Abstract

Structural analysis of periodic samples with lensless imaging techniques in the extreme ultraviolet spectral range is an important and versatile tool for inspecting nanoscale structures including lithographic masks and quasi-crystals. More specifically ptychography is the method of choice for imaging such structures with high lateral resolution and an arbitrarily large field-of-view. This work reports on the reconstruction of highly periodic samples that occasionally contain isolated defects. For a realistic scenario scan map distortions, i.e. the actual scanning position does not exactly coincide with the position used as input for the reconstruction code, were taken into account. For such conditions it is well known, that the reconstruction will not provide always a physical reliable image. It will be shown, that the reconstructed illumination function is very sensitive to map distortions and small defects in otherwise periodic objects allowing to decide whether the reconstructed object is reliable or not. Applying this criterion the minimum detectable size of local defects in otherwise periodic structures will be compared to both the period length and the magnitude of the scan map distortion. As both quantities are usually much larger than the resolution given by the wavelength and numerical aperture of the imaging setup, they determine the resolution limit.

© 2020 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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  1. S. Marchesini, H. He, H. N. Chapman, S. P. Hau-Riege, A. Noy, M. R. Howells, U. Weierstall, and J. C. H. Spence, “X-ray image reconstruction from a diffraction pattern alone,” Phys. Rev. B 68(14), 140101 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  2. A. M. Maiden and J. M. Rodenburg, “An improved ptychographical phase retrieval algorithm for diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 109(10), 1256–1262 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  3. P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, A. Menzel, and F. Pfeiffer, “Probe retrieval in ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 109(4), 338–343 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  4. L. Valzania, T. Feurer, P. Zolliker, and E. Hack, “Terahertz ptychography,” Opt. Lett. 43(3), 543 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  5. F. Pfeiffer, “X-ray ptychography,” Nat. Photonics 12(1), 9–17 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  6. S. Gao, P. Wang, F. Zhang, G. T. Martinez, P. D. Nellist, X. Pan, and A. I. Kirkland, “Electron ptychographic microscopy for three-dimensional imaging,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 163 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  7. S. Lazarev, I. Besedin, A. V. Zozulya, J.-M. Meijer, D. Dzhigaev, O. Y. Gorobtsov, R. P. Kurta, M. Rose, A. G. Shabalin, E. A. Sulyanova, I. Zaluzhnyy, A. P. Menushenkov, M. Sprung, A. V. Petukhov, and I. A. Vartanyants, “Ptychographic X-Ray Imaging of Colloidal Crystals,” Small 14(3), 1702575 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  8. G. F. Mancini, R. M. Karl, E. R. Shanblatt, C. S. Bevis, D. F. Gardner, M. D. Tanksalvala, J. L. Russell, D. E. Adams, H. C. Kapteyn, J. V. Badding, T. E. Mallouk, and M. M. Murnane, “Colloidal crystal order and structure revealed by tabletop extreme ultraviolet scattering and coherent diffractive imaging,” Opt. Express 26(9), 11393–11406 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  9. P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, “High-Resolution Scanning X-ray Diffraction Microscopy,” Science 321(5887), 379–382 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  10. M. Rose, T. Senkbeil, A. R. v. Gundlach, S. Stuhr, C. Rumancev, D. Dzhigaev, I. Besedin, P. Skopintsev, L. Loetgering, J. Viefhaus, A. Rosenhahn, and I. A. Vartanyants, “Quantitative ptychographic bio-imaging in the water window,” Opt. Express 26(2), 1237–1254 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  11. D. A. Shapiro, Y.-S. Yu, T. Tyliszczak, J. Cabana, R. Celestre, W. Chao, K. Kaznatcheev, A. L. D. Kilcoyne, F. Maia, S. Marchesini, Y. S. Meng, T. Warwick, L. L. Yang, and H. A. Padmore, “Chemical composition mapping with nanometre resolution by soft X-ray microscopy,” Nat. Photonics 8(10), 765–769 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  12. M. Holler, M. Guizar-Sicairos, E. H. R. Tsai, R. Dinapoli, E. Müller, O. Bunk, J. Raabe, and G. Aeppli, “High-resolution non-destructive three-dimensional imaging of integrated circuits,” Nature 543(7645), 402–406 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  13. P. Helfenstein, I. Mohacsi, R. Rajendran, and Y. Ekinci, “Scanning coherent diffractive imaging methods for actinic EUV mask metrology,” in Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) Lithography VII, E. M. Panning and K. A. Goldberg, eds. (SPIE, 2016).
  14. R. Hovden, Y. Jiang, H. L. Xin, and L. F. Kourkoutis, “Periodic Artifact Reduction in Fourier Transforms of Full Field Atomic Resolution Images,” Microsc. Microanal. 21(2), 436–441 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  15. N. X. Truong, R. Safaei, V. Cardin, S. M. Lewis, X. L. Zhong, F. Légaré, and M. A. Denecke, “Coherent Tabletop EUV Ptychography of Nanopatterns,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 16693 (2018).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  17. A. M. Maiden, M. J. Humphry, M. C. Sarahan, B. Kraus, and J. M. Rodenburg, “An annealing algorithm to correct positioning errors in ptychography,” Ultramicroscopy 120, 64–72 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  18. F. Zhang, I. Peterson, J. Vila-Comamala, A. Diaz, F. Berenguer, R. Bean, B. Chen, A. Menzel, I. K. Robinson, and J. M. Rodenburg, “Translation position determination in ptychographic coherent diffraction imaging,” Opt. Express 21(11), 13592–13606 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  19. K. P. Khakurel, T. Kimura, Y. Joti, S. Matsuyama, K. Yamauchi, and Y. Nishino, “Coherent diffraction imaging of non-isolated object with apodized illumination,” Opt. Express 23(22), 28182–28190 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  20. R. H. T. Bates, “Uniqueness of solutions to two-dimensional fourier phase problems for localized and positive images,” Comput. Vision, Graph. Image Process. 25(2), 205–217 (1984).
    [Crossref]
  21. G. K. Tadesse, W. Eschen, R. Klas, M. Tschernajew, F. Tuitje, M. Steinert, M. Zilk, V. Schuster, M. Zürch, T. Pertsch, C. Spielmann, J. Limpert, and J. Rothhardt, “Wavelength-scale ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging using a high-order harmonic source,” Sci. Rep. 9(1), 1735 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  22. Y. Nagata, T. Harada, T. Watanabe, H. Kinoshita, and K. Midorikawa, “At wavelength coherent scatterometry microscope using high-order harmonics for euv mask inspection,” Int. J. Extrem. Manuf. 1(3), 032001 (2019).
    [Crossref]

2019 (2)

G. K. Tadesse, W. Eschen, R. Klas, M. Tschernajew, F. Tuitje, M. Steinert, M. Zilk, V. Schuster, M. Zürch, T. Pertsch, C. Spielmann, J. Limpert, and J. Rothhardt, “Wavelength-scale ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging using a high-order harmonic source,” Sci. Rep. 9(1), 1735 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. Nagata, T. Harada, T. Watanabe, H. Kinoshita, and K. Midorikawa, “At wavelength coherent scatterometry microscope using high-order harmonics for euv mask inspection,” Int. J. Extrem. Manuf. 1(3), 032001 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (6)

L. Valzania, T. Feurer, P. Zolliker, and E. Hack, “Terahertz ptychography,” Opt. Lett. 43(3), 543 (2018).
[Crossref]

F. Pfeiffer, “X-ray ptychography,” Nat. Photonics 12(1), 9–17 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Lazarev, I. Besedin, A. V. Zozulya, J.-M. Meijer, D. Dzhigaev, O. Y. Gorobtsov, R. P. Kurta, M. Rose, A. G. Shabalin, E. A. Sulyanova, I. Zaluzhnyy, A. P. Menushenkov, M. Sprung, A. V. Petukhov, and I. A. Vartanyants, “Ptychographic X-Ray Imaging of Colloidal Crystals,” Small 14(3), 1702575 (2018).
[Crossref]

G. F. Mancini, R. M. Karl, E. R. Shanblatt, C. S. Bevis, D. F. Gardner, M. D. Tanksalvala, J. L. Russell, D. E. Adams, H. C. Kapteyn, J. V. Badding, T. E. Mallouk, and M. M. Murnane, “Colloidal crystal order and structure revealed by tabletop extreme ultraviolet scattering and coherent diffractive imaging,” Opt. Express 26(9), 11393–11406 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Rose, T. Senkbeil, A. R. v. Gundlach, S. Stuhr, C. Rumancev, D. Dzhigaev, I. Besedin, P. Skopintsev, L. Loetgering, J. Viefhaus, A. Rosenhahn, and I. A. Vartanyants, “Quantitative ptychographic bio-imaging in the water window,” Opt. Express 26(2), 1237–1254 (2018).
[Crossref]

N. X. Truong, R. Safaei, V. Cardin, S. M. Lewis, X. L. Zhong, F. Légaré, and M. A. Denecke, “Coherent Tabletop EUV Ptychography of Nanopatterns,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 16693 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (3)

D. F. Gardner, M. Tanksalvala, E. R. Shanblatt, X. Zhang, B. R. Galloway, C. L. Porter, R. Karl, C. Bevis, D. E. Adams, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and G. F. Mancini, “Subwavelength coherent imaging of periodic samples using a 13.5 nm tabletop high-harmonic light source,” Nat. Photonics 11(4), 259–263 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Holler, M. Guizar-Sicairos, E. H. R. Tsai, R. Dinapoli, E. Müller, O. Bunk, J. Raabe, and G. Aeppli, “High-resolution non-destructive three-dimensional imaging of integrated circuits,” Nature 543(7645), 402–406 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Gao, P. Wang, F. Zhang, G. T. Martinez, P. D. Nellist, X. Pan, and A. I. Kirkland, “Electron ptychographic microscopy for three-dimensional imaging,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 163 (2017).
[Crossref]

2015 (2)

R. Hovden, Y. Jiang, H. L. Xin, and L. F. Kourkoutis, “Periodic Artifact Reduction in Fourier Transforms of Full Field Atomic Resolution Images,” Microsc. Microanal. 21(2), 436–441 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. P. Khakurel, T. Kimura, Y. Joti, S. Matsuyama, K. Yamauchi, and Y. Nishino, “Coherent diffraction imaging of non-isolated object with apodized illumination,” Opt. Express 23(22), 28182–28190 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

D. A. Shapiro, Y.-S. Yu, T. Tyliszczak, J. Cabana, R. Celestre, W. Chao, K. Kaznatcheev, A. L. D. Kilcoyne, F. Maia, S. Marchesini, Y. S. Meng, T. Warwick, L. L. Yang, and H. A. Padmore, “Chemical composition mapping with nanometre resolution by soft X-ray microscopy,” Nat. Photonics 8(10), 765–769 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

2012 (1)

A. M. Maiden, M. J. Humphry, M. C. Sarahan, B. Kraus, and J. M. Rodenburg, “An annealing algorithm to correct positioning errors in ptychography,” Ultramicroscopy 120, 64–72 (2012).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

A. M. Maiden and J. M. Rodenburg, “An improved ptychographical phase retrieval algorithm for diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 109(10), 1256–1262 (2009).
[Crossref]

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, A. Menzel, and F. Pfeiffer, “Probe retrieval in ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 109(4), 338–343 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, “High-Resolution Scanning X-ray Diffraction Microscopy,” Science 321(5887), 379–382 (2008).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

S. Marchesini, H. He, H. N. Chapman, S. P. Hau-Riege, A. Noy, M. R. Howells, U. Weierstall, and J. C. H. Spence, “X-ray image reconstruction from a diffraction pattern alone,” Phys. Rev. B 68(14), 140101 (2003).
[Crossref]

1984 (1)

R. H. T. Bates, “Uniqueness of solutions to two-dimensional fourier phase problems for localized and positive images,” Comput. Vision, Graph. Image Process. 25(2), 205–217 (1984).
[Crossref]

Adams, D. E.

G. F. Mancini, R. M. Karl, E. R. Shanblatt, C. S. Bevis, D. F. Gardner, M. D. Tanksalvala, J. L. Russell, D. E. Adams, H. C. Kapteyn, J. V. Badding, T. E. Mallouk, and M. M. Murnane, “Colloidal crystal order and structure revealed by tabletop extreme ultraviolet scattering and coherent diffractive imaging,” Opt. Express 26(9), 11393–11406 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. F. Gardner, M. Tanksalvala, E. R. Shanblatt, X. Zhang, B. R. Galloway, C. L. Porter, R. Karl, C. Bevis, D. E. Adams, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and G. F. Mancini, “Subwavelength coherent imaging of periodic samples using a 13.5 nm tabletop high-harmonic light source,” Nat. Photonics 11(4), 259–263 (2017).
[Crossref]

Aeppli, G.

M. Holler, M. Guizar-Sicairos, E. H. R. Tsai, R. Dinapoli, E. Müller, O. Bunk, J. Raabe, and G. Aeppli, “High-resolution non-destructive three-dimensional imaging of integrated circuits,” Nature 543(7645), 402–406 (2017).
[Crossref]

Badding, J. V.

Bates, R. H. T.

R. H. T. Bates, “Uniqueness of solutions to two-dimensional fourier phase problems for localized and positive images,” Comput. Vision, Graph. Image Process. 25(2), 205–217 (1984).
[Crossref]

Bean, R.

Berenguer, F.

Besedin, I.

M. Rose, T. Senkbeil, A. R. v. Gundlach, S. Stuhr, C. Rumancev, D. Dzhigaev, I. Besedin, P. Skopintsev, L. Loetgering, J. Viefhaus, A. Rosenhahn, and I. A. Vartanyants, “Quantitative ptychographic bio-imaging in the water window,” Opt. Express 26(2), 1237–1254 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Lazarev, I. Besedin, A. V. Zozulya, J.-M. Meijer, D. Dzhigaev, O. Y. Gorobtsov, R. P. Kurta, M. Rose, A. G. Shabalin, E. A. Sulyanova, I. Zaluzhnyy, A. P. Menushenkov, M. Sprung, A. V. Petukhov, and I. A. Vartanyants, “Ptychographic X-Ray Imaging of Colloidal Crystals,” Small 14(3), 1702575 (2018).
[Crossref]

Bevis, C.

D. F. Gardner, M. Tanksalvala, E. R. Shanblatt, X. Zhang, B. R. Galloway, C. L. Porter, R. Karl, C. Bevis, D. E. Adams, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and G. F. Mancini, “Subwavelength coherent imaging of periodic samples using a 13.5 nm tabletop high-harmonic light source,” Nat. Photonics 11(4), 259–263 (2017).
[Crossref]

Bevis, C. S.

Bunk, O.

M. Holler, M. Guizar-Sicairos, E. H. R. Tsai, R. Dinapoli, E. Müller, O. Bunk, J. Raabe, and G. Aeppli, “High-resolution non-destructive three-dimensional imaging of integrated circuits,” Nature 543(7645), 402–406 (2017).
[Crossref]

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, A. Menzel, and F. Pfeiffer, “Probe retrieval in ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 109(4), 338–343 (2009).
[Crossref]

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, “High-Resolution Scanning X-ray Diffraction Microscopy,” Science 321(5887), 379–382 (2008).
[Crossref]

Cabana, J.

D. A. Shapiro, Y.-S. Yu, T. Tyliszczak, J. Cabana, R. Celestre, W. Chao, K. Kaznatcheev, A. L. D. Kilcoyne, F. Maia, S. Marchesini, Y. S. Meng, T. Warwick, L. L. Yang, and H. A. Padmore, “Chemical composition mapping with nanometre resolution by soft X-ray microscopy,” Nat. Photonics 8(10), 765–769 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cardin, V.

N. X. Truong, R. Safaei, V. Cardin, S. M. Lewis, X. L. Zhong, F. Légaré, and M. A. Denecke, “Coherent Tabletop EUV Ptychography of Nanopatterns,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 16693 (2018).
[Crossref]

Celestre, R.

D. A. Shapiro, Y.-S. Yu, T. Tyliszczak, J. Cabana, R. Celestre, W. Chao, K. Kaznatcheev, A. L. D. Kilcoyne, F. Maia, S. Marchesini, Y. S. Meng, T. Warwick, L. L. Yang, and H. A. Padmore, “Chemical composition mapping with nanometre resolution by soft X-ray microscopy,” Nat. Photonics 8(10), 765–769 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chao, W.

D. A. Shapiro, Y.-S. Yu, T. Tyliszczak, J. Cabana, R. Celestre, W. Chao, K. Kaznatcheev, A. L. D. Kilcoyne, F. Maia, S. Marchesini, Y. S. Meng, T. Warwick, L. L. Yang, and H. A. Padmore, “Chemical composition mapping with nanometre resolution by soft X-ray microscopy,” Nat. Photonics 8(10), 765–769 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chapman, H. N.

S. Marchesini, H. He, H. N. Chapman, S. P. Hau-Riege, A. Noy, M. R. Howells, U. Weierstall, and J. C. H. Spence, “X-ray image reconstruction from a diffraction pattern alone,” Phys. Rev. B 68(14), 140101 (2003).
[Crossref]

Chen, B.

David, C.

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, “High-Resolution Scanning X-ray Diffraction Microscopy,” Science 321(5887), 379–382 (2008).
[Crossref]

Denecke, M. A.

N. X. Truong, R. Safaei, V. Cardin, S. M. Lewis, X. L. Zhong, F. Légaré, and M. A. Denecke, “Coherent Tabletop EUV Ptychography of Nanopatterns,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 16693 (2018).
[Crossref]

Diaz, A.

Dierolf, M.

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, A. Menzel, and F. Pfeiffer, “Probe retrieval in ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 109(4), 338–343 (2009).
[Crossref]

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, “High-Resolution Scanning X-ray Diffraction Microscopy,” Science 321(5887), 379–382 (2008).
[Crossref]

Dinapoli, R.

M. Holler, M. Guizar-Sicairos, E. H. R. Tsai, R. Dinapoli, E. Müller, O. Bunk, J. Raabe, and G. Aeppli, “High-resolution non-destructive three-dimensional imaging of integrated circuits,” Nature 543(7645), 402–406 (2017).
[Crossref]

Dzhigaev, D.

M. Rose, T. Senkbeil, A. R. v. Gundlach, S. Stuhr, C. Rumancev, D. Dzhigaev, I. Besedin, P. Skopintsev, L. Loetgering, J. Viefhaus, A. Rosenhahn, and I. A. Vartanyants, “Quantitative ptychographic bio-imaging in the water window,” Opt. Express 26(2), 1237–1254 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Lazarev, I. Besedin, A. V. Zozulya, J.-M. Meijer, D. Dzhigaev, O. Y. Gorobtsov, R. P. Kurta, M. Rose, A. G. Shabalin, E. A. Sulyanova, I. Zaluzhnyy, A. P. Menushenkov, M. Sprung, A. V. Petukhov, and I. A. Vartanyants, “Ptychographic X-Ray Imaging of Colloidal Crystals,” Small 14(3), 1702575 (2018).
[Crossref]

Ekinci, Y.

P. Helfenstein, I. Mohacsi, R. Rajendran, and Y. Ekinci, “Scanning coherent diffractive imaging methods for actinic EUV mask metrology,” in Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) Lithography VII, E. M. Panning and K. A. Goldberg, eds. (SPIE, 2016).

Eschen, W.

G. K. Tadesse, W. Eschen, R. Klas, M. Tschernajew, F. Tuitje, M. Steinert, M. Zilk, V. Schuster, M. Zürch, T. Pertsch, C. Spielmann, J. Limpert, and J. Rothhardt, “Wavelength-scale ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging using a high-order harmonic source,” Sci. Rep. 9(1), 1735 (2019).
[Crossref]

Feurer, T.

Galloway, B. R.

D. F. Gardner, M. Tanksalvala, E. R. Shanblatt, X. Zhang, B. R. Galloway, C. L. Porter, R. Karl, C. Bevis, D. E. Adams, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and G. F. Mancini, “Subwavelength coherent imaging of periodic samples using a 13.5 nm tabletop high-harmonic light source,” Nat. Photonics 11(4), 259–263 (2017).
[Crossref]

Gao, S.

S. Gao, P. Wang, F. Zhang, G. T. Martinez, P. D. Nellist, X. Pan, and A. I. Kirkland, “Electron ptychographic microscopy for three-dimensional imaging,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 163 (2017).
[Crossref]

Gardner, D. F.

G. F. Mancini, R. M. Karl, E. R. Shanblatt, C. S. Bevis, D. F. Gardner, M. D. Tanksalvala, J. L. Russell, D. E. Adams, H. C. Kapteyn, J. V. Badding, T. E. Mallouk, and M. M. Murnane, “Colloidal crystal order and structure revealed by tabletop extreme ultraviolet scattering and coherent diffractive imaging,” Opt. Express 26(9), 11393–11406 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. F. Gardner, M. Tanksalvala, E. R. Shanblatt, X. Zhang, B. R. Galloway, C. L. Porter, R. Karl, C. Bevis, D. E. Adams, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and G. F. Mancini, “Subwavelength coherent imaging of periodic samples using a 13.5 nm tabletop high-harmonic light source,” Nat. Photonics 11(4), 259–263 (2017).
[Crossref]

Gorobtsov, O. Y.

S. Lazarev, I. Besedin, A. V. Zozulya, J.-M. Meijer, D. Dzhigaev, O. Y. Gorobtsov, R. P. Kurta, M. Rose, A. G. Shabalin, E. A. Sulyanova, I. Zaluzhnyy, A. P. Menushenkov, M. Sprung, A. V. Petukhov, and I. A. Vartanyants, “Ptychographic X-Ray Imaging of Colloidal Crystals,” Small 14(3), 1702575 (2018).
[Crossref]

Guizar-Sicairos, M.

M. Holler, M. Guizar-Sicairos, E. H. R. Tsai, R. Dinapoli, E. Müller, O. Bunk, J. Raabe, and G. Aeppli, “High-resolution non-destructive three-dimensional imaging of integrated circuits,” Nature 543(7645), 402–406 (2017).
[Crossref]

Hack, E.

Harada, T.

Y. Nagata, T. Harada, T. Watanabe, H. Kinoshita, and K. Midorikawa, “At wavelength coherent scatterometry microscope using high-order harmonics for euv mask inspection,” Int. J. Extrem. Manuf. 1(3), 032001 (2019).
[Crossref]

Hau-Riege, S. P.

S. Marchesini, H. He, H. N. Chapman, S. P. Hau-Riege, A. Noy, M. R. Howells, U. Weierstall, and J. C. H. Spence, “X-ray image reconstruction from a diffraction pattern alone,” Phys. Rev. B 68(14), 140101 (2003).
[Crossref]

He, H.

S. Marchesini, H. He, H. N. Chapman, S. P. Hau-Riege, A. Noy, M. R. Howells, U. Weierstall, and J. C. H. Spence, “X-ray image reconstruction from a diffraction pattern alone,” Phys. Rev. B 68(14), 140101 (2003).
[Crossref]

Helfenstein, P.

P. Helfenstein, I. Mohacsi, R. Rajendran, and Y. Ekinci, “Scanning coherent diffractive imaging methods for actinic EUV mask metrology,” in Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) Lithography VII, E. M. Panning and K. A. Goldberg, eds. (SPIE, 2016).

Holler, M.

M. Holler, M. Guizar-Sicairos, E. H. R. Tsai, R. Dinapoli, E. Müller, O. Bunk, J. Raabe, and G. Aeppli, “High-resolution non-destructive three-dimensional imaging of integrated circuits,” Nature 543(7645), 402–406 (2017).
[Crossref]

Hovden, R.

R. Hovden, Y. Jiang, H. L. Xin, and L. F. Kourkoutis, “Periodic Artifact Reduction in Fourier Transforms of Full Field Atomic Resolution Images,” Microsc. Microanal. 21(2), 436–441 (2015).
[Crossref]

Howells, M. R.

S. Marchesini, H. He, H. N. Chapman, S. P. Hau-Riege, A. Noy, M. R. Howells, U. Weierstall, and J. C. H. Spence, “X-ray image reconstruction from a diffraction pattern alone,” Phys. Rev. B 68(14), 140101 (2003).
[Crossref]

Humphry, M. J.

A. M. Maiden, M. J. Humphry, M. C. Sarahan, B. Kraus, and J. M. Rodenburg, “An annealing algorithm to correct positioning errors in ptychography,” Ultramicroscopy 120, 64–72 (2012).
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G. F. Mancini, R. M. Karl, E. R. Shanblatt, C. S. Bevis, D. F. Gardner, M. D. Tanksalvala, J. L. Russell, D. E. Adams, H. C. Kapteyn, J. V. Badding, T. E. Mallouk, and M. M. Murnane, “Colloidal crystal order and structure revealed by tabletop extreme ultraviolet scattering and coherent diffractive imaging,” Opt. Express 26(9), 11393–11406 (2018).
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D. F. Gardner, M. Tanksalvala, E. R. Shanblatt, X. Zhang, B. R. Galloway, C. L. Porter, R. Karl, C. Bevis, D. E. Adams, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and G. F. Mancini, “Subwavelength coherent imaging of periodic samples using a 13.5 nm tabletop high-harmonic light source,” Nat. Photonics 11(4), 259–263 (2017).
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D. F. Gardner, M. Tanksalvala, E. R. Shanblatt, X. Zhang, B. R. Galloway, C. L. Porter, R. Karl, C. Bevis, D. E. Adams, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and G. F. Mancini, “Subwavelength coherent imaging of periodic samples using a 13.5 nm tabletop high-harmonic light source,” Nat. Photonics 11(4), 259–263 (2017).
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Kaznatcheev, K.

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Kilcoyne, A. L. D.

D. A. Shapiro, Y.-S. Yu, T. Tyliszczak, J. Cabana, R. Celestre, W. Chao, K. Kaznatcheev, A. L. D. Kilcoyne, F. Maia, S. Marchesini, Y. S. Meng, T. Warwick, L. L. Yang, and H. A. Padmore, “Chemical composition mapping with nanometre resolution by soft X-ray microscopy,” Nat. Photonics 8(10), 765–769 (2014).
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Kinoshita, H.

Y. Nagata, T. Harada, T. Watanabe, H. Kinoshita, and K. Midorikawa, “At wavelength coherent scatterometry microscope using high-order harmonics for euv mask inspection,” Int. J. Extrem. Manuf. 1(3), 032001 (2019).
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S. Gao, P. Wang, F. Zhang, G. T. Martinez, P. D. Nellist, X. Pan, and A. I. Kirkland, “Electron ptychographic microscopy for three-dimensional imaging,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 163 (2017).
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G. K. Tadesse, W. Eschen, R. Klas, M. Tschernajew, F. Tuitje, M. Steinert, M. Zilk, V. Schuster, M. Zürch, T. Pertsch, C. Spielmann, J. Limpert, and J. Rothhardt, “Wavelength-scale ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging using a high-order harmonic source,” Sci. Rep. 9(1), 1735 (2019).
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R. Hovden, Y. Jiang, H. L. Xin, and L. F. Kourkoutis, “Periodic Artifact Reduction in Fourier Transforms of Full Field Atomic Resolution Images,” Microsc. Microanal. 21(2), 436–441 (2015).
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Kraus, B.

A. M. Maiden, M. J. Humphry, M. C. Sarahan, B. Kraus, and J. M. Rodenburg, “An annealing algorithm to correct positioning errors in ptychography,” Ultramicroscopy 120, 64–72 (2012).
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S. Lazarev, I. Besedin, A. V. Zozulya, J.-M. Meijer, D. Dzhigaev, O. Y. Gorobtsov, R. P. Kurta, M. Rose, A. G. Shabalin, E. A. Sulyanova, I. Zaluzhnyy, A. P. Menushenkov, M. Sprung, A. V. Petukhov, and I. A. Vartanyants, “Ptychographic X-Ray Imaging of Colloidal Crystals,” Small 14(3), 1702575 (2018).
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S. Lazarev, I. Besedin, A. V. Zozulya, J.-M. Meijer, D. Dzhigaev, O. Y. Gorobtsov, R. P. Kurta, M. Rose, A. G. Shabalin, E. A. Sulyanova, I. Zaluzhnyy, A. P. Menushenkov, M. Sprung, A. V. Petukhov, and I. A. Vartanyants, “Ptychographic X-Ray Imaging of Colloidal Crystals,” Small 14(3), 1702575 (2018).
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N. X. Truong, R. Safaei, V. Cardin, S. M. Lewis, X. L. Zhong, F. Légaré, and M. A. Denecke, “Coherent Tabletop EUV Ptychography of Nanopatterns,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 16693 (2018).
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N. X. Truong, R. Safaei, V. Cardin, S. M. Lewis, X. L. Zhong, F. Légaré, and M. A. Denecke, “Coherent Tabletop EUV Ptychography of Nanopatterns,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 16693 (2018).
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Limpert, J.

G. K. Tadesse, W. Eschen, R. Klas, M. Tschernajew, F. Tuitje, M. Steinert, M. Zilk, V. Schuster, M. Zürch, T. Pertsch, C. Spielmann, J. Limpert, and J. Rothhardt, “Wavelength-scale ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging using a high-order harmonic source,” Sci. Rep. 9(1), 1735 (2019).
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Loetgering, L.

Maia, F.

D. A. Shapiro, Y.-S. Yu, T. Tyliszczak, J. Cabana, R. Celestre, W. Chao, K. Kaznatcheev, A. L. D. Kilcoyne, F. Maia, S. Marchesini, Y. S. Meng, T. Warwick, L. L. Yang, and H. A. Padmore, “Chemical composition mapping with nanometre resolution by soft X-ray microscopy,” Nat. Photonics 8(10), 765–769 (2014).
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A. M. Maiden, M. J. Humphry, M. C. Sarahan, B. Kraus, and J. M. Rodenburg, “An annealing algorithm to correct positioning errors in ptychography,” Ultramicroscopy 120, 64–72 (2012).
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A. M. Maiden and J. M. Rodenburg, “An improved ptychographical phase retrieval algorithm for diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 109(10), 1256–1262 (2009).
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Mallouk, T. E.

Mancini, G. F.

G. F. Mancini, R. M. Karl, E. R. Shanblatt, C. S. Bevis, D. F. Gardner, M. D. Tanksalvala, J. L. Russell, D. E. Adams, H. C. Kapteyn, J. V. Badding, T. E. Mallouk, and M. M. Murnane, “Colloidal crystal order and structure revealed by tabletop extreme ultraviolet scattering and coherent diffractive imaging,” Opt. Express 26(9), 11393–11406 (2018).
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D. F. Gardner, M. Tanksalvala, E. R. Shanblatt, X. Zhang, B. R. Galloway, C. L. Porter, R. Karl, C. Bevis, D. E. Adams, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and G. F. Mancini, “Subwavelength coherent imaging of periodic samples using a 13.5 nm tabletop high-harmonic light source,” Nat. Photonics 11(4), 259–263 (2017).
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Marchesini, S.

D. A. Shapiro, Y.-S. Yu, T. Tyliszczak, J. Cabana, R. Celestre, W. Chao, K. Kaznatcheev, A. L. D. Kilcoyne, F. Maia, S. Marchesini, Y. S. Meng, T. Warwick, L. L. Yang, and H. A. Padmore, “Chemical composition mapping with nanometre resolution by soft X-ray microscopy,” Nat. Photonics 8(10), 765–769 (2014).
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S. Marchesini, H. He, H. N. Chapman, S. P. Hau-Riege, A. Noy, M. R. Howells, U. Weierstall, and J. C. H. Spence, “X-ray image reconstruction from a diffraction pattern alone,” Phys. Rev. B 68(14), 140101 (2003).
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Martinez, G. T.

S. Gao, P. Wang, F. Zhang, G. T. Martinez, P. D. Nellist, X. Pan, and A. I. Kirkland, “Electron ptychographic microscopy for three-dimensional imaging,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 163 (2017).
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Meijer, J.-M.

S. Lazarev, I. Besedin, A. V. Zozulya, J.-M. Meijer, D. Dzhigaev, O. Y. Gorobtsov, R. P. Kurta, M. Rose, A. G. Shabalin, E. A. Sulyanova, I. Zaluzhnyy, A. P. Menushenkov, M. Sprung, A. V. Petukhov, and I. A. Vartanyants, “Ptychographic X-Ray Imaging of Colloidal Crystals,” Small 14(3), 1702575 (2018).
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D. A. Shapiro, Y.-S. Yu, T. Tyliszczak, J. Cabana, R. Celestre, W. Chao, K. Kaznatcheev, A. L. D. Kilcoyne, F. Maia, S. Marchesini, Y. S. Meng, T. Warwick, L. L. Yang, and H. A. Padmore, “Chemical composition mapping with nanometre resolution by soft X-ray microscopy,” Nat. Photonics 8(10), 765–769 (2014).
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S. Lazarev, I. Besedin, A. V. Zozulya, J.-M. Meijer, D. Dzhigaev, O. Y. Gorobtsov, R. P. Kurta, M. Rose, A. G. Shabalin, E. A. Sulyanova, I. Zaluzhnyy, A. P. Menushenkov, M. Sprung, A. V. Petukhov, and I. A. Vartanyants, “Ptychographic X-Ray Imaging of Colloidal Crystals,” Small 14(3), 1702575 (2018).
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F. Zhang, I. Peterson, J. Vila-Comamala, A. Diaz, F. Berenguer, R. Bean, B. Chen, A. Menzel, I. K. Robinson, and J. M. Rodenburg, “Translation position determination in ptychographic coherent diffraction imaging,” Opt. Express 21(11), 13592–13606 (2013).
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P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, A. Menzel, and F. Pfeiffer, “Probe retrieval in ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 109(4), 338–343 (2009).
[Crossref]

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, “High-Resolution Scanning X-ray Diffraction Microscopy,” Science 321(5887), 379–382 (2008).
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Y. Nagata, T. Harada, T. Watanabe, H. Kinoshita, and K. Midorikawa, “At wavelength coherent scatterometry microscope using high-order harmonics for euv mask inspection,” Int. J. Extrem. Manuf. 1(3), 032001 (2019).
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P. Helfenstein, I. Mohacsi, R. Rajendran, and Y. Ekinci, “Scanning coherent diffractive imaging methods for actinic EUV mask metrology,” in Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) Lithography VII, E. M. Panning and K. A. Goldberg, eds. (SPIE, 2016).

Müller, E.

M. Holler, M. Guizar-Sicairos, E. H. R. Tsai, R. Dinapoli, E. Müller, O. Bunk, J. Raabe, and G. Aeppli, “High-resolution non-destructive three-dimensional imaging of integrated circuits,” Nature 543(7645), 402–406 (2017).
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Murnane, M. M.

G. F. Mancini, R. M. Karl, E. R. Shanblatt, C. S. Bevis, D. F. Gardner, M. D. Tanksalvala, J. L. Russell, D. E. Adams, H. C. Kapteyn, J. V. Badding, T. E. Mallouk, and M. M. Murnane, “Colloidal crystal order and structure revealed by tabletop extreme ultraviolet scattering and coherent diffractive imaging,” Opt. Express 26(9), 11393–11406 (2018).
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D. F. Gardner, M. Tanksalvala, E. R. Shanblatt, X. Zhang, B. R. Galloway, C. L. Porter, R. Karl, C. Bevis, D. E. Adams, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and G. F. Mancini, “Subwavelength coherent imaging of periodic samples using a 13.5 nm tabletop high-harmonic light source,” Nat. Photonics 11(4), 259–263 (2017).
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Y. Nagata, T. Harada, T. Watanabe, H. Kinoshita, and K. Midorikawa, “At wavelength coherent scatterometry microscope using high-order harmonics for euv mask inspection,” Int. J. Extrem. Manuf. 1(3), 032001 (2019).
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S. Gao, P. Wang, F. Zhang, G. T. Martinez, P. D. Nellist, X. Pan, and A. I. Kirkland, “Electron ptychographic microscopy for three-dimensional imaging,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 163 (2017).
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Nishino, Y.

Noy, A.

S. Marchesini, H. He, H. N. Chapman, S. P. Hau-Riege, A. Noy, M. R. Howells, U. Weierstall, and J. C. H. Spence, “X-ray image reconstruction from a diffraction pattern alone,” Phys. Rev. B 68(14), 140101 (2003).
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Padmore, H. A.

D. A. Shapiro, Y.-S. Yu, T. Tyliszczak, J. Cabana, R. Celestre, W. Chao, K. Kaznatcheev, A. L. D. Kilcoyne, F. Maia, S. Marchesini, Y. S. Meng, T. Warwick, L. L. Yang, and H. A. Padmore, “Chemical composition mapping with nanometre resolution by soft X-ray microscopy,” Nat. Photonics 8(10), 765–769 (2014).
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Pan, X.

S. Gao, P. Wang, F. Zhang, G. T. Martinez, P. D. Nellist, X. Pan, and A. I. Kirkland, “Electron ptychographic microscopy for three-dimensional imaging,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 163 (2017).
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G. K. Tadesse, W. Eschen, R. Klas, M. Tschernajew, F. Tuitje, M. Steinert, M. Zilk, V. Schuster, M. Zürch, T. Pertsch, C. Spielmann, J. Limpert, and J. Rothhardt, “Wavelength-scale ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging using a high-order harmonic source,” Sci. Rep. 9(1), 1735 (2019).
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Petukhov, A. V.

S. Lazarev, I. Besedin, A. V. Zozulya, J.-M. Meijer, D. Dzhigaev, O. Y. Gorobtsov, R. P. Kurta, M. Rose, A. G. Shabalin, E. A. Sulyanova, I. Zaluzhnyy, A. P. Menushenkov, M. Sprung, A. V. Petukhov, and I. A. Vartanyants, “Ptychographic X-Ray Imaging of Colloidal Crystals,” Small 14(3), 1702575 (2018).
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F. Pfeiffer, “X-ray ptychography,” Nat. Photonics 12(1), 9–17 (2018).
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P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, A. Menzel, and F. Pfeiffer, “Probe retrieval in ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 109(4), 338–343 (2009).
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P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, “High-Resolution Scanning X-ray Diffraction Microscopy,” Science 321(5887), 379–382 (2008).
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Porter, C. L.

D. F. Gardner, M. Tanksalvala, E. R. Shanblatt, X. Zhang, B. R. Galloway, C. L. Porter, R. Karl, C. Bevis, D. E. Adams, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and G. F. Mancini, “Subwavelength coherent imaging of periodic samples using a 13.5 nm tabletop high-harmonic light source,” Nat. Photonics 11(4), 259–263 (2017).
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Raabe, J.

M. Holler, M. Guizar-Sicairos, E. H. R. Tsai, R. Dinapoli, E. Müller, O. Bunk, J. Raabe, and G. Aeppli, “High-resolution non-destructive three-dimensional imaging of integrated circuits,” Nature 543(7645), 402–406 (2017).
[Crossref]

Rajendran, R.

P. Helfenstein, I. Mohacsi, R. Rajendran, and Y. Ekinci, “Scanning coherent diffractive imaging methods for actinic EUV mask metrology,” in Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) Lithography VII, E. M. Panning and K. A. Goldberg, eds. (SPIE, 2016).

Robinson, I. K.

Rodenburg, J. M.

F. Zhang, I. Peterson, J. Vila-Comamala, A. Diaz, F. Berenguer, R. Bean, B. Chen, A. Menzel, I. K. Robinson, and J. M. Rodenburg, “Translation position determination in ptychographic coherent diffraction imaging,” Opt. Express 21(11), 13592–13606 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. M. Maiden, M. J. Humphry, M. C. Sarahan, B. Kraus, and J. M. Rodenburg, “An annealing algorithm to correct positioning errors in ptychography,” Ultramicroscopy 120, 64–72 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. M. Maiden and J. M. Rodenburg, “An improved ptychographical phase retrieval algorithm for diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 109(10), 1256–1262 (2009).
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M. Rose, T. Senkbeil, A. R. v. Gundlach, S. Stuhr, C. Rumancev, D. Dzhigaev, I. Besedin, P. Skopintsev, L. Loetgering, J. Viefhaus, A. Rosenhahn, and I. A. Vartanyants, “Quantitative ptychographic bio-imaging in the water window,” Opt. Express 26(2), 1237–1254 (2018).
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S. Lazarev, I. Besedin, A. V. Zozulya, J.-M. Meijer, D. Dzhigaev, O. Y. Gorobtsov, R. P. Kurta, M. Rose, A. G. Shabalin, E. A. Sulyanova, I. Zaluzhnyy, A. P. Menushenkov, M. Sprung, A. V. Petukhov, and I. A. Vartanyants, “Ptychographic X-Ray Imaging of Colloidal Crystals,” Small 14(3), 1702575 (2018).
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Rosenhahn, A.

Rothhardt, J.

G. K. Tadesse, W. Eschen, R. Klas, M. Tschernajew, F. Tuitje, M. Steinert, M. Zilk, V. Schuster, M. Zürch, T. Pertsch, C. Spielmann, J. Limpert, and J. Rothhardt, “Wavelength-scale ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging using a high-order harmonic source,” Sci. Rep. 9(1), 1735 (2019).
[Crossref]

Rumancev, C.

Russell, J. L.

Safaei, R.

N. X. Truong, R. Safaei, V. Cardin, S. M. Lewis, X. L. Zhong, F. Légaré, and M. A. Denecke, “Coherent Tabletop EUV Ptychography of Nanopatterns,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 16693 (2018).
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Sarahan, M. C.

A. M. Maiden, M. J. Humphry, M. C. Sarahan, B. Kraus, and J. M. Rodenburg, “An annealing algorithm to correct positioning errors in ptychography,” Ultramicroscopy 120, 64–72 (2012).
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Schuster, V.

G. K. Tadesse, W. Eschen, R. Klas, M. Tschernajew, F. Tuitje, M. Steinert, M. Zilk, V. Schuster, M. Zürch, T. Pertsch, C. Spielmann, J. Limpert, and J. Rothhardt, “Wavelength-scale ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging using a high-order harmonic source,” Sci. Rep. 9(1), 1735 (2019).
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Senkbeil, T.

Shabalin, A. G.

S. Lazarev, I. Besedin, A. V. Zozulya, J.-M. Meijer, D. Dzhigaev, O. Y. Gorobtsov, R. P. Kurta, M. Rose, A. G. Shabalin, E. A. Sulyanova, I. Zaluzhnyy, A. P. Menushenkov, M. Sprung, A. V. Petukhov, and I. A. Vartanyants, “Ptychographic X-Ray Imaging of Colloidal Crystals,” Small 14(3), 1702575 (2018).
[Crossref]

Shanblatt, E. R.

G. F. Mancini, R. M. Karl, E. R. Shanblatt, C. S. Bevis, D. F. Gardner, M. D. Tanksalvala, J. L. Russell, D. E. Adams, H. C. Kapteyn, J. V. Badding, T. E. Mallouk, and M. M. Murnane, “Colloidal crystal order and structure revealed by tabletop extreme ultraviolet scattering and coherent diffractive imaging,” Opt. Express 26(9), 11393–11406 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. F. Gardner, M. Tanksalvala, E. R. Shanblatt, X. Zhang, B. R. Galloway, C. L. Porter, R. Karl, C. Bevis, D. E. Adams, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and G. F. Mancini, “Subwavelength coherent imaging of periodic samples using a 13.5 nm tabletop high-harmonic light source,” Nat. Photonics 11(4), 259–263 (2017).
[Crossref]

Shapiro, D. A.

D. A. Shapiro, Y.-S. Yu, T. Tyliszczak, J. Cabana, R. Celestre, W. Chao, K. Kaznatcheev, A. L. D. Kilcoyne, F. Maia, S. Marchesini, Y. S. Meng, T. Warwick, L. L. Yang, and H. A. Padmore, “Chemical composition mapping with nanometre resolution by soft X-ray microscopy,” Nat. Photonics 8(10), 765–769 (2014).
[Crossref]

Skopintsev, P.

Spence, J. C. H.

S. Marchesini, H. He, H. N. Chapman, S. P. Hau-Riege, A. Noy, M. R. Howells, U. Weierstall, and J. C. H. Spence, “X-ray image reconstruction from a diffraction pattern alone,” Phys. Rev. B 68(14), 140101 (2003).
[Crossref]

Spielmann, C.

G. K. Tadesse, W. Eschen, R. Klas, M. Tschernajew, F. Tuitje, M. Steinert, M. Zilk, V. Schuster, M. Zürch, T. Pertsch, C. Spielmann, J. Limpert, and J. Rothhardt, “Wavelength-scale ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging using a high-order harmonic source,” Sci. Rep. 9(1), 1735 (2019).
[Crossref]

Sprung, M.

S. Lazarev, I. Besedin, A. V. Zozulya, J.-M. Meijer, D. Dzhigaev, O. Y. Gorobtsov, R. P. Kurta, M. Rose, A. G. Shabalin, E. A. Sulyanova, I. Zaluzhnyy, A. P. Menushenkov, M. Sprung, A. V. Petukhov, and I. A. Vartanyants, “Ptychographic X-Ray Imaging of Colloidal Crystals,” Small 14(3), 1702575 (2018).
[Crossref]

Steinert, M.

G. K. Tadesse, W. Eschen, R. Klas, M. Tschernajew, F. Tuitje, M. Steinert, M. Zilk, V. Schuster, M. Zürch, T. Pertsch, C. Spielmann, J. Limpert, and J. Rothhardt, “Wavelength-scale ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging using a high-order harmonic source,” Sci. Rep. 9(1), 1735 (2019).
[Crossref]

Stuhr, S.

Sulyanova, E. A.

S. Lazarev, I. Besedin, A. V. Zozulya, J.-M. Meijer, D. Dzhigaev, O. Y. Gorobtsov, R. P. Kurta, M. Rose, A. G. Shabalin, E. A. Sulyanova, I. Zaluzhnyy, A. P. Menushenkov, M. Sprung, A. V. Petukhov, and I. A. Vartanyants, “Ptychographic X-Ray Imaging of Colloidal Crystals,” Small 14(3), 1702575 (2018).
[Crossref]

Tadesse, G. K.

G. K. Tadesse, W. Eschen, R. Klas, M. Tschernajew, F. Tuitje, M. Steinert, M. Zilk, V. Schuster, M. Zürch, T. Pertsch, C. Spielmann, J. Limpert, and J. Rothhardt, “Wavelength-scale ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging using a high-order harmonic source,” Sci. Rep. 9(1), 1735 (2019).
[Crossref]

Tanksalvala, M.

D. F. Gardner, M. Tanksalvala, E. R. Shanblatt, X. Zhang, B. R. Galloway, C. L. Porter, R. Karl, C. Bevis, D. E. Adams, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and G. F. Mancini, “Subwavelength coherent imaging of periodic samples using a 13.5 nm tabletop high-harmonic light source,” Nat. Photonics 11(4), 259–263 (2017).
[Crossref]

Tanksalvala, M. D.

Thibault, P.

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, A. Menzel, and F. Pfeiffer, “Probe retrieval in ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 109(4), 338–343 (2009).
[Crossref]

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, “High-Resolution Scanning X-ray Diffraction Microscopy,” Science 321(5887), 379–382 (2008).
[Crossref]

Truong, N. X.

N. X. Truong, R. Safaei, V. Cardin, S. M. Lewis, X. L. Zhong, F. Légaré, and M. A. Denecke, “Coherent Tabletop EUV Ptychography of Nanopatterns,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 16693 (2018).
[Crossref]

Tsai, E. H. R.

M. Holler, M. Guizar-Sicairos, E. H. R. Tsai, R. Dinapoli, E. Müller, O. Bunk, J. Raabe, and G. Aeppli, “High-resolution non-destructive three-dimensional imaging of integrated circuits,” Nature 543(7645), 402–406 (2017).
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Figures (9)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Motivation for a closer investigation of periodic structures in ptychography. If the positions of the illumination function (red in 1,2c) on the sample differs from the presumed ones (blue) during the reconstruction, the transmission of aperiodic objects and the corresponding illumination functions begin to blur (1a). Position refinement algorithms like [17] are capable of adapting the presumed points to the real ones to ensure a successful reconstruction (1b) (the scan sequence is indicated with a gray spiral). The reconstructions of perfectly periodic objects however are independent from position displacements (2a and 2b) and position refining become not indicative (2c). Additionally, artifacts in the illumination function show up (insets in 2a,b). Here, the illumination functions (insets) are scaled down by a factor of 2.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Principle of simulated map distortion. Every point of the scanning map (blue dots) is shifted by a distortion vector $\vec {r}$ with a randomly chosen angle $\theta$ and a fixed length $|\vec {r}|$ and represent a distorted scanning point (red circle) for generating the diffraction pattern.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Reconstruction of a Siemens star with increasing map distortion. The error metric shows the decreasing convergence of the algorithm with increasing map distortion matching the structural decay of the object function.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Reconstruction of a grid with 200 nm period assuming map distortions in multiples of the grid period $p$ . Due to the periodicity, the reconstruction is independent of the map distortion. The error metric shows a similar convergence behavior with minor variations.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Comparisons between reconstructed probes of Fig. 3 and the original one. This comparison shows a dependency on the map distortion which, in turn, correlate to the contrast decay in Fig. 3.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Reconstruction of different imperfections on a grid with 200 nm period assuming no map distortions. Defects smaller than the grid period are barely visible. The insets in the upper reconstructions show the objects used for the simulation as a guide for the eye. The line outs (bottom) show a reduced transmission at the smaller defects positions. The insets in the top row show the placement of defects for the simulation. Note, that the offset was chosen to separate the normalized line outs for a better visibility.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Comparison between the reconstructed probes used for Fig. 6 and the original probe. The probe reconstruction for small defects smaller than 100 nm (the grating period) show modulations, which results from the grid structure itself.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. Reconstruction of the 100 nm period grid with a small defect of 200 nm with different map distortions. The defects starts to vanish when the map distortion reaches the defect size (2 $p$ ), as a result, the reconstructed object appears quasi defect-free for large map distortions.
Fig. 9.
Fig. 9. Comparison of the reconstructed probes with the assumed input probe for generating the dataset. The ICM starts to decrease, if the map distortion reaches the size of the defect. This behavior matches the structural decay of the objects in Fig. 8.

Equations (4)

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E i = 1 N s s = 1 N s ( 1 N x N y x , y = 1 N x , N y | Φ m ( s ) Φ d ( s , i ) | 2 )
O i + 1 ( r ) = O i ( r ) + α P i ( r R s ( i ) ) | | P j ( r R s ( i ) ) | | 2 ( Ψ i ( r ) Ψ i ( r ) )
P i + 1 ( r ) = P i ( r ) + β O i ( r R s ( i ) ) | | O j ( r R s ( i ) ) | | 2 ( Ψ i ( r ) Ψ i ( r ) )
E I C M = 1 1 N x N y p i x e l s 0 ( I a | | I a | | I b | | I b | | )