Abstract

In this work, we present a systematic experimental study of surface electric field poling for creating periodically poled lithium niobate. We want to control the homogeneity and the duty cycle of the periodic structures as well as domain shape and size in general. The created domain patterns are analyzed by selective etching with subsequent scanning electron microscopy. We investigate theoretically and experimentally how the shape of electrodes influences the poling results. Furthermore, the influence of the temporal waveform and magnitude of the applied poling voltage pulse is studied. Our results enable to identify optimal experimental parameters for high-quality surface poling.

© 2020 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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    [Crossref]

2019 (5)

2018 (4)

A. Boes, B. Corcoran, L. Chang, J. Bowers, and A. Mitchell, “Status and potential of lithium niobate on insulator (LNOI) for photonic integrated circuits,” Laser Photonics Rev. 12(4), 1700256 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Wang, C. Langrock, A. Marandi, M. Jankowski, M. Zhang, B. Desiatov, M. M. Fejer, and M. Loncar, “Ultrahigh-efficiency wavelength conversion in nanophotonic periodically poled lithium niobate waveguides,” Optica 5(11), 1438–1441 (2018).
[Crossref]

F. Kish, V. Lal, P. Evans, S. W. Corzine, M. Ziari, T. Butrie, M. Reffle, H. Tsai, A. Dentai, J. Pleumeekers, M. Missey, M. Fisher, S. Murthy, R. Salvatore, P. Samra, S. Demars, N. Kim, A. James, A. Hosseini, P. Studenkov, M. Lauermann, R. Going, M. Lu, J. Zhang, J. Tang, J. Bostak, T. Vallaitis, M. Kuntz, D. Pavinski, A. Karanicolas, B. Behnia, D. Engel, O. Khayam, N. Modi, M. Chitgarha, P. Mertz, W. Ko, R. Maher, J. Osenbach, J. T. Rahn, H. Sun, K. Wu, M. Mitchell, and D. Welch, “System-on-chip photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24(1), 1–20 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Wang, M. Zhang, B. Stern, M. Lipson, and M. Loncar, “Nanophotonic lithium niobate electro-optic modulators,” Opt. Express 26(2), 1547–1555 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (1)

M. J. R. Heck, “Highly integrated optical phased arrays: Photonic integrated circuits for optical beam shaping and beam steering,” Nanophotonics 6(1), 93–107 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (4)

A. Rao, M. Malinowski, A. Honardoost, J. Talukder, P. Rabiei, P. Delfyett, and S. Fathpour, “Second-harmonic generation in periodically poled thin film lithium niobate wafer-bonded on silicon,” Opt. Express 24(26), 29941–29947 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. Mackwitz, M. Rüsing, G. Berth, A. Widhalm, K. Müller, and A. Zrenner, “Periodic domain inversion in x-cut single-crystal lithium niobate thin film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(15), 152902 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Chang, Y. Li, N. Volet, L. Wang, J. Peters, and J. E. Bowers, “Thin film wavelength converters for photonic integrated circuits,” Optica 3(5), 531–535 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. N. Palatnikov, L. S. Kokhanchik, E. V. Emelin, N. V. Sidorov, and D. V. Manukovskaya, “Creation of domains by direct electron beam writing in magnesium-doped LiNbO3 and LiNbO3:Fe single crystals,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. B 370, 107–113 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (3)

A. Boes, V. Sivan, G. Ren, D. Yudistira, S. Mailis, E. Soergel, and A. Mitchell, “Precise, reproducible nano-domain engineering in lithium niobate crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(2), 022901 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. V. Gainutdinov, T. R. Volk, and H. H. Zhang, “Domain formation and polarization reversal under atomic force microscopy-tip voltages in ion-sliced LiNbO3 films on SiO2/LiNbO3 substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(16), 162903 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Geiss, S. Saravi, A. Sergeyev, S. Diziain, F. Setzpfandt, F. Schrempel, R. Grange, E. Kley, A. Tünnermann, and T. Pertsch, “Fabrication of nanoscale lithium niobate waveguides for second-harmonic generation,” Opt. Lett. 40(12), 2715–2718 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

2011 (1)

2010 (2)

Y. Sheng, A. Best, H. Butt, W. Krolikowski, A. Arie, and K. Koynov, “Three-dimensional ferroelectric domain visualization by Cerenkov-type second harmonic generation,” Opt. Express 18(16), 16539–16545 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Lilienblum, A. Ofan, Á Hoffmann, O. Gaathon, L. Vanamurthy, S. Bakhru, H. Bakhru, R. M. Osgood, and E. Soergel, “Low-voltage nanodomain writing in He-implanted lithium niobate crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(8), 082902 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

L. Gui, H. Hu, M. Garcia-Granda, and W. Sohler, “Local periodic poling of ridges and ridge waveguides on X- and Y-Cut LiNbO3 and its application for second harmonic generation,” Opt. Express 17(5), 3923–3928 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. Janner, D. Tulli, M. García-Granda, M. Belmonte, and V. Pruneri, “Micro-structured integrated electro-optic LiNbO3 modulators,” Laser Photonics Rev. 3(3), 301–313 (2009).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

2004 (1)

L. Arizmendi, “Photonic applications of lithium niobate crystals,” Phys. Status Solidi 201(2), 253–283 (2004).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

1998 (3)

M. Flörsheimer, R. Paschotta, U. Kubitscheck, Ch. Brillert, D. Hofmann, L. Heuer, G. Schreiber, C. Verbeek, W. Sohler, and H. Fuchs, “Second-harmonic imaging of ferroelectric domains in LiNbO3 with micron resolution in lateral and axial directions,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 67(5), 593–599 (1998).
[Crossref]

P. Ganguly, J. Biswas, and S. Lahiri, “Modelling of titanium indiffused lithium niobate channel waveguide bends: a matrix approach,” Opt. Commun. 155(1–3), 125–134 (1998).
[Crossref]

V. Gopalan, T. E. Mitchell, Y. Furukawa, and K. Kitamura, “The role of nonstoichiometry in 180° domain switching of LiNbO3 crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(16), 1981–1983 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (2)

K. Mizuuchi, K. Yamamoto, and M. Kato, “Harmonic blue light generation in X-cut MgO:LiNbO3 waveguide,” Electron. Lett. 33(9), 806–807 (1997).
[Crossref]

S. Sonoda, I. Tsuruma, and M. Hatori, “Second harmonic generation in electric poled X-cut MgO-doped LiNbO3 waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(23), 3078–3080 (1997).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

Y. Zhu, S. Zhu, J. Hong, and N. Ming, “Domain inversion in LiNbO3 by proton exchange and quick heat treatment,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65(5), 558–560 (1994).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

M. Yamada, N. Nada, M. Saitoh, and K. Watanabe, “First-order quasi-phase matched LiNbO3 waveguide periodically poled by applying an external field for efficient blue second-harmonic generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62(5), 435–436 (1993).
[Crossref]

1975 (1)

J. R. Teague, R. R. Rice, and R. Gerson, “High-frequency dielectric measurements on electro-optic single crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 46(7), 2864–2866 (1975).
[Crossref]

1974 (1)

R. L. Byer, “Nonlinear optical phenomena and materials,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 4(1), 147–190 (1974).
[Crossref]

1965 (2)

K. Nassau, H. J. Levinstein, and G. M. Loiacono, “The domain structure and etching of ferroelectric lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 6(11), 228–229 (1965).
[Crossref]

W. E. V. J. Davies, J. Dutton, F. M. Harris, and F. Llewellyn Jones, “Electrical breakdown of air at high voltages,” Nature 205(4976), 1092–1093 (1965).
[Crossref]

1962 (1)

J. A. Armstrong, N. Bloembergen, J. Ducuing, and P. S. Pershan, “Interactions between light waves in a nonlinear dielectric,” Phys. Rev. 127(6), 1918–1939 (1962).
[Crossref]

Arie, A.

Arizmendi, L.

L. Arizmendi, “Photonic applications of lithium niobate crystals,” Phys. Status Solidi 201(2), 253–283 (2004).
[Crossref]

Armstrong, J. A.

J. A. Armstrong, N. Bloembergen, J. Ducuing, and P. S. Pershan, “Interactions between light waves in a nonlinear dielectric,” Phys. Rev. 127(6), 1918–1939 (1962).
[Crossref]

Bakhru, H.

M. Lilienblum, A. Ofan, Á Hoffmann, O. Gaathon, L. Vanamurthy, S. Bakhru, H. Bakhru, R. M. Osgood, and E. Soergel, “Low-voltage nanodomain writing in He-implanted lithium niobate crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(8), 082902 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bakhru, S.

M. Lilienblum, A. Ofan, Á Hoffmann, O. Gaathon, L. Vanamurthy, S. Bakhru, H. Bakhru, R. M. Osgood, and E. Soergel, “Low-voltage nanodomain writing in He-implanted lithium niobate crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(8), 082902 (2010).
[Crossref]

Behnia, B.

F. Kish, V. Lal, P. Evans, S. W. Corzine, M. Ziari, T. Butrie, M. Reffle, H. Tsai, A. Dentai, J. Pleumeekers, M. Missey, M. Fisher, S. Murthy, R. Salvatore, P. Samra, S. Demars, N. Kim, A. James, A. Hosseini, P. Studenkov, M. Lauermann, R. Going, M. Lu, J. Zhang, J. Tang, J. Bostak, T. Vallaitis, M. Kuntz, D. Pavinski, A. Karanicolas, B. Behnia, D. Engel, O. Khayam, N. Modi, M. Chitgarha, P. Mertz, W. Ko, R. Maher, J. Osenbach, J. T. Rahn, H. Sun, K. Wu, M. Mitchell, and D. Welch, “System-on-chip photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24(1), 1–20 (2018).
[Crossref]

Belmonte, M.

D. Janner, D. Tulli, M. García-Granda, M. Belmonte, and V. Pruneri, “Micro-structured integrated electro-optic LiNbO3 modulators,” Laser Photonics Rev. 3(3), 301–313 (2009).
[Crossref]

Berth, G.

P. Mackwitz, M. Rüsing, G. Berth, A. Widhalm, K. Müller, and A. Zrenner, “Periodic domain inversion in x-cut single-crystal lithium niobate thin film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(15), 152902 (2016).
[Crossref]

Best, A.

Biswas, J.

P. Ganguly, J. Biswas, and S. Lahiri, “Modelling of titanium indiffused lithium niobate channel waveguide bends: a matrix approach,” Opt. Commun. 155(1–3), 125–134 (1998).
[Crossref]

Bloembergen, N.

J. A. Armstrong, N. Bloembergen, J. Ducuing, and P. S. Pershan, “Interactions between light waves in a nonlinear dielectric,” Phys. Rev. 127(6), 1918–1939 (1962).
[Crossref]

Boes, A.

A. Boes, B. Corcoran, L. Chang, J. Bowers, and A. Mitchell, “Status and potential of lithium niobate on insulator (LNOI) for photonic integrated circuits,” Laser Photonics Rev. 12(4), 1700256 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. Boes, V. Sivan, G. Ren, D. Yudistira, S. Mailis, E. Soergel, and A. Mitchell, “Precise, reproducible nano-domain engineering in lithium niobate crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(2), 022901 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Boes, D. Yudistira, T. Crasto, H. Steigerwald, V. Sivan, T. Limboeck, J. Friend, S. Mailis, E. Soergel, and A. Mitchell, “Ultraviolet laser induced domain inversion on chromium coated lithium niobate crystals,” Opt. Mater. Express 4(2), 241–254 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bostak, J.

F. Kish, V. Lal, P. Evans, S. W. Corzine, M. Ziari, T. Butrie, M. Reffle, H. Tsai, A. Dentai, J. Pleumeekers, M. Missey, M. Fisher, S. Murthy, R. Salvatore, P. Samra, S. Demars, N. Kim, A. James, A. Hosseini, P. Studenkov, M. Lauermann, R. Going, M. Lu, J. Zhang, J. Tang, J. Bostak, T. Vallaitis, M. Kuntz, D. Pavinski, A. Karanicolas, B. Behnia, D. Engel, O. Khayam, N. Modi, M. Chitgarha, P. Mertz, W. Ko, R. Maher, J. Osenbach, J. T. Rahn, H. Sun, K. Wu, M. Mitchell, and D. Welch, “System-on-chip photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24(1), 1–20 (2018).
[Crossref]

Bowers, J.

A. Boes, B. Corcoran, L. Chang, J. Bowers, and A. Mitchell, “Status and potential of lithium niobate on insulator (LNOI) for photonic integrated circuits,” Laser Photonics Rev. 12(4), 1700256 (2018).
[Crossref]

Bowers, J. E.

Brillert, Ch.

M. Flörsheimer, R. Paschotta, U. Kubitscheck, Ch. Brillert, D. Hofmann, L. Heuer, G. Schreiber, C. Verbeek, W. Sohler, and H. Fuchs, “Second-harmonic imaging of ferroelectric domains in LiNbO3 with micron resolution in lateral and axial directions,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 67(5), 593–599 (1998).
[Crossref]

Bruch, A.

Butrie, T.

F. Kish, V. Lal, P. Evans, S. W. Corzine, M. Ziari, T. Butrie, M. Reffle, H. Tsai, A. Dentai, J. Pleumeekers, M. Missey, M. Fisher, S. Murthy, R. Salvatore, P. Samra, S. Demars, N. Kim, A. James, A. Hosseini, P. Studenkov, M. Lauermann, R. Going, M. Lu, J. Zhang, J. Tang, J. Bostak, T. Vallaitis, M. Kuntz, D. Pavinski, A. Karanicolas, B. Behnia, D. Engel, O. Khayam, N. Modi, M. Chitgarha, P. Mertz, W. Ko, R. Maher, J. Osenbach, J. T. Rahn, H. Sun, K. Wu, M. Mitchell, and D. Welch, “System-on-chip photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24(1), 1–20 (2018).
[Crossref]

Butt, H.

Byer, R. L.

R. L. Byer, “Nonlinear optical phenomena and materials,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 4(1), 147–190 (1974).
[Crossref]

Chan, M.

Chang, L.

A. Boes, B. Corcoran, L. Chang, J. Bowers, and A. Mitchell, “Status and potential of lithium niobate on insulator (LNOI) for photonic integrated circuits,” Laser Photonics Rev. 12(4), 1700256 (2018).
[Crossref]

L. Chang, Y. Li, N. Volet, L. Wang, J. Peters, and J. E. Bowers, “Thin film wavelength converters for photonic integrated circuits,” Optica 3(5), 531–535 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chen, X.

Chitgarha, M.

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A. Boes, V. Sivan, G. Ren, D. Yudistira, S. Mailis, E. Soergel, and A. Mitchell, “Precise, reproducible nano-domain engineering in lithium niobate crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(2), 022901 (2015).
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A. Boes, D. Yudistira, T. Crasto, H. Steigerwald, V. Sivan, T. Limboeck, J. Friend, S. Mailis, E. Soergel, and A. Mitchell, “Ultraviolet laser induced domain inversion on chromium coated lithium niobate crystals,” Opt. Mater. Express 4(2), 241–254 (2014).
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A. Boes, V. Sivan, G. Ren, D. Yudistira, S. Mailis, E. Soergel, and A. Mitchell, “Precise, reproducible nano-domain engineering in lithium niobate crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(2), 022901 (2015).
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A. Boes, D. Yudistira, T. Crasto, H. Steigerwald, V. Sivan, T. Limboeck, J. Friend, S. Mailis, E. Soergel, and A. Mitchell, “Ultraviolet laser induced domain inversion on chromium coated lithium niobate crystals,” Opt. Mater. Express 4(2), 241–254 (2014).
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F. Kish, V. Lal, P. Evans, S. W. Corzine, M. Ziari, T. Butrie, M. Reffle, H. Tsai, A. Dentai, J. Pleumeekers, M. Missey, M. Fisher, S. Murthy, R. Salvatore, P. Samra, S. Demars, N. Kim, A. James, A. Hosseini, P. Studenkov, M. Lauermann, R. Going, M. Lu, J. Zhang, J. Tang, J. Bostak, T. Vallaitis, M. Kuntz, D. Pavinski, A. Karanicolas, B. Behnia, D. Engel, O. Khayam, N. Modi, M. Chitgarha, P. Mertz, W. Ko, R. Maher, J. Osenbach, J. T. Rahn, H. Sun, K. Wu, M. Mitchell, and D. Welch, “System-on-chip photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24(1), 1–20 (2018).
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F. Kish, V. Lal, P. Evans, S. W. Corzine, M. Ziari, T. Butrie, M. Reffle, H. Tsai, A. Dentai, J. Pleumeekers, M. Missey, M. Fisher, S. Murthy, R. Salvatore, P. Samra, S. Demars, N. Kim, A. James, A. Hosseini, P. Studenkov, M. Lauermann, R. Going, M. Lu, J. Zhang, J. Tang, J. Bostak, T. Vallaitis, M. Kuntz, D. Pavinski, A. Karanicolas, B. Behnia, D. Engel, O. Khayam, N. Modi, M. Chitgarha, P. Mertz, W. Ko, R. Maher, J. Osenbach, J. T. Rahn, H. Sun, K. Wu, M. Mitchell, and D. Welch, “System-on-chip photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24(1), 1–20 (2018).
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S. Sonoda, I. Tsuruma, and M. Hatori, “Second harmonic generation in electric poled X-cut MgO-doped LiNbO3 waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(23), 3078–3080 (1997).
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D. Janner, D. Tulli, M. García-Granda, M. Belmonte, and V. Pruneri, “Micro-structured integrated electro-optic LiNbO3 modulators,” Laser Photonics Rev. 3(3), 301–313 (2009).
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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) shows the configuration of the electrodes on the surface of a Y-cut LN crystal. The electrodes are along the z-direction of the crystal. (b) and (c) show the electric field strength Ez (V/µm) in the direction of the polarization axis (crystal z-direction) along the surface of a LN crystal for a rectangular and a tapered finger electrode respectively. For symmetry reasons only one half of the unit cell of an 8.3 µm periodic structure is plotted with a partial electrode visible in the lower left corner. Shown is the average electric field strength within a surface layer extending 0.7 µm down into the LN. (d) and (e) show the electric field strengths of (b) and (c) sorted in descending order along the z-direction. (f) is the electric field strength of the cross sections of subfigures (d) and (e) along lz = 2 µm for rectangular and tapered finger electrodes (thick solid and dashed lines respectively). The dashed lines with squares and rhombus show the first derivative of the fields along the x-direction respectively.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Schematic diagram of the nucleation pulses and the poling pulse (blue shaded area) with a trapezoidal stabilization pulse.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Optical microscope image of electrically poled LN with the electrode period of 8.3 µm and the distance between positive and negative electrodes of 50 µm. Fabricated sample for poling (a) without applying the nucleation pulses and (b) with prior application of nucleation pulses.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. The influence of the electrode shape on the inverted domains is studied for otherwise identical poling conditions, where the blue shaded areas are inverted domains deduced from selective etching. (a) and (b) show the result for rectangular finger electrodes on one side, while the other sides are flat and finger electrodes respectively. In (c) and (d) the corresponding results for tapered finger electrodes rather than rectangular finger electrodes are shown. (e) presents the calculated grating quality for the samples (a) to (d). In subfigures (a) to (d), the positive and negative electrodes are at the top and bottom, respectively.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Measured current at the moment when poling occurs (Δt4) for different maximum poling voltages. In this example, the electrodes are tapered at both sides with periodicity of 8.3 µm and the distance between the electrodes of 50 µm. The dashed lines show the time period Δt4 where the voltage above the coercive field strength is applied. The inset shows the current and voltage signal during a complete poling process, the time span depicted in the main image is marked by orange shading.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Influence of maximum poling voltage on the domain inversion for samples with periodicity of L = 8.3 µm. (a) to (e) show the inverted domains for maximum poling voltage Up = 22.0, 22.5, 23.0, 23.5, and 24.0 V/µm, respectively. The intensity is measured by SHIM and the black lines are from the SEM images after etching. (f) shows the calculated grating quality for samples (a) to (e).
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Influence of poling duration on the domain inversion. The periodicity of the electrodes L is 8.3 µm. The measured signals from SHIM (intensity) and the inverted regions after etching and following SEM (lines) are shown in (a) to (e) for poling duration of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5 ms respectively. The maximum poling voltage Up is kept at 23.0 V/µm. (f) shows the calculated grating qualities for samples (a) to (e).
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. X-cut LN does not show an etch rate contrast with HF etching for different domain orientations. To visualize the domains a trench is therefore cut in the X-cut surface to expose the LN Z-face at the sidewalls. The Z-face shows significant etch rate contrast which can be used to measure the depth of the inverted domains. The ferroelectric pattern was created by tapered finger electrodes with a period of Λ = 16.6 µm and a distance of 50 µm. Before the HF wet etching, a 2 µm wide trench was created by focused ion beam milling. (a) Schematics of the sample and the trench. (b) SEM image of selectively etched X-cut LN sample with the trench. (c) SEM image of a cross-section of the trench that was prepared after etching, parallel to and through one of the inverted domains. The inverted domain protrudes from the left into the trench and appears as inversely shaped groove at the opposite side. The etched pattern indicates a homogenously inverted zone with a thickness of around 1 µm which is in good agreement with the electric field calculations shown in (d).