Abstract

We use the dispersive Fourier transform to spectrally characterize “multipulse soliton complexes” in a dissipative soliton fiber laser operating in the soliton-similariton regime. These multipulse complexes consist of two or more circulating dissipative solitons of picosecond duration, but with temporal separations of ∼5–40 ns, three orders of magnitude greater than the individual pulse durations. The results we present include a multipulse complex of 9 distinct single soliton pulses with ∼10 ns separation, as well as a multipulse complex where a soliton molecule of two bound pulses separated by ∼40 ps coexists with multiple single pulses with separations of ∼30 ns. We also use the dispersive Fourier transform to characterize breathing and transition dynamics in this multipulse regime, and our results add further to the experimental characterization of the diverse range of nonlinear structures in dissipative soliton systems.

© 2020 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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    [Crossref]
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2020 (1)

2019 (16)

C. Lapre, C. Billet, F. Meng, P. Ryczkowski, T. Sylvestre, C. Finot, G. Genty, and J. M. Dudley, “Real-time characterization of spectral instabilities in a mode-locked fibre laser exhibiting soliton-similariton dynamics,” Sci. Rep. 9(1), 13950 (2019).
[Crossref]

H.-J. Chen, Y.-J. Tan, J.-G. Long, W.-C. Chen, W.-Y. Hong, H. Cui, A.-P. Luo, Z.-C. Luo, and W.-C. Xu, “Dynamical diversity of pulsating solitons in a fiber laser,” Opt. Express 27(20), 28507–28522 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. Luo, Y. Xiang, T. Liu, B. Liu, R. Xia, Z. Yan, X. Tang, D. Liu, Q. Sun, and P. P. Shum, “Real-time access to the coexistence of soliton singlets and molecules in an all-fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 44(17), 4263–4266 (2019).
[Crossref]

X. Wang, J. He, B. Mao, H. Guo, Z. Wang, Y. Yue, and Y. Liu, “Real-time observation of dissociation dynamics within a pulsating soliton molecule,” Opt. Express 27(20), 28214–28222 (2019).
[Crossref]

S. D. Chowdhury, B. D. Gupta, S. Chatterjee, R. Sen, and M. Pal, “Rogue waves in a linear cavity Yb-fiber laser through spectral filtering induced pulse instability,” Opt. Lett. 44(9), 2161–2164 (2019).
[Crossref]

J. Peng and H. Zeng, “Soliton collision induced explosions in a mode-locked fibre laser,” Commun. Phys. 2(1), 34 (2019).
[Crossref]

X. Wang, X. Ren, J. Peng, X. Shen, K. Huang, M. Yan, and H. Zeng, “On the Q-switching bunch dynamics in the build-up of stretched-pulse mode-locking,” Opt. Express 27(3), 2747–2753 (2019).
[Crossref]

X. Liu and Y. Cui, “Revealing the behavior of soliton buildup in a mode-locked laser,” Adv. Photonics 1(1), 016003 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. Cui and X. Liu, “Revelation of the birth and extinction dynamics of solitons in SWNT-mode-locked fiber lasers,” Photonics Res. 7(4), 423–430 (2019).
[Crossref]

X. Wang, Y. Liu, Z. Wang, Y. Yue, J. He, B. Mao, R. He, and J. Hu, “Transient behaviors of pure soliton pulsations and soliton explosion in an L-band normal-dispersion mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Express 27(13), 17729–17742 (2019).
[Crossref]

J. Peng, S. Boscolo, Z. Zhao, and H. Zeng, “Breathing dissipative solitons in mode-locked fiber lasers,” Sci. Adv. 5(11), eaax1110 (2019).
[Crossref]

J. Peng and H. Zeng, “Experimental observations of breathing dissipative soliton explosions,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 12(3), 034052 (2019).
[Crossref]

J. Peng and H. Zeng, “Dynamics of soliton molecules in a normal-dispersion fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 44(11), 2899–2902 (2019).
[Crossref]

Z. Wang, K. Nithyanandan, A. Coillet, P. Tchofo-Dinda, and P. Grelu, “Optical soliton molecular complexes in a passively mode-locked fibre laser,” Nat. Commun. 10(1), 830 (2019).
[Crossref]

L. Li, H. Huang, L. Su, D. Shen, D. Tang, M. Klimczak, and L. Zhao, “Various soliton molecules in fiber systems,” Appl. Opt. 58(10), 2745–2753 (2019).
[Crossref]

X. Liu and M. Pang, “Revealing the buildup dynamics of harmonic mode-locking states in ultrafast lasers,” Laser Photonics Rev. 13(9), 1800333 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (13)

A. Klein, G. Masri, H. Duadi, K. Sulimany, O. Lib, H. Steinberg, S. A. Kolpakov, and M. Fridman, “Ultrafast rogue wave patterns in fiber lasers,” Optica 5(7), 774–778 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Suzuki, O. Boyraz, H. Asghari, P. Trinh, H. Kuroda, and B. Jalali, “Spectral periodicity in soliton explosions on a broadband mode-locked Yb fiber laser using time-stretch spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 43(8), 1862–1865 (2018).
[Crossref]

Z.-W. Wei, M. Liu, S.-X. Ming, A.-P. Luo, W.-C. Xu, and Z.-C. Luo, “Pulsating soliton with chaotic behavior in a fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 43(24), 5965–5968 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Sun, Z. Lin, W. Li, N. Zhu, and M. Li, “Time-stretch probing of ultra-fast soliton dynamics related to Q-switched instabilities in mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Express 26(16), 20888–20901 (2018).
[Crossref]

Z. Wang, Z. Wang, Y. Liu, R. He, J. Zhao, G. Wang, and G. Yang, “Self-organized compound pattern and pulsation of dissipative solitons in a passively mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 43(3), 478–481 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Du, Z. Xu, and X. Shu, “Spatio-spectral dynamics of the pulsating dissipative solitons in a normal-dispersion fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 43(15), 3602–3605 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Peng, M. Sorokina, S. Sugavanam, N. Tarasov, D. V. Churkin, S. K. Turitsyn, and H. Zeng, “Real-time observation of dissipative soliton formation in nonlinear polarization rotation mode-locked fibre lasers,” Commun. Phys. 1(1), 20 (2018).
[Crossref]

X. Liu, X. Yao, and Y. Cui, “Real-Time Observation of the Buildup of Soliton Molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 121(2), 023905 (2018).
[Crossref]

P. Ryczkowski, M. Närhi, C. Billet, J. M. Merolla, G. Genty, and J. M. Dudley, “Real-time full-field characterization of transient dissipative soliton dynamics in a mode-locked laser,” Nat. Photonics 12(4), 221–227 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Yu, Z. Luo, J. Kang, and K. K. Wong, “Mutually ignited soliton explosions in a fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 43(17), 4132–4135 (2018).
[Crossref]

R. I. Woodward, “Dispersion engineering of mode-locked fibre lasers,” J. Opt. 20(3), 033002 (2018).
[Crossref]

R. He, Z. Wang, Y. Liu, Z. Wang, H. Liang, S. Han, and J. He, “Dynamic evolution of pulsating solitons in a dissipative system with the gain saturation effect,” Opt. Express 26(25), 33116–33128 (2018).
[Crossref]

H.-J. Chen, M. Liu, J. Yao, S. Hu, J.-B. He, A.-P. Luo, W.-C. Xu, and Z.-C. Luo, “Buildup dynamics of dissipative soliton in an ultrafast fiber laser with net-normal dispersion,” Opt. Express 26(3), 2972–2982 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (4)

G. Herink, F. Kurtz, B. Jalali, D. R. Solli, and C. Ropers, “Real-time spectral interferometry probes the internal dynamics of femtosecond soliton molecules,” Science 356(6333), 50–54 (2017).
[Crossref]

B. Li, Y. Yu, X. Wei, Y. Xu, K. K. Tsia, and K. K. Y. Wong, “Real-time observation of round-trip resolved spectral dynamics in a stabilized fs fiber laser,” Opt. Express 25(8), 8751–8759 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Krupa, K. Nithyanandan, U. Andral, P. Tchofo-Dinda, and P. Grelu, “Real-Time Observation of Internal Motion within Ultrafast Dissipative Optical Soliton Molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118(24), 243901 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Yu, B. Li, X. Wei, Y. Xu, K. K. M. Tsia, and K. K. Y. Wong, “Spectral-temporal dynamics of multipulse mode-locking,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(20), 201107 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (2)

G. Herink, B. Jalali, C. Ropers, and D. R. Solli, “Resolving the build-up of femtosecond mode-locking with single-shot spectroscopy at 90 MHz frame rate,” Nat. Photonics 10(5), 321–326 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Liu, A.-P. Luo, Y.-R. Yan, S. Hu, Y.-C. Liu, H. Cui, Z.-C. Luo, and W.-C. Xu, “Successive soliton explosions in an ultrafast fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 41(6), 1181–1184 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (1)

2014 (1)

2013 (2)

A. F. J. Runge, C. Aguergaray, N. G. R. Broderick, and M. Erkintalo, “Coherence and shot-to-shot spectral fluctuations in noise-like ultrafast fiber lasers,” Opt. Lett. 38(21), 4327–4330 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. Goda and B. Jalali, “Dispersive Fourier transformation for fast continuous single-shot measurements,” Nat. Photonics 7(2), 102–112 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

2008 (1)

2007 (2)

J. M. Dudley, C. Finot, D. J. Richardson, and G. Millot, “Self-similarity in ultrafast nonlinear optics,” Nat. Phys. 3(9), 597–603 (2007).
[Crossref]

D. R. Solli, C. Ropers, P. Koonath, and B. Jalali, “Optical rogue waves,” Nature 450(7172), 1054–1057 (2007).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

1999 (1)

J. M. Dudley, L. P. Barry, J. D. Harvey, M. D. Thomson, B. C. Thomsen, P. G. Bollond, and R. Leonhardt, “Complete characterization of ultrashort pulse sources at 1550 nm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35(4), 441–450 (1999).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

D. Noske, N. Pandit, and J. Taylor, “Subpicosecond soliton pulse formation from self-mode-locked erbium fibre laser using intensity dependent polarisation rotation,” Electron. Lett. 28(23), 2185–2186 (1992).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

B. A. Malomed, “Bound solitons in the nonlinear Schrödinger-Ginzburg-Landau equation,” Phys. Rev. A 44(10), 6954–6957 (1991).
[Crossref]

Agrawal, G. P.

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic Press, 2013).

Aguergaray, C.

Akhmediev, N.

N. Akhmediev and A. Ankiewicz, Solitons: Non-linear pulses and beams (Optical and Quantum Electronics Series, 5) (Chapman & Hall, 1997).

Andral, U.

K. Krupa, K. Nithyanandan, U. Andral, P. Tchofo-Dinda, and P. Grelu, “Real-Time Observation of Internal Motion within Ultrafast Dissipative Optical Soliton Molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118(24), 243901 (2017).
[Crossref]

Ankiewicz, A.

N. Akhmediev and A. Ankiewicz, Solitons: Non-linear pulses and beams (Optical and Quantum Electronics Series, 5) (Chapman & Hall, 1997).

Asghari, H.

Barry, L. P.

J. M. Dudley, L. P. Barry, J. D. Harvey, M. D. Thomson, B. C. Thomsen, P. G. Bollond, and R. Leonhardt, “Complete characterization of ultrashort pulse sources at 1550 nm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35(4), 441–450 (1999).
[Crossref]

Belhache, F.

Billet, C.

C. Lapre, C. Billet, F. Meng, P. Ryczkowski, T. Sylvestre, C. Finot, G. Genty, and J. M. Dudley, “Real-time characterization of spectral instabilities in a mode-locked fibre laser exhibiting soliton-similariton dynamics,” Sci. Rep. 9(1), 13950 (2019).
[Crossref]

P. Ryczkowski, M. Närhi, C. Billet, J. M. Merolla, G. Genty, and J. M. Dudley, “Real-time full-field characterization of transient dissipative soliton dynamics in a mode-locked laser,” Nat. Photonics 12(4), 221–227 (2018).
[Crossref]

Bollond, P. G.

J. M. Dudley, L. P. Barry, J. D. Harvey, M. D. Thomson, B. C. Thomsen, P. G. Bollond, and R. Leonhardt, “Complete characterization of ultrashort pulse sources at 1550 nm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35(4), 441–450 (1999).
[Crossref]

Boscolo, S.

J. Peng, S. Boscolo, Z. Zhao, and H. Zeng, “Breathing dissipative solitons in mode-locked fiber lasers,” Sci. Adv. 5(11), eaax1110 (2019).
[Crossref]

Boyraz, O.

Broderick, N. G. R.

Chatterjee, S.

Chen, H.-J.

Chen, W.-C.

Chong, A.

Chowdhury, S. D.

Churkin, D. V.

J. Peng, M. Sorokina, S. Sugavanam, N. Tarasov, D. V. Churkin, S. K. Turitsyn, and H. Zeng, “Real-time observation of dissipative soliton formation in nonlinear polarization rotation mode-locked fibre lasers,” Commun. Phys. 1(1), 20 (2018).
[Crossref]

Coillet, A.

Z. Wang, K. Nithyanandan, A. Coillet, P. Tchofo-Dinda, and P. Grelu, “Optical soliton molecular complexes in a passively mode-locked fibre laser,” Nat. Commun. 10(1), 830 (2019).
[Crossref]

Cui, H.

Cui, Y.

X. Liu and Y. Cui, “Revealing the behavior of soliton buildup in a mode-locked laser,” Adv. Photonics 1(1), 016003 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. Cui and X. Liu, “Revelation of the birth and extinction dynamics of solitons in SWNT-mode-locked fiber lasers,” Photonics Res. 7(4), 423–430 (2019).
[Crossref]

X. Liu, X. Yao, and Y. Cui, “Real-Time Observation of the Buildup of Soliton Molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 121(2), 023905 (2018).
[Crossref]

Desurvire, E.

E. Desurvire, Erbium-doped fiber amplifiers: principles and applications (Wiley, 1994).

Du, Y.

Duadi, H.

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Adv. Photonics (1)

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Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

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Commun. Phys. (2)

J. Peng and H. Zeng, “Soliton collision induced explosions in a mode-locked fibre laser,” Commun. Phys. 2(1), 34 (2019).
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Electron. Lett. (1)

D. Noske, N. Pandit, and J. Taylor, “Subpicosecond soliton pulse formation from self-mode-locked erbium fibre laser using intensity dependent polarisation rotation,” Electron. Lett. 28(23), 2185–2186 (1992).
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IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

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J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Opt. (1)

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J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Laser Photonics Rev. (1)

X. Liu and M. Pang, “Revealing the buildup dynamics of harmonic mode-locking states in ultrafast lasers,” Laser Photonics Rev. 13(9), 1800333 (2019).
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Nat. Commun. (1)

Z. Wang, K. Nithyanandan, A. Coillet, P. Tchofo-Dinda, and P. Grelu, “Optical soliton molecular complexes in a passively mode-locked fibre laser,” Nat. Commun. 10(1), 830 (2019).
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Nat. Photonics (3)

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) Setup: EDF, Erbium-doped fibre; ISO, optical isolator; WDM, wavelength-division multiplexer, QWP, quarter-wave plate; HWP, half-wave plate; PBS, polarizing beamsplitter; OSA, optical spectrum analyzer; FROG, frequency-resolved optical gating; DCF, dispersion-compensating fibre; DFT, dispersive Fourier transform. The intracavity filter had 10 nm bandwidth. Further details of the setup are in Ref. [41]. (b) Illustrating the temporal structure of the observed multipulse complexes. (i) The dashed box shows a complex of three distinct (picosecond) pulses separated by 5–40 ns; (ii) Shows a similar complex but where one of the constituent components is a soliton molecule consisting of two pulses separated by $\sim$10’s of ps. (c) Pulse characterization in the stable regime for: (top) the soliton branch (at point A); (bottom) the similariton branch after the EDFA (at point D) showing: (i) Spectra, (ii) FROG traces, (iii) retrieved intensity (solid line, left axis) and chirp (dashed line, right axis). For the similariton spectra we compare OSA (black) and DFT (red) measurements, and we use a logarithmic scale for the similariton intensity to emphasis the low-amplitude wings.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Multipulse complex consisting of distinct single pulses showing (a) 2 single pulses and (b) 9 single pulses circulating in the cavity. The bottom subfigure in each case superposes results from DFT measurements over 200 cavity rountrips while the top figure shows the spectral profile taken from the first roundtrip of the data sequence. The DFT timebase is plotted over the 105 ns range of a cavity roundtrip, while we also show the calibrated wavelength axis in nm when plotting the extracted spectra. The central wavelength is 1555 nm.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Multipulse complexes that include a soliton molecule. (a) a molecule state and a distinct single pulse, (b) a molecule state and 2 distinct single pulses, (c) a molecule state and 7 distinct single pulses. The larger amplitude of the pulse around 80 ns is attributed to the incoherent superposition of two solitons. The insets in all cases show the fringes of the molecule structure over a 2 nm span near the spectral centre of 1555 nm.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Multipulse complexes exhibiting breathing dynamics. (a) Three single pulses (b) Four single pulses. The bottom figures show a sequence of measured DFT spectra over 400 roundtrips. The top figures show spectra at two selected roundtrips at points of minimum and maximum spectral expansion: (a) Roundtrips 158 and 203 respectively; (b) Roundtrips 102 and 163 respectively.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Experimental DFT characterization of unstable dynamics in the multipulse regime. (a) shows measurements over 3900 roundtrips and the full 105 ns DFT timebase, illustrating unstable but localized multiple pulses up to $\sim$1700 roundtrips followed by chaotic evolution. The expanded views in (b) show a short-lived quasi-stable breathing molecule structure (left, around a DFT timebase value of $\sim$85 ns) and the clear spectral expansion signature of a soliton explosion (right, around DFT timebase of $\sim$15 ns).