Abstract

In this study, Bi2Te3 cluster was applied as a saturable absorber to investigate the mode-locking behavior of InGaAsP multiple quantum wells (MQWs) whispering gallery mode (WGM). Under optical excitation, the ultralow saturation absorption of Bi2Te3 from bulk state had modulated the intensity inside the microdisk, multi-lasing at different wavelengths with equal spectral spacing was realized. The achieved pulse repetition rate was as high as an estimated 4 THz. Additionally, a clear degenerate breaking was observed with a frequency shift of approximately 1 THz for each lasing mode. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of a passively mode-locked WGM laser. These findings may have applications in dual-comb device.

© 2020 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2019 (5)

H. Long, Y. Shi, Q. Wen, and Y. H. Tsang, “Ultrafast laser pulse (115 fs) generation by using direct bandgap ultrasmall 2D GaTe quantum dots,” J. Mater. Chem. C 7(20), 5937–5944 (2019).
[Crossref]

M. Zhang, Q. Wu, F. Zhang, L. Chen, X. Jin, Y. Hu, Z. Zheng, and H. Zhang, “Black-phosphorous-based pulsed lasers: 2D black phosphorus saturable absorbers for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 7(1), 1970001 (2019).
[Crossref]

J. He, L. Tao, H. Zhang, B. Zhou, and J. Li, “Emerging 2D materials beyond graphene for ultrashort pulse generation in fiber lasers,” Nanoscale 11(6), 2577–2593 (2019).
[Crossref]

J. Qiao, M. Chuang, J. Lan, Y. Lin, W. Sung, R. Fan, M. Wu, C. Lee, C. Chen, H. Liu, and C. Lee, “Two-Photon Absorption Within Layered Bi2Te3 Topological Insulators And The Role of Nonlinear Transmittance Therein,” J. Mater. Chem. C 7(23), 7027–7034 (2019).
[Crossref]

Z. Chen, T. W. Hansch, and N. Picque, “Mid-infrared feed-forward dual-comb spectroscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 116(9), 3454–3459 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (5)

Z. Yang, J. Huo, and X. Han, “Angular-rate sensing by mode splitting in a Whispering-gallery-mode optical microresonator,” Measurement 125, 78–83 (2018).
[Crossref]

X. Jiang, S. Liu, W. Liang, S. Luo, Z. He, Y. Ge, H. Wang, R. Cao, F. Zhang, Q. Wen, J. Li, Q. Bao, D. Fan, and H. Zhang, “Broadband Nonlinear Photonics in Few-Layer MXene Ti3C2Tx (T = F, O, or OH),” Laser Photonics Rev. 12(2), 1700229 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Q. Kang, A. Francois, N. Riesen, and T. M. Monro, “Mode-splitting for refractive index sensing in fluorescent whispering gallery mode microspheres with broken symmetry,” Sensors 18(9), 2987 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Wang, W. Sung, X. Su, Y. Zhao, B. Zhang, C. Wu, G. He, Y. Lin, H. Liu, J. He, and C. Lee, “Ultralow saturation intensity topological insulator saturable absorber for gigahertz mode-locked solid-state lasers,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(5), 1504110 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Qiao, S. Zhao, K. Yang, W. Song, W. Qiao, C. Wu, J. Zhao, G. Li, D. Li, T. Li, H. Liu, and C. Lee, “High-quality 2-µm Q-switched pulsed solid-state lasers using spin-coating-coreduction approach synthesized Bi2Te3 topological insulators,” Photonics Res. 6(4), 314–320 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (1)

Y. Song, Z. Liang, X. Jiang, Y. Chen, Z. Li, L. Lu, Y. Ge, K. Wang, J. Zheng, S. Lu, J. Ji, and H. Zhang, “Few-layer antimonene decorated microfiber: ultra-short pulse generation and all-optical thresholding with enhanced long term stability,” 2D Mater. 4(4), 045010 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (2)

2015 (8)

Y. Jin, S. M. Cristescu, F. J. M. Harren, and J. Mandon, “Femtosecond optical parametric oscillators toward real-time dual-comb spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 119(1), 65–74 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Pfeifle, A. Coillet, R. Henriet, K. Saleh, P. Schindler, C. Weimann, W. Freude, I. V. Balakireva, L. Larger, C. Koos, and Y. Chembo, “Optimally Coherent Kerr Combs Generated with Crystalline Whispering Gallery Mode Resonators for Ultrahigh Capacity Fiber Communications,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 114(9), 093902 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Xu, Y. Sun, J. He, Y. Wang, Z. Zhu, Z. You, J. Li, M. C. Chou, C. Lee, and C. Tu, “Ultrasensitive nonlinear absorption response of large-size topological insulator and application in low-threshold bulk pulsed lasers,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 14856 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. Zhang, F. Lou, R. Zhao, J. He, J. Li, X. Su, J. Niang, and K. Yang, “Exfoliated layers of black phosphorus as saturable absorber for ultrafast solid-state laser,” Opt. Lett. 40(16), 3691–3694 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. Luo, Y. Li, M. Zhong, Y. Huang, X. Wan, J. Peng, and J. Weng, “Nonlinear optical absorption of few-layer molybdenum diselenide (MoSe2) for passively mode-locked soliton fiber laser,” Photonics Res. 3(3), A79 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, G. Jiang, S. Chen, Z. Guo, X. Yu, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, Q. Bao, S. Wen, D. Tang, and D. Fan, “Mechanically exfoliated black phosphorus as a newsaturable absorber for both Q-switching and Mode-locking laser operation,” Opt. Express 23(10), 12823–12833 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Mu, Z. Wang, J. Yuan, S. Xiao, C. Chen, Y. Chen, Y. Chen, J. Song, Y. Wang, Y. Xue, H. Zhang, and Q. Bao, “Graphene-Bi2Te3 heterostructure as saturable absorber for short pulse generation,” ACS Photonics 2(7), 832–841 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. Schuhmann, T. Hansch, K. Kirch, A. Knecht, F. Kottmann, F. Nez, R. Pohl, D. Taqqu, and A. Antognini, “Thin-disk laser pump schemes for large number of passes and moderate pump source quality,” Appl. Opt. 54(32), 9400–9408 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (3)

2013 (1)

2012 (4)

G. Sobon, J. Sotor, and K. M. Abramski, “Passive harmonic mode-locking in Er-doped fiber laser based on graphene saturable absorber with repetition rates scalable to 2.22 GHz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(16), 161109 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Hajlaoui, E. Papalazarou, J. Mauchain, G. Lantz, N. Moisan, D. Boschetto, Z. Jiang, I. Miotkowski, Y. P. Chen, A. Taleb-Ibrahimi, L. Perfetti, and M. Marsi, “Ultrafast Surface Carrier Dynamics in the Topological Insulator Bi2Te3,” Nano Lett. 12(7), 3532–3536 (2012).
[Crossref]

Z. Zheng, C. Zhao, S. Lu, Y. Chen, Y. Li, H. Zhang, and S. Wen, “Microwave and optical saturable absorption in graphene,” Opt. Express 20(21), 23201–23214 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. Puerto, J. Siegel, A. Ferrer, J. H. Ruela, and J. Solis, “Correlation of the refractive index change at the surface and inside phosphate glass upon femtosecond laser irradiation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 29(10), 2665 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

G. Sobon, K. Krzempek, P. Kaczmarek, K. M. Abramski, and M. Nikodem, “10 GHz passive harmonic mode-locking in Er–Yb double-clad fiber laser,” Opt. Commun. 284(18), 4203–4206 (2011).
[Crossref]

F. Li, K. Liu, N. Zong, B. Feng, J. Zhang, Q. Peng, D. Cui, and Z. Xu, “Compact 7.8-W 1-GHz-repetition-rate passively mode-locked TEM00 Nd:YVO4 laser under 880 nm diode direct-in-band pumping,” Opt. Commun. 284(19), 4619–4622 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Ku, Q. Chen, R. Zhang, and H. Sun, “Whispering-gallery-mode microdisk lasers produced by femtosecond laser direct writing,” Opt. Lett. 36(15), 2871–2873 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

J. Knittel, T. G. Mcrae, K. H. Lee, and W. P. Bowen, “Interferometric detection of mode splitting for whispering gallery mode biosensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(12), 123704 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (4)

M. Tien, A. Ohta, K, Yu, S. Neale, and M. Wu, “Heterogeneous integration of InGaAsP microdisk laser on a silicon platform using optofluidic assembly,” Appl. Phys. A 95(4), 967–972 (2009).
[Crossref]

I. Teraoka and S. Arnold, “Resonance shifts of counterpropagating whispering-gallery modes: degenerate perturbation theory and application to resonator sensors with axial symmetry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26(7), 1321–1329 (2009).
[Crossref]

L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, C. Walther, J. Faist, B. Witzigmann, H. E. Beere, and D. Ritchie, “Vertically emitting microdisk lasers,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 46–49 (2009).
[Crossref]

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. Shen, K. Loh, and D. Tang, “Atomic-Layer Graphene as a Saturable Absorber for Ultrafast Pulsed Lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (3)

2004 (1)

T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, “Kerr-Nonlinearity Optical Parametric Oscillation in an Ultrahigh-Q Toroid Microcavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(8), 083904 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (3)

S. J. Choi, K. Djordjev, S. J. Choi, and P. D. Dapkus, “Microdisk lasers vertically coupled to output waveguides,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15(10), 1330–1332 (2003).
[Crossref]

A. B. Matsko, V. S. Ilchenko, A. A. Savchenkov, and L. Maleki, “Active mode locking with whispering-gallery modes,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20(11), 2292–2296 (2003).
[Crossref]

U. Keller, “Recent developments in compact ultrafast lasers,” Nature 424(6950), 831–838 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

R. F. Service, “High-Powered Short-Pulse X-ray Lasers: Coming Soon to a Tabletop Near You?” Science 298(5597), 1357 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

R. Paschotta and U. Keller, “Passive mode locking with slow saturable absorbers,” Appl. Phys. B 73(7), 653–662 (2001).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kartner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Honninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM's) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Selec. Top. Quantum. Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

A. F. J. Levi, “Microdisk lasers,” Solid-State Electron. 37(4-6), 1297–1302 (1994).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

Abramski, K. M.

G. Sobon, J. Sotor, and K. M. Abramski, “Passive harmonic mode-locking in Er-doped fiber laser based on graphene saturable absorber with repetition rates scalable to 2.22 GHz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(16), 161109 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. Sobon, K. Krzempek, P. Kaczmarek, K. M. Abramski, and M. Nikodem, “10 GHz passive harmonic mode-locking in Er–Yb double-clad fiber laser,” Opt. Commun. 284(18), 4203–4206 (2011).
[Crossref]

Antognini, A.

Arnold, S.

Astratov, V. N.

Aus der Au, J.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kartner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Honninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM's) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Selec. Top. Quantum. Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[Crossref]

Balakireva, I. V.

J. Pfeifle, A. Coillet, R. Henriet, K. Saleh, P. Schindler, C. Weimann, W. Freude, I. V. Balakireva, L. Larger, C. Koos, and Y. Chembo, “Optimally Coherent Kerr Combs Generated with Crystalline Whispering Gallery Mode Resonators for Ultrahigh Capacity Fiber Communications,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 114(9), 093902 (2015).
[Crossref]

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Zhao, S.

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Y. Wang, W. Sung, X. Su, Y. Zhao, B. Zhang, C. Wu, G. He, Y. Lin, H. Liu, J. He, and C. Lee, “Ultralow saturation intensity topological insulator saturable absorber for gigahertz mode-locked solid-state lasers,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(5), 1504110 (2018).
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J. He, L. Tao, H. Zhang, B. Zhou, and J. Li, “Emerging 2D materials beyond graphene for ultrashort pulse generation in fiber lasers,” Nanoscale 11(6), 2577–2593 (2019).
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J. Xu, Y. Sun, J. He, Y. Wang, Z. Zhu, Z. You, J. Li, M. C. Chou, C. Lee, and C. Tu, “Ultrasensitive nonlinear absorption response of large-size topological insulator and application in low-threshold bulk pulsed lasers,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 14856 (2015).
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2D Mater. (1)

Y. Song, Z. Liang, X. Jiang, Y. Chen, Z. Li, L. Lu, Y. Ge, K. Wang, J. Zheng, S. Lu, J. Ji, and H. Zhang, “Few-layer antimonene decorated microfiber: ultra-short pulse generation and all-optical thresholding with enhanced long term stability,” 2D Mater. 4(4), 045010 (2017).
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ACS Photonics (1)

H. Mu, Z. Wang, J. Yuan, S. Xiao, C. Chen, Y. Chen, Y. Chen, J. Song, Y. Wang, Y. Xue, H. Zhang, and Q. Bao, “Graphene-Bi2Te3 heterostructure as saturable absorber for short pulse generation,” ACS Photonics 2(7), 832–841 (2015).
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Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. Shen, K. Loh, and D. Tang, “Atomic-Layer Graphene as a Saturable Absorber for Ultrafast Pulsed Lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
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Adv. Opt. Mater. (1)

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Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. A (1)

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IEEE J. Selec. Top. Quantum. Electron. (1)

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IEEE Photonics J. (1)

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Measurement (1)

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Nano Lett. (1)

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Tilted view SEM images of the same fabricated InGaAsP MQW microdisk on sapphire (a) without and (b) with Bi2Te3 cluster.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Experimental scheme of optical pumping and coupling.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) Lasing resonance of the InGaAsP MQW microdisk without Bi2Te3 coupling at 1586.4 nm under 7.7 mW CW operation at room temperature. (b) Top view and (c) cross-sectional view of the simulated normalized electric field profile of the TE1,48 WGM resonance. The intensity color scales in (b) and (c) are identical.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a) Lasing spectra depend on pumping power for identical InGaAsP MQW 10-µm microdisk coupling with Bi2Te3 cluster. (b) Lasing peak intensity and (c) Lasing peak linewidth variation of TE1.47 (blue) and TE1.48 (red) mode for pumping power.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Scheme of degenerate breaking whispering gallery mode (WGM) passive mode-locking operation with TIs.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Emission wavelengths of microdisk lasing without or with Bi2Te3.