Abstract

The nonlinear absorption and ultrafast dynamic process of WS2 nanosheets were investigated by using a broadband (ranging from 450 to 700 nm) nanosecond Z-scan technique. Z-scan measurements showed that WS2 nanosheets exhibit saturable absorption (SA), and the magnitude of SA is wavelength-dependent. Besides, the ultrafast dynamics process of WS2 was also investigated with femtosecond transient absorption spectrum. It was found that there is a double-exponential energy relaxation in the process. The investigation shows that WS2 nanosheets can be used for ultrashort pulse generation and a wide spectral range optical absorber.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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    [Crossref]
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  39. A. F. Rigosi, H. M. Hill, Y. Li, A. Chernikov, and T. F. Heinz, “Probing interlayer interactions in transition metal dichalcogenide heterostructures by optical spectroscopy: MoS2/WS2 and MoSe2/WSe2,” Nano Lett. 15(8), 5033–5038 (2015).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  41. C. Mai, Y. G. Semenov, A. Barrette, Y. Yu, Z. Jin, L. Cao, K. W. Kim, and K. Gundogdu, “Exciton valley relaxation in a single layer of WS2 measured by ultrafast spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 90(4), 041414 (2014).
    [Crossref]

2018 (1)

K. Wei, T. Jiang, Z. Xu, J. Zhou, J. You, Y. Tang, H. Li, R. Chen, X. Zheng, and S. Wang, “Ultrafast carrier transfer promoted by interlayer coulomb coupling in 2D/3D perovskite heterostructures,” Laser Photonics Rev. 12(10), 1800128 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (2)

C. Ruppert, A. Chernikov, H. M. Hill, A. F. Rigosi, and T. F. Heinz, “The role of electronic and phononic excitation in the optical response of monolayer WS2 after ultrafast excitation,” Nano Lett. 17(2), 644–651 (2017).
[Crossref]

E. J. Sie, A. Steinhoff, C. Gies, C. H. Lui, Q. Ma, M. Rosner, G. Schönhoff, F. Jahnke, T. O. Wehling, and Y.-H. Lee, “Observation of exciton redshift–blueshift crossover in monolayer WS2,” Nano Lett. 17(7), 4210–4216 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (6)

R. Wei, X. Tian, H. Zhang, Z. Hu, X. He, Z. Chen, Q. Chen, and J. Qiu, “Facile synthesis of two-dimensional WS2 with reverse saturable absorption and nonlinear refraction properties in the PMMA matrix,” J. Alloys Compd. 684, 224–229 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. D. Cunningham, K. M. McCreary, and B. T. Jonker, “Auger recombination in chemical vapor deposition-grown monolayer WS2,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 7(24), 5242–5246 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. Schmidt, G. Berghäuser, R. Schneider, M. Selig, P. Tonndorf, E. Malić, A. Knorr, S. M. de Vasconcellos, and R. Bratschitsch, “Ultrafast coulomb-induced intervalley coupling in atomically thin WS2,” Nano Lett. 16(5), 2945–2950 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. Wei, Z. Xu, R. Chen, X. Zheng, X. Cheng, and T. Jiang, “Temperature-dependent excitonic photoluminescence excited by two-photon absorption in perovskite CsPbBr3 quantum dots,” Opt. Lett. 41(16), 3821–3824 (2016).
[Crossref]

N. Dong, Y. Li, S. Zhang, N. McEvoy, X. Zhang, Y. Cui, L. Zhang, G. S. Duesberg, and J. Wang, “Dispersion of nonlinear refractive index in layered WS2 and WSe2 semiconductor films induced by two-photon absorption,” Opt. Lett. 41(17), 3936–3939 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Bikorimana, P. Lama, A. Walser, R. Dorsinville, S. Anghel, A. Mitioglu, A. Micu, and L. Kulyuk, “Nonlinear optical responses in two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenide multilayer: WS2, WSe2, MoS2 and Mo0.5W0.5S2,” Opt. Express 24(18), 20685–20695 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (7)

A. F. Rigosi, H. M. Hill, Y. Li, A. Chernikov, and T. F. Heinz, “Probing interlayer interactions in transition metal dichalcogenide heterostructures by optical spectroscopy: MoS2/WS2 and MoSe2/WSe2,” Nano Lett. 15(8), 5033–5038 (2015).
[Crossref]

X.-X. Zhang, Y. You, S. Y. F. Zhao, and T. F. Heinz, “Experimental evidence for dark excitons in monolayer WSe2,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(25), 257403 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Zheng, Y. Zhang, R. Chen, Z. Xu, and T. Jiang, “Z-scan measurement of the nonlinear refractive index of monolayer WS2,” Opt. Express 23(12), 15616–15623 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. Chen, X. Zhang, K. Wu, H. Wang, J. Wang, and J. Chen, “Q-switched fiber laser based on transition metal dichalcogenides MoS2, MoSe2, WS2, and WSe2,” Opt. Express 23(20), 26723–26737 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Zhang, N. Dong, N. McEvoy, M. O’Brien, S. Winters, N. C. Berner, C. Yim, Y. Li, X. Zhang, and Z. Chen, “Direct observation of degenerate two-photon absorption and its saturation in WS2 and MoS2 monolayer and few-layer films,” ACS Nano 9(7), 7142–7150 (2015).
[Crossref]

N. Dong, Y. Li, Y. Feng, S. Zhang, X. Zhang, C. Chang, J. Fan, L. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Optical limiting and theoretical modelling of layered transition metal dichalcogenide nanosheets,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 14646 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Long, L. Tao, C. Y. Tang, B. Zhou, Y. Zhao, L. Zeng, S. F. Yu, S. P. Lau, Y. Chai, and Y. H. Tsang, “Tuning nonlinear optical absorption properties of WS(2) nanosheets,” Nanoscale 7(42), 17771–17777 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (7)

K. Wang, Y. Feng, C. Chang, J. Zhan, C. Wang, Q. Zhao, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, W. J. Blau, and J. Wang, “Broadband ultrafast nonlinear absorption and nonlinear refraction of layered molybdenum dichalcogenide semiconductors,” Nanoscale 6(18), 10530–10535 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Jariwala, V. K. Sangwan, L. J. Lauhon, T. J. Marks, and M. C. Hersam, “Emerging device applications for semiconducting two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides,” ACS Nano 8(2), 1102–1120 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Liu, A.-P. Luo, F.-Z. Wang, R. Tang, M. Liu, Z.-C. Luo, W.-C. Xu, C.-J. Zhao, and H. Zhang, “Femtosecond pulse erbium-doped fiber laser by a few-layer MoS2 saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 39(15), 4591–4594 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. Fu, J. Qian, X. Qiao, P. Tan, and Z. Peng, “Nonlinear saturable absorption of vertically stood WS2 nanoplates,” Opt. Lett. 39(22), 6450–6453 (2014).
[Crossref]

H.-L. Liu, C.-C. Shen, S.-H. Su, C.-L. Hsu, M.-Y. Li, and L.-J. Li, “Optical properties of monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides probed by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(20), 201905 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Mai, Y. G. Semenov, A. Barrette, Y. Yu, Z. Jin, L. Cao, K. W. Kim, and K. Gundogdu, “Exciton valley relaxation in a single layer of WS2 measured by ultrafast spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 90(4), 041414 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Cai, J. Lan, G. Zhang, and Y.-W. Zhang, “Lattice vibrational modes and phonon thermal conductivity of monolayer MoS2,” Phys. Rev. B 89(3), 035438 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (7)

Q.-C. Sun, D. Mazumdar, L. Yadgarov, R. Rosentsveig, R. Tenne, and J. L. Musfeldt, “Spectroscopic determination of phonon lifetimes in rhenium-doped MoS2 nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 13(6), 2803–2808 (2013).
[Crossref]

W. Zhao, R. M. Ribeiro, M. Toh, A. Carvalho, C. Kloc, A. Castro Neto, and G. Eda, “Origin of indirect optical transitions in few-layer MoS2, WS2, and WSe2,” Nano Lett. 13(11), 5627–5634 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. Eda and S. A. Maier, “Two-dimensional crystals: managing light for optoelectronics,” ACS Nano 7(7), 5660–5665 (2013).
[Crossref]

N. Perea-López, A. L. Elías, A. Berkdemir, A. Castro-Beltran, H. R. Gutiérrez, S. Feng, R. Lv, T. Hayashi, F. López-Urías, and S. Ghosh, “Photosensor device based on few-layered WS2 films,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 23(44), 5511–5517 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Z. Butler, S. M. Hollen, L. Cao, Y. Cui, J. A. Gupta, H. R. Gutiérrez, T. F. Heinz, S. S. Hong, J. Huang, and A. F. Ismach, “Progress, challenges, and opportunities in two-dimensional materials beyond graphene,” ACS Nano 7(4), 2898–2926 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Chhowalla, H. S. Shin, G. Eda, L.-J. Li, K. P. Loh, and H. Zhang, “The chemistry of two-dimensional layered transition metal dichalcogenide nanosheets,” Nat. Chem. 5(4), 263–275 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, and Q. Zhao, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9260–9267 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

Q. H. Wang, K. Kalantar-Zadeh, A. Kis, J. N. Coleman, and M. S. Strano, “Electronics and optoelectronics of two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(11), 699–712 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

A. C. Neto and K. Novoselov, “New directions in science and technology: two-dimensional crystals,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 74(8), 082501 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. N. Coleman, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, S. D. Bergin, P. J. King, U. Khan, K. Young, A. Gaucher, S. De, and R. J. Smith, “Two-dimensional nanosheets produced by liquid exfoliation of layered materials,” Science 331(6017), 568–571 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. Korn, S. Heydrich, M. Hirmer, J. Schmutzler, and C. Schüller, “Low-temperature photocarrier dynamics in monolayer MoS2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(10), 102109 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

K. F. Mak, C. Lee, J. Hone, J. Shan, and T. F. Heinz, “Atomically thin MoS2: a new direct-gap semiconductor,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(13), 136805 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

F. García-Santamaría, Y. Chen, J. Vela, R. D. Schaller, J. A. Hollingsworth, and V. I. Klimov, “Suppressed auger recombination in “giant” nanocrystals boosts optical gain performance,” Nano Lett. 9(10), 3482–3488 (2009).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

J. Zhang, R. O’Neil, and T. Roberti, “Femtosecond studies of photoinduced electron dynamics at the liquid-solid interface of aqueous CdS colloids,” J. Phys. Chem. 98(14), 3859–3864 (1994).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. V. Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[Crossref]

1972 (1)

A. Beal, J. Knights, and W. Liang, “Transmission spectra of some transition metal dichalcogenides. II. Group VIA: trigonal prismatic coordination,” J. Phys. C: Solid State Phys. 5(24), 3540–3551 (1972).
[Crossref]

Anghel, S.

Barrette, A.

C. Mai, Y. G. Semenov, A. Barrette, Y. Yu, Z. Jin, L. Cao, K. W. Kim, and K. Gundogdu, “Exciton valley relaxation in a single layer of WS2 measured by ultrafast spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 90(4), 041414 (2014).
[Crossref]

Beal, A.

A. Beal, J. Knights, and W. Liang, “Transmission spectra of some transition metal dichalcogenides. II. Group VIA: trigonal prismatic coordination,” J. Phys. C: Solid State Phys. 5(24), 3540–3551 (1972).
[Crossref]

Berghäuser, G.

R. Schmidt, G. Berghäuser, R. Schneider, M. Selig, P. Tonndorf, E. Malić, A. Knorr, S. M. de Vasconcellos, and R. Bratschitsch, “Ultrafast coulomb-induced intervalley coupling in atomically thin WS2,” Nano Lett. 16(5), 2945–2950 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bergin, S. D.

J. N. Coleman, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, S. D. Bergin, P. J. King, U. Khan, K. Young, A. Gaucher, S. De, and R. J. Smith, “Two-dimensional nanosheets produced by liquid exfoliation of layered materials,” Science 331(6017), 568–571 (2011).
[Crossref]

Berkdemir, A.

N. Perea-López, A. L. Elías, A. Berkdemir, A. Castro-Beltran, H. R. Gutiérrez, S. Feng, R. Lv, T. Hayashi, F. López-Urías, and S. Ghosh, “Photosensor device based on few-layered WS2 films,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 23(44), 5511–5517 (2013).
[Crossref]

Berner, N. C.

S. Zhang, N. Dong, N. McEvoy, M. O’Brien, S. Winters, N. C. Berner, C. Yim, Y. Li, X. Zhang, and Z. Chen, “Direct observation of degenerate two-photon absorption and its saturation in WS2 and MoS2 monolayer and few-layer films,” ACS Nano 9(7), 7142–7150 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bikorimana, S.

Blau, W. J.

K. Wang, Y. Feng, C. Chang, J. Zhan, C. Wang, Q. Zhao, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, W. J. Blau, and J. Wang, “Broadband ultrafast nonlinear absorption and nonlinear refraction of layered molybdenum dichalcogenide semiconductors,” Nanoscale 6(18), 10530–10535 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bratschitsch, R.

R. Schmidt, G. Berghäuser, R. Schneider, M. Selig, P. Tonndorf, E. Malić, A. Knorr, S. M. de Vasconcellos, and R. Bratschitsch, “Ultrafast coulomb-induced intervalley coupling in atomically thin WS2,” Nano Lett. 16(5), 2945–2950 (2016).
[Crossref]

Butler, S. Z.

S. Z. Butler, S. M. Hollen, L. Cao, Y. Cui, J. A. Gupta, H. R. Gutiérrez, T. F. Heinz, S. S. Hong, J. Huang, and A. F. Ismach, “Progress, challenges, and opportunities in two-dimensional materials beyond graphene,” ACS Nano 7(4), 2898–2926 (2013).
[Crossref]

Cai, Y.

Y. Cai, J. Lan, G. Zhang, and Y.-W. Zhang, “Lattice vibrational modes and phonon thermal conductivity of monolayer MoS2,” Phys. Rev. B 89(3), 035438 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cao, L.

C. Mai, Y. G. Semenov, A. Barrette, Y. Yu, Z. Jin, L. Cao, K. W. Kim, and K. Gundogdu, “Exciton valley relaxation in a single layer of WS2 measured by ultrafast spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 90(4), 041414 (2014).
[Crossref]

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F. García-Santamaría, Y. Chen, J. Vela, R. D. Schaller, J. A. Hollingsworth, and V. I. Klimov, “Suppressed auger recombination in “giant” nanocrystals boosts optical gain performance,” Nano Lett. 9(10), 3482–3488 (2009).
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C. Ruppert, A. Chernikov, H. M. Hill, A. F. Rigosi, and T. F. Heinz, “The role of electronic and phononic excitation in the optical response of monolayer WS2 after ultrafast excitation,” Nano Lett. 17(2), 644–651 (2017).
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K. Wang, Y. Feng, C. Chang, J. Zhan, C. Wang, Q. Zhao, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, W. J. Blau, and J. Wang, “Broadband ultrafast nonlinear absorption and nonlinear refraction of layered molybdenum dichalcogenide semiconductors,” Nanoscale 6(18), 10530–10535 (2014).
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N. Dong, Y. Li, S. Zhang, N. McEvoy, X. Zhang, Y. Cui, L. Zhang, G. S. Duesberg, and J. Wang, “Dispersion of nonlinear refractive index in layered WS2 and WSe2 semiconductor films induced by two-photon absorption,” Opt. Lett. 41(17), 3936–3939 (2016).
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J. N. Coleman, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, S. D. Bergin, P. J. King, U. Khan, K. Young, A. Gaucher, S. De, and R. J. Smith, “Two-dimensional nanosheets produced by liquid exfoliation of layered materials,” Science 331(6017), 568–571 (2011).
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N. Dong, Y. Li, S. Zhang, N. McEvoy, X. Zhang, Y. Cui, L. Zhang, G. S. Duesberg, and J. Wang, “Dispersion of nonlinear refractive index in layered WS2 and WSe2 semiconductor films induced by two-photon absorption,” Opt. Lett. 41(17), 3936–3939 (2016).
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N. Dong, Y. Li, Y. Feng, S. Zhang, X. Zhang, C. Chang, J. Fan, L. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Optical limiting and theoretical modelling of layered transition metal dichalcogenide nanosheets,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 14646 (2015).
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S. Zhang, N. Dong, N. McEvoy, M. O’Brien, S. Winters, N. C. Berner, C. Yim, Y. Li, X. Zhang, and Z. Chen, “Direct observation of degenerate two-photon absorption and its saturation in WS2 and MoS2 monolayer and few-layer films,” ACS Nano 9(7), 7142–7150 (2015).
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Duesberg, G. S.

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W. Zhao, R. M. Ribeiro, M. Toh, A. Carvalho, C. Kloc, A. Castro Neto, and G. Eda, “Origin of indirect optical transitions in few-layer MoS2, WS2, and WSe2,” Nano Lett. 13(11), 5627–5634 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Chhowalla, H. S. Shin, G. Eda, L.-J. Li, K. P. Loh, and H. Zhang, “The chemistry of two-dimensional layered transition metal dichalcogenide nanosheets,” Nat. Chem. 5(4), 263–275 (2013).
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N. Perea-López, A. L. Elías, A. Berkdemir, A. Castro-Beltran, H. R. Gutiérrez, S. Feng, R. Lv, T. Hayashi, F. López-Urías, and S. Ghosh, “Photosensor device based on few-layered WS2 films,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 23(44), 5511–5517 (2013).
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N. Dong, Y. Li, Y. Feng, S. Zhang, X. Zhang, C. Chang, J. Fan, L. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Optical limiting and theoretical modelling of layered transition metal dichalcogenide nanosheets,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 14646 (2015).
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C. Mai, Y. G. Semenov, A. Barrette, Y. Yu, Z. Jin, L. Cao, K. W. Kim, and K. Gundogdu, “Exciton valley relaxation in a single layer of WS2 measured by ultrafast spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 90(4), 041414 (2014).
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R. Wei, X. Tian, H. Zhang, Z. Hu, X. He, Z. Chen, Q. Chen, and J. Qiu, “Facile synthesis of two-dimensional WS2 with reverse saturable absorption and nonlinear refraction properties in the PMMA matrix,” J. Alloys Compd. 684, 224–229 (2016).
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C. Ruppert, A. Chernikov, H. M. Hill, A. F. Rigosi, and T. F. Heinz, “The role of electronic and phononic excitation in the optical response of monolayer WS2 after ultrafast excitation,” Nano Lett. 17(2), 644–651 (2017).
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D. Jariwala, V. K. Sangwan, L. J. Lauhon, T. J. Marks, and M. C. Hersam, “Emerging device applications for semiconducting two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides,” ACS Nano 8(2), 1102–1120 (2014).
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C. Ruppert, A. Chernikov, H. M. Hill, A. F. Rigosi, and T. F. Heinz, “The role of electronic and phononic excitation in the optical response of monolayer WS2 after ultrafast excitation,” Nano Lett. 17(2), 644–651 (2017).
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S. Z. Butler, S. M. Hollen, L. Cao, Y. Cui, J. A. Gupta, H. R. Gutiérrez, T. F. Heinz, S. S. Hong, J. Huang, and A. F. Ismach, “Progress, challenges, and opportunities in two-dimensional materials beyond graphene,” ACS Nano 7(4), 2898–2926 (2013).
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F. García-Santamaría, Y. Chen, J. Vela, R. D. Schaller, J. A. Hollingsworth, and V. I. Klimov, “Suppressed auger recombination in “giant” nanocrystals boosts optical gain performance,” Nano Lett. 9(10), 3482–3488 (2009).
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K. F. Mak, C. Lee, J. Hone, J. Shan, and T. F. Heinz, “Atomically thin MoS2: a new direct-gap semiconductor,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(13), 136805 (2010).
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S. Z. Butler, S. M. Hollen, L. Cao, Y. Cui, J. A. Gupta, H. R. Gutiérrez, T. F. Heinz, S. S. Hong, J. Huang, and A. F. Ismach, “Progress, challenges, and opportunities in two-dimensional materials beyond graphene,” ACS Nano 7(4), 2898–2926 (2013).
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S. Z. Butler, S. M. Hollen, L. Cao, Y. Cui, J. A. Gupta, H. R. Gutiérrez, T. F. Heinz, S. S. Hong, J. Huang, and A. F. Ismach, “Progress, challenges, and opportunities in two-dimensional materials beyond graphene,” ACS Nano 7(4), 2898–2926 (2013).
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S. Z. Butler, S. M. Hollen, L. Cao, Y. Cui, J. A. Gupta, H. R. Gutiérrez, T. F. Heinz, S. S. Hong, J. Huang, and A. F. Ismach, “Progress, challenges, and opportunities in two-dimensional materials beyond graphene,” ACS Nano 7(4), 2898–2926 (2013).
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K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, and Q. Zhao, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9260–9267 (2013).
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C. Mai, Y. G. Semenov, A. Barrette, Y. Yu, Z. Jin, L. Cao, K. W. Kim, and K. Gundogdu, “Exciton valley relaxation in a single layer of WS2 measured by ultrafast spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 90(4), 041414 (2014).
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K. F. Mak, C. Lee, J. Hone, J. Shan, and T. F. Heinz, “Atomically thin MoS2: a new direct-gap semiconductor,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(13), 136805 (2010).
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S. Zhang, N. Dong, N. McEvoy, M. O’Brien, S. Winters, N. C. Berner, C. Yim, Y. Li, X. Zhang, and Z. Chen, “Direct observation of degenerate two-photon absorption and its saturation in WS2 and MoS2 monolayer and few-layer films,” ACS Nano 9(7), 7142–7150 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wu, K.

Xu, W.-C.

Xu, Z.

Yadgarov, L.

Q.-C. Sun, D. Mazumdar, L. Yadgarov, R. Rosentsveig, R. Tenne, and J. L. Musfeldt, “Spectroscopic determination of phonon lifetimes in rhenium-doped MoS2 nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 13(6), 2803–2808 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yim, C.

S. Zhang, N. Dong, N. McEvoy, M. O’Brien, S. Winters, N. C. Berner, C. Yim, Y. Li, X. Zhang, and Z. Chen, “Direct observation of degenerate two-photon absorption and its saturation in WS2 and MoS2 monolayer and few-layer films,” ACS Nano 9(7), 7142–7150 (2015).
[Crossref]

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K. Wei, T. Jiang, Z. Xu, J. Zhou, J. You, Y. Tang, H. Li, R. Chen, X. Zheng, and S. Wang, “Ultrafast carrier transfer promoted by interlayer coulomb coupling in 2D/3D perovskite heterostructures,” Laser Photonics Rev. 12(10), 1800128 (2018).
[Crossref]

You, Y.

X.-X. Zhang, Y. You, S. Y. F. Zhao, and T. F. Heinz, “Experimental evidence for dark excitons in monolayer WSe2,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(25), 257403 (2015).
[Crossref]

Young, K.

J. N. Coleman, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, S. D. Bergin, P. J. King, U. Khan, K. Young, A. Gaucher, S. De, and R. J. Smith, “Two-dimensional nanosheets produced by liquid exfoliation of layered materials,” Science 331(6017), 568–571 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yu, S. F.

H. Long, L. Tao, C. Y. Tang, B. Zhou, Y. Zhao, L. Zeng, S. F. Yu, S. P. Lau, Y. Chai, and Y. H. Tsang, “Tuning nonlinear optical absorption properties of WS(2) nanosheets,” Nanoscale 7(42), 17771–17777 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yu, Y.

C. Mai, Y. G. Semenov, A. Barrette, Y. Yu, Z. Jin, L. Cao, K. W. Kim, and K. Gundogdu, “Exciton valley relaxation in a single layer of WS2 measured by ultrafast spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 90(4), 041414 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zeng, L.

H. Long, L. Tao, C. Y. Tang, B. Zhou, Y. Zhao, L. Zeng, S. F. Yu, S. P. Lau, Y. Chai, and Y. H. Tsang, “Tuning nonlinear optical absorption properties of WS(2) nanosheets,” Nanoscale 7(42), 17771–17777 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhan, J.

K. Wang, Y. Feng, C. Chang, J. Zhan, C. Wang, Q. Zhao, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, W. J. Blau, and J. Wang, “Broadband ultrafast nonlinear absorption and nonlinear refraction of layered molybdenum dichalcogenide semiconductors,” Nanoscale 6(18), 10530–10535 (2014).
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Y. Cai, J. Lan, G. Zhang, and Y.-W. Zhang, “Lattice vibrational modes and phonon thermal conductivity of monolayer MoS2,” Phys. Rev. B 89(3), 035438 (2014).
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J. Zhang, R. O’Neil, and T. Roberti, “Femtosecond studies of photoinduced electron dynamics at the liquid-solid interface of aqueous CdS colloids,” J. Phys. Chem. 98(14), 3859–3864 (1994).
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[Crossref]

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N. Dong, Y. Li, S. Zhang, N. McEvoy, X. Zhang, Y. Cui, L. Zhang, G. S. Duesberg, and J. Wang, “Dispersion of nonlinear refractive index in layered WS2 and WSe2 semiconductor films induced by two-photon absorption,” Opt. Lett. 41(17), 3936–3939 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Zhang, N. Dong, N. McEvoy, M. O’Brien, S. Winters, N. C. Berner, C. Yim, Y. Li, X. Zhang, and Z. Chen, “Direct observation of degenerate two-photon absorption and its saturation in WS2 and MoS2 monolayer and few-layer films,” ACS Nano 9(7), 7142–7150 (2015).
[Crossref]

N. Dong, Y. Li, Y. Feng, S. Zhang, X. Zhang, C. Chang, J. Fan, L. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Optical limiting and theoretical modelling of layered transition metal dichalcogenide nanosheets,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 14646 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.

N. Dong, Y. Li, S. Zhang, N. McEvoy, X. Zhang, Y. Cui, L. Zhang, G. S. Duesberg, and J. Wang, “Dispersion of nonlinear refractive index in layered WS2 and WSe2 semiconductor films induced by two-photon absorption,” Opt. Lett. 41(17), 3936–3939 (2016).
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S. Zhang, N. Dong, N. McEvoy, M. O’Brien, S. Winters, N. C. Berner, C. Yim, Y. Li, X. Zhang, and Z. Chen, “Direct observation of degenerate two-photon absorption and its saturation in WS2 and MoS2 monolayer and few-layer films,” ACS Nano 9(7), 7142–7150 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, and Q. Zhao, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9260–9267 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.-X.

X.-X. Zhang, Y. You, S. Y. F. Zhao, and T. F. Heinz, “Experimental evidence for dark excitons in monolayer WSe2,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(25), 257403 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y.

Zhang, Y.-W.

Y. Cai, J. Lan, G. Zhang, and Y.-W. Zhang, “Lattice vibrational modes and phonon thermal conductivity of monolayer MoS2,” Phys. Rev. B 89(3), 035438 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhao, C.-J.

Zhao, Q.

K. Wang, Y. Feng, C. Chang, J. Zhan, C. Wang, Q. Zhao, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, W. J. Blau, and J. Wang, “Broadband ultrafast nonlinear absorption and nonlinear refraction of layered molybdenum dichalcogenide semiconductors,” Nanoscale 6(18), 10530–10535 (2014).
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K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, and Q. Zhao, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9260–9267 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhao, S. Y. F.

X.-X. Zhang, Y. You, S. Y. F. Zhao, and T. F. Heinz, “Experimental evidence for dark excitons in monolayer WSe2,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(25), 257403 (2015).
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[Crossref]

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H. Long, L. Tao, C. Y. Tang, B. Zhou, Y. Zhao, L. Zeng, S. F. Yu, S. P. Lau, Y. Chai, and Y. H. Tsang, “Tuning nonlinear optical absorption properties of WS(2) nanosheets,” Nanoscale 7(42), 17771–17777 (2015).
[Crossref]

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Zhou, B.

H. Long, L. Tao, C. Y. Tang, B. Zhou, Y. Zhao, L. Zeng, S. F. Yu, S. P. Lau, Y. Chai, and Y. H. Tsang, “Tuning nonlinear optical absorption properties of WS(2) nanosheets,” Nanoscale 7(42), 17771–17777 (2015).
[Crossref]

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K. Wei, T. Jiang, Z. Xu, J. Zhou, J. You, Y. Tang, H. Li, R. Chen, X. Zheng, and S. Wang, “Ultrafast carrier transfer promoted by interlayer coulomb coupling in 2D/3D perovskite heterostructures,” Laser Photonics Rev. 12(10), 1800128 (2018).
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H. Long, L. Tao, C. Y. Tang, B. Zhou, Y. Zhao, L. Zeng, S. F. Yu, S. P. Lau, Y. Chai, and Y. H. Tsang, “Tuning nonlinear optical absorption properties of WS(2) nanosheets,” Nanoscale 7(42), 17771–17777 (2015).
[Crossref]

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C. Mai, Y. G. Semenov, A. Barrette, Y. Yu, Z. Jin, L. Cao, K. W. Kim, and K. Gundogdu, “Exciton valley relaxation in a single layer of WS2 measured by ultrafast spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 90(4), 041414 (2014).
[Crossref]

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X.-X. Zhang, Y. You, S. Y. F. Zhao, and T. F. Heinz, “Experimental evidence for dark excitons in monolayer WSe2,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(25), 257403 (2015).
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J. N. Coleman, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, S. D. Bergin, P. J. King, U. Khan, K. Young, A. Gaucher, S. De, and R. J. Smith, “Two-dimensional nanosheets produced by liquid exfoliation of layered materials,” Science 331(6017), 568–571 (2011).
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J. Wang, “Nonlinear optical effects in layered transition metal dichalcogenides (Conference Presentation),” in Nanophotonics VII, (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2018), 1067213.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) SEM image of WS2 nanosheets, (b) linear absorption spectra of WS2 nanosheets.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Normalized transmission as a function of WS2 nanosheets position for open aperture Z-scan at different wavelengths (a) 450 nm, (b) 475 nm, (c) 500 nm, (d) 525 nm, (e) 550 nm, (f) 600 nm, (g) 625 nm, (h) 650 nm, (i) 675 nm, and (j) 700 nm. The scatters are experimental data while the solid lines are theoretical fit.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. The solid lines are the linear absorption spectra. The scatters are theoretical fit Saturable strength ${I_s}$ of WS2 vs. wavelength.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a) Time and wavelength resolved transient absorption data of WS2 nanosheets. (b) Transient absorption spectra for WS2 nanosheets at different delay time. (c-l) Normalized dynamics curves for WS2 nanosheets at different wavelength, respectively (The scatters are experimental data while the solid lines are theoretical fit generated).
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. The decay constant (${\tau _1},\, {\tau _1}$) versus change plotted as a function of probe laser wavelength.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Nonlinear Optical Parameters of WS2 nanosheets

Tables Icon

Table 2. Fitting results for the decay processes for WS2 nanosheets at different wavelengths.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

d I = α I d z
α ( I ) = α 0 1 + ( I / I s )
I = I 0 1 + z 2 / z 2 z 0 2 z 0 2
α ( I 0 ) = α 0 1 + I 0 ( 1 + z 2 / z 2 z 0 2 z 0 2 ) I s
Δ T T = A 1 exp ( t τ 1 ) + A 2 exp ( t τ 2 )

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