Abstract

Ghost imaging (GI) is an imaging technique that uses the second-order correlation between two light beams to obtain the image of an object. However, standard GI is affected by optical background noise, which reduces its practical use. We investigated the robustness of an instant ghost imaging (IGI) algorithm against optical background noise and compare it with the conventional GI algorithm. Our results show that IGI is extremely resistant to spatiotemporally varying optical background noise that can change over a large range. When the noise is large in relation to the signal, IGI will still perform well in conditions that prevent the conventional GI algorithm from generating an image because IGI uses signal differences for imaging. Signal differences are intrinsically resistant to common noise modes, so the IGI algorithm is strongly robust against noise. This research is of great significance for the practical application of GI.

© 2020 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2020 (1)

2019 (12)

Q. Fu, Y. Bai, X. Huang, S. Nan, P. Xie, and X. Fu, “Positive influence of the scattering medium on reflective ghost imaging,” Photonics Res. 7(12), 1468 (2019).
[Crossref]

H. Wu, P. Ryczkowski, A. T. Friberg, J. M. Dudley, and G. Genty, “Temporal ghost imaging using wavelength conversion and two-color detection,” Optica 6(7), 902–906 (2019).
[Crossref]

G. Barbastathis, A. Ozcan, and G. Situ, “On the use of deep learning for computational imaging,” Optica 6(8), 921–943 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. Kohno, K. Komatsu, R. Tang, Y. Ozeki, Y. Nakano, and T. Tanemura, “Ghost imaging using a large-scale silicon photonic phased array chip,” Opt. Express 27(3), 3817–3823 (2019).
[Crossref]

Z. Ye, P. Qiu, H. Wang, J. Xiong, and K. Wang, “Image watermarking and fusion based on Fourier single-pixel imaging with weighed light source,” Opt. Express 27(25), 36505 (2019).
[Crossref]

S. Sun, J. H. Gu, H. Z. Lin, L. Jiang, and W. T. Liu, “Gradual ghost imaging of moving objects by tracking based on cross correlation,” Opt. Lett. 44(22), 5594 (2019).
[Crossref]

C. Hu, Z. Tong, Z. Liu, Z. Huang, J. Wang, and S. Han, “Optimization of light fields in ghost imaging using dictionary learning,” Opt. Express 27(20), 28734 (2019).
[Crossref]

J. Wu, J. Wang, Y. Nie, and L. Hu, “Multiple-image optical encryption based on phase retrieval algorithm and fractional Talbot effect,” Opt. Express 27(24), 35096–35107 (2019).
[Crossref]

Z. Sun, F. Tuitje, and C. Spielmann, “Toward high contrast and high-resolution microscopic ghost imaging,” Opt. Express 27(23), 33652 (2019).
[Crossref]

U. Rossman, R. Tenne, O. Solomon, I. Kaplan-Ashiri, T. Dadosh, Y. C. Eldar, and D. Oron, “Rapid quantum image scanning microscopy by joint sparse reconstruction,” Optica 6(10), 1290–1296 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. Qian, R. He, Q. Chen, G. Gu, F. Shi, and W. Zhang, “Adaptive compressed 3D ghost imaging based on the variation of surface normal,” Opt. Express 27(20), 27862–27872 (2019).
[Crossref]

K. Soltanlou and H. Latifi, “Three-dimensional imaging through scattering media using a single pixel detector,” Appl. Opt. 58(28), 7716–7726 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (5)

2017 (4)

Z. Yang, O. S. Magaña-Loaiza, M. Mirhosseini, Y. Zhou, B. Gao, L. Gao, S. M. H. Rafsanjani, G. L. Long, and R. W. Boyd, “Digital spiral object identification using random light,” Light: Sci. Appl. 6(7), e17013 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Wang, Y. Liu, J. Suo, G. Situ, C. Qiao, and Q. Dai, “High speed computational ghost imaging via spatial sweeping,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 45325 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Le, G. Wang, H. Zheng, J. Liu, Y. Zhou, and Z. Xu, “Underwater computational ghost imaging,” Opt. Express 25(19), 22859–22868 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Deng, L. Pan, C. Wang, X. Gao, W. Gong, and S. Han, “Performance analysis of ghost imaging lidar in background light environment,” Photonics Res. 5(5), 431–435 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (4)

Z. Yang, L. Zhao, X. Zhao, W. Qin, and J. Li, “Lensless ghost imaging through the strongly scattering medium,” Chin. Phys. B 25(2), 024202 (2016).
[Crossref]

W. Gong, C. Zhao, H. Yu, M. Chen, W. Xu, and S. Han, “Three-dimensional ghost imaging lidar via sparsity constraint,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 26133 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Pelliccia, A. Rack, M. Scheel, V. Cantelli, and D. M. Paganin, “Experimental x-ray ghost imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117(11), 113902 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. J. Sun, M. P. Edgar, G. M. Gibson, B. Sun, N. Radwell, R. Lamb, and M. J. Padgett, “Single-pixel three-dimensional imaging with time-based depth resolution,” Nat. Commun. 7(1), 12010 (2016).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

B. Sun, M. P. Edgar, R. Bowman, L. E. Vittert, S. Welsh, A. Bowman, and M. J. Padgett, “3D computational imaging with single-pixel detectors,” Science 340(6134), 844–847 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Bina, D. Magatti, M. Molteni, A. Gatti, L. A. Lugiato, and F. Ferri, “Backscattering differential ghost imaging in turbid media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(8), 083901 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

C. Zhao, W. Gong, M. Chen, E. Li, H. Wang, W. Xu, and S. Han, “Ghost imaging lidar via sparsity constraints,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(14), 141123 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

R. E. Meyers, K. S. Deacon, and Y. Shih, “Turbulence-free ghost imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(11), 111115 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

2009 (3)

J. Cheng, “Ghost imaging through turbulent atmosphere,” Opt. Express 17(10), 7916–7921 (2009).
[Crossref]

O. Katz, B. Yaron, and Y. Silberberg, “Compressive ghost imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(13), 131110 (2009).
[Crossref]

B. Yaron, O. Katz, and Y. Silberberg, “Ghost imaging with a single detector,” Phys. Rev. A 79(5), 053840 (2009).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

L. Basano and P. Ottonello, “Experiment in lensless ghost imaging with thermal light,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(9), 091109 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (3)

F. Ferri, D. Magatti, A. Gatti, M. Bache, E. Brambilla, and L. A. Lugiato, “High-resolution ghost image and ghost diffraction experiments with thermal light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(18), 183602 (2005).
[Crossref]

A. Valencia, G. Scarcelli, M. D’Angelo, and Y. Shih, “Two-photon imaging with thermal light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(6), 063601 (2005).
[Crossref]

D. Z. Cao, J. Xiong, and K. G. Wang, “Geometrical optics in correlated imaging systems,” Phys. Rev. A 71(1), 013801 (2005).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

R. S. Bennink, S. J. Bentley, and R. W. Boyd, ““Two-photon” coincidence imaging with a classical source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(11), 113601 (2002).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

T. B. Pittman, Y. H. Shih, D. V. Strekalov, and A. V. Sergienko, “Optical imaging by means of two-photon quantum entanglement,” Phys. Rev. A 52(5), R3429–R3432 (1995).
[Crossref]

1972 (1)

H. H. Bossel, W. J. Hiller, and G. E. A. Meier, “Noise-cancelling signal difference method for optical velocity measurements,” J. Phys. E: Sci. Instrum. 5(9), 893–896 (1972).
[Crossref]

Bache, M.

F. Ferri, D. Magatti, A. Gatti, M. Bache, E. Brambilla, and L. A. Lugiato, “High-resolution ghost image and ghost diffraction experiments with thermal light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(18), 183602 (2005).
[Crossref]

Bai, Y.

Q. Fu, Y. Bai, X. Huang, S. Nan, P. Xie, and X. Fu, “Positive influence of the scattering medium on reflective ghost imaging,” Photonics Res. 7(12), 1468 (2019).
[Crossref]

Bao, Q. Q.

Barbastathis, G.

Basano, L.

L. Basano and P. Ottonello, “Experiment in lensless ghost imaging with thermal light,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(9), 091109 (2006).
[Crossref]

Bennink, R. S.

R. S. Bennink, S. J. Bentley, and R. W. Boyd, ““Two-photon” coincidence imaging with a classical source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(11), 113601 (2002).
[Crossref]

Bentley, S. J.

R. S. Bennink, S. J. Bentley, and R. W. Boyd, ““Two-photon” coincidence imaging with a classical source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(11), 113601 (2002).
[Crossref]

Bina, M.

M. Bina, D. Magatti, M. Molteni, A. Gatti, L. A. Lugiato, and F. Ferri, “Backscattering differential ghost imaging in turbid media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(8), 083901 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bossel, H. H.

H. H. Bossel, W. J. Hiller, and G. E. A. Meier, “Noise-cancelling signal difference method for optical velocity measurements,” J. Phys. E: Sci. Instrum. 5(9), 893–896 (1972).
[Crossref]

Bowman, A.

B. Sun, M. P. Edgar, R. Bowman, L. E. Vittert, S. Welsh, A. Bowman, and M. J. Padgett, “3D computational imaging with single-pixel detectors,” Science 340(6134), 844–847 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bowman, R.

B. Sun, M. P. Edgar, R. Bowman, L. E. Vittert, S. Welsh, A. Bowman, and M. J. Padgett, “3D computational imaging with single-pixel detectors,” Science 340(6134), 844–847 (2013).
[Crossref]

Boyd, R. W.

Z. Yang, O. S. Magaña-Loaiza, M. Mirhosseini, Y. Zhou, B. Gao, L. Gao, S. M. H. Rafsanjani, G. L. Long, and R. W. Boyd, “Digital spiral object identification using random light,” Light: Sci. Appl. 6(7), e17013 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. S. Bennink, S. J. Bentley, and R. W. Boyd, ““Two-photon” coincidence imaging with a classical source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(11), 113601 (2002).
[Crossref]

Brambilla, E.

F. Ferri, D. Magatti, A. Gatti, M. Bache, E. Brambilla, and L. A. Lugiato, “High-resolution ghost image and ghost diffraction experiments with thermal light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(18), 183602 (2005).
[Crossref]

Cantelli, V.

D. Pelliccia, A. Rack, M. Scheel, V. Cantelli, and D. M. Paganin, “Experimental x-ray ghost imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117(11), 113902 (2016).
[Crossref]

Cao, D. Z.

D. Z. Cao, J. Xiong, and K. G. Wang, “Geometrical optics in correlated imaging systems,” Phys. Rev. A 71(1), 013801 (2005).
[Crossref]

Chen, H.

J. Liu, J. Wang, H. Chen, H. Zheng, Y. Liu, Y. Zhou, F. L. Li, and Z. Xu, “High visibility temporal ghost imaging with classical light,” Opt. Commun. 410, 824–829 (2018).
[Crossref]

Chen, L. M.

Chen, M.

W. Gong, C. Zhao, H. Yu, M. Chen, W. Xu, and S. Han, “Three-dimensional ghost imaging lidar via sparsity constraint,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 26133 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Zhao, W. Gong, M. Chen, E. Li, H. Wang, W. Xu, and S. Han, “Ghost imaging lidar via sparsity constraints,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(14), 141123 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chen, Q.

Chen, W.

Chen, X. H.

Cheng, J.

Clemente, P.

Coker, M.

M. Coker and D. Simkins (1980, April). A nonlinear adaptive noise canceller. In ICASSP'80. IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing (Vol. 5, pp. 470-473). IEEE.

Czajkowski, K. M.

D’Angelo, M.

A. Valencia, G. Scarcelli, M. D’Angelo, and Y. Shih, “Two-photon imaging with thermal light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(6), 063601 (2005).
[Crossref]

Dadosh, T.

Dai, Q.

Y. Wang, Y. Liu, J. Suo, G. Situ, C. Qiao, and Q. Dai, “High speed computational ghost imaging via spatial sweeping,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 45325 (2017).
[Crossref]

Deacon, K. S.

R. E. Meyers, K. S. Deacon, and Y. Shih, “Turbulence-free ghost imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(11), 111115 (2011).
[Crossref]

Deng, C.

C. Deng, L. Pan, C. Wang, X. Gao, W. Gong, and S. Han, “Performance analysis of ghost imaging lidar in background light environment,” Photonics Res. 5(5), 431–435 (2017).
[Crossref]

Dudley, J. M.

Durán, V.

Edgar, M. P.

M. J. Sun, M. P. Edgar, G. M. Gibson, B. Sun, N. Radwell, R. Lamb, and M. J. Padgett, “Single-pixel three-dimensional imaging with time-based depth resolution,” Nat. Commun. 7(1), 12010 (2016).
[Crossref]

B. Sun, M. P. Edgar, R. Bowman, L. E. Vittert, S. Welsh, A. Bowman, and M. J. Padgett, “3D computational imaging with single-pixel detectors,” Science 340(6134), 844–847 (2013).
[Crossref]

Eldar, Y. C.

Ferri, F.

M. Bina, D. Magatti, M. Molteni, A. Gatti, L. A. Lugiato, and F. Ferri, “Backscattering differential ghost imaging in turbid media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(8), 083901 (2013).
[Crossref]

F. Ferri, D. Magatti, A. Gatti, M. Bache, E. Brambilla, and L. A. Lugiato, “High-resolution ghost image and ghost diffraction experiments with thermal light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(18), 183602 (2005).
[Crossref]

Friberg, A. T.

Fu, Q.

Q. Fu, Y. Bai, X. Huang, S. Nan, P. Xie, and X. Fu, “Positive influence of the scattering medium on reflective ghost imaging,” Photonics Res. 7(12), 1468 (2019).
[Crossref]

S. Y. Meng, Y. H. Sha, Q. Fu, Q. Q. Bao, W. W. Shi, G. D. Li, X. H. Chen, and L. A. Wu, “Super-resolution imaging by anticorrelation of optical intensities,” Opt. Lett. 43(19), 4759 (2018).
[Crossref]

Fu, X.

Q. Fu, Y. Bai, X. Huang, S. Nan, P. Xie, and X. Fu, “Positive influence of the scattering medium on reflective ghost imaging,” Photonics Res. 7(12), 1468 (2019).
[Crossref]

Gao, B.

Z. Yang, O. S. Magaña-Loaiza, M. Mirhosseini, Y. Zhou, B. Gao, L. Gao, S. M. H. Rafsanjani, G. L. Long, and R. W. Boyd, “Digital spiral object identification using random light,” Light: Sci. Appl. 6(7), e17013 (2017).
[Crossref]

Gao, L.

Z. Yang, O. S. Magaña-Loaiza, M. Mirhosseini, Y. Zhou, B. Gao, L. Gao, S. M. H. Rafsanjani, G. L. Long, and R. W. Boyd, “Digital spiral object identification using random light,” Light: Sci. Appl. 6(7), e17013 (2017).
[Crossref]

Gao, X.

C. Deng, L. Pan, C. Wang, X. Gao, W. Gong, and S. Han, “Performance analysis of ghost imaging lidar in background light environment,” Photonics Res. 5(5), 431–435 (2017).
[Crossref]

Gatti, A.

M. Bina, D. Magatti, M. Molteni, A. Gatti, L. A. Lugiato, and F. Ferri, “Backscattering differential ghost imaging in turbid media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(8), 083901 (2013).
[Crossref]

F. Ferri, D. Magatti, A. Gatti, M. Bache, E. Brambilla, and L. A. Lugiato, “High-resolution ghost image and ghost diffraction experiments with thermal light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(18), 183602 (2005).
[Crossref]

Genty, G.

Gibson, G. M.

M. J. Sun, M. P. Edgar, G. M. Gibson, B. Sun, N. Radwell, R. Lamb, and M. J. Padgett, “Single-pixel three-dimensional imaging with time-based depth resolution,” Nat. Commun. 7(1), 12010 (2016).
[Crossref]

Gong, W.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. The experimental configuration; components are described in the text.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Noise resistance for position A; individual images are explained in the text.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Noise resistance study for position B; individual images are explained in the text.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Noise resistance study for position C; individual images are explained in the text.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Analysis of the IGI algorithm and the GI algorithm when there is optical background noise.

Equations (7)

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G ( x ) = [ S S ] [ I ( x ) I ( x ) ]
G I G I ( x ) = 1 2 N i = 1 N [ S n + 1 S n ] [ I n + 1 ( x ) I n ( x ) ]
G ( x ) = [ S S + Q Q ] [ I ( x ) I ( x ) ]
G I G I ( x ) = 1 2 N i = 1 N [ S n + 1 S n + Q n + 1 Q n ] [ I n + 1 ( x ) I n ( x ) ]
G ( x ) = [ S S ] [ I ( x ) I ( x ) + Q ( x ) Q ( x ) ]
G I G I ( x ) = 1 2 N i = 1 N [ S n + 1 S n ] [ I n + 1 ( x ) I n ( x ) + Q n + 1 ( x ) Q n ( x ) ]
( Q n + 1 Q n ) ( S n + 1 S n ) [ Q n + 1 ( x ) Q n ( x ) ] [ I n + 1 ( x ) I n ( x ) ]