, S. C. Jiang, D. H. Xu, X. Xiong, X. R. Huang, and M. Wang, “Freely tunable broadband polarization rotator for terahertz waves,” Adv. Mater. 27(7), 1201–1206 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. C. Jiang, X. Xiong, Y. S. Hu, Y. H. Hu, G. B. Ma, R. W. Peng, C. Sun, and M. Wang, “Controlling the Polarization state of light with a dispersion-free metastructure,” Phys. Rev. X 4(2), 021026 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wang, S.

J. W. He, Z. W. Xie, S. Wang, X. K. Wang, Q. Kan, and Y. Zhang, “Terahertz polarization modulator based on metasurface,” J. Opt. 17(10), 105107 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wang, S. M.

T. Li, S. M. Wang, J. X. Cao, H. Liu, and S. N. Zhu, “Cavity-involved plasmonic metamaterial for optical polarization conversion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(26), 261113 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wang, X.

H. Zhao, X. Wang, J. He, J. Guo, J. Ye, Q. Kan, and Y. Zhang, “High-efficiency terahertz devices based on cross-polarization converter,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 17882 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, X. H.

Wang, X. K.

J. W. He, Z. W. Xie, S. Wang, X. K. Wang, Q. Kan, and Y. Zhang, “Terahertz polarization modulator based on metasurface,” J. Opt. 17(10), 105107 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wei, X.

Weis, P.

P. Weis, O. Paul, C. Imhof, R. Beigang, and M. Rahm, “Strongly birefringent metamaterials as negative index terahertz wave plates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(17), 171104 (2009).
[Crossref]

Welp, U.

L. Ozyuzer, A. E. Koshelev, C. Kurter, N. Gopalsami, Q. Li, M. Tachiki, K. Kadowaki, T. Yamamoto, H. Minami, H. Yamaguchi, T. Tachiki, K. E. Gray, W. K. Kwok, and U. Welp, “Emission of coherent THz radiation from superconductors,” Science 318(5854), 1291–1293 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wen, L. L.

X. Y. Yu, X. Gao, W. Qiao, L. L. Wen, and W. L. Yang, “Broadband tunable polarization converter realized by graphene-based metamaterial,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 28(21), 2399–2402 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wen, X.

Wu, H.

Xia, R.

Xiao, Z. Y.

Z. Y. Xiao, H. L. Zou, X. X. Zheng, X. Y. Ling, and L. Wang, “A tunable reflective polarization converter based on hybrid metamaterial,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 49(12), 401 (2017).
[Crossref]

Xie, Z. W.

J. W. He, Z. W. Xie, S. Wang, X. K. Wang, Q. Kan, and Y. Zhang, “Terahertz polarization modulator based on metasurface,” J. Opt. 17(10), 105107 (2015).
[Crossref]

Xiong, X.

R. H. Fan, Y. Zhou, X. P. Ren, R. W. Peng, S. C. Jiang, D. H. Xu, X. Xiong, X. R. Huang, and M. Wang, “Freely tunable broadband polarization rotator for terahertz waves,” Adv. Mater. 27(7), 1201–1206 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. C. Jiang, X. Xiong, Y. S. Hu, Y. H. Hu, G. B. Ma, R. W. Peng, C. Sun, and M. Wang, “Controlling the Polarization state of light with a dispersion-free metastructure,” Phys. Rev. X 4(2), 021026 (2014).
[Crossref]

Xu, B. Z.

Xu, D. H.

R. H. Fan, Y. Zhou, X. P. Ren, R. W. Peng, S. C. Jiang, D. H. Xu, X. Xiong, X. R. Huang, and M. Wang, “Freely tunable broadband polarization rotator for terahertz waves,” Adv. Mater. 27(7), 1201–1206 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, N. N.

L. Q. Cong, N. N. Xu, J. Q. Gu, R. Singh, J. G. Han, and W. L. Zhang, “Highly flexible broadband terahertz metamaterial quarter-wave plate,” Laser Photon. Rev. 8(4), 626–632 (2014).
[Crossref]

Xu, S. T.

S. T. Xu, F. T. Hu, M. Chen, F. Fan, and S. J. Chang, “Broadband terahertz polarization converter and asymmetric transmission based on coupled dielectric-metal grating,” Ann. Phys. 529(10), 1700151 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. T. Xu, F. Fan, M. Chen, Y. Y. Ji, and S. J. Chang, “Terahertz polarization mode conversion in compound metasurface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(3), 031107 (2017).
[Crossref]

Xu, Y. D.

Y. Q. Cai, L. T. Zhang, Q. F. Zeng, L. F. Cheng, and Y. D. Xu, “Infrared reflectance spectrum of BN calculated from first principles,” Solid State Commun. 141(5), 262–266 (2007).
[Crossref]

Yamaguchi, H.

L. Ozyuzer, A. E. Koshelev, C. Kurter, N. Gopalsami, Q. Li, M. Tachiki, K. Kadowaki, T. Yamamoto, H. Minami, H. Yamaguchi, T. Tachiki, K. E. Gray, W. K. Kwok, and U. Welp, “Emission of coherent THz radiation from superconductors,” Science 318(5854), 1291–1293 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yamamoto, T.

L. Ozyuzer, A. E. Koshelev, C. Kurter, N. Gopalsami, Q. Li, M. Tachiki, K. Kadowaki, T. Yamamoto, H. Minami, H. Yamaguchi, T. Tachiki, K. E. Gray, W. K. Kwok, and U. Welp, “Emission of coherent THz radiation from superconductors,” Science 318(5854), 1291–1293 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, L.

Yang, W.

Yang, W. L.

X. Y. Yu, X. Gao, W. Qiao, L. L. Wen, and W. L. Yang, “Broadband tunable polarization converter realized by graphene-based metamaterial,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 28(21), 2399–2402 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ye, J.

H. Zhao, X. Wang, J. He, J. Guo, J. Ye, Q. Kan, and Y. Zhang, “High-efficiency terahertz devices based on cross-polarization converter,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 17882 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, P.

Yu, X.

Yu, X. Y.

X. Y. Yu, X. Gao, W. Qiao, L. L. Wen, and W. L. Yang, “Broadband tunable polarization converter realized by graphene-based metamaterial,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 28(21), 2399–2402 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zeng, Q. F.

Y. Q. Cai, L. T. Zhang, Q. F. Zeng, L. F. Cheng, and Y. D. Xu, “Infrared reflectance spectrum of BN calculated from first principles,” Solid State Commun. 141(5), 262–266 (2007).
[Crossref]

Zeng, Y.

N. K. Grady, J. E. Heyes, D. R. Chowdhury, Y. Zeng, M. T. Reiten, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, D. A. R. Dalvit, and H. T. Chen, “Terahertz metamaterials for linear polarization conversion and anomalous refraction,” Science 340(6138), 1304–1307 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, L.

D. Wang, L. Zhang, Y. Gu, M. Q. Mehmood, Y. Gong, A. Srivastava, L. Jian, T. Venkatesan, C. W. Qiu, and M. Hong, “Switchable ultrathin quarter-wave plate in terahertz using active phase-change metasurface,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 15020 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, L. C.

D. C. Wang, L. C. Zhang, Y. D. Gong, L. K. Jian, T. Venkatesan, C. W. Qiu, and M. H. Hong, “Multiband switchable terahertz quarter-wave plates via phase-change metasurfaces,” IEEE Photon. J. 8(1), 5500308 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhang, L. T.

Y. Q. Cai, L. T. Zhang, Q. F. Zeng, L. F. Cheng, and Y. D. Xu, “Infrared reflectance spectrum of BN calculated from first principles,” Solid State Commun. 141(5), 262–266 (2007).
[Crossref]

Zhang, W.

Zhang, W. L.

L. Q. Cong, N. N. Xu, J. Q. Gu, R. Singh, J. G. Han, and W. L. Zhang, “Highly flexible broadband terahertz metamaterial quarter-wave plate,” Laser Photon. Rev. 8(4), 626–632 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Q. Cong, W. Cao, X. Q. Zhang, Z. Tian, J. Q. Gu, R. Singh, J. G. Han, and W. L. Zhang, “A perfect metamaterial polarization rotator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(17), 171107 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.

Zhang, X. C.

B. Ferguson and X. C. Zhang, “Materials for terahertz science and technology,” Nat. Mater. 1(1), 26–33 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, X. Q.

L. Q. Cong, W. Cao, X. Q. Zhang, Z. Tian, J. Q. Gu, R. Singh, J. G. Han, and W. L. Zhang, “A perfect metamaterial polarization rotator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(17), 171107 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y.

H. Zhao, X. Wang, J. He, J. Guo, J. Ye, Q. Kan, and Y. Zhang, “High-efficiency terahertz devices based on cross-polarization converter,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 17882 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. W. He, Z. W. Xie, S. Wang, X. K. Wang, Q. Kan, and Y. Zhang, “Terahertz polarization modulator based on metasurface,” J. Opt. 17(10), 105107 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhang, Y. Feng, B. Zhu, J. Zhao, and T. Jiang, “Switchable quarter-wave plate with graphene based metamaterial for broadband terahertz wave manipulation,” Opt. Express 23(21), 27230–27239 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zhang, Y. Feng, B. Zhu, J. Zhao, and T. Jiang, “Graphene based tunable metamaterial absorber and polarization modulation in terahertz frequency,” Opt. Express 22(19), 22743–22752 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, H.

H. Zhao, X. Wang, J. He, J. Guo, J. Ye, Q. Kan, and Y. Zhang, “High-efficiency terahertz devices based on cross-polarization converter,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 17882 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, J.

Zhao, W. Y.

Zheng, J.

Zheng, X. X.

Z. Y. Xiao, H. L. Zou, X. X. Zheng, X. Y. Ling, and L. Wang, “A tunable reflective polarization converter based on hybrid metamaterial,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 49(12), 401 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhou, Y.

R. H. Fan, Y. Zhou, X. P. Ren, R. W. Peng, S. C. Jiang, D. H. Xu, X. Xiong, X. R. Huang, and M. Wang, “Freely tunable broadband polarization rotator for terahertz waves,” Adv. Mater. 27(7), 1201–1206 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhu, B.

Zhu, S. N.

T. Li, S. M. Wang, J. X. Cao, H. Liu, and S. N. Zhu, “Cavity-involved plasmonic metamaterial for optical polarization conversion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(26), 261113 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zimdars, D.

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, “THz imaging and sensing for security applications - explosives, weapons and drugs,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20(7), S266–S280 (2005).
[Crossref]

Zografopoulos, D. C.

B. Vasić, D. C. Zografopoulos, G. Isić, R. Beccherelli, and R. Gajić, “Electrically tunable terahertz polarization converter based on overcoupled metal-isolator-metal metamaterials infiltrated with liquid crystals,” Nanotechnology 28(12), 124002 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zou, H. L.

Z. Y. Xiao, H. L. Zou, X. X. Zheng, X. Y. Ling, and L. Wang, “A tunable reflective polarization converter based on hybrid metamaterial,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 49(12), 401 (2017).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater. (2)

R. H. Fan, Y. Zhou, X. P. Ren, R. W. Peng, S. C. Jiang, D. H. Xu, X. Xiong, X. R. Huang, and M. Wang, “Freely tunable broadband polarization rotator for terahertz waves,” Adv. Mater. 27(7), 1201–1206 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Viti, J. Hu, D. Coquillat, A. Politano, C. Consejo, W. Knap, and M. S. Vitiello, “Heterostructured hBN-BP-hBN nanodetectors at terahertz frequencies,” Adv. Mater. 28(34), 7390–7396 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ann. Phys. (1)

S. T. Xu, F. T. Hu, M. Chen, F. Fan, and S. J. Chang, “Broadband terahertz polarization converter and asymmetric transmission based on coupled dielectric-metal grating,” Ann. Phys. 529(10), 1700151 (2017).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

S. T. Xu, F. Fan, M. Chen, Y. Y. Ji, and S. J. Chang, “Terahertz polarization mode conversion in compound metasurface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(3), 031107 (2017).
[Crossref]

P. Weis, O. Paul, C. Imhof, R. Beigang, and M. Rahm, “Strongly birefringent metamaterials as negative index terahertz wave plates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(17), 171104 (2009).
[Crossref]

L. Q. Cong, W. Cao, X. Q. Zhang, Z. Tian, J. Q. Gu, R. Singh, J. G. Han, and W. L. Zhang, “A perfect metamaterial polarization rotator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(17), 171107 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Li, S. M. Wang, J. X. Cao, H. Liu, and S. N. Zhu, “Cavity-involved plasmonic metamaterial for optical polarization conversion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(26), 261113 (2010).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. J. (1)

D. C. Wang, L. C. Zhang, Y. D. Gong, L. K. Jian, T. Venkatesan, C. W. Qiu, and M. H. Hong, “Multiband switchable terahertz quarter-wave plates via phase-change metasurfaces,” IEEE Photon. J. 8(1), 5500308 (2016).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

X. Y. Yu, X. Gao, W. Qiao, L. L. Wen, and W. L. Yang, “Broadband tunable polarization converter realized by graphene-based metamaterial,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 28(21), 2399–2402 (2016).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. (2)

K. B. Cooper, R. J. Dengler, N. Llombart, T. Bryllert, G. Chattopadhyay, E. Schlecht, J. Gill, C. Lee, A. Skalare, I. Mehdi, and P. H. Siegel, “Penetrating 3-D imaging at 4-and 25-m range using a submillimeter-wave radar,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 56(12), 2771–2778 (2008).
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G. W. Hanson, “Dyadic Green’s functions and guided surface waves for a surface conductivity model of graphene,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(6), 064302 (2008).
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M. Rahm, J. S. Li, and W. J. Padilla, “THz wave modulators: a brief review on different modulation techniques,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 34(1), 1–27 (2013).
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J. Opt. (1)

J. W. He, Z. W. Xie, S. Wang, X. K. Wang, Q. Kan, and Y. Zhang, “Terahertz polarization modulator based on metasurface,” J. Opt. 17(10), 105107 (2015).
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J. Phys. Conf. Ser. (1)

L. A. Falkovsky, “Optical properties of graphene,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 129, 012004 (2008).
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Laser Photon. Rev. (1)

L. Q. Cong, N. N. Xu, J. Q. Gu, R. Singh, J. G. Han, and W. L. Zhang, “Highly flexible broadband terahertz metamaterial quarter-wave plate,” Laser Photon. Rev. 8(4), 626–632 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nanotechnology (1)

B. Vasić, D. C. Zografopoulos, G. Isić, R. Beccherelli, and R. Gajić, “Electrically tunable terahertz polarization converter based on overcoupled metal-isolator-metal metamaterials infiltrated with liquid crystals,” Nanotechnology 28(12), 124002 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater. (1)

B. Ferguson and X. C. Zhang, “Materials for terahertz science and technology,” Nat. Mater. 1(1), 26–33 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, M. J. Cich, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Taylor, “A metamaterial solid-state terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 148–151 (2009).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417(6885), 156–159 (2002).
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Opt. Express (14)

W. Mo, X. Wei, K. Wang, Y. Li, and J. Liu, “Ultrathin flexible terahertz polarization converter based on metasurfaces,” Opt. Express 24(12), 13621–13627 (2016).
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X. Wen and J. Zheng, “Broadband THz reflective polarization rotator by multiple plasmon resonances,” Opt. Express 22(23), 28292–28300 (2014).
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Y. Nakata, Y. Taira, T. Nakanishi, and F. Miyamaru, “Freestanding transparent terahertz half-wave plate using subwavelength cut-wire pairs,” Opt. Express 25(3), 2107–2114 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zhang, Y. Feng, B. Zhu, J. Zhao, and T. Jiang, “Graphene based tunable metamaterial absorber and polarization modulation in terahertz frequency,” Opt. Express 22(19), 22743–22752 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zhang, Y. Feng, B. Zhu, J. Zhao, and T. Jiang, “Switchable quarter-wave plate with graphene based metamaterial for broadband terahertz wave manipulation,” Opt. Express 23(21), 27230–27239 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Y. Ji, F. Fan, X. H. Wang, and S. J. Chang, “Broadband controllable terahertz quarter-wave plate based on graphene gratings with liquid crystals,” Opt. Express 26(10), 12852–12862 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Y. Ji, F. Fan, M. Chen, L. Yang, and S. J. Chang, “Terahertz artificial birefringence and tunable phase shifter based on dielectric metasurface with compound lattice,” Opt. Express 25(10), 11405–11413 (2017).
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D. Wang, Y. Gu, Y. Gong, C. W. Qiu, and M. Hong, “An ultrathin terahertz quarter-wave plate using planar babinet-inverted metasurface,” Opt. Express 23(9), 11114–11122 (2015).
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Y. Jiang, L. Wang, J. Wang, C. N. Akwuruoha, and W. Cao, “Ultra-wideband high-efficiency reflective linear-to-circular polarization converter based on metasurface at terahertz frequencies,” Opt. Express 25(22), 27616–27623 (2017).
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A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, H. Tao, D. V. Pilon, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Comparison of birefringent electric split-ring resonator and meanderline structures as quarter-wave plates at terahertz frequencies,” Opt. Express 17(1), 136–149 (2009).
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X. G. Peralta, E. I. Smirnova, A. K. Azad, H. T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, I. Brener, and J. F. O’Hara, “Metamaterials for THz polarimetric devices,” Opt. Express 17(2), 773–783 (2009).
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J. Jiang, X. Zhang, W. Zhang, S. Liang, H. Wu, L. Jiang, and X. Li, “Out-of-plane focusing and manipulation of terahertz beams based on a silicon/copper grating covered by monolayer graphene,” Opt. Express 25(14), 16867–16878 (2017).
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X. Gao, W. Yang, W. Cao, M. Chen, Y. Jiang, X. Yu, and H. Li, “Bandwidth broadening of a graphene-based circular polarization converter by phase compensation,” Opt. Express 25(20), 23945–23954 (2017).
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B. Z. Xu, C. Q. Gu, Z. Li, and Z. Y. Niu, “A novel structure for tunable terahertz absorber based on graphene,” Opt. Express 21(20), 23803–23811 (2013).
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Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Mater. Express (2)

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

Z. Y. Xiao, H. L. Zou, X. X. Zheng, X. Y. Ling, and L. Wang, “A tunable reflective polarization converter based on hybrid metamaterial,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 49(12), 401 (2017).
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Phys. Commun. (1)

I. F. Akyildiz, J. M. Jornet, and C. Han, “Terahertz band: Next frontier for wireless communications,” Phys. Commun. 12, 16–32 (2014).

Phys. Rev. X (1)

S. C. Jiang, X. Xiong, Y. S. Hu, Y. H. Hu, G. B. Ma, R. W. Peng, C. Sun, and M. Wang, “Controlling the Polarization state of light with a dispersion-free metastructure,” Phys. Rev. X 4(2), 021026 (2014).
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F. Sizov and A. Rogalski, “THz detectors,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 34(5), 278–347 (2010).
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Sci. Rep. (2)

H. Zhao, X. Wang, J. He, J. Guo, J. Ye, Q. Kan, and Y. Zhang, “High-efficiency terahertz devices based on cross-polarization converter,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 17882 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Wang, L. Zhang, Y. Gu, M. Q. Mehmood, Y. Gong, A. Srivastava, L. Jian, T. Venkatesan, C. W. Qiu, and M. Hong, “Switchable ultrathin quarter-wave plate in terahertz using active phase-change metasurface,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 15020 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science (2)

N. K. Grady, J. E. Heyes, D. R. Chowdhury, Y. Zeng, M. T. Reiten, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, D. A. R. Dalvit, and H. T. Chen, “Terahertz metamaterials for linear polarization conversion and anomalous refraction,” Science 340(6138), 1304–1307 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Ozyuzer, A. E. Koshelev, C. Kurter, N. Gopalsami, Q. Li, M. Tachiki, K. Kadowaki, T. Yamamoto, H. Minami, H. Yamaguchi, T. Tachiki, K. E. Gray, W. K. Kwok, and U. Welp, “Emission of coherent THz radiation from superconductors,” Science 318(5854), 1291–1293 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Semicond. Sci. Technol. (1)

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, “THz imaging and sensing for security applications - explosives, weapons and drugs,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20(7), S266–S280 (2005).
[Crossref]

Solid State Commun. (1)

Y. Q. Cai, L. T. Zhang, Q. F. Zeng, L. F. Cheng, and Y. D. Xu, “Infrared reflectance spectrum of BN calculated from first principles,” Solid State Commun. 141(5), 262–266 (2007).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

S. A. Maier, Plasmonics: Fundamentals and Applications (Springer-Verlag, 2007).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Schematic of the terahertz tunable polarization converter based on a planar metamaterial integrated with a graphene sheet on the hBN/Si/SiO2/Ag substrate. (b) Unit cell of the planar metamaterial.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) and (b) Dependences of the amplitude ratio (a) and phase difference (b) between x and y polarization components in the reflected light on SiO2’s thickness. (c)-(e) Polarization separated reflection spectra (c), phase difference (d) and the ellipticity (e) at the thickness of 8.94 μm. rxx and ryx are reflectivity. Spatial distributions of |E|, Ex, and Ey in x-y [(f)-(h)], x-z [(i)-(k)], and y-z [(l)-(n)] planes at the central frequency of 4.95 THz when the chemical potential of graphene is zero. Sliced position of x-y plane is at the Au/graphene interface and sliced positions of x-z and y-z planes are represented by the dashed lines in (f).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a)-(d) Polarization separated reflection spectra when the chemical potential of graphene is 0.3 eV, 0.45 eV, 0.32 eV, and 0.36 eV, respectively.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) and (b) Linearity and polarization angle of half-wave plate when the chemical potential is 0.32 eV, 0.34 eV and 0.36 eV. Spatial distributions of |E|, Ex, and Ey in x-y [(c)-(e)], x-z [(f)-(h)], and y-z [(i)-(k)] planes at the central frequency of 4.98 THz when the chemical potential of graphene is 0.34 eV. Sliced position of x-y plane is at the Au/graphene interface and sliced positions of x-z and y-z planes are represented by the dashed lines in (c).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) and (b) Real and imaginary parts of graphene’s conductivity plotted as a function of frequency for different chemical potentials. (c) Phase difference of the half-wave plate when the chemical potential is 0.32 eV, 0.34 eV and 0.36 eV. (d) Real part of gold’s permittivity at different plasmon frequencies based on the Drude model ε(ω) = ε-ωp2/(ω2 + iωγ), where ε = 9.1 and γ is 1.07E14.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 A Comparison Between Our Polarization Converters and Reported Tunable and Functionality-Switchable Wave Plate Designs

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

σ( ω,Γ, μ c ,T )= σ intra ( ω,Γ, μ c ,T )+ σ inter ( ω,Γ, μ c ,T ),
σ intra ( ω,Γ, μ c ,T )= i e 2 k B T π 2 (ω+i2Γ) [ μ c k B T +2ln( exp( μ c k B T )+1 ) ],
σ inter ( ω,Γ, μ c ,T )= i e 2 4π 2 ln( 2| μ c |(ω+i2Γ) 2| μ c |+(ω+i2Γ) ),
E F = μ c ν f π ε r ε 0 V g e t s ,
ε xx = ε yy = ε r +i σ intra ( ω,Γ, μ c ,T ) ε 0 ωt and ε zz = ε r ,
E x = E 0 e j(ωt+ φ 0 ) ,
E y = κ yx E x = η yx e jΔφ E x ,

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