Abstract

A mid-infrared trace gas detection system based on off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy (OA-ICOS) is demonstrated for accurate and sensitive detection of N2O in combination with a continuous wave external-cavity quantum cascade laser (EC-QCL) working around 7.7 µm. A 13-times improvement in signal-to-noise ratio is achieved using a re-injection mirror and a minimum detection limit of 70 ppbv in less than 10 s averaging time is achieved, which yields a noise-equivalent absorption sensitivity (NEAS) of 6×10−9 cm−1 Hz−1/2. For comparison, a compact multipass cell is deployed to measure the same absorption line of N2O using wavelength modulation spectroscopy with second harmonic detection (WMS-2f). An enhancement factor of 20 in comparison to direct absorption spectroscopy (DAS) is achieved, yielding a minimum detection limit of 15 ppbv in less than 10 s averaging and a NEAS of 1×10−9 cm−1 Hz−1/2. A comprehensive comparison between the two systems is carried out in terms of residual amplitude noise (RAM), linearity, long-term stability, detection limit, spectral fitting, reproducibility, and background variations. The proposed sensor based on OA-ICOS is potentially advantageous for trace gas sensing in outdoor applications and harsh environments due to its robustness and flexibility of alignment.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2018 (5)

2017 (3)

M. Azhar, J. Mandon, A. H. Neerincx, Z. Liu, J. Mink, P. J. F. M. Merkus, S. M. Cristescu, and F. J. M. Harren, “A widely tunable, near-infrared laser-based trace gas sensor for hydrogen cyanide (HCN) detection in exhaled breath,” Appl. Phys. B 123(11), 268 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Yu, N. P. Sanchez, F. Yi, C. Zheng, W. Ye, H. Wu, R. J. Griffin, and F. K. Tittel, “Dual quantum cascade laser-based sensor for simultaneous NO and NO2 detection using a wavelength modulation-division multiplexing technique,” Appl. Phys. B 123(5), 164 (2017).
[Crossref]

B. Tuzson, J. Jágerská, H. Looser, M. Graf, F. Felder, M. Fill, L. Tappy, and L. Emmenegger, “Highly selective volatile organic compounds breath analysis using a broadly-tunable vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Anal. Chem. 89(12), 6377–6383 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (3)

N. Pakmanesh, S. M. Cristescu, A. Ghorbanzadeh, F. J. M. Harren, and J. Mandon, “Quantum cascade laser-based sensors for the detection of exhaled carbon monoxide,” Appl. Phys. B 122(1), 10 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. J. Yu, N. P. Sanchez, R. J. Griffin, and F. K. Tittel, “CW EC-QCL-based sensor for simultaneous detection of H2O, HDO, N2O and CH4 using multi-pass absorption spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 24(10), 10391–10401 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. Centeno, J. Mandon, F. Harren, and S. Cristescu, “Influence of ethanol on breath acetone measurements using an external cavity quantum cascade laser,” Photonics 3(2), 22 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (1)

V. L. Kasyutich and M. W. Sigrist, “Optimisation of laser linewidth and cavity alignment in off-axis cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 71, 179–186 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (5)

A. Klein, W. Oliver, and Volker Ebert, “Rapid, time-division multiplexed, direct absorption- and wavelength modulation spectroscopy,” Sensors 14(11), 21497–21513 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. B. Leen and A. O’Keefe, “Optical re-injection in cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85(9), 093101 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Centeno, D. Marchenko, J. Mandon, S. M. Cristescu, G. Wulterkens, and F. J. M. Harren, “High power, widely tunable, mode-hop free, continuous wave external cavity quantum cascade laser for multi-species trace gas detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(26), 261907 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Centeno, J. Mandon, S. M. Cristescu, and F. J. Harren, “Sensitivity enhancement in off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 22(23), 27985–27991 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Jahjah, W. Jiang, N. P. Sanchez, W. Ren, P. Patimisco, V. Spagnolo, S. C. Herndon, R. J. Griffin, and F. K. Tittel, “Atmospheric CH4 and N2O measurements near Greater Houston area landfills using a QCL-based QEPAS sensor system during DISCOVER-AQ 2013,” Opt. Lett. 39(4), 957–960 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

J. Hodgkinson and R. P. Tatam, “Optical gas sensing: a review,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 24(1), 012004 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. Sun, X. Chao, R. Sur, C. S. Goldenstein, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “Analysis of calibration-free wavelength-scanned wavelength modulation spectroscopy for practical gas sensing using tunable diode lasers,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 24(12), 125203 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

Y. Yao, A. J. Hoffman, and C. F. Gmachl, “Mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 432–439 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. W. Portmann, J. S. Daniel, and A. R. Ravishankara, “Stratospheric ozone depletion due to nitrous oxide: influences of other gases,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc., B 367(1593), 1256–1264 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

2010 (3)

B. Lins, P. Zinn, R. Engelbrecht, and B. Schmauss, “Simulation-based comparison of noise effects in wavelength modulation spectroscopy and direct absorption TDLAS,” Appl. Phys. B 100(2), 367–376 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. D. Arslanov, S. M. Cristescu, and F. J. M. Harren, “Optical parametric oscillator based off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy for rapid chemical sensing,” Opt. Lett. 35(19), 3300–3302 (2010).
[Crossref]

V. L. Kasyutich, R. K. Raja Ibrahim, and P. A. Martin, “Stability of widely tuneable, continuous wave external-cavity quantum cascade laser for absorption spectroscopy,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 53(5), 381–387 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (4)

G. Casa, R. Wehr, A. Castrillo, E. Fasci, and L. Gianfrani, “The line shape problem in the near-infrared spectrum of self-colliding CO2 molecules: Experimental investigation and test of semiclassical models,” J. Chem. Phys. 130(18), 184306 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. S. Sayres, E. J. Moyer, T. F. Hanisco, J. M. S. Clair, F. N. Keutsch, A. O’Brien, N. T. Allen, L. Lapson, J. N. Demusz, M. Rivero, T. Martin, M. Greenberg, C. Tuozzolo, G. S. Engel, J. H. Kroll, J. B. Paul, and J. G. Anderson, “A new cavity based absorption instrument for detection of water isotopologues in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80(4), 044102 (2009).
[Crossref]

G. Hancock, J. H. van Helden, R. Peverall, G. A. D. Ritchie, and R. J. Walker, “Direct and wavelength modulation spectroscopy using a CW external cavity quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(20), 201110 (2009).
[Crossref]

G. B. Rieker, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “Calibration-free wavelength-modulation spectroscopy for measurements of gas temperature and concentration in harsh environments,” Appl. Opt. 48(29), 5546–5560 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

A. Kosterev, G. Wysocki, Y. Bakhirkin, S. So, R. Lewicki, M. Fraser, F. Tittel, and R. F. Curl, “Application of quantum cascade lasers to trace gas analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 90(2), 165–176 (2008).
[Crossref]

E. J. Moyer, D. S. Sayres, G. S. Engel, J. M. S. Clair, F. N. Keutsch, N. T. Allen, J. H. Kroll, and J. G. Anderson, “Design considerations in high-sensitivity off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 92(3), 467–474 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

R. M. Matthew, B. Yury, W. Gerard, L. Rafal, and K. T. Frank, “Recent advances of laser-spectroscopy-based techniques for applications in breath analysis,” J. Breath Res. 1(1), 014001 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

S. Borri, S. Bartalini, P. De Natale, M. Inguscio, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, “Frequency modulation spectroscopy by means of quantum-cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 85(2-3), 223–229 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

G. Wysocki, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, R. Maulini, J. M. Bulliard, and J. Faist, “Widely tunable mode-hop free external cavity quantum cascade laser for high resolution spectroscopic applications,” Appl. Phys. B 81(6), 769–777 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

M. S. Taubman, T. L. Myers, B. D. Cannon, and R. M. Williams, “Stabilization, injection and control of quantum cascade lasers, and their application to chemical sensing in the infrared,” Spectrochim. Acta, Part A 60(14), 3457–3468 (2004).
[Crossref]

Y. A. Bakhirkin, A. A. Kosterev, C. Roller, R. F. Curl, and F. K. Tittel, “Mid-infrared quantum cascade laser based off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy for biogenic nitric oxide detection,” Appl. Opt. 43(11), 2257–2266 (2004).
[Crossref]

2002 (2)

D. S. Baer, J. B. Paul, M. Gupta, and A. O’Keefe, “Sensitive absorption measurements in the near-infrared region using off-axis integrated-cavity-output spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 75(2-3), 261–265 (2002).
[Crossref]

P. Werle, F. Slemr, K. Maurer, R. Kormann, R. Mucke, and B. Janker, “Near- and mid-infrared laser-optical sensors for gas analysis,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 37(2-3), 101–114 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

2000 (1)

1999 (1)

1998 (2)

R. Engeln, G. Berden, R. Peeters, and G. Meijer, “Cavity enhanced absorption and cavity enhanced magnetic rotation spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69(11), 3763–3769 (1998).
[Crossref]

K. Namjou, S. Cai, E. A. Whittaker, J. Faist, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, “Sensitive absorption spectroscopy with a room-temperature distributed-feedback quantum-cascade laser,” Opt. Lett. 23(3), 219–221 (1998).
[Crossref]

1994 (2)

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Allen, N. T.

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D. S. Sayres, E. J. Moyer, T. F. Hanisco, J. M. S. Clair, F. N. Keutsch, A. O’Brien, N. T. Allen, L. Lapson, J. N. Demusz, M. Rivero, T. Martin, M. Greenberg, C. Tuozzolo, G. S. Engel, J. H. Kroll, J. B. Paul, and J. G. Anderson, “A new cavity based absorption instrument for detection of water isotopologues in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80(4), 044102 (2009).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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S. Borri, S. Bartalini, P. De Natale, M. Inguscio, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, “Frequency modulation spectroscopy by means of quantum-cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 85(2-3), 223–229 (2006).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Bulliard, J. M.

G. Wysocki, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, R. Maulini, J. M. Bulliard, and J. Faist, “Widely tunable mode-hop free external cavity quantum cascade laser for high resolution spectroscopic applications,” Appl. Phys. B 81(6), 769–777 (2005).
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Butler, J. H.

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Cai, S.

Campargue, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Cannon, B. D.

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Capasso, F.

S. Borri, S. Bartalini, P. De Natale, M. Inguscio, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, “Frequency modulation spectroscopy by means of quantum-cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 85(2-3), 223–229 (2006).
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B. A. Paldus, C. C. Harb, T. G. Spence, R. N. Zare, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Cavity ringdown spectroscopy using mid-infrared quantum-cascade lasers,” Opt. Lett. 25(9), 666–668 (2000).
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K. Namjou, S. Cai, E. A. Whittaker, J. Faist, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, “Sensitive absorption spectroscopy with a room-temperature distributed-feedback quantum-cascade laser,” Opt. Lett. 23(3), 219–221 (1998).
[Crossref]

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade laser,” Science 264(5158), 553–556 (1994).
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Casa, G.

G. Casa, R. Wehr, A. Castrillo, E. Fasci, and L. Gianfrani, “The line shape problem in the near-infrared spectrum of self-colliding CO2 molecules: Experimental investigation and test of semiclassical models,” J. Chem. Phys. 130(18), 184306 (2009).
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Centeno, R.

R. Centeno, J. Mandon, F. Harren, and S. Cristescu, “Influence of ethanol on breath acetone measurements using an external cavity quantum cascade laser,” Photonics 3(2), 22 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. Centeno, D. Marchenko, J. Mandon, S. M. Cristescu, G. Wulterkens, and F. J. M. Harren, “High power, widely tunable, mode-hop free, continuous wave external cavity quantum cascade laser for multi-species trace gas detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(26), 261907 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Centeno, J. Mandon, S. M. Cristescu, and F. J. Harren, “Sensitivity enhancement in off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 22(23), 27985–27991 (2014).
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Chance, K.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Chao, X.

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Cho, A. Y.

S. Borri, S. Bartalini, P. De Natale, M. Inguscio, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, “Frequency modulation spectroscopy by means of quantum-cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 85(2-3), 223–229 (2006).
[Crossref]

B. A. Paldus, C. C. Harb, T. G. Spence, R. N. Zare, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Cavity ringdown spectroscopy using mid-infrared quantum-cascade lasers,” Opt. Lett. 25(9), 666–668 (2000).
[Crossref]

K. Namjou, S. Cai, E. A. Whittaker, J. Faist, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, “Sensitive absorption spectroscopy with a room-temperature distributed-feedback quantum-cascade laser,” Opt. Lett. 23(3), 219–221 (1998).
[Crossref]

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade laser,” Science 264(5158), 553–556 (1994).
[Crossref]

Chris Benner, D.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Clair, J. M. S.

D. S. Sayres, E. J. Moyer, T. F. Hanisco, J. M. S. Clair, F. N. Keutsch, A. O’Brien, N. T. Allen, L. Lapson, J. N. Demusz, M. Rivero, T. Martin, M. Greenberg, C. Tuozzolo, G. S. Engel, J. H. Kroll, J. B. Paul, and J. G. Anderson, “A new cavity based absorption instrument for detection of water isotopologues in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80(4), 044102 (2009).
[Crossref]

E. J. Moyer, D. S. Sayres, G. S. Engel, J. M. S. Clair, F. N. Keutsch, N. T. Allen, J. H. Kroll, and J. G. Anderson, “Design considerations in high-sensitivity off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 92(3), 467–474 (2008).
[Crossref]

Clouser, B. W.

Cohen, E. A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Coudert, L. H.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Cristescu, S.

F. Nadeem, J. Mandon, A. Khodabakhsh, S. Cristescu, and F. Harren, “Sensitive Spectroscopy of Acetone Using a Widely Tunable External-Cavity Quantum Cascade Laser,” Sensors 18(7), 2050 (2018).
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R. Centeno, J. Mandon, F. Harren, and S. Cristescu, “Influence of ethanol on breath acetone measurements using an external cavity quantum cascade laser,” Photonics 3(2), 22 (2016).
[Crossref]

Cristescu, S. M.

F. Nadeem, B. R. Postma, G. Postma, S. M. Cristescu, J. Mandon, and F. J. M. Harren, “Comprehensive three-dimensional ray tracing model for three-mirror cavity-enhanced spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 57(2), 154–163 (2018).
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F. Nadeem, J. Mandon, S. M. Cristescu, and F. J. M. Harren, “Intensity enhancement in off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 57(29), 8536–8542 (2018).
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M. Azhar, J. Mandon, A. H. Neerincx, Z. Liu, J. Mink, P. J. F. M. Merkus, S. M. Cristescu, and F. J. M. Harren, “A widely tunable, near-infrared laser-based trace gas sensor for hydrogen cyanide (HCN) detection in exhaled breath,” Appl. Phys. B 123(11), 268 (2017).
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N. Pakmanesh, S. M. Cristescu, A. Ghorbanzadeh, F. J. M. Harren, and J. Mandon, “Quantum cascade laser-based sensors for the detection of exhaled carbon monoxide,” Appl. Phys. B 122(1), 10 (2016).
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R. Centeno, D. Marchenko, J. Mandon, S. M. Cristescu, G. Wulterkens, and F. J. M. Harren, “High power, widely tunable, mode-hop free, continuous wave external cavity quantum cascade laser for multi-species trace gas detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(26), 261907 (2014).
[Crossref]

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J. Hodgkinson and R. P. Tatam, “Optical gas sensing: a review,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 24(1), 012004 (2013).
[Crossref]

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M. S. Taubman, T. L. Myers, B. D. Cannon, and R. M. Williams, “Stabilization, injection and control of quantum cascade lasers, and their application to chemical sensing in the infrared,” Spectrochim. Acta, Part A 60(14), 3457–3468 (2004).
[Crossref]

Tennyson, J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

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A. Kosterev, G. Wysocki, Y. Bakhirkin, S. So, R. Lewicki, M. Fraser, F. Tittel, and R. F. Curl, “Application of quantum cascade lasers to trace gas analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 90(2), 165–176 (2008).
[Crossref]

Tittel, F. K.

Tomko, J.

S. Mathonnière, J. Tomko, Y. Matsuoka, S. Peters, J. Kischkat, M. Semtsiv, and W. T. Masselink, “External cavity quantum cascade laser emitting from 12.3 to 13.2,” Appl. Phys. B 124(7), 149 (2018).
[Crossref]

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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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G. Hancock, J. H. van Helden, R. Peverall, G. A. D. Ritchie, and R. J. Walker, “Direct and wavelength modulation spectroscopy using a CW external cavity quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(20), 201110 (2009).
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Y. Yu, N. P. Sanchez, F. Yi, C. Zheng, W. Ye, H. Wu, R. J. Griffin, and F. K. Tittel, “Dual quantum cascade laser-based sensor for simultaneous NO and NO2 detection using a wavelength modulation-division multiplexing technique,” Appl. Phys. B 123(5), 164 (2017).
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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) L-I-V curves of the EC-QCL. (b) Normalized spectral tuning coverage of the EC-QCL (measured with FTIR) along with corresponding output powers at −30 °C. The total scanning range is over 300 cm−1 and the maximum output power is ∼ 40 m W.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Scheme of the two developed setups (a) OA-ICOS (b) 2f-WMS with a multipass cell. He-Ne: Helium-Neon Laser, M1,2: Cavity mirrors, L: Cavity length, d: Re-injection mirror distance from the cavity, FM: Flip Mirror, DAQ: Data Acquisition Card, PZT: Piezo actuator, EC-QCL: External cavity Quantum cascade laser, LiA: Lock-in amplifier, PD: Photodetector, ISO: Isolator, FGen: Function generator, LCC: Laser current controller.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. OA-ICOS signals of a single N2O absorption line at 1300.92 cm−1 (black data points, five scans averaged) without background correction measured in 6 ppmv mixture of N2O in N2 at 100 mbar, along with Voigt profile fits (red curve) for (a) without re-injection mirror and (b) with re-injection mirror. The residuals of the fits are shown in the lower panels.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. N2O absorption line at 1300.92 cm−1 (5 ppmv in N2), measured using the multipass cell. Panel (a) DAS, Panel (b) WMS-2f. DAS measurement is fitted by a Voigt profile, while the WMS-2f measurement is fitted by the corresponding wavelength modulation spectroscopy model based on a Voigt profile. The residuals of the fits are shown in the lower panels.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. The response of the OA-ICOS setup. (a) Measured concentrations for different mixtures of N2O diluted in N2. (b) Bland-Altman plot showing the residual for six measured mixtures. Solid red line: mean value, blue dashed line: standard deviation.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Response of WMS-setup in combination with a multipass cell. (a) Measured concentrations for different mixtures of N2O diluted in N2. (b) Bland-Altman plot showing the residual for 7 measured mixtures. Solid red line: mean value, blue dashed line: standard deviation.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Allan-Werle plot of the minimum detection limit as a function of averaging time for N2O diluted in N2, without re-injection mirror (black curve) and with re-injection mirror (red curve). The detection limit of the system is improved by a factor of ∼13 using the re-injection mirror, which yields a minimum detectable absorption of 80 ppbv in 8 s averaging time.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. Allan-Werle plot of the minimum detection limit as a function of averaging time for N2O diluted in N2 for DAS (black line) and WMS-2f (blue line). A minimum detectable absorption of 15 ppbv is recorded at the optimal averaging time of 10 s.

Equations (2)

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I enhanced = I 3 mirror I 2 mirror = i = 0 n r 2 i m i m 0 ,
NEAS =   ( Δ I I 0 ) min 1 L eff nT N p