Abstract

This work presents the design of multichannel heterodyne signal detection. The measuring capabilities of the proposed configuration were tested based on the developed multichannel laser heterodyne spectroradiometer (MLHS). The MLHS can simultaneously detect absorption features of atmospheric CO2 and CH4 in the NIR spectral range with an ultra-high spectral resolution of λ/δλ ∼ 6 × 107. Such a high resolution allows the MLHS to measure fully resolved individual line contours at 1.605 µm and 1.655 µm for CO2 and CH4 respectively. We propose a new method for synchronous measurements of dark and mixed signals and discuss its effect on the recorded data. We demonstrate advantages of the proposed technique by detailed comparison of data measured by MLHS and a single channel laser heterodyne spectroradiometer.

© 2020 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2020 (1)

A. V. Rodin, D. V. Churbanov, S. G. Zenevich, A. Y. Klimchuk, V. M. Semenov, M. V. Spiridonov, and I. S. Gazizov, “Vertical wind profiling from the troposphere to the lower mesosphere based on high-resolution heterodyne near-infrared spectroradiometry,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 13(5), 2299–2308 (2020).
[Crossref]

2019 (5)

M. Frey, M. K. Sha, F. Hase, M. Kiel, T. Blumenstock, R. Harig, G. Surawicz, N. M. Deutscher, K. Shiomi, J. E. Franklin, H. Bösch, J. Chen, M. Grutter, H. Ohyama, Y. Sun, A. Butz, G. Mengistu Tsidu, D. Ene, D. Wunch, Z. Cao, O. Garcia, M. Ramonet, F. Vogel, and J. Orphal, “Building the COllaborative Carbon Column Observing Network (COCCON): long-term stability and ensemble performance of the EM27/SUN Fourier transform spectrometer,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 12(3), 1513–1530 (2019).
[Crossref]

P. I. Palmer, E. L. Wilson, G. L. Villanueva, G. Liuzzi, L. Feng, A. J. DiGregorio, J. Mao, L. Ott, and B. Duncan, “Potential improvements in global carbon flux estimates from a network of laser heterodyne radiometer measurements of column carbon dioxide,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 12(4), 2579–2594 (2019).
[Crossref]

H. Deng, C. Yanga, W. Wanga, C. Shana, Z. Xua, B. Chena, L. Yaoa, M. Hua, R. Kana, and Y. He, “Near infrared heterodyne radiometer for continuous measurements of atmospheric CO2 column concentration,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 101, 39–44 (2019).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, G. Wang, T. Tan, G. Zhu, C. Sun, Z. Cao, W. Chen, and X. Gao, ““Mid-infrared laser heterodyne radiometer (LHR) based on a 3.53 µm room-temperature interband cascade laser,” Opt. Express 27(7), 9610–9619 (2019).
[Crossref]

S. G. Zenevich, A. Y. Klimchuk, V. M. Semenov, M. V. Spiridonov, and A. V. Rodin, “Measurements of the fully resolved contour of the carbon dioxide absorption line in a band at λ = 1.605 um in the atmospheric column using high-resolution heterodyne spectroradiometry method,” Quantum Electron. 49(6), 604–611 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (1)

M. De Mazière, A. M. Thompson, M. J. Kurylo, J. D. Wild, G. Bernhard, T. Blumenstock, G. O. Braathen, J. W. Hannigan, J.-C. Lambert, T. Leblanc, T. J. McGee, G. Nedoluha, I. Petropavlovskikh, G. Seckmeyer, P. C. Simon, W. Steinbrecht, and S. E. Strahan, “The Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC): history, status and perspectives,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 18(7), 4935–4964 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (2)

A. Eldering, C. W. O’Dell, P. O. Wennberg, D. Crisp, M. R. Gunson, C. Viatte, C. Avis, A. Braverman, R. Castano, A. Chang, L. Chapsky, C. Cheng, B. Connor, L. Dang, G. Doran, B. Fisher, C. Frankenberg, D. Fu, R. Granat, J. Hobbs, R. A. M. Lee, L. Mandrake, J. McDuffie, C. E. Miller, V. Myers, V. Natraj, D. O’Brien, G. B. Osterman, F. Oyafuso, V. H. Payne, H. R. Pollock, I. Polonsky, C. M. Roehl, R. Rosenberg, F. Schwandner, M. Smyth, V. Tang, T. E. Taylor, C. To, D. Wunch, and J. Yoshimizu, “The Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2: first 18 months of science data products,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 10(2), 549–563 (2017).
[Crossref]

I. E. Gordon, L. S. Rothman, C. Hill, R. V. Kochanov, Y. Tana, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. V. Chance, B. J. Drouin, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. I. Perevalovm, A. Perrin, K. P. Shine, M.-A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, H. Tran, V. G. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. G. Császár, V. M. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. J. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. M. Lyulin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenkom, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenkom, A. V. Nikitinm, O. L. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. W. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikovam, S. A. Tashkunm, J. Vander Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yuh, and E. J. Zak, “The HITRAN2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 203, 3–69 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (4)

X. Jiang, D. Crisp, E. T. Olsen, S. S. Kulawik, C. E. Miller, T. S. Pagano, M. Liang, and Y. L. Yung, “CO2 annual and semiannual cycles from multiple satellite retrievals and models,” Earth Space Sci. 3(2), 78–87 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Nakagawa, S. Aoki, H. Sagawa, Y. Kasaba, I. Murata, G. Sonnabend, M. Sornig, S. Okano, J. R. Kuhn, J. M. Ritter, M. Kagitani, T. Sakanoi, M. Taguchi, and M. Kagitani, “IR heterodyne spectrometer MILAHI for continuous monitoring observatory of Martian and Venusian atmospheres at Mt. Haleakalā, Hawaii,” Planet. Space Sci. 126, 34–48 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Hoffmann, N. A. Macleod, M. Huebner, and D. Weidmann, “Thermal infrared laser heterodyne spectroradiometry for solar occultation atmospheric CO2 measurements,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 9(12), 5975–5996 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Kurtz and S. O’Byrne, “Multiple receivers in a high-resolution near-infrared heterodyne spectrometer,” Opt. Express 24(21), 23838–23848 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (1)

H. R. Melroy, E. L. Wilson, G. B. Clarke, L. E. Ott, J. Mao, A. K. Ramanathan, and M. L. McLinden, “Autonomous field measurements of CO2in the atmospheric column with the miniaturized laser heterodyne radiometer (Mini-LHR),” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 120(4), 609–615 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

2012 (3)

M. Gisi, F. Hase, S. Dohe, T. Blumenstock, A. Simon, and A. Keens, “XCO2-measurements with a tabletop FTS using solar absorption spectroscopy,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 5(11), 2969–2980 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Sornig, T. A. Livengood, G. Sonnabend, D. Stupar, and P. Kroetz, “Direct wind measurements from November 2007 in Venus upper atmosphere using ground-based heterodyne spectroscopy of CO2 at 10 mm wavelength,” Icarus 217(2), 863–874 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Yu. Klimchuk, A. I. Nadezhdinskii, Ya. Ya. Ponurovskii, and Yu. P. Shapovalov, and A. V. Rodin, “On the possibility of designing a high-resolution heterodyne spectrometer for near-IR range on the basis of a tunable diode laser,” Quantum Electron. 42(3), 244–249 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Yu. Klimchuk, A. I. Nadezhdinskii, Ya. Ya. Ponurovskii, and Yu. P. Shapovalov, and A. V. Rodin, “On the possibility of designing a high-resolution heterodyne spectrometer for near-IR range on the basis of a tunable diode laser,” Quantum Electron. 42(3), 244–249 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

D. P. Deea, S. M. Uppala, A. J. Simmons, P. Berrisford, P. Poli, S. Kobayashi, U. Andrae, M. A. Balmaseda, G. Balsamo, P. Bauera, P. Bechtold, A. C. M. Beljaars, L. van de Bergd, J. Bidlot, N. Bormann, C. Delsol, R. Dragani, M. Fuentes, A. J. Geer, L. Haimberger, S. B. Healy, H. Hersbach, E. V. Holm, L. Isaksen, P. Kallberg, M. Kohler, M. Matricardi, A. P. McNally, B. M. Monge-Sanz, J.-J. Morcrette, B.-K. Park, C. Peubey, P. de Rosnay, C. Tavolato, J.-N. Thepaut, and F. Vitarta, “The ERA-Interim reanalysis: configuration and performance of the data assimilation system,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137(656), 553–597 (2011).
[Crossref]

F. Chevallier, N. M. Deutscher, T. J. Conway, P. Ciais, L. Ciattaglia, S. Dohe, M. Fröhlich, A. J. Gomez-Pelaez, D. Griffith, F. Hase, L. Haszpra, P. Krummel, E. Kyrö, C. Labuschagne, R. Langenfelds, T. Machida, F. Maignan, H. Matsueda, I. Morino, J. Notholt, M. Ramonet, Y. Sawa, M. Schmidt, V. Sherlock, P. Steele, K. Strong, R. Sussmann, P. Wennberg, S. Wofsy, D. Worthy, D. Wunch, and M. Zimnoch, “Global CO2fluxes inferred from surface air-sample measurements and from TCCON retrievals of the CO2 total column,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 38(24), L24810 (2011).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

2008 (1)

E. J. Moyer, D. S. Sayres, G. S. Engel, J. M. St. Clair, F. N. Keutsch, N. T. Allen, J. H. Kroll, and J. G. Anderson, “Design considerations in high-sensitivity off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 92(3), 467–474 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

D. Weidmann, W. J. Reburn, and K. M. Smith, “Ground-based prototype quantum cascade laser heterodyne radiometer for atmospheric studies,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78(7), 073107 (2007).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

G. Sonnabend, D. Wirtz, V. Vetterle, and R. Schieder, “High-resolution observations of Martian non-thermal CO2 emission near 10 um with a new tunable heterodyne receiver,” Astron. Astrophys. 435(3), 1181–1184 (2005).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

B. Holben, T. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. Reagan, Y. Kaufman, and T. Nakajima, “AERONET—a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66(1), 1–16 (1998).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

E. Kalnay, M. Kanamitsu, R. Kistler, W. Collins, D. Deaven, L. Gandin, M. Iredell, S. Saha, G. White, J. Woollen, Y. Zhu, A. Leetmaa, and R. Reynolds, “The NCEP/NCAR 40-Year Reanalysis Project,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 77(3), 437–471 (1996).
[Crossref]

1983 (1)

1966 (1)

Allen, N. T.

E. J. Moyer, D. S. Sayres, G. S. Engel, J. M. St. Clair, F. N. Keutsch, N. T. Allen, J. H. Kroll, and J. G. Anderson, “Design considerations in high-sensitivity off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 92(3), 467–474 (2008).
[Crossref]

Anderson, J. G.

E. J. Moyer, D. S. Sayres, G. S. Engel, J. M. St. Clair, F. N. Keutsch, N. T. Allen, J. H. Kroll, and J. G. Anderson, “Design considerations in high-sensitivity off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 92(3), 467–474 (2008).
[Crossref]

Andrae, U.

D. P. Deea, S. M. Uppala, A. J. Simmons, P. Berrisford, P. Poli, S. Kobayashi, U. Andrae, M. A. Balmaseda, G. Balsamo, P. Bauera, P. Bechtold, A. C. M. Beljaars, L. van de Bergd, J. Bidlot, N. Bormann, C. Delsol, R. Dragani, M. Fuentes, A. J. Geer, L. Haimberger, S. B. Healy, H. Hersbach, E. V. Holm, L. Isaksen, P. Kallberg, M. Kohler, M. Matricardi, A. P. McNally, B. M. Monge-Sanz, J.-J. Morcrette, B.-K. Park, C. Peubey, P. de Rosnay, C. Tavolato, J.-N. Thepaut, and F. Vitarta, “The ERA-Interim reanalysis: configuration and performance of the data assimilation system,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137(656), 553–597 (2011).
[Crossref]

Aoki, S.

H. Nakagawa, S. Aoki, H. Sagawa, Y. Kasaba, I. Murata, G. Sonnabend, M. Sornig, S. Okano, J. R. Kuhn, J. M. Ritter, M. Kagitani, T. Sakanoi, M. Taguchi, and M. Kagitani, “IR heterodyne spectrometer MILAHI for continuous monitoring observatory of Martian and Venusian atmospheres at Mt. Haleakalā, Hawaii,” Planet. Space Sci. 126, 34–48 (2016).
[Crossref]

Avis, C.

A. Eldering, C. W. O’Dell, P. O. Wennberg, D. Crisp, M. R. Gunson, C. Viatte, C. Avis, A. Braverman, R. Castano, A. Chang, L. Chapsky, C. Cheng, B. Connor, L. Dang, G. Doran, B. Fisher, C. Frankenberg, D. Fu, R. Granat, J. Hobbs, R. A. M. Lee, L. Mandrake, J. McDuffie, C. E. Miller, V. Myers, V. Natraj, D. O’Brien, G. B. Osterman, F. Oyafuso, V. H. Payne, H. R. Pollock, I. Polonsky, C. M. Roehl, R. Rosenberg, F. Schwandner, M. Smyth, V. Tang, T. E. Taylor, C. To, D. Wunch, and J. Yoshimizu, “The Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2: first 18 months of science data products,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 10(2), 549–563 (2017).
[Crossref]

Balmaseda, M. A.

D. P. Deea, S. M. Uppala, A. J. Simmons, P. Berrisford, P. Poli, S. Kobayashi, U. Andrae, M. A. Balmaseda, G. Balsamo, P. Bauera, P. Bechtold, A. C. M. Beljaars, L. van de Bergd, J. Bidlot, N. Bormann, C. Delsol, R. Dragani, M. Fuentes, A. J. Geer, L. Haimberger, S. B. Healy, H. Hersbach, E. V. Holm, L. Isaksen, P. Kallberg, M. Kohler, M. Matricardi, A. P. McNally, B. M. Monge-Sanz, J.-J. Morcrette, B.-K. Park, C. Peubey, P. de Rosnay, C. Tavolato, J.-N. Thepaut, and F. Vitarta, “The ERA-Interim reanalysis: configuration and performance of the data assimilation system,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137(656), 553–597 (2011).
[Crossref]

Balsamo, G.

D. P. Deea, S. M. Uppala, A. J. Simmons, P. Berrisford, P. Poli, S. Kobayashi, U. Andrae, M. A. Balmaseda, G. Balsamo, P. Bauera, P. Bechtold, A. C. M. Beljaars, L. van de Bergd, J. Bidlot, N. Bormann, C. Delsol, R. Dragani, M. Fuentes, A. J. Geer, L. Haimberger, S. B. Healy, H. Hersbach, E. V. Holm, L. Isaksen, P. Kallberg, M. Kohler, M. Matricardi, A. P. McNally, B. M. Monge-Sanz, J.-J. Morcrette, B.-K. Park, C. Peubey, P. de Rosnay, C. Tavolato, J.-N. Thepaut, and F. Vitarta, “The ERA-Interim reanalysis: configuration and performance of the data assimilation system,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137(656), 553–597 (2011).
[Crossref]

Barbe, A.

I. E. Gordon, L. S. Rothman, C. Hill, R. V. Kochanov, Y. Tana, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. V. Chance, B. J. Drouin, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. I. Perevalovm, A. Perrin, K. P. Shine, M.-A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, H. Tran, V. G. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. G. Császár, V. M. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. J. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. M. Lyulin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenkom, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenkom, A. V. Nikitinm, O. L. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. W. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikovam, S. A. Tashkunm, J. Vander Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yuh, and E. J. Zak, “The HITRAN2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 203, 3–69 (2017).
[Crossref]

Bauera, P.

D. P. Deea, S. M. Uppala, A. J. Simmons, P. Berrisford, P. Poli, S. Kobayashi, U. Andrae, M. A. Balmaseda, G. Balsamo, P. Bauera, P. Bechtold, A. C. M. Beljaars, L. van de Bergd, J. Bidlot, N. Bormann, C. Delsol, R. Dragani, M. Fuentes, A. J. Geer, L. Haimberger, S. B. Healy, H. Hersbach, E. V. Holm, L. Isaksen, P. Kallberg, M. Kohler, M. Matricardi, A. P. McNally, B. M. Monge-Sanz, J.-J. Morcrette, B.-K. Park, C. Peubey, P. de Rosnay, C. Tavolato, J.-N. Thepaut, and F. Vitarta, “The ERA-Interim reanalysis: configuration and performance of the data assimilation system,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137(656), 553–597 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bechtold, P.

D. P. Deea, S. M. Uppala, A. J. Simmons, P. Berrisford, P. Poli, S. Kobayashi, U. Andrae, M. A. Balmaseda, G. Balsamo, P. Bauera, P. Bechtold, A. C. M. Beljaars, L. van de Bergd, J. Bidlot, N. Bormann, C. Delsol, R. Dragani, M. Fuentes, A. J. Geer, L. Haimberger, S. B. Healy, H. Hersbach, E. V. Holm, L. Isaksen, P. Kallberg, M. Kohler, M. Matricardi, A. P. McNally, B. M. Monge-Sanz, J.-J. Morcrette, B.-K. Park, C. Peubey, P. de Rosnay, C. Tavolato, J.-N. Thepaut, and F. Vitarta, “The ERA-Interim reanalysis: configuration and performance of the data assimilation system,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137(656), 553–597 (2011).
[Crossref]

Beljaars, A. C. M.

D. P. Deea, S. M. Uppala, A. J. Simmons, P. Berrisford, P. Poli, S. Kobayashi, U. Andrae, M. A. Balmaseda, G. Balsamo, P. Bauera, P. Bechtold, A. C. M. Beljaars, L. van de Bergd, J. Bidlot, N. Bormann, C. Delsol, R. Dragani, M. Fuentes, A. J. Geer, L. Haimberger, S. B. Healy, H. Hersbach, E. V. Holm, L. Isaksen, P. Kallberg, M. Kohler, M. Matricardi, A. P. McNally, B. M. Monge-Sanz, J.-J. Morcrette, B.-K. Park, C. Peubey, P. de Rosnay, C. Tavolato, J.-N. Thepaut, and F. Vitarta, “The ERA-Interim reanalysis: configuration and performance of the data assimilation system,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137(656), 553–597 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bernath, P. F.

I. E. Gordon, L. S. Rothman, C. Hill, R. V. Kochanov, Y. Tana, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. V. Chance, B. J. Drouin, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. I. Perevalovm, A. Perrin, K. P. Shine, M.-A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, H. Tran, V. G. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. G. Császár, V. M. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. J. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. M. Lyulin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenkom, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenkom, A. V. Nikitinm, O. L. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. W. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikovam, S. A. Tashkunm, J. Vander Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yuh, and E. J. Zak, “The HITRAN2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 203, 3–69 (2017).
[Crossref]

Bernhard, G.

M. De Mazière, A. M. Thompson, M. J. Kurylo, J. D. Wild, G. Bernhard, T. Blumenstock, G. O. Braathen, J. W. Hannigan, J.-C. Lambert, T. Leblanc, T. J. McGee, G. Nedoluha, I. Petropavlovskikh, G. Seckmeyer, P. C. Simon, W. Steinbrecht, and S. E. Strahan, “The Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC): history, status and perspectives,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 18(7), 4935–4964 (2018).
[Crossref]

Berrisford, P.

D. P. Deea, S. M. Uppala, A. J. Simmons, P. Berrisford, P. Poli, S. Kobayashi, U. Andrae, M. A. Balmaseda, G. Balsamo, P. Bauera, P. Bechtold, A. C. M. Beljaars, L. van de Bergd, J. Bidlot, N. Bormann, C. Delsol, R. Dragani, M. Fuentes, A. J. Geer, L. Haimberger, S. B. Healy, H. Hersbach, E. V. Holm, L. Isaksen, P. Kallberg, M. Kohler, M. Matricardi, A. P. McNally, B. M. Monge-Sanz, J.-J. Morcrette, B.-K. Park, C. Peubey, P. de Rosnay, C. Tavolato, J.-N. Thepaut, and F. Vitarta, “The ERA-Interim reanalysis: configuration and performance of the data assimilation system,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137(656), 553–597 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bidlot, J.

D. P. Deea, S. M. Uppala, A. J. Simmons, P. Berrisford, P. Poli, S. Kobayashi, U. Andrae, M. A. Balmaseda, G. Balsamo, P. Bauera, P. Bechtold, A. C. M. Beljaars, L. van de Bergd, J. Bidlot, N. Bormann, C. Delsol, R. Dragani, M. Fuentes, A. J. Geer, L. Haimberger, S. B. Healy, H. Hersbach, E. V. Holm, L. Isaksen, P. Kallberg, M. Kohler, M. Matricardi, A. P. McNally, B. M. Monge-Sanz, J.-J. Morcrette, B.-K. Park, C. Peubey, P. de Rosnay, C. Tavolato, J.-N. Thepaut, and F. Vitarta, “The ERA-Interim reanalysis: configuration and performance of the data assimilation system,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137(656), 553–597 (2011).
[Crossref]

Birk, M.

I. E. Gordon, L. S. Rothman, C. Hill, R. V. Kochanov, Y. Tana, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. V. Chance, B. J. Drouin, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. I. Perevalovm, A. Perrin, K. P. Shine, M.-A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, H. Tran, V. G. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. G. Császár, V. M. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. J. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. M. Lyulin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenkom, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenkom, A. V. Nikitinm, O. L. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. W. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikovam, S. A. Tashkunm, J. Vander Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yuh, and E. J. Zak, “The HITRAN2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 203, 3–69 (2017).
[Crossref]

Blumenstock, T.

M. Frey, M. K. Sha, F. Hase, M. Kiel, T. Blumenstock, R. Harig, G. Surawicz, N. M. Deutscher, K. Shiomi, J. E. Franklin, H. Bösch, J. Chen, M. Grutter, H. Ohyama, Y. Sun, A. Butz, G. Mengistu Tsidu, D. Ene, D. Wunch, Z. Cao, O. Garcia, M. Ramonet, F. Vogel, and J. Orphal, “Building the COllaborative Carbon Column Observing Network (COCCON): long-term stability and ensemble performance of the EM27/SUN Fourier transform spectrometer,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 12(3), 1513–1530 (2019).
[Crossref]

M. De Mazière, A. M. Thompson, M. J. Kurylo, J. D. Wild, G. Bernhard, T. Blumenstock, G. O. Braathen, J. W. Hannigan, J.-C. Lambert, T. Leblanc, T. J. McGee, G. Nedoluha, I. Petropavlovskikh, G. Seckmeyer, P. C. Simon, W. Steinbrecht, and S. E. Strahan, “The Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC): history, status and perspectives,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 18(7), 4935–4964 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Gisi, F. Hase, S. Dohe, T. Blumenstock, A. Simon, and A. Keens, “XCO2-measurements with a tabletop FTS using solar absorption spectroscopy,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 5(11), 2969–2980 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bormann, N.

D. P. Deea, S. M. Uppala, A. J. Simmons, P. Berrisford, P. Poli, S. Kobayashi, U. Andrae, M. A. Balmaseda, G. Balsamo, P. Bauera, P. Bechtold, A. C. M. Beljaars, L. van de Bergd, J. Bidlot, N. Bormann, C. Delsol, R. Dragani, M. Fuentes, A. J. Geer, L. Haimberger, S. B. Healy, H. Hersbach, E. V. Holm, L. Isaksen, P. Kallberg, M. Kohler, M. Matricardi, A. P. McNally, B. M. Monge-Sanz, J.-J. Morcrette, B.-K. Park, C. Peubey, P. de Rosnay, C. Tavolato, J.-N. Thepaut, and F. Vitarta, “The ERA-Interim reanalysis: configuration and performance of the data assimilation system,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137(656), 553–597 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bösch, H.

M. Frey, M. K. Sha, F. Hase, M. Kiel, T. Blumenstock, R. Harig, G. Surawicz, N. M. Deutscher, K. Shiomi, J. E. Franklin, H. Bösch, J. Chen, M. Grutter, H. Ohyama, Y. Sun, A. Butz, G. Mengistu Tsidu, D. Ene, D. Wunch, Z. Cao, O. Garcia, M. Ramonet, F. Vogel, and J. Orphal, “Building the COllaborative Carbon Column Observing Network (COCCON): long-term stability and ensemble performance of the EM27/SUN Fourier transform spectrometer,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 12(3), 1513–1530 (2019).
[Crossref]

Boudon, V.

I. E. Gordon, L. S. Rothman, C. Hill, R. V. Kochanov, Y. Tana, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. V. Chance, B. J. Drouin, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. I. Perevalovm, A. Perrin, K. P. Shine, M.-A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, H. Tran, V. G. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. G. Császár, V. M. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. J. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. M. Lyulin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenkom, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenkom, A. V. Nikitinm, O. L. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. W. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikovam, S. A. Tashkunm, J. Vander Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yuh, and E. J. Zak, “The HITRAN2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 203, 3–69 (2017).
[Crossref]

Braathen, G. O.

M. De Mazière, A. M. Thompson, M. J. Kurylo, J. D. Wild, G. Bernhard, T. Blumenstock, G. O. Braathen, J. W. Hannigan, J.-C. Lambert, T. Leblanc, T. J. McGee, G. Nedoluha, I. Petropavlovskikh, G. Seckmeyer, P. C. Simon, W. Steinbrecht, and S. E. Strahan, “The Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC): history, status and perspectives,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 18(7), 4935–4964 (2018).
[Crossref]

Braverman, A.

A. Eldering, C. W. O’Dell, P. O. Wennberg, D. Crisp, M. R. Gunson, C. Viatte, C. Avis, A. Braverman, R. Castano, A. Chang, L. Chapsky, C. Cheng, B. Connor, L. Dang, G. Doran, B. Fisher, C. Frankenberg, D. Fu, R. Granat, J. Hobbs, R. A. M. Lee, L. Mandrake, J. McDuffie, C. E. Miller, V. Myers, V. Natraj, D. O’Brien, G. B. Osterman, F. Oyafuso, V. H. Payne, H. R. Pollock, I. Polonsky, C. M. Roehl, R. Rosenberg, F. Schwandner, M. Smyth, V. Tang, T. E. Taylor, C. To, D. Wunch, and J. Yoshimizu, “The Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2: first 18 months of science data products,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 10(2), 549–563 (2017).
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Buis, J.

B. Holben, T. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. Reagan, Y. Kaufman, and T. Nakajima, “AERONET—a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66(1), 1–16 (1998).
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Butz, A.

M. Frey, M. K. Sha, F. Hase, M. Kiel, T. Blumenstock, R. Harig, G. Surawicz, N. M. Deutscher, K. Shiomi, J. E. Franklin, H. Bösch, J. Chen, M. Grutter, H. Ohyama, Y. Sun, A. Butz, G. Mengistu Tsidu, D. Ene, D. Wunch, Z. Cao, O. Garcia, M. Ramonet, F. Vogel, and J. Orphal, “Building the COllaborative Carbon Column Observing Network (COCCON): long-term stability and ensemble performance of the EM27/SUN Fourier transform spectrometer,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 12(3), 1513–1530 (2019).
[Crossref]

Campargue, A.

I. E. Gordon, L. S. Rothman, C. Hill, R. V. Kochanov, Y. Tana, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. V. Chance, B. J. Drouin, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. I. Perevalovm, A. Perrin, K. P. Shine, M.-A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, H. Tran, V. G. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. G. Császár, V. M. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. J. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. M. Lyulin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenkom, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenkom, A. V. Nikitinm, O. L. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. W. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikovam, S. A. Tashkunm, J. Vander Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yuh, and E. J. Zak, “The HITRAN2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 203, 3–69 (2017).
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Cao, Z.

J. Wang, G. Wang, T. Tan, G. Zhu, C. Sun, Z. Cao, W. Chen, and X. Gao, ““Mid-infrared laser heterodyne radiometer (LHR) based on a 3.53 µm room-temperature interband cascade laser,” Opt. Express 27(7), 9610–9619 (2019).
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M. Frey, M. K. Sha, F. Hase, M. Kiel, T. Blumenstock, R. Harig, G. Surawicz, N. M. Deutscher, K. Shiomi, J. E. Franklin, H. Bösch, J. Chen, M. Grutter, H. Ohyama, Y. Sun, A. Butz, G. Mengistu Tsidu, D. Ene, D. Wunch, Z. Cao, O. Garcia, M. Ramonet, F. Vogel, and J. Orphal, “Building the COllaborative Carbon Column Observing Network (COCCON): long-term stability and ensemble performance of the EM27/SUN Fourier transform spectrometer,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 12(3), 1513–1530 (2019).
[Crossref]

Castano, R.

A. Eldering, C. W. O’Dell, P. O. Wennberg, D. Crisp, M. R. Gunson, C. Viatte, C. Avis, A. Braverman, R. Castano, A. Chang, L. Chapsky, C. Cheng, B. Connor, L. Dang, G. Doran, B. Fisher, C. Frankenberg, D. Fu, R. Granat, J. Hobbs, R. A. M. Lee, L. Mandrake, J. McDuffie, C. E. Miller, V. Myers, V. Natraj, D. O’Brien, G. B. Osterman, F. Oyafuso, V. H. Payne, H. R. Pollock, I. Polonsky, C. M. Roehl, R. Rosenberg, F. Schwandner, M. Smyth, V. Tang, T. E. Taylor, C. To, D. Wunch, and J. Yoshimizu, “The Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2: first 18 months of science data products,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 10(2), 549–563 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chance, K. V.

I. E. Gordon, L. S. Rothman, C. Hill, R. V. Kochanov, Y. Tana, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. V. Chance, B. J. Drouin, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. I. Perevalovm, A. Perrin, K. P. Shine, M.-A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, H. Tran, V. G. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. G. Császár, V. M. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. J. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. M. Lyulin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenkom, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenkom, A. V. Nikitinm, O. L. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. W. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikovam, S. A. Tashkunm, J. Vander Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yuh, and E. J. Zak, “The HITRAN2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 203, 3–69 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chang, A.

A. Eldering, C. W. O’Dell, P. O. Wennberg, D. Crisp, M. R. Gunson, C. Viatte, C. Avis, A. Braverman, R. Castano, A. Chang, L. Chapsky, C. Cheng, B. Connor, L. Dang, G. Doran, B. Fisher, C. Frankenberg, D. Fu, R. Granat, J. Hobbs, R. A. M. Lee, L. Mandrake, J. McDuffie, C. E. Miller, V. Myers, V. Natraj, D. O’Brien, G. B. Osterman, F. Oyafuso, V. H. Payne, H. R. Pollock, I. Polonsky, C. M. Roehl, R. Rosenberg, F. Schwandner, M. Smyth, V. Tang, T. E. Taylor, C. To, D. Wunch, and J. Yoshimizu, “The Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2: first 18 months of science data products,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 10(2), 549–563 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chapsky, L.

A. Eldering, C. W. O’Dell, P. O. Wennberg, D. Crisp, M. R. Gunson, C. Viatte, C. Avis, A. Braverman, R. Castano, A. Chang, L. Chapsky, C. Cheng, B. Connor, L. Dang, G. Doran, B. Fisher, C. Frankenberg, D. Fu, R. Granat, J. Hobbs, R. A. M. Lee, L. Mandrake, J. McDuffie, C. E. Miller, V. Myers, V. Natraj, D. O’Brien, G. B. Osterman, F. Oyafuso, V. H. Payne, H. R. Pollock, I. Polonsky, C. M. Roehl, R. Rosenberg, F. Schwandner, M. Smyth, V. Tang, T. E. Taylor, C. To, D. Wunch, and J. Yoshimizu, “The Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2: first 18 months of science data products,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 10(2), 549–563 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chen, J.

M. Frey, M. K. Sha, F. Hase, M. Kiel, T. Blumenstock, R. Harig, G. Surawicz, N. M. Deutscher, K. Shiomi, J. E. Franklin, H. Bösch, J. Chen, M. Grutter, H. Ohyama, Y. Sun, A. Butz, G. Mengistu Tsidu, D. Ene, D. Wunch, Z. Cao, O. Garcia, M. Ramonet, F. Vogel, and J. Orphal, “Building the COllaborative Carbon Column Observing Network (COCCON): long-term stability and ensemble performance of the EM27/SUN Fourier transform spectrometer,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 12(3), 1513–1530 (2019).
[Crossref]

Chen, W.

Chena, B.

H. Deng, C. Yanga, W. Wanga, C. Shana, Z. Xua, B. Chena, L. Yaoa, M. Hua, R. Kana, and Y. He, “Near infrared heterodyne radiometer for continuous measurements of atmospheric CO2 column concentration,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 101, 39–44 (2019).
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Frankenberg, C.

A. Eldering, C. W. O’Dell, P. O. Wennberg, D. Crisp, M. R. Gunson, C. Viatte, C. Avis, A. Braverman, R. Castano, A. Chang, L. Chapsky, C. Cheng, B. Connor, L. Dang, G. Doran, B. Fisher, C. Frankenberg, D. Fu, R. Granat, J. Hobbs, R. A. M. Lee, L. Mandrake, J. McDuffie, C. E. Miller, V. Myers, V. Natraj, D. O’Brien, G. B. Osterman, F. Oyafuso, V. H. Payne, H. R. Pollock, I. Polonsky, C. M. Roehl, R. Rosenberg, F. Schwandner, M. Smyth, V. Tang, T. E. Taylor, C. To, D. Wunch, and J. Yoshimizu, “The Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2: first 18 months of science data products,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 10(2), 549–563 (2017).
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Franklin, J. E.

M. Frey, M. K. Sha, F. Hase, M. Kiel, T. Blumenstock, R. Harig, G. Surawicz, N. M. Deutscher, K. Shiomi, J. E. Franklin, H. Bösch, J. Chen, M. Grutter, H. Ohyama, Y. Sun, A. Butz, G. Mengistu Tsidu, D. Ene, D. Wunch, Z. Cao, O. Garcia, M. Ramonet, F. Vogel, and J. Orphal, “Building the COllaborative Carbon Column Observing Network (COCCON): long-term stability and ensemble performance of the EM27/SUN Fourier transform spectrometer,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 12(3), 1513–1530 (2019).
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Frey, M.

M. Frey, M. K. Sha, F. Hase, M. Kiel, T. Blumenstock, R. Harig, G. Surawicz, N. M. Deutscher, K. Shiomi, J. E. Franklin, H. Bösch, J. Chen, M. Grutter, H. Ohyama, Y. Sun, A. Butz, G. Mengistu Tsidu, D. Ene, D. Wunch, Z. Cao, O. Garcia, M. Ramonet, F. Vogel, and J. Orphal, “Building the COllaborative Carbon Column Observing Network (COCCON): long-term stability and ensemble performance of the EM27/SUN Fourier transform spectrometer,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 12(3), 1513–1530 (2019).
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Fröhlich, M.

F. Chevallier, N. M. Deutscher, T. J. Conway, P. Ciais, L. Ciattaglia, S. Dohe, M. Fröhlich, A. J. Gomez-Pelaez, D. Griffith, F. Hase, L. Haszpra, P. Krummel, E. Kyrö, C. Labuschagne, R. Langenfelds, T. Machida, F. Maignan, H. Matsueda, I. Morino, J. Notholt, M. Ramonet, Y. Sawa, M. Schmidt, V. Sherlock, P. Steele, K. Strong, R. Sussmann, P. Wennberg, S. Wofsy, D. Worthy, D. Wunch, and M. Zimnoch, “Global CO2fluxes inferred from surface air-sample measurements and from TCCON retrievals of the CO2 total column,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 38(24), L24810 (2011).
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Fu, D.

A. Eldering, C. W. O’Dell, P. O. Wennberg, D. Crisp, M. R. Gunson, C. Viatte, C. Avis, A. Braverman, R. Castano, A. Chang, L. Chapsky, C. Cheng, B. Connor, L. Dang, G. Doran, B. Fisher, C. Frankenberg, D. Fu, R. Granat, J. Hobbs, R. A. M. Lee, L. Mandrake, J. McDuffie, C. E. Miller, V. Myers, V. Natraj, D. O’Brien, G. B. Osterman, F. Oyafuso, V. H. Payne, H. R. Pollock, I. Polonsky, C. M. Roehl, R. Rosenberg, F. Schwandner, M. Smyth, V. Tang, T. E. Taylor, C. To, D. Wunch, and J. Yoshimizu, “The Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2: first 18 months of science data products,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 10(2), 549–563 (2017).
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Fuentes, M.

D. P. Deea, S. M. Uppala, A. J. Simmons, P. Berrisford, P. Poli, S. Kobayashi, U. Andrae, M. A. Balmaseda, G. Balsamo, P. Bauera, P. Bechtold, A. C. M. Beljaars, L. van de Bergd, J. Bidlot, N. Bormann, C. Delsol, R. Dragani, M. Fuentes, A. J. Geer, L. Haimberger, S. B. Healy, H. Hersbach, E. V. Holm, L. Isaksen, P. Kallberg, M. Kohler, M. Matricardi, A. P. McNally, B. M. Monge-Sanz, J.-J. Morcrette, B.-K. Park, C. Peubey, P. de Rosnay, C. Tavolato, J.-N. Thepaut, and F. Vitarta, “The ERA-Interim reanalysis: configuration and performance of the data assimilation system,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137(656), 553–597 (2011).
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Furtenbacher, T.

I. E. Gordon, L. S. Rothman, C. Hill, R. V. Kochanov, Y. Tana, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. V. Chance, B. J. Drouin, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. I. Perevalovm, A. Perrin, K. P. Shine, M.-A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, H. Tran, V. G. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. G. Császár, V. M. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. J. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. M. Lyulin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenkom, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenkom, A. V. Nikitinm, O. L. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. W. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikovam, S. A. Tashkunm, J. Vander Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yuh, and E. J. Zak, “The HITRAN2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 203, 3–69 (2017).
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Gamache, R. R.

I. E. Gordon, L. S. Rothman, C. Hill, R. V. Kochanov, Y. Tana, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. V. Chance, B. J. Drouin, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. I. Perevalovm, A. Perrin, K. P. Shine, M.-A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, H. Tran, V. G. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. G. Császár, V. M. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. J. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. M. Lyulin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenkom, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenkom, A. V. Nikitinm, O. L. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. W. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikovam, S. A. Tashkunm, J. Vander Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yuh, and E. J. Zak, “The HITRAN2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 203, 3–69 (2017).
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Gandin, L.

E. Kalnay, M. Kanamitsu, R. Kistler, W. Collins, D. Deaven, L. Gandin, M. Iredell, S. Saha, G. White, J. Woollen, Y. Zhu, A. Leetmaa, and R. Reynolds, “The NCEP/NCAR 40-Year Reanalysis Project,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 77(3), 437–471 (1996).
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Gao, X.

Garcia, O.

M. Frey, M. K. Sha, F. Hase, M. Kiel, T. Blumenstock, R. Harig, G. Surawicz, N. M. Deutscher, K. Shiomi, J. E. Franklin, H. Bösch, J. Chen, M. Grutter, H. Ohyama, Y. Sun, A. Butz, G. Mengistu Tsidu, D. Ene, D. Wunch, Z. Cao, O. Garcia, M. Ramonet, F. Vogel, and J. Orphal, “Building the COllaborative Carbon Column Observing Network (COCCON): long-term stability and ensemble performance of the EM27/SUN Fourier transform spectrometer,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 12(3), 1513–1530 (2019).
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Gazizov, I. S.

A. V. Rodin, D. V. Churbanov, S. G. Zenevich, A. Y. Klimchuk, V. M. Semenov, M. V. Spiridonov, and I. S. Gazizov, “Vertical wind profiling from the troposphere to the lower mesosphere based on high-resolution heterodyne near-infrared spectroradiometry,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 13(5), 2299–2308 (2020).
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Geer, A. J.

D. P. Deea, S. M. Uppala, A. J. Simmons, P. Berrisford, P. Poli, S. Kobayashi, U. Andrae, M. A. Balmaseda, G. Balsamo, P. Bauera, P. Bechtold, A. C. M. Beljaars, L. van de Bergd, J. Bidlot, N. Bormann, C. Delsol, R. Dragani, M. Fuentes, A. J. Geer, L. Haimberger, S. B. Healy, H. Hersbach, E. V. Holm, L. Isaksen, P. Kallberg, M. Kohler, M. Matricardi, A. P. McNally, B. M. Monge-Sanz, J.-J. Morcrette, B.-K. Park, C. Peubey, P. de Rosnay, C. Tavolato, J.-N. Thepaut, and F. Vitarta, “The ERA-Interim reanalysis: configuration and performance of the data assimilation system,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137(656), 553–597 (2011).
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Gisi, M.

M. Gisi, F. Hase, S. Dohe, T. Blumenstock, A. Simon, and A. Keens, “XCO2-measurements with a tabletop FTS using solar absorption spectroscopy,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 5(11), 2969–2980 (2012).
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Gomez-Pelaez, A. J.

F. Chevallier, N. M. Deutscher, T. J. Conway, P. Ciais, L. Ciattaglia, S. Dohe, M. Fröhlich, A. J. Gomez-Pelaez, D. Griffith, F. Hase, L. Haszpra, P. Krummel, E. Kyrö, C. Labuschagne, R. Langenfelds, T. Machida, F. Maignan, H. Matsueda, I. Morino, J. Notholt, M. Ramonet, Y. Sawa, M. Schmidt, V. Sherlock, P. Steele, K. Strong, R. Sussmann, P. Wennberg, S. Wofsy, D. Worthy, D. Wunch, and M. Zimnoch, “Global CO2fluxes inferred from surface air-sample measurements and from TCCON retrievals of the CO2 total column,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 38(24), L24810 (2011).
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Gordon, I. E.

I. E. Gordon, L. S. Rothman, C. Hill, R. V. Kochanov, Y. Tana, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. V. Chance, B. J. Drouin, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. I. Perevalovm, A. Perrin, K. P. Shine, M.-A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, H. Tran, V. G. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. G. Császár, V. M. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. J. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. M. Lyulin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenkom, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenkom, A. V. Nikitinm, O. L. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. W. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikovam, S. A. Tashkunm, J. Vander Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yuh, and E. J. Zak, “The HITRAN2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 203, 3–69 (2017).
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Granat, R.

A. Eldering, C. W. O’Dell, P. O. Wennberg, D. Crisp, M. R. Gunson, C. Viatte, C. Avis, A. Braverman, R. Castano, A. Chang, L. Chapsky, C. Cheng, B. Connor, L. Dang, G. Doran, B. Fisher, C. Frankenberg, D. Fu, R. Granat, J. Hobbs, R. A. M. Lee, L. Mandrake, J. McDuffie, C. E. Miller, V. Myers, V. Natraj, D. O’Brien, G. B. Osterman, F. Oyafuso, V. H. Payne, H. R. Pollock, I. Polonsky, C. M. Roehl, R. Rosenberg, F. Schwandner, M. Smyth, V. Tang, T. E. Taylor, C. To, D. Wunch, and J. Yoshimizu, “The Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2: first 18 months of science data products,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 10(2), 549–563 (2017).
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Griffith, D.

F. Chevallier, N. M. Deutscher, T. J. Conway, P. Ciais, L. Ciattaglia, S. Dohe, M. Fröhlich, A. J. Gomez-Pelaez, D. Griffith, F. Hase, L. Haszpra, P. Krummel, E. Kyrö, C. Labuschagne, R. Langenfelds, T. Machida, F. Maignan, H. Matsueda, I. Morino, J. Notholt, M. Ramonet, Y. Sawa, M. Schmidt, V. Sherlock, P. Steele, K. Strong, R. Sussmann, P. Wennberg, S. Wofsy, D. Worthy, D. Wunch, and M. Zimnoch, “Global CO2fluxes inferred from surface air-sample measurements and from TCCON retrievals of the CO2 total column,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 38(24), L24810 (2011).
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Grutter, M.

M. Frey, M. K. Sha, F. Hase, M. Kiel, T. Blumenstock, R. Harig, G. Surawicz, N. M. Deutscher, K. Shiomi, J. E. Franklin, H. Bösch, J. Chen, M. Grutter, H. Ohyama, Y. Sun, A. Butz, G. Mengistu Tsidu, D. Ene, D. Wunch, Z. Cao, O. Garcia, M. Ramonet, F. Vogel, and J. Orphal, “Building the COllaborative Carbon Column Observing Network (COCCON): long-term stability and ensemble performance of the EM27/SUN Fourier transform spectrometer,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 12(3), 1513–1530 (2019).
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Gunson, M. R.

A. Eldering, C. W. O’Dell, P. O. Wennberg, D. Crisp, M. R. Gunson, C. Viatte, C. Avis, A. Braverman, R. Castano, A. Chang, L. Chapsky, C. Cheng, B. Connor, L. Dang, G. Doran, B. Fisher, C. Frankenberg, D. Fu, R. Granat, J. Hobbs, R. A. M. Lee, L. Mandrake, J. McDuffie, C. E. Miller, V. Myers, V. Natraj, D. O’Brien, G. B. Osterman, F. Oyafuso, V. H. Payne, H. R. Pollock, I. Polonsky, C. M. Roehl, R. Rosenberg, F. Schwandner, M. Smyth, V. Tang, T. E. Taylor, C. To, D. Wunch, and J. Yoshimizu, “The Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2: first 18 months of science data products,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 10(2), 549–563 (2017).
[Crossref]

Haimberger, L.

D. P. Deea, S. M. Uppala, A. J. Simmons, P. Berrisford, P. Poli, S. Kobayashi, U. Andrae, M. A. Balmaseda, G. Balsamo, P. Bauera, P. Bechtold, A. C. M. Beljaars, L. van de Bergd, J. Bidlot, N. Bormann, C. Delsol, R. Dragani, M. Fuentes, A. J. Geer, L. Haimberger, S. B. Healy, H. Hersbach, E. V. Holm, L. Isaksen, P. Kallberg, M. Kohler, M. Matricardi, A. P. McNally, B. M. Monge-Sanz, J.-J. Morcrette, B.-K. Park, C. Peubey, P. de Rosnay, C. Tavolato, J.-N. Thepaut, and F. Vitarta, “The ERA-Interim reanalysis: configuration and performance of the data assimilation system,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137(656), 553–597 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hamazaki, T.

Hannigan, J. W.

M. De Mazière, A. M. Thompson, M. J. Kurylo, J. D. Wild, G. Bernhard, T. Blumenstock, G. O. Braathen, J. W. Hannigan, J.-C. Lambert, T. Leblanc, T. J. McGee, G. Nedoluha, I. Petropavlovskikh, G. Seckmeyer, P. C. Simon, W. Steinbrecht, and S. E. Strahan, “The Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC): history, status and perspectives,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 18(7), 4935–4964 (2018).
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Harig, R.

M. Frey, M. K. Sha, F. Hase, M. Kiel, T. Blumenstock, R. Harig, G. Surawicz, N. M. Deutscher, K. Shiomi, J. E. Franklin, H. Bösch, J. Chen, M. Grutter, H. Ohyama, Y. Sun, A. Butz, G. Mengistu Tsidu, D. Ene, D. Wunch, Z. Cao, O. Garcia, M. Ramonet, F. Vogel, and J. Orphal, “Building the COllaborative Carbon Column Observing Network (COCCON): long-term stability and ensemble performance of the EM27/SUN Fourier transform spectrometer,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 12(3), 1513–1530 (2019).
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Harrison, J. J.

I. E. Gordon, L. S. Rothman, C. Hill, R. V. Kochanov, Y. Tana, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. V. Chance, B. J. Drouin, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. I. Perevalovm, A. Perrin, K. P. Shine, M.-A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, H. Tran, V. G. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. G. Császár, V. M. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. J. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. M. Lyulin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenkom, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenkom, A. V. Nikitinm, O. L. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. W. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikovam, S. A. Tashkunm, J. Vander Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yuh, and E. J. Zak, “The HITRAN2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 203, 3–69 (2017).
[Crossref]

Hartmann, J.-M.

I. E. Gordon, L. S. Rothman, C. Hill, R. V. Kochanov, Y. Tana, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. V. Chance, B. J. Drouin, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. I. Perevalovm, A. Perrin, K. P. Shine, M.-A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, H. Tran, V. G. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. G. Császár, V. M. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. J. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. M. Lyulin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenkom, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenkom, A. V. Nikitinm, O. L. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. W. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikovam, S. A. Tashkunm, J. Vander Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yuh, and E. J. Zak, “The HITRAN2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 203, 3–69 (2017).
[Crossref]

Hase, F.

M. Frey, M. K. Sha, F. Hase, M. Kiel, T. Blumenstock, R. Harig, G. Surawicz, N. M. Deutscher, K. Shiomi, J. E. Franklin, H. Bösch, J. Chen, M. Grutter, H. Ohyama, Y. Sun, A. Butz, G. Mengistu Tsidu, D. Ene, D. Wunch, Z. Cao, O. Garcia, M. Ramonet, F. Vogel, and J. Orphal, “Building the COllaborative Carbon Column Observing Network (COCCON): long-term stability and ensemble performance of the EM27/SUN Fourier transform spectrometer,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 12(3), 1513–1530 (2019).
[Crossref]

M. Gisi, F. Hase, S. Dohe, T. Blumenstock, A. Simon, and A. Keens, “XCO2-measurements with a tabletop FTS using solar absorption spectroscopy,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 5(11), 2969–2980 (2012).
[Crossref]

F. Chevallier, N. M. Deutscher, T. J. Conway, P. Ciais, L. Ciattaglia, S. Dohe, M. Fröhlich, A. J. Gomez-Pelaez, D. Griffith, F. Hase, L. Haszpra, P. Krummel, E. Kyrö, C. Labuschagne, R. Langenfelds, T. Machida, F. Maignan, H. Matsueda, I. Morino, J. Notholt, M. Ramonet, Y. Sawa, M. Schmidt, V. Sherlock, P. Steele, K. Strong, R. Sussmann, P. Wennberg, S. Wofsy, D. Worthy, D. Wunch, and M. Zimnoch, “Global CO2fluxes inferred from surface air-sample measurements and from TCCON retrievals of the CO2 total column,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 38(24), L24810 (2011).
[Crossref]

Haszpra, L.

F. Chevallier, N. M. Deutscher, T. J. Conway, P. Ciais, L. Ciattaglia, S. Dohe, M. Fröhlich, A. J. Gomez-Pelaez, D. Griffith, F. Hase, L. Haszpra, P. Krummel, E. Kyrö, C. Labuschagne, R. Langenfelds, T. Machida, F. Maignan, H. Matsueda, I. Morino, J. Notholt, M. Ramonet, Y. Sawa, M. Schmidt, V. Sherlock, P. Steele, K. Strong, R. Sussmann, P. Wennberg, S. Wofsy, D. Worthy, D. Wunch, and M. Zimnoch, “Global CO2fluxes inferred from surface air-sample measurements and from TCCON retrievals of the CO2 total column,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 38(24), L24810 (2011).
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He, Y.

H. Deng, C. Yanga, W. Wanga, C. Shana, Z. Xua, B. Chena, L. Yaoa, M. Hua, R. Kana, and Y. He, “Near infrared heterodyne radiometer for continuous measurements of atmospheric CO2 column concentration,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 101, 39–44 (2019).
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Healy, S. B.

D. P. Deea, S. M. Uppala, A. J. Simmons, P. Berrisford, P. Poli, S. Kobayashi, U. Andrae, M. A. Balmaseda, G. Balsamo, P. Bauera, P. Bechtold, A. C. M. Beljaars, L. van de Bergd, J. Bidlot, N. Bormann, C. Delsol, R. Dragani, M. Fuentes, A. J. Geer, L. Haimberger, S. B. Healy, H. Hersbach, E. V. Holm, L. Isaksen, P. Kallberg, M. Kohler, M. Matricardi, A. P. McNally, B. M. Monge-Sanz, J.-J. Morcrette, B.-K. Park, C. Peubey, P. de Rosnay, C. Tavolato, J.-N. Thepaut, and F. Vitarta, “The ERA-Interim reanalysis: configuration and performance of the data assimilation system,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137(656), 553–597 (2011).
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Hersbach, H.

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D. P. Deea, S. M. Uppala, A. J. Simmons, P. Berrisford, P. Poli, S. Kobayashi, U. Andrae, M. A. Balmaseda, G. Balsamo, P. Bauera, P. Bechtold, A. C. M. Beljaars, L. van de Bergd, J. Bidlot, N. Bormann, C. Delsol, R. Dragani, M. Fuentes, A. J. Geer, L. Haimberger, S. B. Healy, H. Hersbach, E. V. Holm, L. Isaksen, P. Kallberg, M. Kohler, M. Matricardi, A. P. McNally, B. M. Monge-Sanz, J.-J. Morcrette, B.-K. Park, C. Peubey, P. de Rosnay, C. Tavolato, J.-N. Thepaut, and F. Vitarta, “The ERA-Interim reanalysis: configuration and performance of the data assimilation system,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137(656), 553–597 (2011).
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Spiridonov, M. V.

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Taguchi, M.

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Tana, Y.

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I. E. Gordon, L. S. Rothman, C. Hill, R. V. Kochanov, Y. Tana, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. V. Chance, B. J. Drouin, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. I. Perevalovm, A. Perrin, K. P. Shine, M.-A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, H. Tran, V. G. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. G. Császár, V. M. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. J. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. M. Lyulin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenkom, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenkom, A. V. Nikitinm, O. L. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. W. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikovam, S. A. Tashkunm, J. Vander Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yuh, and E. J. Zak, “The HITRAN2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 203, 3–69 (2017).
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Taylor, T. E.

A. Eldering, C. W. O’Dell, P. O. Wennberg, D. Crisp, M. R. Gunson, C. Viatte, C. Avis, A. Braverman, R. Castano, A. Chang, L. Chapsky, C. Cheng, B. Connor, L. Dang, G. Doran, B. Fisher, C. Frankenberg, D. Fu, R. Granat, J. Hobbs, R. A. M. Lee, L. Mandrake, J. McDuffie, C. E. Miller, V. Myers, V. Natraj, D. O’Brien, G. B. Osterman, F. Oyafuso, V. H. Payne, H. R. Pollock, I. Polonsky, C. M. Roehl, R. Rosenberg, F. Schwandner, M. Smyth, V. Tang, T. E. Taylor, C. To, D. Wunch, and J. Yoshimizu, “The Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2: first 18 months of science data products,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 10(2), 549–563 (2017).
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Tennyson, J.

I. E. Gordon, L. S. Rothman, C. Hill, R. V. Kochanov, Y. Tana, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. V. Chance, B. J. Drouin, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. I. Perevalovm, A. Perrin, K. P. Shine, M.-A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, H. Tran, V. G. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. G. Császár, V. M. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. J. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. M. Lyulin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenkom, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenkom, A. V. Nikitinm, O. L. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. W. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikovam, S. A. Tashkunm, J. Vander Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yuh, and E. J. Zak, “The HITRAN2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 203, 3–69 (2017).
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Thepaut, J.-N.

D. P. Deea, S. M. Uppala, A. J. Simmons, P. Berrisford, P. Poli, S. Kobayashi, U. Andrae, M. A. Balmaseda, G. Balsamo, P. Bauera, P. Bechtold, A. C. M. Beljaars, L. van de Bergd, J. Bidlot, N. Bormann, C. Delsol, R. Dragani, M. Fuentes, A. J. Geer, L. Haimberger, S. B. Healy, H. Hersbach, E. V. Holm, L. Isaksen, P. Kallberg, M. Kohler, M. Matricardi, A. P. McNally, B. M. Monge-Sanz, J.-J. Morcrette, B.-K. Park, C. Peubey, P. de Rosnay, C. Tavolato, J.-N. Thepaut, and F. Vitarta, “The ERA-Interim reanalysis: configuration and performance of the data assimilation system,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137(656), 553–597 (2011).
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Thompson, A. M.

M. De Mazière, A. M. Thompson, M. J. Kurylo, J. D. Wild, G. Bernhard, T. Blumenstock, G. O. Braathen, J. W. Hannigan, J.-C. Lambert, T. Leblanc, T. J. McGee, G. Nedoluha, I. Petropavlovskikh, G. Seckmeyer, P. C. Simon, W. Steinbrecht, and S. E. Strahan, “The Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC): history, status and perspectives,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 18(7), 4935–4964 (2018).
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To, C.

A. Eldering, C. W. O’Dell, P. O. Wennberg, D. Crisp, M. R. Gunson, C. Viatte, C. Avis, A. Braverman, R. Castano, A. Chang, L. Chapsky, C. Cheng, B. Connor, L. Dang, G. Doran, B. Fisher, C. Frankenberg, D. Fu, R. Granat, J. Hobbs, R. A. M. Lee, L. Mandrake, J. McDuffie, C. E. Miller, V. Myers, V. Natraj, D. O’Brien, G. B. Osterman, F. Oyafuso, V. H. Payne, H. R. Pollock, I. Polonsky, C. M. Roehl, R. Rosenberg, F. Schwandner, M. Smyth, V. Tang, T. E. Taylor, C. To, D. Wunch, and J. Yoshimizu, “The Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2: first 18 months of science data products,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 10(2), 549–563 (2017).
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Toon, G. C.

I. E. Gordon, L. S. Rothman, C. Hill, R. V. Kochanov, Y. Tana, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. V. Chance, B. J. Drouin, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. I. Perevalovm, A. Perrin, K. P. Shine, M.-A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, H. Tran, V. G. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. G. Császár, V. M. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. J. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. M. Lyulin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenkom, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenkom, A. V. Nikitinm, O. L. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. W. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikovam, S. A. Tashkunm, J. Vander Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yuh, and E. J. Zak, “The HITRAN2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 203, 3–69 (2017).
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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Principle scheme for simultaneous measurement of dark and mixed signals (method 1). DL – diode laser; SMF – single-mode optical fiber; FC – fiber coupler; MT – microtelescope.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Noise power of the dark signal obtained from receiver 1 at specific time slots of the DL pulse as a function of number of DL scans for different measurement conditions. Red and green curves demonstrate variations of the 1st and 50st time slots of the DL pulse respectively in laboratory conditions. Black and blue curves demonstrate variations of the 1st and 50st time slots of the DL pulse respectively in field conditions. For the references to color meaning in this figure, the reader is referred to the web version of this article.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Principle scheme for simultaneous measurement of dark and mixed signals (method 2). DL – diode laser; SMF – single-mode optical fiber; FC – fiber coupler; MT – microtelescope; MEMS - micro-electro-mechanical systems switch.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Schematic structure of the IF receiver output signal. 1 – pulse regions where laser is turned off; 2 – regions where only DL radiation drops on the photodiode; 3 – region where mixed signal is detected.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Principle scheme of multichannel laser heterodyne spectroradiometer (MLHS). DL – diode laser; SMF – single-mode optical fiber; FC – fiber coupler; MT – microtelescope; MEMS - micro-electro-mechanical systems switch; PD – photodiode; OA – operational amplifier; BPF – band pass filter.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Measured atmospheric CO2 and CH4 transmittance spectra (blue curve) and theirs model fitting (red curve). a – CO2 transmittance spectrum recorded by single channel LHS at 2017 [22]; b – CO2 transmittance spectrum recorded by MLHS at the same spectral range; c – CH4 transmittance spectrum recorded by MLHS.