Abstract

Broadband low loss and ultra-low crosstalk waveguide crossings are a crucial component for photonic integrated circuits to allow a higher integration density of functional components and an increased flexibility in the layout. We report the design of optimized silicon nitride waveguide crossings based on multimode interferometer structures for intersecting light paths of TE/TE-like, TM/TM-like, and TE/TM-like polarized light in the near infrared wavelength region of 790 nm to 890 nm. The crossing design for diverse polarization modes facilitates dual polarization operation on a single chip. For all configurations the loss of a single crossing was measured to be ~0.05 dB at 840 nm. Within the 100 nm bandwidth losses stayed below 0.16 dB. The crosstalk was estimated to be on the order of −60 dB by means of 3D finite difference time domain simulations.

© 2020 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2019 (4)

H. Yang, P. Zheng, G. Hu, R. Zhang, B. Yun, and Y. Cui, “A broadband, low-crosstalk and low polarization dependent silicon nitride waveguide crossing based on the multimode-interference,” Opt. Commun. 450, 28–33 (2019).
[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

M. A. Porcel, A. Hinojosa, H. Jans, A. Stassen, J. Goyvaerts, D. Geuzebroek, M. Geiselmann, C. Dominguez, and I. Artundo, “[invited] silicon nitride photonic integration for visible light applications,” Opt. Laser Technol. 112, 299–306 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (6)

S. Nevlacsil, M. Eggeling, P. Muellner, G. Koppitsch, M. Sagmeister, J. Kraft, and R. Hainberger, “Broadband SiN asymmetric directional coupler for 840 nm operation,” OSA Continuum 1(4), 1324 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Sagmeister, G. Koppitsch, P. Muellner, S. Nevlacsil, A. MaeseNovo, R. Hainberger, D. Seyringer, and J. Kraft, “Monolithically integrated, CMOS-compatible SiN photonics for sensing applications,” Proceedings 2(13), 1023 (2018).
[Crossref]

W. Chang, L. Lu, X. Ren, D. Li, Z. Pan, M. Cheng, D. Liu, and M. Zhang, “Ultracompact dual-mode waveguide crossing based on subwavelength multimode-interference couplers,” Photonics Res. 6(7), 660 (2018).
[Crossref]

K. Abe, Y. Oizumi, and T. Ishigure, “Low-loss graded-index polymer crossed optical waveguide with high thermal resistance,” Opt. Express 26(4), 4512–4521 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. Martens, P. Ramirez-Priego, M. S. Murib, A. A. Elamin, A. B. Gonzalez-Guerrero, M. Stehr, F. Jonas, B. Anton, N. Hlawatsch, P. Soetaert, R. Vos, A. Stassen, S. Severi, W. van Roy, R. Bockstaele, H. Becker, M. Singh, L. M. Lechuga, and P. Bienstman, “A low-cost integrated biosensing platform based on SiN nanophotonics for biomarker detection in urine,” Anal. Methods 10(25), 3066–3073 (2018).
[Crossref]

P. Dumais, D. J. Goodwill, D. Celo, J. Jiang, C. Zhang, F. Zhao, X. Tu, C. Zhang, S. Yan, J. He, M. Li, W. Liu, Y. Wei, D. Geng, H. Mehrvar, and E. Bernier, “Silicon photonic switch subsystem with 900 monolithically integrated calibration photodiodes and 64-fiber package,” J. Lightwave Technol. 36(2), 233–238 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (2)

J. Chiles, S. Buckley, N. Nader, S. W. Nam, R. P. Mirin, and J. M. Shainline, “Multi-planar amorphous silicon photonics with compact interplanar couplers, cross talk mitigation, and low crossing loss,” APL Photonics 2(11), 116101 (2017).
[Crossref]

W. D. Sacher, J. C. Mikkelsen, P. Dumais, J. Jiang, D. Goodwill, X. Luo, Y. Huang, Y. Yang, A. Bois, P. G.-Q. Lo, E. Bernier, and J. K. S. Poon, “Tri-layer silicon nitride-on-silicon photonic platform for ultra-low-loss crossings and interlayer transitions,” Opt. Express 25(25), 30862–30875 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (1)

2015 (3)

2014 (4)

2013 (5)

2011 (3)

A. V. Tsarev, “Efficient silicon wire waveguide crossing with negligible loss and crosstalk,” Opt. Express 19(15), 13732–13737 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. Wakayama, T. Kita, and H. Yamada, “Optical crossing and integration using hybrid Si-wire/silica waveguides,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50(4S), 04DG20 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Xu, “Elimination of cross-talk in silicon-on-insulator waveguide crossings with optimized angle,” Opt. Eng. 50(6), 064601 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

F. Shinobu, Y. Arita, and T. Baba, “Low-loss simple waveguide intersection in silicon photonics,” Electron. Lett. 46(16), 1149 (2010).
[Crossref]

C. Chen and C. Chiu, “Taper-integrated multimode-interference based waveguide crossing design,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(11), 1656–1661 (2010).
[Crossref]

P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, A. Delâge, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, A. Densmore, and T. J. Hall, “Subwavelength grating crossings for silicon wire waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(15), 16146–16155 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

P. Sanchis, P. Villalba, F. Cuesta, A. Håkansson, A. Griol, J. V. Galán, A. Brimont, and J. Martí, “Highly efficient crossing structure for silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 34(18), 2760–2762 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. Tanaka, Y. Ikuma, and H. Tsuda, “Low loss, small crosstalk offset crossing structure for large-scale planar lightwave circuits,” IEICE Electron. Express 6(7), 407–411 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (3)

2007 (2)

P. Sanchis, J. V. Galan, A. Griol, J. Marti, M. A. Piqueras, and J. M. Perdigues, “Low-crosstalk in silicon-on-insulator waveguide crossings with optimized-angle,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19(20), 1583–1585 (2007).
[Crossref]

W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Low-loss, low-cross-talk crossings for silicon-on-insulator nanophotonic waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 32(19), 2801 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

H. Chen and A. W. Poon, “Low-loss multimode-interference-based crossings for silicon wire waveguides,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(21), 2260–2262 (2006).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

H. Liu, H. Tam, P. Wai, and E. Pun, “Low-loss waveguide crossing using a multimode interference structure,” Opt. Commun. 241(1-3), 99–104 (2004).
[Crossref]

T. Fukazawa, T. Hirano, F. Ohno, and T. Baba, “Low loss intersection of Si photonic wire waveguides,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(2), 646–647 (2004).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

L. B. Soldano and E. Pennings, “Optical multi-mode interference devices based on self-imaging: principles and applications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13(4), 615–627 (1995).
[Crossref]

Abe, K.

Aimez, V.

Amb, C. M.

B. W. Swatowski, C. M. Amb, M. G. Hyer, R. S. John, and W. Ken Weidner, “Graded index silicone waveguides for high performance computing,” in 2014 Optical Interconnects Conference, (IEEE, 2014), pp. 133–134.

Anton, B.

D. Martens, P. Ramirez-Priego, M. S. Murib, A. A. Elamin, A. B. Gonzalez-Guerrero, M. Stehr, F. Jonas, B. Anton, N. Hlawatsch, P. Soetaert, R. Vos, A. Stassen, S. Severi, W. van Roy, R. Bockstaele, H. Becker, M. Singh, L. M. Lechuga, and P. Bienstman, “A low-cost integrated biosensing platform based on SiN nanophotonics for biomarker detection in urine,” Anal. Methods 10(25), 3066–3073 (2018).
[Crossref]

Arita, Y.

F. Shinobu, Y. Arita, and T. Baba, “Low-loss simple waveguide intersection in silicon photonics,” Electron. Lett. 46(16), 1149 (2010).
[Crossref]

Artundo, I.

M. A. Porcel, A. Hinojosa, H. Jans, A. Stassen, J. Goyvaerts, D. Geuzebroek, M. Geiselmann, C. Dominguez, and I. Artundo, “[invited] silicon nitride photonic integration for visible light applications,” Opt. Laser Technol. 112, 299–306 (2019).
[Crossref]

Baba, T.

F. Shinobu, Y. Arita, and T. Baba, “Low-loss simple waveguide intersection in silicon photonics,” Electron. Lett. 46(16), 1149 (2010).
[Crossref]

T. Fukazawa, T. Hirano, F. Ohno, and T. Baba, “Low loss intersection of Si photonic wire waveguides,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(2), 646–647 (2004).
[Crossref]

Baehr-Jones, T.

Baets, R.

A. Z. Subramanian, P. Neutens, A. Dhakal, R. Jansen, T. Claes, X. Rottenberg, F. Peyskens, S. Selvaraja, P. Helin, B. DuBois, K. Leyssens, S. Severi, P. Deshpande, R. Baets, and P. van Dorpe, “Low-loss singlemode PECVD silicon nitride photonic wire waveguides for 532–900 nm wavelength window fabricated within a CMOS pilot line,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(6), 2202809 (2013).
[Crossref]

W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Low-loss, low-cross-talk crossings for silicon-on-insulator nanophotonic waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 32(19), 2801 (2007).
[Crossref]

Bamiedakis, N.

N. Bamiedakis, J. Beals, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, J. V. DeGroot, and T. V. Clapp, “Low loss and low crosstalk multimode polymer waveguide crossings for high-speed optical interconnects,” in 2007 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), (IEEE, 2007), p. 1–2.

Barton, J.

R. Moreira, J. Barton, M. Belt, T. Huffman, and D. Blumenthal, “Optical interconnect for 3D integration of ultra-low loss planar lightwave circuits,” Adv. Photonics2013, IT2A.4 (2013).

Beals, J.

N. Bamiedakis, J. Beals, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, J. V. DeGroot, and T. V. Clapp, “Low loss and low crosstalk multimode polymer waveguide crossings for high-speed optical interconnects,” in 2007 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), (IEEE, 2007), p. 1–2.

Becker, H.

D. Martens, P. Ramirez-Priego, M. S. Murib, A. A. Elamin, A. B. Gonzalez-Guerrero, M. Stehr, F. Jonas, B. Anton, N. Hlawatsch, P. Soetaert, R. Vos, A. Stassen, S. Severi, W. van Roy, R. Bockstaele, H. Becker, M. Singh, L. M. Lechuga, and P. Bienstman, “A low-cost integrated biosensing platform based on SiN nanophotonics for biomarker detection in urine,” Anal. Methods 10(25), 3066–3073 (2018).
[Crossref]

Belt, M.

R. Moreira, J. Barton, M. Belt, T. Huffman, and D. Blumenthal, “Optical interconnect for 3D integration of ultra-low loss planar lightwave circuits,” Adv. Photonics2013, IT2A.4 (2013).

Bergman, K.

N. Sherwood-Droz, H. Wang, L. Chen, B. G. Lee, A. Biberman, K. Bergman, and M. Lipson, “Optical 4x4 hitless slicon router for optical networks-on-chip (NoC),” Opt. Express 16(20), 15915–15922 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. Shacham, K. Bergman, and L. P. Carloni, “On the design of a photonic network-on-chip,” in First International Symposium on Networks-on-Chip (NOCS), (IEEE, 2007), pp. 53–64.

Bernier, E.

P. Dumais, D. J. Goodwill, D. Celo, J. Jiang, C. Zhang, F. Zhao, X. Tu, C. Zhang, S. Yan, J. He, M. Li, W. Liu, Y. Wei, D. Geng, H. Mehrvar, and E. Bernier, “Silicon photonic switch subsystem with 900 monolithically integrated calibration photodiodes and 64-fiber package,” J. Lightwave Technol. 36(2), 233–238 (2018).
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W. D. Sacher, J. C. Mikkelsen, P. Dumais, J. Jiang, D. Goodwill, X. Luo, Y. Huang, Y. Yang, A. Bois, P. G.-Q. Lo, E. Bernier, and J. K. S. Poon, “Tri-layer silicon nitride-on-silicon photonic platform for ultra-low-loss crossings and interlayer transitions,” Opt. Express 25(25), 30862–30875 (2017).
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P. Dumais, D. J. Goodwill, D. Celo, J. Jiang, and E. Bernier, “Three-mode synthesis of slab gaussian beam in ultra-low-loss in-plane nanophotonic silicon waveguide crossing,” in 2017 IEEE 14th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP), (IEEE, 2017), pp. 97–98.

D. Celo, P. Dumais, W. Liu, C. Zhang, D. J. Goodwill, J. Jiang, and E. Bernier, “Optical proximity correction in geometry sensitive silicon photonics waveguide crossings,” in 2017 IEEE 14th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP), (IEEE, 2017), pp. 45–46.

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Bienstman, P.

D. Martens, P. Ramirez-Priego, M. S. Murib, A. A. Elamin, A. B. Gonzalez-Guerrero, M. Stehr, F. Jonas, B. Anton, N. Hlawatsch, P. Soetaert, R. Vos, A. Stassen, S. Severi, W. van Roy, R. Bockstaele, H. Becker, M. Singh, L. M. Lechuga, and P. Bienstman, “A low-cost integrated biosensing platform based on SiN nanophotonics for biomarker detection in urine,” Anal. Methods 10(25), 3066–3073 (2018).
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Bockstaele, R.

D. Martens, P. Ramirez-Priego, M. S. Murib, A. A. Elamin, A. B. Gonzalez-Guerrero, M. Stehr, F. Jonas, B. Anton, N. Hlawatsch, P. Soetaert, R. Vos, A. Stassen, S. Severi, W. van Roy, R. Bockstaele, H. Becker, M. Singh, L. M. Lechuga, and P. Bienstman, “A low-cost integrated biosensing platform based on SiN nanophotonics for biomarker detection in urine,” Anal. Methods 10(25), 3066–3073 (2018).
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A. Shacham, K. Bergman, and L. P. Carloni, “On the design of a photonic network-on-chip,” in First International Symposium on Networks-on-Chip (NOCS), (IEEE, 2007), pp. 53–64.

Celo, D.

P. Dumais, D. J. Goodwill, D. Celo, J. Jiang, C. Zhang, F. Zhao, X. Tu, C. Zhang, S. Yan, J. He, M. Li, W. Liu, Y. Wei, D. Geng, H. Mehrvar, and E. Bernier, “Silicon photonic switch subsystem with 900 monolithically integrated calibration photodiodes and 64-fiber package,” J. Lightwave Technol. 36(2), 233–238 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. Celo, P. Dumais, W. Liu, C. Zhang, D. J. Goodwill, J. Jiang, and E. Bernier, “Optical proximity correction in geometry sensitive silicon photonics waveguide crossings,” in 2017 IEEE 14th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP), (IEEE, 2017), pp. 45–46.

P. Dumais, D. J. Goodwill, D. Celo, J. Jiang, and E. Bernier, “Three-mode synthesis of slab gaussian beam in ultra-low-loss in-plane nanophotonic silicon waveguide crossing,” in 2017 IEEE 14th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP), (IEEE, 2017), pp. 97–98.

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W. Chang, L. Lu, X. Ren, D. Li, Z. Pan, M. Cheng, D. Liu, and M. Zhang, “Ultracompact dual-mode waveguide crossing based on subwavelength multimode-interference couplers,” Photonics Res. 6(7), 660 (2018).
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Chen, R. T.

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W. Chang, L. Lu, X. Ren, D. Li, Z. Pan, M. Cheng, D. Liu, and M. Zhang, “Ultracompact dual-mode waveguide crossing based on subwavelength multimode-interference couplers,” Photonics Res. 6(7), 660 (2018).
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Chiles, J.

J. Chiles, S. Buckley, N. Nader, S. W. Nam, R. P. Mirin, and J. M. Shainline, “Multi-planar amorphous silicon photonics with compact interplanar couplers, cross talk mitigation, and low crossing loss,” APL Photonics 2(11), 116101 (2017).
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Chiu, C.

C. Chen and C. Chiu, “Taper-integrated multimode-interference based waveguide crossing design,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(11), 1656–1661 (2010).
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A. Z. Subramanian, P. Neutens, A. Dhakal, R. Jansen, T. Claes, X. Rottenberg, F. Peyskens, S. Selvaraja, P. Helin, B. DuBois, K. Leyssens, S. Severi, P. Deshpande, R. Baets, and P. van Dorpe, “Low-loss singlemode PECVD silicon nitride photonic wire waveguides for 532–900 nm wavelength window fabricated within a CMOS pilot line,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(6), 2202809 (2013).
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N. Bamiedakis, J. Beals, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, J. V. DeGroot, and T. V. Clapp, “Low loss and low crosstalk multimode polymer waveguide crossings for high-speed optical interconnects,” in 2007 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), (IEEE, 2007), p. 1–2.

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Cuesta, F.

Cui, Y.

H. Yang, P. Zheng, G. Hu, R. Zhang, B. Yun, and Y. Cui, “A broadband, low-crosstalk and low polarization dependent silicon nitride waveguide crossing based on the multimode-interference,” Opt. Commun. 450, 28–33 (2019).
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DeGroot, J. V.

N. Bamiedakis, J. Beals, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, J. V. DeGroot, and T. V. Clapp, “Low loss and low crosstalk multimode polymer waveguide crossings for high-speed optical interconnects,” in 2007 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), (IEEE, 2007), p. 1–2.

Delâge, A.

Densmore, A.

DeRose, C. T.

Deshpande, P.

A. Z. Subramanian, P. Neutens, A. Dhakal, R. Jansen, T. Claes, X. Rottenberg, F. Peyskens, S. Selvaraja, P. Helin, B. DuBois, K. Leyssens, S. Severi, P. Deshpande, R. Baets, and P. van Dorpe, “Low-loss singlemode PECVD silicon nitride photonic wire waveguides for 532–900 nm wavelength window fabricated within a CMOS pilot line,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(6), 2202809 (2013).
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Dhakal, A.

A. Z. Subramanian, P. Neutens, A. Dhakal, R. Jansen, T. Claes, X. Rottenberg, F. Peyskens, S. Selvaraja, P. Helin, B. DuBois, K. Leyssens, S. Severi, P. Deshpande, R. Baets, and P. van Dorpe, “Low-loss singlemode PECVD silicon nitride photonic wire waveguides for 532–900 nm wavelength window fabricated within a CMOS pilot line,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(6), 2202809 (2013).
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Ding, R.

Dominguez, C.

M. A. Porcel, A. Hinojosa, H. Jans, A. Stassen, J. Goyvaerts, D. Geuzebroek, M. Geiselmann, C. Dominguez, and I. Artundo, “[invited] silicon nitride photonic integration for visible light applications,” Opt. Laser Technol. 112, 299–306 (2019).
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DuBois, B.

A. Z. Subramanian, P. Neutens, A. Dhakal, R. Jansen, T. Claes, X. Rottenberg, F. Peyskens, S. Selvaraja, P. Helin, B. DuBois, K. Leyssens, S. Severi, P. Deshpande, R. Baets, and P. van Dorpe, “Low-loss singlemode PECVD silicon nitride photonic wire waveguides for 532–900 nm wavelength window fabricated within a CMOS pilot line,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(6), 2202809 (2013).
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Dumais, P.

P. Dumais, D. J. Goodwill, D. Celo, J. Jiang, C. Zhang, F. Zhao, X. Tu, C. Zhang, S. Yan, J. He, M. Li, W. Liu, Y. Wei, D. Geng, H. Mehrvar, and E. Bernier, “Silicon photonic switch subsystem with 900 monolithically integrated calibration photodiodes and 64-fiber package,” J. Lightwave Technol. 36(2), 233–238 (2018).
[Crossref]

W. D. Sacher, J. C. Mikkelsen, P. Dumais, J. Jiang, D. Goodwill, X. Luo, Y. Huang, Y. Yang, A. Bois, P. G.-Q. Lo, E. Bernier, and J. K. S. Poon, “Tri-layer silicon nitride-on-silicon photonic platform for ultra-low-loss crossings and interlayer transitions,” Opt. Express 25(25), 30862–30875 (2017).
[Crossref]

P. Dumais, D. J. Goodwill, D. Celo, J. Jiang, and E. Bernier, “Three-mode synthesis of slab gaussian beam in ultra-low-loss in-plane nanophotonic silicon waveguide crossing,” in 2017 IEEE 14th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP), (IEEE, 2017), pp. 97–98.

D. Celo, P. Dumais, W. Liu, C. Zhang, D. J. Goodwill, J. Jiang, and E. Bernier, “Optical proximity correction in geometry sensitive silicon photonics waveguide crossings,” in 2017 IEEE 14th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP), (IEEE, 2017), pp. 45–46.

Dumon, P.

Eggeling, M.

S. Nevlacsil, M. Eggeling, P. Muellner, G. Koppitsch, M. Sagmeister, J. Kraft, and R. Hainberger, “Broadband SiN asymmetric directional coupler for 840 nm operation,” OSA Continuum 1(4), 1324 (2018).
[Crossref]

R. Hainberger, P. Muellner, S. Nevlacsil, A. Maese-Novo, F. Vogelbacher, M. Eggeling, J. Schotter, M. Sagmeister, G. Koppitsch, and J. Kraft, “Silicon-nitride waveguide-based integrated photonic circuits for medical diagnostic and other sensing applications,” Proc. SPIE10922, 1092204 (2019).

R. Hainberger, P. Muellner, S. Nevlacsil, F. Vogelbacher, M. Eggeling, A. Maese-Novo, M. Sagmeister, G. Koppitsch, J. Kraft, X. Zhou, J. Huang, M. Li, K.-J. Jiang, and Y. Song, “PECVD silicon nitride optical waveguide devices for sensing applications in the visible and <1µm near infrared wavelength region,” Proc. SPIE11031, 110310A (2019).

Elamin, A. A.

D. Martens, P. Ramirez-Priego, M. S. Murib, A. A. Elamin, A. B. Gonzalez-Guerrero, M. Stehr, F. Jonas, B. Anton, N. Hlawatsch, P. Soetaert, R. Vos, A. Stassen, S. Severi, W. van Roy, R. Bockstaele, H. Becker, M. Singh, L. M. Lechuga, and P. Bienstman, “A low-cost integrated biosensing platform based on SiN nanophotonics for biomarker detection in urine,” Anal. Methods 10(25), 3066–3073 (2018).
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Feng, A.

Fukazawa, T.

T. Fukazawa, T. Hirano, F. Ohno, and T. Baba, “Low loss intersection of Si photonic wire waveguides,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(2), 646–647 (2004).
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P. Sanchis, J. V. Galan, A. Griol, J. Marti, M. A. Piqueras, and J. M. Perdigues, “Low-crosstalk in silicon-on-insulator waveguide crossings with optimized-angle,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19(20), 1583–1585 (2007).
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Galán, J. V.

Geiselmann, M.

M. A. Porcel, A. Hinojosa, H. Jans, A. Stassen, J. Goyvaerts, D. Geuzebroek, M. Geiselmann, C. Dominguez, and I. Artundo, “[invited] silicon nitride photonic integration for visible light applications,” Opt. Laser Technol. 112, 299–306 (2019).
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Geng, D.

Geuzebroek, D.

M. A. Porcel, A. Hinojosa, H. Jans, A. Stassen, J. Goyvaerts, D. Geuzebroek, M. Geiselmann, C. Dominguez, and I. Artundo, “[invited] silicon nitride photonic integration for visible light applications,” Opt. Laser Technol. 112, 299–306 (2019).
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Gonzalez-Guerrero, A. B.

D. Martens, P. Ramirez-Priego, M. S. Murib, A. A. Elamin, A. B. Gonzalez-Guerrero, M. Stehr, F. Jonas, B. Anton, N. Hlawatsch, P. Soetaert, R. Vos, A. Stassen, S. Severi, W. van Roy, R. Bockstaele, H. Becker, M. Singh, L. M. Lechuga, and P. Bienstman, “A low-cost integrated biosensing platform based on SiN nanophotonics for biomarker detection in urine,” Anal. Methods 10(25), 3066–3073 (2018).
[Crossref]

Goodwill, D.

Goodwill, D. J.

P. Dumais, D. J. Goodwill, D. Celo, J. Jiang, C. Zhang, F. Zhao, X. Tu, C. Zhang, S. Yan, J. He, M. Li, W. Liu, Y. Wei, D. Geng, H. Mehrvar, and E. Bernier, “Silicon photonic switch subsystem with 900 monolithically integrated calibration photodiodes and 64-fiber package,” J. Lightwave Technol. 36(2), 233–238 (2018).
[Crossref]

P. Dumais, D. J. Goodwill, D. Celo, J. Jiang, and E. Bernier, “Three-mode synthesis of slab gaussian beam in ultra-low-loss in-plane nanophotonic silicon waveguide crossing,” in 2017 IEEE 14th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP), (IEEE, 2017), pp. 97–98.

D. Celo, P. Dumais, W. Liu, C. Zhang, D. J. Goodwill, J. Jiang, and E. Bernier, “Optical proximity correction in geometry sensitive silicon photonics waveguide crossings,” in 2017 IEEE 14th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP), (IEEE, 2017), pp. 45–46.

Gorin, A.

Goyvaerts, J.

M. A. Porcel, A. Hinojosa, H. Jans, A. Stassen, J. Goyvaerts, D. Geuzebroek, M. Geiselmann, C. Dominguez, and I. Artundo, “[invited] silicon nitride photonic integration for visible light applications,” Opt. Laser Technol. 112, 299–306 (2019).
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P. Sanchis, P. Villalba, F. Cuesta, A. Håkansson, A. Griol, J. V. Galán, A. Brimont, and J. Martí, “Highly efficient crossing structure for silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 34(18), 2760–2762 (2009).
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P. Sanchis, J. V. Galan, A. Griol, J. Marti, M. A. Piqueras, and J. M. Perdigues, “Low-crosstalk in silicon-on-insulator waveguide crossings with optimized-angle,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19(20), 1583–1585 (2007).
[Crossref]

Grondin, E.

Guan, B.

Hainberger, R.

S. Nevlacsil, M. Eggeling, P. Muellner, G. Koppitsch, M. Sagmeister, J. Kraft, and R. Hainberger, “Broadband SiN asymmetric directional coupler for 840 nm operation,” OSA Continuum 1(4), 1324 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Sagmeister, G. Koppitsch, P. Muellner, S. Nevlacsil, A. MaeseNovo, R. Hainberger, D. Seyringer, and J. Kraft, “Monolithically integrated, CMOS-compatible SiN photonics for sensing applications,” Proceedings 2(13), 1023 (2018).
[Crossref]

P. Muellner, E. Melnik, G. Koppitsch, J. Kraft, F. Schrank, and R. Hainberger, “CMOS-compatible Si3N4 waveguides for optical biosensing,” Procedia Eng. 120, 578–581 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Hainberger, P. Muellner, S. Nevlacsil, F. Vogelbacher, M. Eggeling, A. Maese-Novo, M. Sagmeister, G. Koppitsch, J. Kraft, X. Zhou, J. Huang, M. Li, K.-J. Jiang, and Y. Song, “PECVD silicon nitride optical waveguide devices for sensing applications in the visible and <1µm near infrared wavelength region,” Proc. SPIE11031, 110310A (2019).

R. Hainberger, P. Muellner, S. Nevlacsil, A. Maese-Novo, F. Vogelbacher, M. Eggeling, J. Schotter, M. Sagmeister, G. Koppitsch, and J. Kraft, “Silicon-nitride waveguide-based integrated photonic circuits for medical diagnostic and other sensing applications,” Proc. SPIE10922, 1092204 (2019).

Håkansson, A.

Hall, T. J.

Hasama, T.

He, J.

Helin, P.

A. Z. Subramanian, P. Neutens, A. Dhakal, R. Jansen, T. Claes, X. Rottenberg, F. Peyskens, S. Selvaraja, P. Helin, B. DuBois, K. Leyssens, S. Severi, P. Deshpande, R. Baets, and P. van Dorpe, “Low-loss singlemode PECVD silicon nitride photonic wire waveguides for 532–900 nm wavelength window fabricated within a CMOS pilot line,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(6), 2202809 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hinojosa, A.

M. A. Porcel, A. Hinojosa, H. Jans, A. Stassen, J. Goyvaerts, D. Geuzebroek, M. Geiselmann, C. Dominguez, and I. Artundo, “[invited] silicon nitride photonic integration for visible light applications,” Opt. Laser Technol. 112, 299–306 (2019).
[Crossref]

Hirano, T.

T. Fukazawa, T. Hirano, F. Ohno, and T. Baba, “Low loss intersection of Si photonic wire waveguides,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(2), 646–647 (2004).
[Crossref]

Hlawatsch, N.

D. Martens, P. Ramirez-Priego, M. S. Murib, A. A. Elamin, A. B. Gonzalez-Guerrero, M. Stehr, F. Jonas, B. Anton, N. Hlawatsch, P. Soetaert, R. Vos, A. Stassen, S. Severi, W. van Roy, R. Bockstaele, H. Becker, M. Singh, L. M. Lechuga, and P. Bienstman, “A low-cost integrated biosensing platform based on SiN nanophotonics for biomarker detection in urine,” Anal. Methods 10(25), 3066–3073 (2018).
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Hochberg, M.

Hoffman, G. B.

Hood, D.

Horimoto, A.

R. Kinoshita, K. Kitazoe, and A. Horimoto, “Graded index polymer waveguide for high-bandwidth optical circuit,” in 2016 IEEE CPMT Symposium Japan (ICSJ), (IEEE, 2016), pp. 111–114.

Hosseini, A.

Hu, G.

H. Yang, P. Zheng, G. Hu, R. Zhang, B. Yun, and Y. Cui, “A broadband, low-crosstalk and low polarization dependent silicon nitride waveguide crossing based on the multimode-interference,” Opt. Commun. 450, 28–33 (2019).
[Crossref]

Huang, J.

R. Hainberger, P. Muellner, S. Nevlacsil, F. Vogelbacher, M. Eggeling, A. Maese-Novo, M. Sagmeister, G. Koppitsch, J. Kraft, X. Zhou, J. Huang, M. Li, K.-J. Jiang, and Y. Song, “PECVD silicon nitride optical waveguide devices for sensing applications in the visible and <1µm near infrared wavelength region,” Proc. SPIE11031, 110310A (2019).

Huang, Y.

Huffman, T.

R. Moreira, J. Barton, M. Belt, T. Huffman, and D. Blumenthal, “Optical interconnect for 3D integration of ultra-low loss planar lightwave circuits,” Adv. Photonics2013, IT2A.4 (2013).

Hyer, M. G.

B. W. Swatowski, C. M. Amb, M. G. Hyer, R. S. John, and W. Ken Weidner, “Graded index silicone waveguides for high performance computing,” in 2014 Optical Interconnects Conference, (IEEE, 2014), pp. 133–134.

Ikeda, K.

Ikuma, Y.

D. Tanaka, Y. Ikuma, and H. Tsuda, “Low loss, small crosstalk offset crossing structure for large-scale planar lightwave circuits,” IEICE Electron. Express 6(7), 407–411 (2009).
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Ishigure, T.

Ishikawa, H.

Jans, H.

M. A. Porcel, A. Hinojosa, H. Jans, A. Stassen, J. Goyvaerts, D. Geuzebroek, M. Geiselmann, C. Dominguez, and I. Artundo, “[invited] silicon nitride photonic integration for visible light applications,” Opt. Laser Technol. 112, 299–306 (2019).
[Crossref]

Jansen, R.

A. Z. Subramanian, P. Neutens, A. Dhakal, R. Jansen, T. Claes, X. Rottenberg, F. Peyskens, S. Selvaraja, P. Helin, B. DuBois, K. Leyssens, S. Severi, P. Deshpande, R. Baets, and P. van Dorpe, “Low-loss singlemode PECVD silicon nitride photonic wire waveguides for 532–900 nm wavelength window fabricated within a CMOS pilot line,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(6), 2202809 (2013).
[Crossref]

Janz, S.

Jaouad, A.

Jiang, J.

P. Dumais, D. J. Goodwill, D. Celo, J. Jiang, C. Zhang, F. Zhao, X. Tu, C. Zhang, S. Yan, J. He, M. Li, W. Liu, Y. Wei, D. Geng, H. Mehrvar, and E. Bernier, “Silicon photonic switch subsystem with 900 monolithically integrated calibration photodiodes and 64-fiber package,” J. Lightwave Technol. 36(2), 233–238 (2018).
[Crossref]

W. D. Sacher, J. C. Mikkelsen, P. Dumais, J. Jiang, D. Goodwill, X. Luo, Y. Huang, Y. Yang, A. Bois, P. G.-Q. Lo, E. Bernier, and J. K. S. Poon, “Tri-layer silicon nitride-on-silicon photonic platform for ultra-low-loss crossings and interlayer transitions,” Opt. Express 25(25), 30862–30875 (2017).
[Crossref]

D. Celo, P. Dumais, W. Liu, C. Zhang, D. J. Goodwill, J. Jiang, and E. Bernier, “Optical proximity correction in geometry sensitive silicon photonics waveguide crossings,” in 2017 IEEE 14th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP), (IEEE, 2017), pp. 45–46.

P. Dumais, D. J. Goodwill, D. Celo, J. Jiang, and E. Bernier, “Three-mode synthesis of slab gaussian beam in ultra-low-loss in-plane nanophotonic silicon waveguide crossing,” in 2017 IEEE 14th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP), (IEEE, 2017), pp. 97–98.

Jiang, K.-J.

R. Hainberger, P. Muellner, S. Nevlacsil, F. Vogelbacher, M. Eggeling, A. Maese-Novo, M. Sagmeister, G. Koppitsch, J. Kraft, X. Zhou, J. Huang, M. Li, K.-J. Jiang, and Y. Song, “PECVD silicon nitride optical waveguide devices for sensing applications in the visible and <1µm near infrared wavelength region,” Proc. SPIE11031, 110310A (2019).

John, R. S.

B. W. Swatowski, C. M. Amb, M. G. Hyer, R. S. John, and W. Ken Weidner, “Graded index silicone waveguides for high performance computing,” in 2014 Optical Interconnects Conference, (IEEE, 2014), pp. 133–134.

Jonas, F.

D. Martens, P. Ramirez-Priego, M. S. Murib, A. A. Elamin, A. B. Gonzalez-Guerrero, M. Stehr, F. Jonas, B. Anton, N. Hlawatsch, P. Soetaert, R. Vos, A. Stassen, S. Severi, W. van Roy, R. Bockstaele, H. Becker, M. Singh, L. M. Lechuga, and P. Bienstman, “A low-cost integrated biosensing platform based on SiN nanophotonics for biomarker detection in urine,” Anal. Methods 10(25), 3066–3073 (2018).
[Crossref]

Jones, A. M.

Kawashima, H.

Ken Weidner, W.

B. W. Swatowski, C. M. Amb, M. G. Hyer, R. S. John, and W. Ken Weidner, “Graded index silicone waveguides for high performance computing,” in 2014 Optical Interconnects Conference, (IEEE, 2014), pp. 133–134.

Kim, S.-H.

Kinoshita, R.

R. Kinoshita, K. Kitazoe, and A. Horimoto, “Graded index polymer waveguide for high-bandwidth optical circuit,” in 2016 IEEE CPMT Symposium Japan (ICSJ), (IEEE, 2016), pp. 111–114.

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Y. Wakayama, T. Kita, and H. Yamada, “Optical crossing and integration using hybrid Si-wire/silica waveguides,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50(4S), 04DG20 (2011).
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Kitazoe, K.

R. Kinoshita, K. Kitazoe, and A. Horimoto, “Graded index polymer waveguide for high-bandwidth optical circuit,” in 2016 IEEE CPMT Symposium Japan (ICSJ), (IEEE, 2016), pp. 111–114.

Koppitsch, G.

S. Nevlacsil, M. Eggeling, P. Muellner, G. Koppitsch, M. Sagmeister, J. Kraft, and R. Hainberger, “Broadband SiN asymmetric directional coupler for 840 nm operation,” OSA Continuum 1(4), 1324 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Sagmeister, G. Koppitsch, P. Muellner, S. Nevlacsil, A. MaeseNovo, R. Hainberger, D. Seyringer, and J. Kraft, “Monolithically integrated, CMOS-compatible SiN photonics for sensing applications,” Proceedings 2(13), 1023 (2018).
[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

Stehr, M.

D. Martens, P. Ramirez-Priego, M. S. Murib, A. A. Elamin, A. B. Gonzalez-Guerrero, M. Stehr, F. Jonas, B. Anton, N. Hlawatsch, P. Soetaert, R. Vos, A. Stassen, S. Severi, W. van Roy, R. Bockstaele, H. Becker, M. Singh, L. M. Lechuga, and P. Bienstman, “A low-cost integrated biosensing platform based on SiN nanophotonics for biomarker detection in urine,” Anal. Methods 10(25), 3066–3073 (2018).
[Crossref]

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Swatowski, B. W.

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D. Martens, P. Ramirez-Priego, M. S. Murib, A. A. Elamin, A. B. Gonzalez-Guerrero, M. Stehr, F. Jonas, B. Anton, N. Hlawatsch, P. Soetaert, R. Vos, A. Stassen, S. Severi, W. van Roy, R. Bockstaele, H. Becker, M. Singh, L. M. Lechuga, and P. Bienstman, “A low-cost integrated biosensing platform based on SiN nanophotonics for biomarker detection in urine,” Anal. Methods 10(25), 3066–3073 (2018).
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R. Hainberger, P. Muellner, S. Nevlacsil, F. Vogelbacher, M. Eggeling, A. Maese-Novo, M. Sagmeister, G. Koppitsch, J. Kraft, X. Zhou, J. Huang, M. Li, K.-J. Jiang, and Y. Song, “PECVD silicon nitride optical waveguide devices for sensing applications in the visible and <1µm near infrared wavelength region,” Proc. SPIE11031, 110310A (2019).

Anal. Methods (1)

D. Martens, P. Ramirez-Priego, M. S. Murib, A. A. Elamin, A. B. Gonzalez-Guerrero, M. Stehr, F. Jonas, B. Anton, N. Hlawatsch, P. Soetaert, R. Vos, A. Stassen, S. Severi, W. van Roy, R. Bockstaele, H. Becker, M. Singh, L. M. Lechuga, and P. Bienstman, “A low-cost integrated biosensing platform based on SiN nanophotonics for biomarker detection in urine,” Anal. Methods 10(25), 3066–3073 (2018).
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APL Photonics (1)

J. Chiles, S. Buckley, N. Nader, S. W. Nam, R. P. Mirin, and J. M. Shainline, “Multi-planar amorphous silicon photonics with compact interplanar couplers, cross talk mitigation, and low crossing loss,” APL Photonics 2(11), 116101 (2017).
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[Crossref]

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H. Yang, P. Zheng, G. Hu, R. Zhang, B. Yun, and Y. Cui, “A broadband, low-crosstalk and low polarization dependent silicon nitride waveguide crossing based on the multimode-interference,” Opt. Commun. 450, 28–33 (2019).
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Opt. Eng. (1)

J. Xu, “Elimination of cross-talk in silicon-on-insulator waveguide crossings with optimized angle,” Opt. Eng. 50(6), 064601 (2011).
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A. M. Jones, C. T. DeRose, A. L. Lentine, D. C. Trotter, A. L. Starbuck, and R. A. Norwood, “Ultra-low crosstalk, CMOS compatible waveguide crossings for densely integrated photonic interconnection networks,” Opt. Express 21(10), 12002–12013 (2013).
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N. Sherwood-Droz, H. Wang, L. Chen, B. G. Lee, A. Biberman, K. Bergman, and M. Lipson, “Optical 4x4 hitless slicon router for optical networks-on-chip (NoC),” Opt. Express 16(20), 15915–15922 (2008).
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P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, A. Delâge, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, A. Densmore, and T. J. Hall, “Subwavelength grating crossings for silicon wire waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(15), 16146–16155 (2010).
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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Schematics of tested waveguide crossings with corresponding geometry parameters exemplarily shown for the TM/TM type. The TE/TM type allows the low-loss crossing of light with different polarizations. The input waveguides have a width of 0.7 µm for all crossing types. The last schematic depicts a crossing consisting of single mode waveguides (SMWG) without an MMI.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Normalized field amplitude of the 3D-FDTD simulations in the TE/TM crossing for (a) TE-like polarized light propagating from left to right (b) TM-like polarized light propagating from top to bottom. The insets depict the normalized field amplitude distribution at the indicated positions in the single mode waveguide compared to the MMI. At the crossing position the mode expansion is reduced due to the beating behaviour of the MMI.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. False color image of cascaded crossings recorded with an infrared camera with light of 840 nm wavelength propagating in TM-like polarization for (a) a standard SMWG crossing and (b) the optimized TE/TM crossing. The images were recorded with identical camera settings. The distinct emission spots at the SMWG crossings indicate the higher losses in comparison to the MMI crossings. The stripes between the waveguide structures originate from the light scattered at lithographic fill patterns that are used to facilitate a homogeneous fabrication.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Comparison of loss and crosstalk of a single crossing between SMWG and optimized MMI crossings for light propagating in (a), (c) TE-like polarization and (b), (d) TM-like polarization. The dots indicate the measurement results and the lines the 3D-FDTD simulations. For the SMWG crossing for TE-like polarization (a) a moving average of 100 measurement points was applied to smooth high frequency oscillations which can be attributed to interfering back reflection in the SMWG crossings. The insets depict the design of the TE/TM with arrows corresponding to the measurement setup.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Schematic of a single crossing (a) compared to an array crossing (b) with multiple crossings in the same MMI structure with a constant distance. Corresponding loss measurement of a single crossing compared to arrayed crossings for (c) the TE/TE configuration and (d) the TM/TM configuration. The dots depict the measurement results and the continuous line the 3D-FDTD simulation of a single crossing. The shaded area indicates the loss distribution for a simulated waveguide width variation of up to $\pm {20}$ nm.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Different types of Si and SiN based waveguide crossings reported in literature. Superscripts "M" and "S" denote measured and simulated results, respectively. Further denoted are crossings for slot waveguides (a), higher modes (b), and crossings for which values of both polarizations are available with TE-like shown (*). Abbreviations: BW = bandwidth, IL = insertion loss, CT = crosstalk.

Tables Icon

Table 2. Values of the geometry parameters for the different crossing types.