Abstract

Expansion microscopy (ExM) is a novel preparation method enhancing the optical resolution by expanding uniformly the relative distance between fluorescence molecules on a sample placed inside a polymerized gel matrix. However, a skilled operator is needed for fluorescent labeling protocols and a high light dose is required for measurement. In this work, we couple ExM with a label-free differential circular polarization microscopy technique, demonstrated to be sensitive to the chiral organization of biopolymers. We show that by improving the distance between chiral groups, the new imaging contrast gives access to a better resolution of the chromatin-DNA organization in situ.

© 2020 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2019 (6)

S. Rivet, M. Dubreuil, A. Bradu, and Y. Le Grand, “Fast spectrally encoded Mueller optical scanning microscopy,” Sci. Rep. 9(1), 3972 (2019).
[Crossref]

A. Le Gratiet, M. D’Amora, M. Duocastella, R. Marongiu, A. Bendandi, S. Giordani, P. Bianchini, and A. Diaspro, “Zebrafish structural development in Mueller-matrix scanning microscopy,” Sci. Rep. 9(1), 19974 (2019).
[Crossref]

A. Sharma, A. Campbell, J. Leoni, Y. T. Cheng, M. Mullner, and G. Lakhwani, “Circular Intensity Differential Scattering Reveals the Internal Structure of Polymer Fibrils,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 10(24), 7547–7553 (2019).
[Crossref]

D. Gambarotto, F. U. Zwettler, M. Le Guennec, M. Schmidt-Cernohorska, D. Fortun, S. Borgers, J. Heine, J.-G. Schloetel, M. Reuss, M. Unser, E. S. Boyden, M. Sauer, V. Hamel, and P. Guichard, “Imaging cellular ultrastructures using expansion microscopy (U-ExM),” Nat. Methods 16(1), 71–74 (2019).
[Crossref]

L. Pesce, M. Cozzolino, L. Lanzanò, A. Diaspro, and P. Bianchini, “Measuring expansion from macro- to nanoscale using NPC as intrinsic reporter,” J. Biophotonics 12(8), 1–9 (2019).
[Crossref]

J. Xu and Y. Liu, “A guide to visualizing the spatial epigenome with super-resolution microscopy,” FEBS J. 286(16), 3095–3109 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (2)

M. Gao, R. Maraspini, O. Beutel, A. Zehtabian, B. Eickholt, A. Honigmann, and H. Ewers, “Expansion Stimulated Emission Depletion Microscopy (ExSTED),” ACS Nano 12(5), 4178–4185 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. Le Gratiet, L. Pesce, M. Oneto, R. Marongiu, G. Zanini, P. Bianchini, and A. Diaspro, “Circular intensity differential scattering (CIDS) scanning microscopy to image chromatin-DNA nuclear organization,” OSA Continuum 1(3), 1068–1078 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (4)

A. R. Halpern, G. C. M. Alas, T. J. Chozinski, A. R. Paredez, and J. C. Vaughan, “Hybrid Structured Illumination Expansion Microscopy Reveals Microbial Cytoskeleton Organization,” ACS Nano 11(12), 12677–12686 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. K. Cahoon, Z. Yu, Y. Wang, F. Guo, J. R. Unruh, B. D. Slaughter, and R. S. Hawley, “Superresolution Expansion Microscopy Reveals the Three-Dimensional Organization of the Drosophila Synaptonemal Complex,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 114(33), E6857–E6866 (2017).
[Crossref]

J.-B. Chang, F. Chen, Y.-G. Yoon, E. E. Jung, H. Babcock, J. S. Kang, S. Asano, H.-J. Suk, N. Pak, P. W. Tillberg, A. T. Wassie, D. Cai, and E. S. Boyden, “Iterative expansion microscopy,” Nat. Methods 14(6), 593–599 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. Gao, S. M. Asano, and E. S. Boyden, “Q & A: Expansion microscopy,” BMC Biol. 15(1), 1–9 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (6)

P. W. Tillberg, F. Chen, K. D. Piatkevich, Y. Zhao, C.-C. (Jay) Yu, B. P. English, L. Gao, A. Martorell, H.-J. Suk, F. Yoshida, E. M. DeGennaro, D. H. Roossien, G. Gong, U. Seneviratne, S. R. Tannenbaum, R. Desimone, D. Cai, and E. S. Boyden, “Protein-retention expansion microscopy of cells and tissues labeled using standard fluorescent proteins and antibodies,” Nat. Biotechnol. 34(9), 987–992 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Ku, J. Swaney, J.-Y. Park, A. Albanese, E. Murray, J. H. Cho, Y.-G. Park, V. Mangena, J. Chen, and K. Chung, “Multiplexed and scalable super-resolution imaging of three-dimensional protein localization in size-adjustable tissues,” Nat. Biotechnol. 34(9), 973–981 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. J. Chozinski, A. R. Halpern, H. Okawa, H. J. Kim, G. J. Tremel, R. O. L. Wong, and J. C. Vaughan, “Expansion microscopy with conventional antibodies and fluorescent proteins,” Nat. Methods 13(6), 485–488 (2016).
[Crossref]

F. Chen, A. T. Wassie, A. J. Cote, A. Sinha, S. Alon, S. Asano, E. R. Daugharthy, J.-B. Chang, A. Marblestone, G. M. Church, A. Raj, and E. S. Boyden, “Nanoscale imaging of RNA with expansion microscopy,” Nat. Methods 13(8), 679–684 (2016).
[Crossref]

O. Arteaga, Z. El-Hachemi, A. Canillas, J. Crusats, M. Rovira, and J. M. Ribó, “Reversible and irreversible emergence of chiroptical signals in J-aggregates of achiral 4-sulfonatophenyl substituted porphyrins: Intrinsic chirality vs. chiral ordering in the solution,” Chem. Commun. 52(72), 10874–10877 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Le Gratiet, M. Dubreuil, S. Rivet, and Y. Le Grand, “Scanning Mueller polarimetric microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 41(18), 4336–4339 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (2)

2008 (1)

2004 (1)

G. E. J. Jellison, “Generalized ellipsometry for materials characterization,” Thin Solid Films 450(1), 42–50 (2004).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

1991 (2)

L. Finzi, L. Ulibarri, and C. Bustamante, “Differential Polarization Imaging V. Numerical aperture effects and the contribution of preferential scattering and absorption to the circular dichroism images,” Biophys. J. 59(6), 1183–1193 (1991).
[Crossref]

A. Diaspro, M. Bertolotto, L. Vergani, and C. Nicolini, “Polarized Light Scattering of Nucleosomes and Polynucleosomes—In Situ and In Vitro Studies,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 38(7), 670–678 (1991).
[Crossref]

1989 (1)

C. Nicolini, L. Vergani, A. Diaspro, and E. Di Maria, “Native chromatin-DNA structure and cell cycle: differential scanning calorimetry and gel electrophoresis,” Thermochim. Acta 152(2), 307–327 (1989).
[Crossref]

1988 (3)

C. B. Juang, L. Finzi, and C. J. Bustamante, “Design and application of a computer-controlled confocal scanning differential polarization microscope,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 59(11), 2399–2408 (1988).
[Crossref]

C. A. Nicolini, L. Vergani, A. Diaspro, and P. Scelza, “Native chromatin and damage induced by nuclease,” Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 155(3), 1396–1403 (1988).
[Crossref]

F. Livolant and M. F. Maestre, “Circular Dichroism Microscopy of Compact Forms of DNA and Chromatin in Vivo and in Vitro: Cholesteric Liquid-Crystalline Phases of DNA and Single Dinoflagellate Nuclei,” Biochemistry 27(8), 3056–3068 (1988).
[Crossref]

1987 (2)

M. Kim, D. Keller, and C. Bustamante, “Differential polarization imaging. I. Theory,” Biophys. J. 52(6), 911–927 (1987).
[Crossref]

A. Diaspro and C. A. Nicolini, “Circular intensity differential scattering and chromatin-DNA structure - A combined theoretical approach,” Cell Biophys. 10(1), 45–60 (1987).
[Crossref]

1985 (3)

W. C. Mickols, C. Bustamante, M. F. Maestre, I. Tinoco, and S. H. Embury, “Differential polarization microscopy: A new imaging technique,” Bio/Technology 3(8), 711–714 (1985).
[Crossref]

W. Mickols, M. F. Maestre, I. Tinoco, and S. H. Embury, “Visualization of oriented hemoglobin S in individual erythrocytes by differential extinction of polarized light,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 82(19), 6527–6531 (1985).
[Crossref]

M. F. Maestre, G. C. Salzman, R. A. Tobey, and C. Bustamante, “Circular Dichroism Studies on Single Chinese Hamster Cells,” Biochemistry 24(19), 5152–5157 (1985).
[Crossref]

1983 (1)

C. Bustamante, I. J. Tinoco, and M. F. Maestre, “Circular differential scattering can be an important part of the circular dichroism of macromolecules,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 80(12), 3568–3572 (1983).
[Crossref]

1969 (1)

(Jay) Yu, C.-C.

P. W. Tillberg, F. Chen, K. D. Piatkevich, Y. Zhao, C.-C. (Jay) Yu, B. P. English, L. Gao, A. Martorell, H.-J. Suk, F. Yoshida, E. M. DeGennaro, D. H. Roossien, G. Gong, U. Seneviratne, S. R. Tannenbaum, R. Desimone, D. Cai, and E. S. Boyden, “Protein-retention expansion microscopy of cells and tissues labeled using standard fluorescent proteins and antibodies,” Nat. Biotechnol. 34(9), 987–992 (2016).
[Crossref]

Alas, G. C. M.

A. R. Halpern, G. C. M. Alas, T. J. Chozinski, A. R. Paredez, and J. C. Vaughan, “Hybrid Structured Illumination Expansion Microscopy Reveals Microbial Cytoskeleton Organization,” ACS Nano 11(12), 12677–12686 (2017).
[Crossref]

Albanese, A.

T. Ku, J. Swaney, J.-Y. Park, A. Albanese, E. Murray, J. H. Cho, Y.-G. Park, V. Mangena, J. Chen, and K. Chung, “Multiplexed and scalable super-resolution imaging of three-dimensional protein localization in size-adjustable tissues,” Nat. Biotechnol. 34(9), 973–981 (2016).
[Crossref]

Alon, S.

F. Chen, A. T. Wassie, A. J. Cote, A. Sinha, S. Alon, S. Asano, E. R. Daugharthy, J.-B. Chang, A. Marblestone, G. M. Church, A. Raj, and E. S. Boyden, “Nanoscale imaging of RNA with expansion microscopy,” Nat. Methods 13(8), 679–684 (2016).
[Crossref]

Arteaga, O.

O. Arteaga, Z. El-Hachemi, A. Canillas, J. Crusats, M. Rovira, and J. M. Ribó, “Reversible and irreversible emergence of chiroptical signals in J-aggregates of achiral 4-sulfonatophenyl substituted porphyrins: Intrinsic chirality vs. chiral ordering in the solution,” Chem. Commun. 52(72), 10874–10877 (2016).
[Crossref]

Asano, S.

J.-B. Chang, F. Chen, Y.-G. Yoon, E. E. Jung, H. Babcock, J. S. Kang, S. Asano, H.-J. Suk, N. Pak, P. W. Tillberg, A. T. Wassie, D. Cai, and E. S. Boyden, “Iterative expansion microscopy,” Nat. Methods 14(6), 593–599 (2017).
[Crossref]

F. Chen, A. T. Wassie, A. J. Cote, A. Sinha, S. Alon, S. Asano, E. R. Daugharthy, J.-B. Chang, A. Marblestone, G. M. Church, A. Raj, and E. S. Boyden, “Nanoscale imaging of RNA with expansion microscopy,” Nat. Methods 13(8), 679–684 (2016).
[Crossref]

Asano, S. M.

R. Gao, S. M. Asano, and E. S. Boyden, “Q & A: Expansion microscopy,” BMC Biol. 15(1), 1–9 (2017).
[Crossref]

Axelrod, J.

Z. Tong, P. Beuzer, Q. Ye, J. Axelrod, Z. Hong, and H. Cang, “Ex-STORM: Expansion single molecule super-resolution microscopy Ex-STORM: Expansion Single Molecule Super-resolution Microscopy,” bioRxiv (2016).

Babcock, H.

J.-B. Chang, F. Chen, Y.-G. Yoon, E. E. Jung, H. Babcock, J. S. Kang, S. Asano, H.-J. Suk, N. Pak, P. W. Tillberg, A. T. Wassie, D. Cai, and E. S. Boyden, “Iterative expansion microscopy,” Nat. Methods 14(6), 593–599 (2017).
[Crossref]

Bendandi, A.

A. Le Gratiet, M. D’Amora, M. Duocastella, R. Marongiu, A. Bendandi, S. Giordani, P. Bianchini, and A. Diaspro, “Zebrafish structural development in Mueller-matrix scanning microscopy,” Sci. Rep. 9(1), 19974 (2019).
[Crossref]

Bertolotto, M.

A. Diaspro, M. Bertolotto, L. Vergani, and C. Nicolini, “Polarized Light Scattering of Nucleosomes and Polynucleosomes—In Situ and In Vitro Studies,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 38(7), 670–678 (1991).
[Crossref]

Beutel, O.

M. Gao, R. Maraspini, O. Beutel, A. Zehtabian, B. Eickholt, A. Honigmann, and H. Ewers, “Expansion Stimulated Emission Depletion Microscopy (ExSTED),” ACS Nano 12(5), 4178–4185 (2018).
[Crossref]

Beuzer, P.

Z. Tong, P. Beuzer, Q. Ye, J. Axelrod, Z. Hong, and H. Cang, “Ex-STORM: Expansion single molecule super-resolution microscopy Ex-STORM: Expansion Single Molecule Super-resolution Microscopy,” bioRxiv (2016).

Bianchini, P.

A. Le Gratiet, M. D’Amora, M. Duocastella, R. Marongiu, A. Bendandi, S. Giordani, P. Bianchini, and A. Diaspro, “Zebrafish structural development in Mueller-matrix scanning microscopy,” Sci. Rep. 9(1), 19974 (2019).
[Crossref]

L. Pesce, M. Cozzolino, L. Lanzanò, A. Diaspro, and P. Bianchini, “Measuring expansion from macro- to nanoscale using NPC as intrinsic reporter,” J. Biophotonics 12(8), 1–9 (2019).
[Crossref]

A. Le Gratiet, L. Pesce, M. Oneto, R. Marongiu, G. Zanini, P. Bianchini, and A. Diaspro, “Circular intensity differential scattering (CIDS) scanning microscopy to image chromatin-DNA nuclear organization,” OSA Continuum 1(3), 1068–1078 (2018).
[Crossref]

Borgers, S.

D. Gambarotto, F. U. Zwettler, M. Le Guennec, M. Schmidt-Cernohorska, D. Fortun, S. Borgers, J. Heine, J.-G. Schloetel, M. Reuss, M. Unser, E. S. Boyden, M. Sauer, V. Hamel, and P. Guichard, “Imaging cellular ultrastructures using expansion microscopy (U-ExM),” Nat. Methods 16(1), 71–74 (2019).
[Crossref]

Boyden, E. S.

D. Gambarotto, F. U. Zwettler, M. Le Guennec, M. Schmidt-Cernohorska, D. Fortun, S. Borgers, J. Heine, J.-G. Schloetel, M. Reuss, M. Unser, E. S. Boyden, M. Sauer, V. Hamel, and P. Guichard, “Imaging cellular ultrastructures using expansion microscopy (U-ExM),” Nat. Methods 16(1), 71–74 (2019).
[Crossref]

J.-B. Chang, F. Chen, Y.-G. Yoon, E. E. Jung, H. Babcock, J. S. Kang, S. Asano, H.-J. Suk, N. Pak, P. W. Tillberg, A. T. Wassie, D. Cai, and E. S. Boyden, “Iterative expansion microscopy,” Nat. Methods 14(6), 593–599 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. Gao, S. M. Asano, and E. S. Boyden, “Q & A: Expansion microscopy,” BMC Biol. 15(1), 1–9 (2017).
[Crossref]

P. W. Tillberg, F. Chen, K. D. Piatkevich, Y. Zhao, C.-C. (Jay) Yu, B. P. English, L. Gao, A. Martorell, H.-J. Suk, F. Yoshida, E. M. DeGennaro, D. H. Roossien, G. Gong, U. Seneviratne, S. R. Tannenbaum, R. Desimone, D. Cai, and E. S. Boyden, “Protein-retention expansion microscopy of cells and tissues labeled using standard fluorescent proteins and antibodies,” Nat. Biotechnol. 34(9), 987–992 (2016).
[Crossref]

F. Chen, A. T. Wassie, A. J. Cote, A. Sinha, S. Alon, S. Asano, E. R. Daugharthy, J.-B. Chang, A. Marblestone, G. M. Church, A. Raj, and E. S. Boyden, “Nanoscale imaging of RNA with expansion microscopy,” Nat. Methods 13(8), 679–684 (2016).
[Crossref]

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A. R. Halpern, G. C. M. Alas, T. J. Chozinski, A. R. Paredez, and J. C. Vaughan, “Hybrid Structured Illumination Expansion Microscopy Reveals Microbial Cytoskeleton Organization,” ACS Nano 11(12), 12677–12686 (2017).
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T. Ku, J. Swaney, J.-Y. Park, A. Albanese, E. Murray, J. H. Cho, Y.-G. Park, V. Mangena, J. Chen, and K. Chung, “Multiplexed and scalable super-resolution imaging of three-dimensional protein localization in size-adjustable tissues,” Nat. Biotechnol. 34(9), 973–981 (2016).
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T. Ku, J. Swaney, J.-Y. Park, A. Albanese, E. Murray, J. H. Cho, Y.-G. Park, V. Mangena, J. Chen, and K. Chung, “Multiplexed and scalable super-resolution imaging of three-dimensional protein localization in size-adjustable tissues,” Nat. Biotechnol. 34(9), 973–981 (2016).
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P. W. Tillberg, F. Chen, K. D. Piatkevich, Y. Zhao, C.-C. (Jay) Yu, B. P. English, L. Gao, A. Martorell, H.-J. Suk, F. Yoshida, E. M. DeGennaro, D. H. Roossien, G. Gong, U. Seneviratne, S. R. Tannenbaum, R. Desimone, D. Cai, and E. S. Boyden, “Protein-retention expansion microscopy of cells and tissues labeled using standard fluorescent proteins and antibodies,” Nat. Biotechnol. 34(9), 987–992 (2016).
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M. F. Maestre, G. C. Salzman, R. A. Tobey, and C. Bustamante, “Circular Dichroism Studies on Single Chinese Hamster Cells,” Biochemistry 24(19), 5152–5157 (1985).
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D. Gambarotto, F. U. Zwettler, M. Le Guennec, M. Schmidt-Cernohorska, D. Fortun, S. Borgers, J. Heine, J.-G. Schloetel, M. Reuss, M. Unser, E. S. Boyden, M. Sauer, V. Hamel, and P. Guichard, “Imaging cellular ultrastructures using expansion microscopy (U-ExM),” Nat. Methods 16(1), 71–74 (2019).
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Scelza, P.

C. A. Nicolini, L. Vergani, A. Diaspro, and P. Scelza, “Native chromatin and damage induced by nuclease,” Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 155(3), 1396–1403 (1988).
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D. Gambarotto, F. U. Zwettler, M. Le Guennec, M. Schmidt-Cernohorska, D. Fortun, S. Borgers, J. Heine, J.-G. Schloetel, M. Reuss, M. Unser, E. S. Boyden, M. Sauer, V. Hamel, and P. Guichard, “Imaging cellular ultrastructures using expansion microscopy (U-ExM),” Nat. Methods 16(1), 71–74 (2019).
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P. W. Tillberg, F. Chen, K. D. Piatkevich, Y. Zhao, C.-C. (Jay) Yu, B. P. English, L. Gao, A. Martorell, H.-J. Suk, F. Yoshida, E. M. DeGennaro, D. H. Roossien, G. Gong, U. Seneviratne, S. R. Tannenbaum, R. Desimone, D. Cai, and E. S. Boyden, “Protein-retention expansion microscopy of cells and tissues labeled using standard fluorescent proteins and antibodies,” Nat. Biotechnol. 34(9), 987–992 (2016).
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Sharma, A.

A. Sharma, A. Campbell, J. Leoni, Y. T. Cheng, M. Mullner, and G. Lakhwani, “Circular Intensity Differential Scattering Reveals the Internal Structure of Polymer Fibrils,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 10(24), 7547–7553 (2019).
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Sinha, A.

F. Chen, A. T. Wassie, A. J. Cote, A. Sinha, S. Alon, S. Asano, E. R. Daugharthy, J.-B. Chang, A. Marblestone, G. M. Church, A. Raj, and E. S. Boyden, “Nanoscale imaging of RNA with expansion microscopy,” Nat. Methods 13(8), 679–684 (2016).
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Slaughter, B. D.

C. K. Cahoon, Z. Yu, Y. Wang, F. Guo, J. R. Unruh, B. D. Slaughter, and R. S. Hawley, “Superresolution Expansion Microscopy Reveals the Three-Dimensional Organization of the Drosophila Synaptonemal Complex,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 114(33), E6857–E6866 (2017).
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J.-B. Chang, F. Chen, Y.-G. Yoon, E. E. Jung, H. Babcock, J. S. Kang, S. Asano, H.-J. Suk, N. Pak, P. W. Tillberg, A. T. Wassie, D. Cai, and E. S. Boyden, “Iterative expansion microscopy,” Nat. Methods 14(6), 593–599 (2017).
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P. W. Tillberg, F. Chen, K. D. Piatkevich, Y. Zhao, C.-C. (Jay) Yu, B. P. English, L. Gao, A. Martorell, H.-J. Suk, F. Yoshida, E. M. DeGennaro, D. H. Roossien, G. Gong, U. Seneviratne, S. R. Tannenbaum, R. Desimone, D. Cai, and E. S. Boyden, “Protein-retention expansion microscopy of cells and tissues labeled using standard fluorescent proteins and antibodies,” Nat. Biotechnol. 34(9), 987–992 (2016).
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Swaney, J.

T. Ku, J. Swaney, J.-Y. Park, A. Albanese, E. Murray, J. H. Cho, Y.-G. Park, V. Mangena, J. Chen, and K. Chung, “Multiplexed and scalable super-resolution imaging of three-dimensional protein localization in size-adjustable tissues,” Nat. Biotechnol. 34(9), 973–981 (2016).
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P. W. Tillberg, F. Chen, K. D. Piatkevich, Y. Zhao, C.-C. (Jay) Yu, B. P. English, L. Gao, A. Martorell, H.-J. Suk, F. Yoshida, E. M. DeGennaro, D. H. Roossien, G. Gong, U. Seneviratne, S. R. Tannenbaum, R. Desimone, D. Cai, and E. S. Boyden, “Protein-retention expansion microscopy of cells and tissues labeled using standard fluorescent proteins and antibodies,” Nat. Biotechnol. 34(9), 987–992 (2016).
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J.-B. Chang, F. Chen, Y.-G. Yoon, E. E. Jung, H. Babcock, J. S. Kang, S. Asano, H.-J. Suk, N. Pak, P. W. Tillberg, A. T. Wassie, D. Cai, and E. S. Boyden, “Iterative expansion microscopy,” Nat. Methods 14(6), 593–599 (2017).
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P. W. Tillberg, F. Chen, K. D. Piatkevich, Y. Zhao, C.-C. (Jay) Yu, B. P. English, L. Gao, A. Martorell, H.-J. Suk, F. Yoshida, E. M. DeGennaro, D. H. Roossien, G. Gong, U. Seneviratne, S. R. Tannenbaum, R. Desimone, D. Cai, and E. S. Boyden, “Protein-retention expansion microscopy of cells and tissues labeled using standard fluorescent proteins and antibodies,” Nat. Biotechnol. 34(9), 987–992 (2016).
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W. Mickols, M. F. Maestre, I. Tinoco, and S. H. Embury, “Visualization of oriented hemoglobin S in individual erythrocytes by differential extinction of polarized light,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 82(19), 6527–6531 (1985).
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[Crossref]

Tinoco, I. J.

C. Bustamante, I. J. Tinoco, and M. F. Maestre, “Circular differential scattering can be an important part of the circular dichroism of macromolecules,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 80(12), 3568–3572 (1983).
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Tobey, R. A.

M. F. Maestre, G. C. Salzman, R. A. Tobey, and C. Bustamante, “Circular Dichroism Studies on Single Chinese Hamster Cells,” Biochemistry 24(19), 5152–5157 (1985).
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Z. Tong, P. Beuzer, Q. Ye, J. Axelrod, Z. Hong, and H. Cang, “Ex-STORM: Expansion single molecule super-resolution microscopy Ex-STORM: Expansion Single Molecule Super-resolution Microscopy,” bioRxiv (2016).

Tremel, G. J.

T. J. Chozinski, A. R. Halpern, H. Okawa, H. J. Kim, G. J. Tremel, R. O. L. Wong, and J. C. Vaughan, “Expansion microscopy with conventional antibodies and fluorescent proteins,” Nat. Methods 13(6), 485–488 (2016).
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Ulibarri, L.

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Unser, M.

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VanNasdale, D.

Vaughan, J. C.

A. R. Halpern, G. C. M. Alas, T. J. Chozinski, A. R. Paredez, and J. C. Vaughan, “Hybrid Structured Illumination Expansion Microscopy Reveals Microbial Cytoskeleton Organization,” ACS Nano 11(12), 12677–12686 (2017).
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T. J. Chozinski, A. R. Halpern, H. Okawa, H. J. Kim, G. J. Tremel, R. O. L. Wong, and J. C. Vaughan, “Expansion microscopy with conventional antibodies and fluorescent proteins,” Nat. Methods 13(6), 485–488 (2016).
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Vergani, L.

A. Diaspro, M. Bertolotto, L. Vergani, and C. Nicolini, “Polarized Light Scattering of Nucleosomes and Polynucleosomes—In Situ and In Vitro Studies,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 38(7), 670–678 (1991).
[Crossref]

C. Nicolini, L. Vergani, A. Diaspro, and E. Di Maria, “Native chromatin-DNA structure and cell cycle: differential scanning calorimetry and gel electrophoresis,” Thermochim. Acta 152(2), 307–327 (1989).
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Wang, Y.

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Wassie, A. T.

J.-B. Chang, F. Chen, Y.-G. Yoon, E. E. Jung, H. Babcock, J. S. Kang, S. Asano, H.-J. Suk, N. Pak, P. W. Tillberg, A. T. Wassie, D. Cai, and E. S. Boyden, “Iterative expansion microscopy,” Nat. Methods 14(6), 593–599 (2017).
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Yoon, Y.-G.

J.-B. Chang, F. Chen, Y.-G. Yoon, E. E. Jung, H. Babcock, J. S. Kang, S. Asano, H.-J. Suk, N. Pak, P. W. Tillberg, A. T. Wassie, D. Cai, and E. S. Boyden, “Iterative expansion microscopy,” Nat. Methods 14(6), 593–599 (2017).
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P. W. Tillberg, F. Chen, K. D. Piatkevich, Y. Zhao, C.-C. (Jay) Yu, B. P. English, L. Gao, A. Martorell, H.-J. Suk, F. Yoshida, E. M. DeGennaro, D. H. Roossien, G. Gong, U. Seneviratne, S. R. Tannenbaum, R. Desimone, D. Cai, and E. S. Boyden, “Protein-retention expansion microscopy of cells and tissues labeled using standard fluorescent proteins and antibodies,” Nat. Biotechnol. 34(9), 987–992 (2016).
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Yu, Z.

C. K. Cahoon, Z. Yu, Y. Wang, F. Guo, J. R. Unruh, B. D. Slaughter, and R. S. Hawley, “Superresolution Expansion Microscopy Reveals the Three-Dimensional Organization of the Drosophila Synaptonemal Complex,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 114(33), E6857–E6866 (2017).
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Zanini, G.

Zehtabian, A.

M. Gao, R. Maraspini, O. Beutel, A. Zehtabian, B. Eickholt, A. Honigmann, and H. Ewers, “Expansion Stimulated Emission Depletion Microscopy (ExSTED),” ACS Nano 12(5), 4178–4185 (2018).
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Zhao, Y.

P. W. Tillberg, F. Chen, K. D. Piatkevich, Y. Zhao, C.-C. (Jay) Yu, B. P. English, L. Gao, A. Martorell, H.-J. Suk, F. Yoshida, E. M. DeGennaro, D. H. Roossien, G. Gong, U. Seneviratne, S. R. Tannenbaum, R. Desimone, D. Cai, and E. S. Boyden, “Protein-retention expansion microscopy of cells and tissues labeled using standard fluorescent proteins and antibodies,” Nat. Biotechnol. 34(9), 987–992 (2016).
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Zwettler, F. U.

D. Gambarotto, F. U. Zwettler, M. Le Guennec, M. Schmidt-Cernohorska, D. Fortun, S. Borgers, J. Heine, J.-G. Schloetel, M. Reuss, M. Unser, E. S. Boyden, M. Sauer, V. Hamel, and P. Guichard, “Imaging cellular ultrastructures using expansion microscopy (U-ExM),” Nat. Methods 16(1), 71–74 (2019).
[Crossref]

ACS Nano (2)

M. Gao, R. Maraspini, O. Beutel, A. Zehtabian, B. Eickholt, A. Honigmann, and H. Ewers, “Expansion Stimulated Emission Depletion Microscopy (ExSTED),” ACS Nano 12(5), 4178–4185 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. R. Halpern, G. C. M. Alas, T. J. Chozinski, A. R. Paredez, and J. C. Vaughan, “Hybrid Structured Illumination Expansion Microscopy Reveals Microbial Cytoskeleton Organization,” ACS Nano 11(12), 12677–12686 (2017).
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Bio/Technology (1)

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Biophys. J. (2)

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BMC Biol. (1)

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Cell Biophys. (1)

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Chem. Commun. (1)

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IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. (1)

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J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Phys. Chem. Lett. (1)

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Normalized images of different Hek cells labeled with Hoechst for (a, b, c, d) the pre-expansion and (e, f, g, h) at the maximum expansion. More particularly, (a, e) are the CIDS images; (b, f) are the Hoechst images; (c, g) are the superposed CIDS and Hoechst images to better gauge the position of the nucleus; (d, h) are the line profiles corresponding to the yellow lines traced in (c) and (g) respectively.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Schematic principle of the scattering process into the PSF volume (a) without digestion and (b) after n hours of digestion. (c) Principle of the SNR decreasing and imaging contrast quality improvement after the expansion process.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Normalized 3D histograms pixels distribution of the fluorescence in function of the CIDS modality from the images Fig. 1 at each EF. The red and blue plots correspond to the Pre-Ex and the Post-Ex stages, respectively.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Fig. 4. Images of Hek cells labelled with Hoechst in CIDS (a, e, i) and fluorescence (b, f, j) modalities. A merged image of both modalities is presented in (c, g, k) and a line profile relative to the yellow line in those pictures is shown in (d, h, l). Here CIDS is represented in blue while the fluorescence signal is represented in green.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Normalized 3D histograms of the pixels distribution of the fluorescence in function of the CIDS modality from the images Fig. 4 for the three digestion times. The red, green and blue plots correspond to 0 h, 4 h and overnight digestion, respectively.