Abstract

Intensity noise cross-correlation of the polarization eigenstates of light emerging from an atomic vapor cell in the Hanle EIT configuration results in high resolution spectroscopy even with free-running semiconductor lasers. We show that the character of the observed intensity noise in any output polarization basis can be modeled as a Markov process in the input light fields’ amplitudes that excite the response of a three-level medium. This method has promise as an inexpensive and simpler approach to vector magnetometry and has applications in timekeeping and as a probe of dynamics of atomic coherence in warm vapor cells.

© 2020 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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  1. M. Fleischhauer, A. Imamoglu, and J. Marangos, “Electromagnetically induced transparency: Optics in coherent media,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 77(2), 633–673 (2005).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  3. C. H. van der Wal, M. D. Eisaman, A. Andre’, R. L. Walsworth, D. F. Phillips, A. S. Zibrov, and M. D. Lukin, “Atomic Memory for Correlated Photon States,” Science 301(5630), 196–200 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  4. L.-M. Duan, M. Lukin, J. I. Cirac, and P. Zoller, “Long-distance quantum communication with atomic ensembles and linear optics,” Nature 414(6862), 413–418 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  5. J. Vanier, “Atomic clocks based on coherent population trapping: a review,” Appl. Phys. B 81(4), 421–442 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  6. D. Budker and M. Romalis, “Optical magnetometry,” Nat. Phys. 3(4), 227–234 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  7. E. Knill, R. Laflamme, and G. J. Milburn, “A scheme for efficient quantum computation with linear optics,” Nature 409(6816), 46–52 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  8. T. Yabuzaki, T. Mitsui, and U. Tanaka, “New type of high-resolution spectroscopy with a diode laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67(18), 2453–2456 (1991).
    [Crossref]
  9. D. H. McIntyre, C. E. Farichild, J. Cooper, and R. Walser, “Diode-laser noise spectroscopy of rubidium,” Opt. Lett. 18(21), 1816–1818 (1993).
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  10. M. Rosenbluh, A. Rosenhouse-Dantsker, A. D. Wilson-Gordon, M. D. Levenson, and R. Walser, “Spectroscopy with diode-laser noise,” Opt. Commun. 146(1-6), 158–162 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  11. D. Felinto, L. S. Cruz, R. A. de Oliveira, H. M. Florez, M. H. G. de Miranda, P. Nussenzveig, M. Martinelli, and J. W. R. Tabosa, “Physical interpretation for the correlation spectra of electromagnetically-induced-transparency resonances,” Opt. Express 21(2), 1512–1519 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  12. P. Li, L. Feng, and Y. Xiao, “Resolving multiple peaks using a sub-transit-linewidth cross-correlation resonance,” Phys. Rev. A 89(4), 043835 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  13. S. Rao, X. Hu, J. Xu, and L. Li, “Optical switching of cross intensity correlation in cavity electromagnetically induced transparency,” J. Phys. B: At., Mol. Opt. Phys. 50(5), 055504 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  14. J. Camparo and J. Coffer, “Conversion of laser phase noise to amplitude noise in a resonant atomic vapor: The role of laser linewidth,” Phys. Rev. A 59(1), 728–735 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  15. R. Walser and P. Zoller, “Laser-noise-induced polarization fluctuations as a spectroscopic tool,” Phys. Rev. A 49(6), 5067–5077 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  16. Y. Xiao, T. Wang, M. Baryakhtar, M. Van Camp, M. Crescimanno, M. Hohensee, L. Jiang, D. F. Phillips, M. D. Lukin, S. F. Yelin, and R. L. Walsworth, “Electromagnetically induced transparency with noisy lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 80(4), 041805 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  17. V. A. Sautenkov, Y. V. Rostovtsev, and M. O. Scully, “Switching between photon-photon correlations and Raman anticorrelations in a coherently prepared Rb vapor,” Phys. Rev. A 72(6), 065801 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  18. M. Martinelli, P. Valente, H. Failache, D. Felinto, L. S. Cruz, P. Nussenzveig, and A. Lezama, “Noise spectroscopy of nonlinear magneto-optical resonances in Rb vapor,” Phys. Rev. A 69(4), 043809 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  19. L. S. Cruz, D. Felinto, J. G. Aguirre-Gomez, M. Martinelli, P. Valente, A. Lezama, and P. Nussenzveig, “Laser-noise-induced correlations and anti-correlations in electromagnetically induced transparency,” Eur. Phys. J. D 41(3), 531–539 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  20. G. O. Ariunbold, Y. V. Rostovtsev, V. A. Sautenkov, and M. O. Scully, “Intensity correlation and anti-correlations in coherently driven atomic vapor,” J. Mod. Opt. 57(14-15), 1417–1427 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  21. L. Feng, P. Li, L. Jiang, J. Wen, and Y. Xiao, “Coherence-Assisted Resonance with Sub-Transit-Limited Linewidth,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(23), 233006 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  22. H. J. Lee and H. S. Moon, “Intensity correlation and anti-correlation in electromagnetically induced absorption,” Opt. Express 21(2), 2414–2422 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  23. A. Zheng, A. Green, M. Crescimanno, and S. O’Leary, “EIT Intensity Correlation Power Broadening in a Buffer Gas,” Phys. Rev. B 93(4), 043825 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  24. H. M. Florez, L. S. Cruz, M. H. G. de Miranda, R. A. de Oliveira, J. W. R. Tabosa, M. Martinelli, and D. Felinto, “Power-broadening-free correlation spectroscopy in cold atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 88(3), 033812 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  25. H. M. Florez, C. González, and M. Martinelli, “Perturbative approach in the frequency domain for the intensity correlation spectrum in electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. A 94(1), 012503 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  26. A. V. Taichenachev, A. M. Tumaikin, and V. I. Yudin, “Invariant treatment of coherent population trapping in an elliptically polarized field,” Europhys. Lett. 45(3), 301–306 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  27. K. Nasyrov, S. Cartaleva, N. Petrov, V. Biancalana, Y. Dancheva, E. Mariotti, and L. Moi, “Coherent population trapping resonances in Cs atoms excited by elliptically polarized light,” Phys. Rev. A 74(1), 013811 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  28. D. V. Brazhnikov, A. V. Taichenachev, A. M. Tumaiken, V. I. Yudin, S. A. Zibrov, Y. O. Dudin, V. V. Vasil’ev, and V. L. Velichansky, “Features of Magneto-Optical Resonances in an Elliptically Polarized Traveling Light Wave,” JETP Lett. 83(2), 64–68 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  29. H. J. Lee, T. Jeong, and H. S. Moon, “Postselection of a polarization basis in intensity correlations under electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. A 90(3), 033843 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  30. T.-C. Zhang, J.-P. Poizat, P. Grelu, J.-F. Roch, P. Grangier, F. Marin, A. Bramati, V. Jost, M. D. Levenson, and E. Giacobino, “Quantum noise of free-running and externally-stabilized laser diodes,” Quantum Semiclassical Opt. 7(4), 601–613 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  31. T. Jeong, I. H. Bae, and H. S. Moon, “Noise filtering via electromagnetically induced transparency,” Opt. Commun. 383, 31–35 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  32. J. Kitching, H. G. Robinson, L. Hollberg, S. Knappe, and R. Wynands, “Optical-pumping noise in laser-pumped, all-optical microwave frequency references,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18(11), 1676–1683 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  33. P. D. D. Schwindt, S. Knappe, V. Shah, L. Hollberg, J. Kitching, L.-A. Liew, and J. Moreland, “Chip-scale atomic magnetometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(26), 6409–6411 (2004).
    [Crossref]

2017 (2)

S. Rao, X. Hu, J. Xu, and L. Li, “Optical switching of cross intensity correlation in cavity electromagnetically induced transparency,” J. Phys. B: At., Mol. Opt. Phys. 50(5), 055504 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. Jeong, I. H. Bae, and H. S. Moon, “Noise filtering via electromagnetically induced transparency,” Opt. Commun. 383, 31–35 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (2)

A. Zheng, A. Green, M. Crescimanno, and S. O’Leary, “EIT Intensity Correlation Power Broadening in a Buffer Gas,” Phys. Rev. B 93(4), 043825 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. M. Florez, C. González, and M. Martinelli, “Perturbative approach in the frequency domain for the intensity correlation spectrum in electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. A 94(1), 012503 (2016).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

H. J. Lee, T. Jeong, and H. S. Moon, “Postselection of a polarization basis in intensity correlations under electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. A 90(3), 033843 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Li, L. Feng, and Y. Xiao, “Resolving multiple peaks using a sub-transit-linewidth cross-correlation resonance,” Phys. Rev. A 89(4), 043835 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

2012 (1)

L. Feng, P. Li, L. Jiang, J. Wen, and Y. Xiao, “Coherence-Assisted Resonance with Sub-Transit-Limited Linewidth,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(23), 233006 (2012).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

G. O. Ariunbold, Y. V. Rostovtsev, V. A. Sautenkov, and M. O. Scully, “Intensity correlation and anti-correlations in coherently driven atomic vapor,” J. Mod. Opt. 57(14-15), 1417–1427 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

Y. Xiao, T. Wang, M. Baryakhtar, M. Van Camp, M. Crescimanno, M. Hohensee, L. Jiang, D. F. Phillips, M. D. Lukin, S. F. Yelin, and R. L. Walsworth, “Electromagnetically induced transparency with noisy lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 80(4), 041805 (2009).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

L. S. Cruz, D. Felinto, J. G. Aguirre-Gomez, M. Martinelli, P. Valente, A. Lezama, and P. Nussenzveig, “Laser-noise-induced correlations and anti-correlations in electromagnetically induced transparency,” Eur. Phys. J. D 41(3), 531–539 (2007).
[Crossref]

D. Budker and M. Romalis, “Optical magnetometry,” Nat. Phys. 3(4), 227–234 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

K. Nasyrov, S. Cartaleva, N. Petrov, V. Biancalana, Y. Dancheva, E. Mariotti, and L. Moi, “Coherent population trapping resonances in Cs atoms excited by elliptically polarized light,” Phys. Rev. A 74(1), 013811 (2006).
[Crossref]

D. V. Brazhnikov, A. V. Taichenachev, A. M. Tumaiken, V. I. Yudin, S. A. Zibrov, Y. O. Dudin, V. V. Vasil’ev, and V. L. Velichansky, “Features of Magneto-Optical Resonances in an Elliptically Polarized Traveling Light Wave,” JETP Lett. 83(2), 64–68 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (3)

J. Vanier, “Atomic clocks based on coherent population trapping: a review,” Appl. Phys. B 81(4), 421–442 (2005).
[Crossref]

M. Fleischhauer, A. Imamoglu, and J. Marangos, “Electromagnetically induced transparency: Optics in coherent media,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 77(2), 633–673 (2005).
[Crossref]

V. A. Sautenkov, Y. V. Rostovtsev, and M. O. Scully, “Switching between photon-photon correlations and Raman anticorrelations in a coherently prepared Rb vapor,” Phys. Rev. A 72(6), 065801 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

M. Martinelli, P. Valente, H. Failache, D. Felinto, L. S. Cruz, P. Nussenzveig, and A. Lezama, “Noise spectroscopy of nonlinear magneto-optical resonances in Rb vapor,” Phys. Rev. A 69(4), 043809 (2004).
[Crossref]

P. D. D. Schwindt, S. Knappe, V. Shah, L. Hollberg, J. Kitching, L.-A. Liew, and J. Moreland, “Chip-scale atomic magnetometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(26), 6409–6411 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (2)

M. D. Lukin, “Colloquium : Trapping and manipulating photon states in atomic ensembles,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 75(2), 457–472 (2003).
[Crossref]

C. H. van der Wal, M. D. Eisaman, A. Andre’, R. L. Walsworth, D. F. Phillips, A. S. Zibrov, and M. D. Lukin, “Atomic Memory for Correlated Photon States,” Science 301(5630), 196–200 (2003).
[Crossref]

2001 (3)

L.-M. Duan, M. Lukin, J. I. Cirac, and P. Zoller, “Long-distance quantum communication with atomic ensembles and linear optics,” Nature 414(6862), 413–418 (2001).
[Crossref]

E. Knill, R. Laflamme, and G. J. Milburn, “A scheme for efficient quantum computation with linear optics,” Nature 409(6816), 46–52 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. Kitching, H. G. Robinson, L. Hollberg, S. Knappe, and R. Wynands, “Optical-pumping noise in laser-pumped, all-optical microwave frequency references,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18(11), 1676–1683 (2001).
[Crossref]

1999 (2)

A. V. Taichenachev, A. M. Tumaikin, and V. I. Yudin, “Invariant treatment of coherent population trapping in an elliptically polarized field,” Europhys. Lett. 45(3), 301–306 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. Camparo and J. Coffer, “Conversion of laser phase noise to amplitude noise in a resonant atomic vapor: The role of laser linewidth,” Phys. Rev. A 59(1), 728–735 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

M. Rosenbluh, A. Rosenhouse-Dantsker, A. D. Wilson-Gordon, M. D. Levenson, and R. Walser, “Spectroscopy with diode-laser noise,” Opt. Commun. 146(1-6), 158–162 (1998).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

T.-C. Zhang, J.-P. Poizat, P. Grelu, J.-F. Roch, P. Grangier, F. Marin, A. Bramati, V. Jost, M. D. Levenson, and E. Giacobino, “Quantum noise of free-running and externally-stabilized laser diodes,” Quantum Semiclassical Opt. 7(4), 601–613 (1995).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

R. Walser and P. Zoller, “Laser-noise-induced polarization fluctuations as a spectroscopic tool,” Phys. Rev. A 49(6), 5067–5077 (1994).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

1991 (1)

T. Yabuzaki, T. Mitsui, and U. Tanaka, “New type of high-resolution spectroscopy with a diode laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67(18), 2453–2456 (1991).
[Crossref]

Aguirre-Gomez, J. G.

L. S. Cruz, D. Felinto, J. G. Aguirre-Gomez, M. Martinelli, P. Valente, A. Lezama, and P. Nussenzveig, “Laser-noise-induced correlations and anti-correlations in electromagnetically induced transparency,” Eur. Phys. J. D 41(3), 531–539 (2007).
[Crossref]

Andre’, A.

C. H. van der Wal, M. D. Eisaman, A. Andre’, R. L. Walsworth, D. F. Phillips, A. S. Zibrov, and M. D. Lukin, “Atomic Memory for Correlated Photon States,” Science 301(5630), 196–200 (2003).
[Crossref]

Ariunbold, G. O.

G. O. Ariunbold, Y. V. Rostovtsev, V. A. Sautenkov, and M. O. Scully, “Intensity correlation and anti-correlations in coherently driven atomic vapor,” J. Mod. Opt. 57(14-15), 1417–1427 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bae, I. H.

T. Jeong, I. H. Bae, and H. S. Moon, “Noise filtering via electromagnetically induced transparency,” Opt. Commun. 383, 31–35 (2017).
[Crossref]

Baryakhtar, M.

Y. Xiao, T. Wang, M. Baryakhtar, M. Van Camp, M. Crescimanno, M. Hohensee, L. Jiang, D. F. Phillips, M. D. Lukin, S. F. Yelin, and R. L. Walsworth, “Electromagnetically induced transparency with noisy lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 80(4), 041805 (2009).
[Crossref]

Biancalana, V.

K. Nasyrov, S. Cartaleva, N. Petrov, V. Biancalana, Y. Dancheva, E. Mariotti, and L. Moi, “Coherent population trapping resonances in Cs atoms excited by elliptically polarized light,” Phys. Rev. A 74(1), 013811 (2006).
[Crossref]

Bramati, A.

T.-C. Zhang, J.-P. Poizat, P. Grelu, J.-F. Roch, P. Grangier, F. Marin, A. Bramati, V. Jost, M. D. Levenson, and E. Giacobino, “Quantum noise of free-running and externally-stabilized laser diodes,” Quantum Semiclassical Opt. 7(4), 601–613 (1995).
[Crossref]

Brazhnikov, D. V.

D. V. Brazhnikov, A. V. Taichenachev, A. M. Tumaiken, V. I. Yudin, S. A. Zibrov, Y. O. Dudin, V. V. Vasil’ev, and V. L. Velichansky, “Features of Magneto-Optical Resonances in an Elliptically Polarized Traveling Light Wave,” JETP Lett. 83(2), 64–68 (2006).
[Crossref]

Budker, D.

D. Budker and M. Romalis, “Optical magnetometry,” Nat. Phys. 3(4), 227–234 (2007).
[Crossref]

Camparo, J.

J. Camparo and J. Coffer, “Conversion of laser phase noise to amplitude noise in a resonant atomic vapor: The role of laser linewidth,” Phys. Rev. A 59(1), 728–735 (1999).
[Crossref]

Cartaleva, S.

K. Nasyrov, S. Cartaleva, N. Petrov, V. Biancalana, Y. Dancheva, E. Mariotti, and L. Moi, “Coherent population trapping resonances in Cs atoms excited by elliptically polarized light,” Phys. Rev. A 74(1), 013811 (2006).
[Crossref]

Cirac, J. I.

L.-M. Duan, M. Lukin, J. I. Cirac, and P. Zoller, “Long-distance quantum communication with atomic ensembles and linear optics,” Nature 414(6862), 413–418 (2001).
[Crossref]

Coffer, J.

J. Camparo and J. Coffer, “Conversion of laser phase noise to amplitude noise in a resonant atomic vapor: The role of laser linewidth,” Phys. Rev. A 59(1), 728–735 (1999).
[Crossref]

Cooper, J.

Crescimanno, M.

A. Zheng, A. Green, M. Crescimanno, and S. O’Leary, “EIT Intensity Correlation Power Broadening in a Buffer Gas,” Phys. Rev. B 93(4), 043825 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Xiao, T. Wang, M. Baryakhtar, M. Van Camp, M. Crescimanno, M. Hohensee, L. Jiang, D. F. Phillips, M. D. Lukin, S. F. Yelin, and R. L. Walsworth, “Electromagnetically induced transparency with noisy lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 80(4), 041805 (2009).
[Crossref]

Cruz, L. S.

H. M. Florez, L. S. Cruz, M. H. G. de Miranda, R. A. de Oliveira, J. W. R. Tabosa, M. Martinelli, and D. Felinto, “Power-broadening-free correlation spectroscopy in cold atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 88(3), 033812 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Felinto, L. S. Cruz, R. A. de Oliveira, H. M. Florez, M. H. G. de Miranda, P. Nussenzveig, M. Martinelli, and J. W. R. Tabosa, “Physical interpretation for the correlation spectra of electromagnetically-induced-transparency resonances,” Opt. Express 21(2), 1512–1519 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. S. Cruz, D. Felinto, J. G. Aguirre-Gomez, M. Martinelli, P. Valente, A. Lezama, and P. Nussenzveig, “Laser-noise-induced correlations and anti-correlations in electromagnetically induced transparency,” Eur. Phys. J. D 41(3), 531–539 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. Martinelli, P. Valente, H. Failache, D. Felinto, L. S. Cruz, P. Nussenzveig, and A. Lezama, “Noise spectroscopy of nonlinear magneto-optical resonances in Rb vapor,” Phys. Rev. A 69(4), 043809 (2004).
[Crossref]

Dancheva, Y.

K. Nasyrov, S. Cartaleva, N. Petrov, V. Biancalana, Y. Dancheva, E. Mariotti, and L. Moi, “Coherent population trapping resonances in Cs atoms excited by elliptically polarized light,” Phys. Rev. A 74(1), 013811 (2006).
[Crossref]

de Miranda, M. H. G.

D. Felinto, L. S. Cruz, R. A. de Oliveira, H. M. Florez, M. H. G. de Miranda, P. Nussenzveig, M. Martinelli, and J. W. R. Tabosa, “Physical interpretation for the correlation spectra of electromagnetically-induced-transparency resonances,” Opt. Express 21(2), 1512–1519 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. M. Florez, L. S. Cruz, M. H. G. de Miranda, R. A. de Oliveira, J. W. R. Tabosa, M. Martinelli, and D. Felinto, “Power-broadening-free correlation spectroscopy in cold atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 88(3), 033812 (2013).
[Crossref]

de Oliveira, R. A.

H. M. Florez, L. S. Cruz, M. H. G. de Miranda, R. A. de Oliveira, J. W. R. Tabosa, M. Martinelli, and D. Felinto, “Power-broadening-free correlation spectroscopy in cold atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 88(3), 033812 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Felinto, L. S. Cruz, R. A. de Oliveira, H. M. Florez, M. H. G. de Miranda, P. Nussenzveig, M. Martinelli, and J. W. R. Tabosa, “Physical interpretation for the correlation spectra of electromagnetically-induced-transparency resonances,” Opt. Express 21(2), 1512–1519 (2013).
[Crossref]

Duan, L.-M.

L.-M. Duan, M. Lukin, J. I. Cirac, and P. Zoller, “Long-distance quantum communication with atomic ensembles and linear optics,” Nature 414(6862), 413–418 (2001).
[Crossref]

Dudin, Y. O.

D. V. Brazhnikov, A. V. Taichenachev, A. M. Tumaiken, V. I. Yudin, S. A. Zibrov, Y. O. Dudin, V. V. Vasil’ev, and V. L. Velichansky, “Features of Magneto-Optical Resonances in an Elliptically Polarized Traveling Light Wave,” JETP Lett. 83(2), 64–68 (2006).
[Crossref]

Eisaman, M. D.

C. H. van der Wal, M. D. Eisaman, A. Andre’, R. L. Walsworth, D. F. Phillips, A. S. Zibrov, and M. D. Lukin, “Atomic Memory for Correlated Photon States,” Science 301(5630), 196–200 (2003).
[Crossref]

Failache, H.

M. Martinelli, P. Valente, H. Failache, D. Felinto, L. S. Cruz, P. Nussenzveig, and A. Lezama, “Noise spectroscopy of nonlinear magneto-optical resonances in Rb vapor,” Phys. Rev. A 69(4), 043809 (2004).
[Crossref]

Farichild, C. E.

Felinto, D.

D. Felinto, L. S. Cruz, R. A. de Oliveira, H. M. Florez, M. H. G. de Miranda, P. Nussenzveig, M. Martinelli, and J. W. R. Tabosa, “Physical interpretation for the correlation spectra of electromagnetically-induced-transparency resonances,” Opt. Express 21(2), 1512–1519 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. M. Florez, L. S. Cruz, M. H. G. de Miranda, R. A. de Oliveira, J. W. R. Tabosa, M. Martinelli, and D. Felinto, “Power-broadening-free correlation spectroscopy in cold atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 88(3), 033812 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. S. Cruz, D. Felinto, J. G. Aguirre-Gomez, M. Martinelli, P. Valente, A. Lezama, and P. Nussenzveig, “Laser-noise-induced correlations and anti-correlations in electromagnetically induced transparency,” Eur. Phys. J. D 41(3), 531–539 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. Martinelli, P. Valente, H. Failache, D. Felinto, L. S. Cruz, P. Nussenzveig, and A. Lezama, “Noise spectroscopy of nonlinear magneto-optical resonances in Rb vapor,” Phys. Rev. A 69(4), 043809 (2004).
[Crossref]

Feng, L.

P. Li, L. Feng, and Y. Xiao, “Resolving multiple peaks using a sub-transit-linewidth cross-correlation resonance,” Phys. Rev. A 89(4), 043835 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Feng, P. Li, L. Jiang, J. Wen, and Y. Xiao, “Coherence-Assisted Resonance with Sub-Transit-Limited Linewidth,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(23), 233006 (2012).
[Crossref]

Fleischhauer, M.

M. Fleischhauer, A. Imamoglu, and J. Marangos, “Electromagnetically induced transparency: Optics in coherent media,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 77(2), 633–673 (2005).
[Crossref]

Florez, H. M.

H. M. Florez, C. González, and M. Martinelli, “Perturbative approach in the frequency domain for the intensity correlation spectrum in electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. A 94(1), 012503 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Felinto, L. S. Cruz, R. A. de Oliveira, H. M. Florez, M. H. G. de Miranda, P. Nussenzveig, M. Martinelli, and J. W. R. Tabosa, “Physical interpretation for the correlation spectra of electromagnetically-induced-transparency resonances,” Opt. Express 21(2), 1512–1519 (2013).
[Crossref]

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Y. Xiao, T. Wang, M. Baryakhtar, M. Van Camp, M. Crescimanno, M. Hohensee, L. Jiang, D. F. Phillips, M. D. Lukin, S. F. Yelin, and R. L. Walsworth, “Electromagnetically induced transparency with noisy lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 80(4), 041805 (2009).
[Crossref]

Xu, J.

S. Rao, X. Hu, J. Xu, and L. Li, “Optical switching of cross intensity correlation in cavity electromagnetically induced transparency,” J. Phys. B: At., Mol. Opt. Phys. 50(5), 055504 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yabuzaki, T.

T. Yabuzaki, T. Mitsui, and U. Tanaka, “New type of high-resolution spectroscopy with a diode laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67(18), 2453–2456 (1991).
[Crossref]

Yelin, S. F.

Y. Xiao, T. Wang, M. Baryakhtar, M. Van Camp, M. Crescimanno, M. Hohensee, L. Jiang, D. F. Phillips, M. D. Lukin, S. F. Yelin, and R. L. Walsworth, “Electromagnetically induced transparency with noisy lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 80(4), 041805 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yudin, V. I.

D. V. Brazhnikov, A. V. Taichenachev, A. M. Tumaiken, V. I. Yudin, S. A. Zibrov, Y. O. Dudin, V. V. Vasil’ev, and V. L. Velichansky, “Features of Magneto-Optical Resonances in an Elliptically Polarized Traveling Light Wave,” JETP Lett. 83(2), 64–68 (2006).
[Crossref]

A. V. Taichenachev, A. M. Tumaikin, and V. I. Yudin, “Invariant treatment of coherent population trapping in an elliptically polarized field,” Europhys. Lett. 45(3), 301–306 (1999).
[Crossref]

Zhang, T.-C.

T.-C. Zhang, J.-P. Poizat, P. Grelu, J.-F. Roch, P. Grangier, F. Marin, A. Bramati, V. Jost, M. D. Levenson, and E. Giacobino, “Quantum noise of free-running and externally-stabilized laser diodes,” Quantum Semiclassical Opt. 7(4), 601–613 (1995).
[Crossref]

Zheng, A.

A. Zheng, A. Green, M. Crescimanno, and S. O’Leary, “EIT Intensity Correlation Power Broadening in a Buffer Gas,” Phys. Rev. B 93(4), 043825 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zibrov, A. S.

C. H. van der Wal, M. D. Eisaman, A. Andre’, R. L. Walsworth, D. F. Phillips, A. S. Zibrov, and M. D. Lukin, “Atomic Memory for Correlated Photon States,” Science 301(5630), 196–200 (2003).
[Crossref]

Zibrov, S. A.

D. V. Brazhnikov, A. V. Taichenachev, A. M. Tumaiken, V. I. Yudin, S. A. Zibrov, Y. O. Dudin, V. V. Vasil’ev, and V. L. Velichansky, “Features of Magneto-Optical Resonances in an Elliptically Polarized Traveling Light Wave,” JETP Lett. 83(2), 64–68 (2006).
[Crossref]

Zoller, P.

L.-M. Duan, M. Lukin, J. I. Cirac, and P. Zoller, “Long-distance quantum communication with atomic ensembles and linear optics,” Nature 414(6862), 413–418 (2001).
[Crossref]

R. Walser and P. Zoller, “Laser-noise-induced polarization fluctuations as a spectroscopic tool,” Phys. Rev. A 49(6), 5067–5077 (1994).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

J. Vanier, “Atomic clocks based on coherent population trapping: a review,” Appl. Phys. B 81(4), 421–442 (2005).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

P. D. D. Schwindt, S. Knappe, V. Shah, L. Hollberg, J. Kitching, L.-A. Liew, and J. Moreland, “Chip-scale atomic magnetometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(26), 6409–6411 (2004).
[Crossref]

Eur. Phys. J. D (1)

L. S. Cruz, D. Felinto, J. G. Aguirre-Gomez, M. Martinelli, P. Valente, A. Lezama, and P. Nussenzveig, “Laser-noise-induced correlations and anti-correlations in electromagnetically induced transparency,” Eur. Phys. J. D 41(3), 531–539 (2007).
[Crossref]

Europhys. Lett. (1)

A. V. Taichenachev, A. M. Tumaikin, and V. I. Yudin, “Invariant treatment of coherent population trapping in an elliptically polarized field,” Europhys. Lett. 45(3), 301–306 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

G. O. Ariunbold, Y. V. Rostovtsev, V. A. Sautenkov, and M. O. Scully, “Intensity correlation and anti-correlations in coherently driven atomic vapor,” J. Mod. Opt. 57(14-15), 1417–1427 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. B: At., Mol. Opt. Phys. (1)

S. Rao, X. Hu, J. Xu, and L. Li, “Optical switching of cross intensity correlation in cavity electromagnetically induced transparency,” J. Phys. B: At., Mol. Opt. Phys. 50(5), 055504 (2017).
[Crossref]

JETP Lett. (1)

D. V. Brazhnikov, A. V. Taichenachev, A. M. Tumaiken, V. I. Yudin, S. A. Zibrov, Y. O. Dudin, V. V. Vasil’ev, and V. L. Velichansky, “Features of Magneto-Optical Resonances in an Elliptically Polarized Traveling Light Wave,” JETP Lett. 83(2), 64–68 (2006).
[Crossref]

Nat. Phys. (1)

D. Budker and M. Romalis, “Optical magnetometry,” Nat. Phys. 3(4), 227–234 (2007).
[Crossref]

Nature (2)

E. Knill, R. Laflamme, and G. J. Milburn, “A scheme for efficient quantum computation with linear optics,” Nature 409(6816), 46–52 (2001).
[Crossref]

L.-M. Duan, M. Lukin, J. I. Cirac, and P. Zoller, “Long-distance quantum communication with atomic ensembles and linear optics,” Nature 414(6862), 413–418 (2001).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (2)

M. Rosenbluh, A. Rosenhouse-Dantsker, A. D. Wilson-Gordon, M. D. Levenson, and R. Walser, “Spectroscopy with diode-laser noise,” Opt. Commun. 146(1-6), 158–162 (1998).
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T. Jeong, I. H. Bae, and H. S. Moon, “Noise filtering via electromagnetically induced transparency,” Opt. Commun. 383, 31–35 (2017).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. A (10)

H. J. Lee, T. Jeong, and H. S. Moon, “Postselection of a polarization basis in intensity correlations under electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. A 90(3), 033843 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. Nasyrov, S. Cartaleva, N. Petrov, V. Biancalana, Y. Dancheva, E. Mariotti, and L. Moi, “Coherent population trapping resonances in Cs atoms excited by elliptically polarized light,” Phys. Rev. A 74(1), 013811 (2006).
[Crossref]

H. M. Florez, L. S. Cruz, M. H. G. de Miranda, R. A. de Oliveira, J. W. R. Tabosa, M. Martinelli, and D. Felinto, “Power-broadening-free correlation spectroscopy in cold atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 88(3), 033812 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. M. Florez, C. González, and M. Martinelli, “Perturbative approach in the frequency domain for the intensity correlation spectrum in electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. A 94(1), 012503 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. Li, L. Feng, and Y. Xiao, “Resolving multiple peaks using a sub-transit-linewidth cross-correlation resonance,” Phys. Rev. A 89(4), 043835 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Camparo and J. Coffer, “Conversion of laser phase noise to amplitude noise in a resonant atomic vapor: The role of laser linewidth,” Phys. Rev. A 59(1), 728–735 (1999).
[Crossref]

R. Walser and P. Zoller, “Laser-noise-induced polarization fluctuations as a spectroscopic tool,” Phys. Rev. A 49(6), 5067–5077 (1994).
[Crossref]

Y. Xiao, T. Wang, M. Baryakhtar, M. Van Camp, M. Crescimanno, M. Hohensee, L. Jiang, D. F. Phillips, M. D. Lukin, S. F. Yelin, and R. L. Walsworth, “Electromagnetically induced transparency with noisy lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 80(4), 041805 (2009).
[Crossref]

V. A. Sautenkov, Y. V. Rostovtsev, and M. O. Scully, “Switching between photon-photon correlations and Raman anticorrelations in a coherently prepared Rb vapor,” Phys. Rev. A 72(6), 065801 (2005).
[Crossref]

M. Martinelli, P. Valente, H. Failache, D. Felinto, L. S. Cruz, P. Nussenzveig, and A. Lezama, “Noise spectroscopy of nonlinear magneto-optical resonances in Rb vapor,” Phys. Rev. A 69(4), 043809 (2004).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

A. Zheng, A. Green, M. Crescimanno, and S. O’Leary, “EIT Intensity Correlation Power Broadening in a Buffer Gas,” Phys. Rev. B 93(4), 043825 (2016).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

L. Feng, P. Li, L. Jiang, J. Wen, and Y. Xiao, “Coherence-Assisted Resonance with Sub-Transit-Limited Linewidth,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(23), 233006 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Yabuzaki, T. Mitsui, and U. Tanaka, “New type of high-resolution spectroscopy with a diode laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67(18), 2453–2456 (1991).
[Crossref]

Quantum Semiclassical Opt. (1)

T.-C. Zhang, J.-P. Poizat, P. Grelu, J.-F. Roch, P. Grangier, F. Marin, A. Bramati, V. Jost, M. D. Levenson, and E. Giacobino, “Quantum noise of free-running and externally-stabilized laser diodes,” Quantum Semiclassical Opt. 7(4), 601–613 (1995).
[Crossref]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (2)

M. Fleischhauer, A. Imamoglu, and J. Marangos, “Electromagnetically induced transparency: Optics in coherent media,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 77(2), 633–673 (2005).
[Crossref]

M. D. Lukin, “Colloquium : Trapping and manipulating photon states in atomic ensembles,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 75(2), 457–472 (2003).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

C. H. van der Wal, M. D. Eisaman, A. Andre’, R. L. Walsworth, D. F. Phillips, A. S. Zibrov, and M. D. Lukin, “Atomic Memory for Correlated Photon States,” Science 301(5630), 196–200 (2003).
[Crossref]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) Experimental setup and (b) the 3-level diagram of the minimal atomic quantum optics model of EIT.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) Experimental RMS noise in each of the analyzer ports as a function of the two-photon detuning with the post-cell phase plate held at 45$^\circ$ ($\sigma _{+}$ in Red $\large {\circ }$’s, and $\sigma _{-}$ in green x’s). (b) The cross-correlation statistic, $g^{(2)}(0)$ versus detuning measured (points) and theory (line) for the cross-correlation statistic for the post-cell phase plate held at 45$^\circ$ and (c) Experiment (points) and theory (line) for the post-cell quarter wave plate held at 60$^\circ$. The lack of smoothness of the theory curves is due to finite sample size for each detuning (here chosen to match that of the experimental data)
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) Shift of the $g^{(2)}(0)$ maxima, experiment (red +’s) and theory (green line) with wave plate angle beyond 45$^\circ$ degrees. Also shown is the FWHM, experiment (blue *’s) and theory (cyan line). (b) The asymmetry $\upsilon$, experiment (red +’s) and theory (green line), as a function of the wave plate angle beyond 45$^\circ$ degrees.

Equations (5)

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g ( 2 ) ( 0 ) = ( δ I a ) ( δ I b ) ( δ I a ) 2 ( δ I b ) 2 ,
δ I c = c o s 2 θ δ I a + sin 2 θ δ I b + 2 sin ( 2 θ ) cos ( 2 τ ) δ ( a b 1 ) 2 sin ( 2 θ ) sin ( 2 τ ) δ ( a b 2 ) ,
H = D | 0 0 | + ( Ω + | 0 1 | + Ω | 0 2 | + h . c . ) Δ 2 | 1 1 | + Δ 2 | 2 2 |
L ρ = γ 1 | 0 0 | γ 2 ( | 0 1 | + | 0 2 | + h . c . ) Γ 1 | 1 2 | + h.c. ( | 1 1 | ( Γ Γ ρ 22 / ρ 11 γ 2 ρ 00 / ρ 11 ) | 2 2 | ( Γ Γ ρ 11 / ρ 22 γ 2 ρ 00 / ρ 22 )
t ρ = i [ H , ρ ] + L ρ