Abstract

We present the novel design of a spot-size converter (SSC) for high efficiency coupling between a conventional single-mode fiber (SMF) and a standard silicon nanowire. Our design involves evanescent coupling between a stack of Si3N4/SiO2 alternating layers and a standard silicon nanowire. The proposed SSC coupler demonstrates highly broadband performance with a polarization dependence of less than 0.62 dB and an expected taper loss of less than 1.0 dB, over 100 nm bandwidth ranging from 1.5 to 1.6 µm. To the best of our knowledge, the proposed SSC achieves the highest broadband coupling for both polarizations between a fiber with a large mode-field diameter (i.e., SMF-28) and a standard silicon nanowire.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]

2019 (1)

X. Wang, X. Quan, M. Liu, and X. Cheng, “Silicon-nitride-assisted edge coupler interfacing with high numerical aperture fiber,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 31(5), 349–352 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (1)

2017 (1)

N. Kohli, E. K. Sharma, and B. M. A. Rahman, “Improved design for SOI based evanescently coupled multilayer spot-size converter,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 49(6), 229 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (3)

2015 (3)

2013 (2)

2011 (2)

X. Chen and H. K. Tsang, “Polarization-independent grating couplers for silicon-on-insulator nanophotonic waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 36(6), 796–798 (2011).
[Crossref]

G. Roelkens, D. Vermeulen, S. Selvaraja, R. Halir, W. Bogaerts, and D. V. Thourhout, “Grating-Based Optical Fiber Interfaces for Silicon-on-Insulator Photonic Integrated Circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 571–580 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (5)

R. Halir, D. Vermeulen, and G. Roelkens, “Reducing Polarization-Dependent Loss of Silicon-on-Insulator Fiber to Chip Grating Couplers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(6), 389–391 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Pu, L. Liu, H. Ou, K. Yvind, and J. M. Hvam, “Ultra-low-loss inverted taper coupler for silicon-on-insulator ridge waveguide,” Opt. Commun. 283(19), 3678–3682 (2010).
[Crossref]

B. Ben Bakir, A. de Gyves, R. Orobtchouk, P. Lyan, C. Porzier, A. Roman, and J.-M. Fedeli, “Low-loss (<1 dB) and polarization-insensitive edge fiber couplers fabricated on 200-mm silicon-on-insulator wafers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(11), 739–741 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. Khilo, M. A. Popović, M. Araghchini, and F. X. Kärtner, “Efficient planar fiber-to-chip coupler based on two-stage adiabatic evolution,” Opt. Express 18(15), 15790–15806 (2010).
[Crossref]

Q. Fang, T.-Y. Liow, J. F. Song, C. W. Tan, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Suspended optical fiber-to-waveguide mode size converter for Silicon photonics,” Opt. Express 18(8), 7763–7769 (2010).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

J. V. Galán, P. Sanchis, G. Sánchez, and J. Martí, “Polarization insensitive low-loss coupling technique between SOI waveguides and high mode field diameter single-mode fibers,” Opt. Express 15(11), 7058–7065 (2007).
[Crossref]

K. Shiraishi, H. Yoda, A. Ohshima, H. Ikedo, and C. S. Tsai, “A silicon-based spot-size converter between single-mode fibers and Si-wire waveguides using cascaded tapers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(14), 141120 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

S. Haxha, E. O. Ladely, M. Mjeku, F. AbdelMalek, and B. M. A. Rahman, “Optimization of compact lateral, vertical, and combined tapered spot-size converters by use of the beam-propagation method,” Appl. Opt. 45(2), 288–296 (2006).
[Crossref]

D. Taillaert, F. V. Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Grating Couplers for Coupling between Optical Fibers and Nanophotonic Waveguides,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(8A), 6071–6077 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

S. Irmer, K. Alex, J. Daleiden, I. Kommallein, M. Oliveira, F. Römer, A. Tarraf, and H. Hillmer, “Surface micromachined optical low-cost all-air-gap filters based on stress-optimized Si3N4 layers,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 15(4), 867–872 (2005).
[Crossref]

M. Melchiorri, N. Daldosso, F. Sbrana, L. Pavesi, G. Pucker, C. Kompocholis, P. Bellutti, and A. Lui, “Propagation losses of silicon nitride waveguides in the near-infrared range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(12), 121111 (2005).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets, “An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 38(7), 949–955 (2002).
[Crossref]

AbdelMalek, F.

Absil, P.

B. Snyder, G. Lepage, S. Balakrishnan, P. De Heyn, P. Verheyen, P. Absil, and J. V. Campenhout, “Ultra-broadband, polarization-insensitive SMF-28 fiber edge couplers for silicon photonics,” in Proceedings of IEEE CMPT Symposium (IEEE, 2017), pp. 55–58.

Alex, K.

S. Irmer, K. Alex, J. Daleiden, I. Kommallein, M. Oliveira, F. Römer, A. Tarraf, and H. Hillmer, “Surface micromachined optical low-cost all-air-gap filters based on stress-optimized Si3N4 layers,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 15(4), 867–872 (2005).
[Crossref]

Amano, T.

Araghchini, M.

Ayre, M.

D. Taillaert, F. V. Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Grating Couplers for Coupling between Optical Fibers and Nanophotonic Waveguides,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(8A), 6071–6077 (2006).
[Crossref]

Baets, R.

D. Taillaert, F. V. Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Grating Couplers for Coupling between Optical Fibers and Nanophotonic Waveguides,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(8A), 6071–6077 (2006).
[Crossref]

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets, “An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 38(7), 949–955 (2002).
[Crossref]

Balakrishnan, S.

B. Snyder, G. Lepage, S. Balakrishnan, P. De Heyn, P. Verheyen, P. Absil, and J. V. Campenhout, “Ultra-broadband, polarization-insensitive SMF-28 fiber edge couplers for silicon photonics,” in Proceedings of IEEE CMPT Symposium (IEEE, 2017), pp. 55–58.

Bellutti, P.

M. Melchiorri, N. Daldosso, F. Sbrana, L. Pavesi, G. Pucker, C. Kompocholis, P. Bellutti, and A. Lui, “Propagation losses of silicon nitride waveguides in the near-infrared range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(12), 121111 (2005).
[Crossref]

Ben Bakir, B.

B. Ben Bakir, A. de Gyves, R. Orobtchouk, P. Lyan, C. Porzier, A. Roman, and J.-M. Fedeli, “Low-loss (<1 dB) and polarization-insensitive edge fiber couplers fabricated on 200-mm silicon-on-insulator wafers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(11), 739–741 (2010).
[Crossref]

Benedikovic, D.

Bienstman, P.

D. Taillaert, F. V. Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Grating Couplers for Coupling between Optical Fibers and Nanophotonic Waveguides,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(8A), 6071–6077 (2006).
[Crossref]

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets, “An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 38(7), 949–955 (2002).
[Crossref]

Bogaerts, W.

G. Roelkens, D. Vermeulen, S. Selvaraja, R. Halir, W. Bogaerts, and D. V. Thourhout, “Grating-Based Optical Fiber Interfaces for Silicon-on-Insulator Photonic Integrated Circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 571–580 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. Taillaert, F. V. Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Grating Couplers for Coupling between Optical Fibers and Nanophotonic Waveguides,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(8A), 6071–6077 (2006).
[Crossref]

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets, “An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 38(7), 949–955 (2002).
[Crossref]

Bojko, R.

Campenhout, J. V.

B. Snyder, G. Lepage, S. Balakrishnan, P. De Heyn, P. Verheyen, P. Absil, and J. V. Campenhout, “Ultra-broadband, polarization-insensitive SMF-28 fiber edge couplers for silicon photonics,” in Proceedings of IEEE CMPT Symposium (IEEE, 2017), pp. 55–58.

Caspers, J. N.

J. N. Caspers, A. W. Mackay, and J. K. S. Poon, “Short efficient non-adiabatic spot-size converters by mode interference in silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, 2012 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper OTu2I.6.

Caverley, M.

Cheben, P.

Chen, Hui

Chen, X.

Chen, Y.

Cheng, X.

X. Wang, X. Quan, M. Liu, and X. Cheng, “Silicon-nitride-assisted edge coupler interfacing with high numerical aperture fiber,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 31(5), 349–352 (2019).
[Crossref]

Chrostowski, L.

Dado, M.

Daldosso, N.

M. Melchiorri, N. Daldosso, F. Sbrana, L. Pavesi, G. Pucker, C. Kompocholis, P. Bellutti, and A. Lui, “Propagation losses of silicon nitride waveguides in the near-infrared range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(12), 121111 (2005).
[Crossref]

Daleiden, J.

S. Irmer, K. Alex, J. Daleiden, I. Kommallein, M. Oliveira, F. Römer, A. Tarraf, and H. Hillmer, “Surface micromachined optical low-cost all-air-gap filters based on stress-optimized Si3N4 layers,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 15(4), 867–872 (2005).
[Crossref]

de Gyves, A.

B. Ben Bakir, A. de Gyves, R. Orobtchouk, P. Lyan, C. Porzier, A. Roman, and J.-M. Fedeli, “Low-loss (<1 dB) and polarization-insensitive edge fiber couplers fabricated on 200-mm silicon-on-insulator wafers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(11), 739–741 (2010).
[Crossref]

De Heyn, P.

B. Snyder, G. Lepage, S. Balakrishnan, P. De Heyn, P. Verheyen, P. Absil, and J. V. Campenhout, “Ultra-broadband, polarization-insensitive SMF-28 fiber edge couplers for silicon photonics,” in Proceedings of IEEE CMPT Symposium (IEEE, 2017), pp. 55–58.

De Mesel, K.

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets, “An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 38(7), 949–955 (2002).
[Crossref]

Desroches, Y.

M. M. Sisto, B. Fisette, J. E. Paultre, A. Paquet, and Y. Desroches, “Novel spot size converter for coupling standard single mode fibers to SOI waveguides,” in Proc. SPIE 9752, 975217 (2017).

Fan., Z.

Fang, Q.

Fedeli, J.-M.

B. Ben Bakir, A. de Gyves, R. Orobtchouk, P. Lyan, C. Porzier, A. Roman, and J.-M. Fedeli, “Low-loss (<1 dB) and polarization-insensitive edge fiber couplers fabricated on 200-mm silicon-on-insulator wafers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(11), 739–741 (2010).
[Crossref]

Fisette, B.

M. M. Sisto, B. Fisette, J. E. Paultre, A. Paquet, and Y. Desroches, “Novel spot size converter for coupling standard single mode fibers to SOI waveguides,” in Proc. SPIE 9752, 975217 (2017).

Galán, J. V.

Halir, R.

M. Papes, P. Cheben, D. Benedikovic, J. H. Schmid, J. Pond, R. Halir, A. Ortega-Monux, G. Wanguemert-Perez, W. N. Ye, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, M. Dado, and V. Vasinek, “Fiber-chip edge coupler with large mode size for silicon photonic wire waveguides,” Opt. Express 24(5), 5026–5038 (2016).
[Crossref]

G. Roelkens, D. Vermeulen, S. Selvaraja, R. Halir, W. Bogaerts, and D. V. Thourhout, “Grating-Based Optical Fiber Interfaces for Silicon-on-Insulator Photonic Integrated Circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 571–580 (2011).
[Crossref]

R. Halir, D. Vermeulen, and G. Roelkens, “Reducing Polarization-Dependent Loss of Silicon-on-Insulator Fiber to Chip Grating Couplers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(6), 389–391 (2010).
[Crossref]

Haxha, S.

Hillmer, H.

S. Irmer, K. Alex, J. Daleiden, I. Kommallein, M. Oliveira, F. Römer, A. Tarraf, and H. Hillmer, “Surface micromachined optical low-cost all-air-gap filters based on stress-optimized Si3N4 layers,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 15(4), 867–872 (2005).
[Crossref]

Hvam, J. M.

M. Pu, L. Liu, H. Ou, K. Yvind, and J. M. Hvam, “Ultra-low-loss inverted taper coupler for silicon-on-insulator ridge waveguide,” Opt. Commun. 283(19), 3678–3682 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ikedo, H.

K. Shiraishi, H. Yoda, A. Ohshima, H. Ikedo, and C. S. Tsai, “A silicon-based spot-size converter between single-mode fibers and Si-wire waveguides using cascaded tapers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(14), 141120 (2007).
[Crossref]

Irmer, S.

S. Irmer, K. Alex, J. Daleiden, I. Kommallein, M. Oliveira, F. Römer, A. Tarraf, and H. Hillmer, “Surface micromachined optical low-cost all-air-gap filters based on stress-optimized Si3N4 layers,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 15(4), 867–872 (2005).
[Crossref]

Jaeger, N. A. F.

Janz, S.

Jian, J.

Jiang, W.

W. Jiang, N. Kohli, X. Sun, and B. M. A. Rahman, “Multi-poly-silicon-layer-based spotsize converter for efficient coupling between silicon waveguide and standard singlemode fiber,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(3), 1–12 (2016).
[Crossref]

Joo, J.

Kamei, T.

Kärtner, F. X.

Khilo, A.

Kim, G.

Kim, S.

Knights, A. P.

G. T. Reed and A. P. Knights, Silicon Photonics: An Introduction (John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2004).

Kohli, N.

N. Kohli, E. K. Sharma, and B. M. A. Rahman, “Improved design for SOI based evanescently coupled multilayer spot-size converter,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 49(6), 229 (2017).
[Crossref]

W. Jiang, N. Kohli, X. Sun, and B. M. A. Rahman, “Multi-poly-silicon-layer-based spotsize converter for efficient coupling between silicon waveguide and standard singlemode fiber,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(3), 1–12 (2016).
[Crossref]

N. Kohli and W. N. Ye, “Novel spot size converter for broadband and polarization insensitive coupling to conventional single-mode fiber,” in Proc. SPIE 10923, 109231S (2019).

Kommallein, I.

S. Irmer, K. Alex, J. Daleiden, I. Kommallein, M. Oliveira, F. Römer, A. Tarraf, and H. Hillmer, “Surface micromachined optical low-cost all-air-gap filters based on stress-optimized Si3N4 layers,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 15(4), 867–872 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kompocholis, C.

M. Melchiorri, N. Daldosso, F. Sbrana, L. Pavesi, G. Pucker, C. Kompocholis, P. Bellutti, and A. Lui, “Propagation losses of silicon nitride waveguides in the near-infrared range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(12), 121111 (2005).
[Crossref]

Krauss, T. F.

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets, “An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 38(7), 949–955 (2002).
[Crossref]

Kwong, D.-L.

Ladely, E. O.

Laere, F. V.

D. Taillaert, F. V. Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Grating Couplers for Coupling between Optical Fibers and Nanophotonic Waveguides,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(8A), 6071–6077 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lapointe, J.

Larouche, C.

M.-J. Picard, Y. Painchaud, C. Latrasse, C. Larouche, F. Pelletier, and M. Poulin, “Novel spot-size converter for optical fiber to sub-µm silicon waveguide coupling with low loss, low wavelength dependence and high tolerance to alignment,” in 41st European Conference on Optical Communications, (IEEE, 2015), pp. 1–3.

Latrasse, C.

M.-J. Picard, Y. Painchaud, C. Latrasse, C. Larouche, F. Pelletier, and M. Poulin, “Novel spot-size converter for optical fiber to sub-µm silicon waveguide coupling with low loss, low wavelength dependence and high tolerance to alignment,” in 41st European Conference on Optical Communications, (IEEE, 2015), pp. 1–3.

Lepage, G.

B. Snyder, G. Lepage, S. Balakrishnan, P. De Heyn, P. Verheyen, P. Absil, and J. V. Campenhout, “Ultra-broadband, polarization-insensitive SMF-28 fiber edge couplers for silicon photonics,” in Proceedings of IEEE CMPT Symposium (IEEE, 2017), pp. 55–58.

Liow, T.-Y.

Liu, L.

Z. Shao, Y. Chen, Hui Chen, Y. Zhang, F. Zhang, J. Jian, Z. Fan., L. Liu, C. Yang, L. Zhou, and S. Yu, “Ultra-low temperature silicon nitride photonic integration platform,” Opt. Express 24(3), 1865–1872 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Pu, L. Liu, H. Ou, K. Yvind, and J. M. Hvam, “Ultra-low-loss inverted taper coupler for silicon-on-insulator ridge waveguide,” Opt. Commun. 283(19), 3678–3682 (2010).
[Crossref]

Liu, M.

X. Wang, X. Quan, M. Liu, and X. Cheng, “Silicon-nitride-assisted edge coupler interfacing with high numerical aperture fiber,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 31(5), 349–352 (2019).
[Crossref]

Lo, G. Q.

Lu, Z.

Lui, A.

M. Melchiorri, N. Daldosso, F. Sbrana, L. Pavesi, G. Pucker, C. Kompocholis, P. Bellutti, and A. Lui, “Propagation losses of silicon nitride waveguides in the near-infrared range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(12), 121111 (2005).
[Crossref]

Lyan, P.

B. Ben Bakir, A. de Gyves, R. Orobtchouk, P. Lyan, C. Porzier, A. Roman, and J.-M. Fedeli, “Low-loss (<1 dB) and polarization-insensitive edge fiber couplers fabricated on 200-mm silicon-on-insulator wafers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(11), 739–741 (2010).
[Crossref]

Mackay, A. W.

J. N. Caspers, A. W. Mackay, and J. K. S. Poon, “Short efficient non-adiabatic spot-size converters by mode interference in silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, 2012 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper OTu2I.6.

Maegami, Y.

Martí, J.

Melchiorri, M.

M. Melchiorri, N. Daldosso, F. Sbrana, L. Pavesi, G. Pucker, C. Kompocholis, P. Bellutti, and A. Lui, “Propagation losses of silicon nitride waveguides in the near-infrared range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(12), 121111 (2005).
[Crossref]

Michaels, A.

Mjeku, M.

Moerman, I.

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets, “An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 38(7), 949–955 (2002).
[Crossref]

Mori, M.

Ohshima, A.

K. Shiraishi, H. Yoda, A. Ohshima, H. Ikedo, and C. S. Tsai, “A silicon-based spot-size converter between single-mode fibers and Si-wire waveguides using cascaded tapers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(14), 141120 (2007).
[Crossref]

Okano, M.

Oliveira, M.

S. Irmer, K. Alex, J. Daleiden, I. Kommallein, M. Oliveira, F. Römer, A. Tarraf, and H. Hillmer, “Surface micromachined optical low-cost all-air-gap filters based on stress-optimized Si3N4 layers,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 15(4), 867–872 (2005).
[Crossref]

Omoda, E.

Orobtchouk, R.

B. Ben Bakir, A. de Gyves, R. Orobtchouk, P. Lyan, C. Porzier, A. Roman, and J.-M. Fedeli, “Low-loss (<1 dB) and polarization-insensitive edge fiber couplers fabricated on 200-mm silicon-on-insulator wafers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(11), 739–741 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ortega-Monux, A.

Ou, H.

M. Pu, L. Liu, H. Ou, K. Yvind, and J. M. Hvam, “Ultra-low-loss inverted taper coupler for silicon-on-insulator ridge waveguide,” Opt. Commun. 283(19), 3678–3682 (2010).
[Crossref]

Painchaud, Y.

P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, S. Wang, D.-X. Xu, M. Vachon, S. Janz, J. Lapointe, Y. Painchaud, and M.-J. Picard, “Broadband polarization independent nanophotonic coupler for silicon waveguides with ultra-high efficiency,” Opt. Express 23(17), 22553–22563 (2015).
[Crossref]

M.-J. Picard, Y. Painchaud, C. Latrasse, C. Larouche, F. Pelletier, and M. Poulin, “Novel spot-size converter for optical fiber to sub-µm silicon waveguide coupling with low loss, low wavelength dependence and high tolerance to alignment,” in 41st European Conference on Optical Communications, (IEEE, 2015), pp. 1–3.

Papes, M.

Paquet, A.

M. M. Sisto, B. Fisette, J. E. Paultre, A. Paquet, and Y. Desroches, “Novel spot size converter for coupling standard single mode fibers to SOI waveguides,” in Proc. SPIE 9752, 975217 (2017).

Park, H.

Park, J.

Paultre, J. E.

M. M. Sisto, B. Fisette, J. E. Paultre, A. Paquet, and Y. Desroches, “Novel spot size converter for coupling standard single mode fibers to SOI waveguides,” in Proc. SPIE 9752, 975217 (2017).

Pavesi, L.

M. Melchiorri, N. Daldosso, F. Sbrana, L. Pavesi, G. Pucker, C. Kompocholis, P. Bellutti, and A. Lui, “Propagation losses of silicon nitride waveguides in the near-infrared range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(12), 121111 (2005).
[Crossref]

Pelletier, F.

M.-J. Picard, Y. Painchaud, C. Latrasse, C. Larouche, F. Pelletier, and M. Poulin, “Novel spot-size converter for optical fiber to sub-µm silicon waveguide coupling with low loss, low wavelength dependence and high tolerance to alignment,” in 41st European Conference on Optical Communications, (IEEE, 2015), pp. 1–3.

Picard, M.-J.

P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, S. Wang, D.-X. Xu, M. Vachon, S. Janz, J. Lapointe, Y. Painchaud, and M.-J. Picard, “Broadband polarization independent nanophotonic coupler for silicon waveguides with ultra-high efficiency,” Opt. Express 23(17), 22553–22563 (2015).
[Crossref]

M.-J. Picard, Y. Painchaud, C. Latrasse, C. Larouche, F. Pelletier, and M. Poulin, “Novel spot-size converter for optical fiber to sub-µm silicon waveguide coupling with low loss, low wavelength dependence and high tolerance to alignment,” in 41st European Conference on Optical Communications, (IEEE, 2015), pp. 1–3.

Pond, J.

Poon, J. K. S.

J. N. Caspers, A. W. Mackay, and J. K. S. Poon, “Short efficient non-adiabatic spot-size converters by mode interference in silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, 2012 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper OTu2I.6.

Popovic, M. A.

Porzier, C.

B. Ben Bakir, A. de Gyves, R. Orobtchouk, P. Lyan, C. Porzier, A. Roman, and J.-M. Fedeli, “Low-loss (<1 dB) and polarization-insensitive edge fiber couplers fabricated on 200-mm silicon-on-insulator wafers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(11), 739–741 (2010).
[Crossref]

Poulin, M.

M.-J. Picard, Y. Painchaud, C. Latrasse, C. Larouche, F. Pelletier, and M. Poulin, “Novel spot-size converter for optical fiber to sub-µm silicon waveguide coupling with low loss, low wavelength dependence and high tolerance to alignment,” in 41st European Conference on Optical Communications, (IEEE, 2015), pp. 1–3.

Pu, M.

M. Pu, L. Liu, H. Ou, K. Yvind, and J. M. Hvam, “Ultra-low-loss inverted taper coupler for silicon-on-insulator ridge waveguide,” Opt. Commun. 283(19), 3678–3682 (2010).
[Crossref]

Pucker, G.

M. Melchiorri, N. Daldosso, F. Sbrana, L. Pavesi, G. Pucker, C. Kompocholis, P. Bellutti, and A. Lui, “Propagation losses of silicon nitride waveguides in the near-infrared range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(12), 121111 (2005).
[Crossref]

Quan, X.

X. Wang, X. Quan, M. Liu, and X. Cheng, “Silicon-nitride-assisted edge coupler interfacing with high numerical aperture fiber,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 31(5), 349–352 (2019).
[Crossref]

Rahman, B. M. A.

N. Kohli, E. K. Sharma, and B. M. A. Rahman, “Improved design for SOI based evanescently coupled multilayer spot-size converter,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 49(6), 229 (2017).
[Crossref]

W. Jiang, N. Kohli, X. Sun, and B. M. A. Rahman, “Multi-poly-silicon-layer-based spotsize converter for efficient coupling between silicon waveguide and standard singlemode fiber,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(3), 1–12 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Haxha, E. O. Ladely, M. Mjeku, F. AbdelMalek, and B. M. A. Rahman, “Optimization of compact lateral, vertical, and combined tapered spot-size converters by use of the beam-propagation method,” Appl. Opt. 45(2), 288–296 (2006).
[Crossref]

Reed, G. T.

G. T. Reed and A. P. Knights, Silicon Photonics: An Introduction (John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2004).

Roelkens, G.

G. Roelkens, D. Vermeulen, S. Selvaraja, R. Halir, W. Bogaerts, and D. V. Thourhout, “Grating-Based Optical Fiber Interfaces for Silicon-on-Insulator Photonic Integrated Circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 571–580 (2011).
[Crossref]

R. Halir, D. Vermeulen, and G. Roelkens, “Reducing Polarization-Dependent Loss of Silicon-on-Insulator Fiber to Chip Grating Couplers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(6), 389–391 (2010).
[Crossref]

Roman, A.

B. Ben Bakir, A. de Gyves, R. Orobtchouk, P. Lyan, C. Porzier, A. Roman, and J.-M. Fedeli, “Low-loss (<1 dB) and polarization-insensitive edge fiber couplers fabricated on 200-mm silicon-on-insulator wafers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(11), 739–741 (2010).
[Crossref]

Römer, F.

S. Irmer, K. Alex, J. Daleiden, I. Kommallein, M. Oliveira, F. Römer, A. Tarraf, and H. Hillmer, “Surface micromachined optical low-cost all-air-gap filters based on stress-optimized Si3N4 layers,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 15(4), 867–872 (2005).
[Crossref]

Sakakibara, Y.

Sánchez, G.

Sanchis, P.

Sbrana, F.

M. Melchiorri, N. Daldosso, F. Sbrana, L. Pavesi, G. Pucker, C. Kompocholis, P. Bellutti, and A. Lui, “Propagation losses of silicon nitride waveguides in the near-infrared range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(12), 121111 (2005).
[Crossref]

Schmid, J. H.

Selvaraja, S.

G. Roelkens, D. Vermeulen, S. Selvaraja, R. Halir, W. Bogaerts, and D. V. Thourhout, “Grating-Based Optical Fiber Interfaces for Silicon-on-Insulator Photonic Integrated Circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 571–580 (2011).
[Crossref]

Shao, Z.

Sharma, E. K.

N. Kohli, E. K. Sharma, and B. M. A. Rahman, “Improved design for SOI based evanescently coupled multilayer spot-size converter,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 49(6), 229 (2017).
[Crossref]

Shi, W.

Shiraishi, K.

K. Shiraishi, H. Yoda, A. Ohshima, H. Ikedo, and C. S. Tsai, “A silicon-based spot-size converter between single-mode fibers and Si-wire waveguides using cascaded tapers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(14), 141120 (2007).
[Crossref]

Sisto, M. M.

M. M. Sisto, B. Fisette, J. E. Paultre, A. Paquet, and Y. Desroches, “Novel spot size converter for coupling standard single mode fibers to SOI waveguides,” in Proc. SPIE 9752, 975217 (2017).

Snyder, B.

B. Snyder, G. Lepage, S. Balakrishnan, P. De Heyn, P. Verheyen, P. Absil, and J. V. Campenhout, “Ultra-broadband, polarization-insensitive SMF-28 fiber edge couplers for silicon photonics,” in Proceedings of IEEE CMPT Symposium (IEEE, 2017), pp. 55–58.

Song, J. F.

Sun, X.

W. Jiang, N. Kohli, X. Sun, and B. M. A. Rahman, “Multi-poly-silicon-layer-based spotsize converter for efficient coupling between silicon waveguide and standard singlemode fiber,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(3), 1–12 (2016).
[Crossref]

Taillaert, D.

D. Taillaert, F. V. Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Grating Couplers for Coupling between Optical Fibers and Nanophotonic Waveguides,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(8A), 6071–6077 (2006).
[Crossref]

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets, “An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 38(7), 949–955 (2002).
[Crossref]

Takei, R.

Tan, C. W.

Tarraf, A.

S. Irmer, K. Alex, J. Daleiden, I. Kommallein, M. Oliveira, F. Römer, A. Tarraf, and H. Hillmer, “Surface micromachined optical low-cost all-air-gap filters based on stress-optimized Si3N4 layers,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 15(4), 867–872 (2005).
[Crossref]

Thourhout, D. V.

G. Roelkens, D. Vermeulen, S. Selvaraja, R. Halir, W. Bogaerts, and D. V. Thourhout, “Grating-Based Optical Fiber Interfaces for Silicon-on-Insulator Photonic Integrated Circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 571–580 (2011).
[Crossref]

Tsai, C. S.

K. Shiraishi, H. Yoda, A. Ohshima, H. Ikedo, and C. S. Tsai, “A silicon-based spot-size converter between single-mode fibers and Si-wire waveguides using cascaded tapers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(14), 141120 (2007).
[Crossref]

Tsang, H. K.

Vachon, M.

Van Daele, P.

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets, “An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 38(7), 949–955 (2002).
[Crossref]

Van Thourhout, D.

D. Taillaert, F. V. Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Grating Couplers for Coupling between Optical Fibers and Nanophotonic Waveguides,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(8A), 6071–6077 (2006).
[Crossref]

Vasinek, V.

Verheyen, P.

B. Snyder, G. Lepage, S. Balakrishnan, P. De Heyn, P. Verheyen, P. Absil, and J. V. Campenhout, “Ultra-broadband, polarization-insensitive SMF-28 fiber edge couplers for silicon photonics,” in Proceedings of IEEE CMPT Symposium (IEEE, 2017), pp. 55–58.

Vermeulen, D.

G. Roelkens, D. Vermeulen, S. Selvaraja, R. Halir, W. Bogaerts, and D. V. Thourhout, “Grating-Based Optical Fiber Interfaces for Silicon-on-Insulator Photonic Integrated Circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 571–580 (2011).
[Crossref]

R. Halir, D. Vermeulen, and G. Roelkens, “Reducing Polarization-Dependent Loss of Silicon-on-Insulator Fiber to Chip Grating Couplers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(6), 389–391 (2010).
[Crossref]

Verstuyft, S.

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets, “An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 38(7), 949–955 (2002).
[Crossref]

Wang, S.

Wang, X.

X. Wang, X. Quan, M. Liu, and X. Cheng, “Silicon-nitride-assisted edge coupler interfacing with high numerical aperture fiber,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 31(5), 349–352 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. Wang, W. Shi, X. Wang, Z. Lu, M. Caverley, R. Bojko, L. Chrostowski, and N. A. F. Jaeger, “Design of broadband subwavelength grating couplers with low back reflection,” Opt. Lett. 40(20), 4647–4650 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y.

Wanguemert-Perez, G.

Xiong, Y.

W. N. Ye and Y. Xiong, “Review on silicon photonics: history and recent advances,” J. Mod. Opt. 60(16), 1299–1320 (2013).
[Crossref]

Xu, D.-X.

Yablonovitch, E.

Yang, C.

Ye, W. N.

M. Papes, P. Cheben, D. Benedikovic, J. H. Schmid, J. Pond, R. Halir, A. Ortega-Monux, G. Wanguemert-Perez, W. N. Ye, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, M. Dado, and V. Vasinek, “Fiber-chip edge coupler with large mode size for silicon photonic wire waveguides,” Opt. Express 24(5), 5026–5038 (2016).
[Crossref]

W. N. Ye and Y. Xiong, “Review on silicon photonics: history and recent advances,” J. Mod. Opt. 60(16), 1299–1320 (2013).
[Crossref]

N. Kohli and W. N. Ye, “Novel spot size converter for broadband and polarization insensitive coupling to conventional single-mode fiber,” in Proc. SPIE 10923, 109231S (2019).

Yoda, H.

K. Shiraishi, H. Yoda, A. Ohshima, H. Ikedo, and C. S. Tsai, “A silicon-based spot-size converter between single-mode fibers and Si-wire waveguides using cascaded tapers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(14), 141120 (2007).
[Crossref]

Yu, M. B.

Yu, S.

Yvind, K.

M. Pu, L. Liu, H. Ou, K. Yvind, and J. M. Hvam, “Ultra-low-loss inverted taper coupler for silicon-on-insulator ridge waveguide,” Opt. Commun. 283(19), 3678–3682 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zhang, F.

Zhang, Y.

Zhou, L.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

K. Shiraishi, H. Yoda, A. Ohshima, H. Ikedo, and C. S. Tsai, “A silicon-based spot-size converter between single-mode fibers and Si-wire waveguides using cascaded tapers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(14), 141120 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. Melchiorri, N. Daldosso, F. Sbrana, L. Pavesi, G. Pucker, C. Kompocholis, P. Bellutti, and A. Lui, “Propagation losses of silicon nitride waveguides in the near-infrared range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(12), 121111 (2005).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (2)

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets, “An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 38(7), 949–955 (2002).
[Crossref]

G. Roelkens, D. Vermeulen, S. Selvaraja, R. Halir, W. Bogaerts, and D. V. Thourhout, “Grating-Based Optical Fiber Interfaces for Silicon-on-Insulator Photonic Integrated Circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 571–580 (2011).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics J. (1)

W. Jiang, N. Kohli, X. Sun, and B. M. A. Rahman, “Multi-poly-silicon-layer-based spotsize converter for efficient coupling between silicon waveguide and standard singlemode fiber,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(3), 1–12 (2016).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (3)

X. Wang, X. Quan, M. Liu, and X. Cheng, “Silicon-nitride-assisted edge coupler interfacing with high numerical aperture fiber,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 31(5), 349–352 (2019).
[Crossref]

R. Halir, D. Vermeulen, and G. Roelkens, “Reducing Polarization-Dependent Loss of Silicon-on-Insulator Fiber to Chip Grating Couplers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(6), 389–391 (2010).
[Crossref]

B. Ben Bakir, A. de Gyves, R. Orobtchouk, P. Lyan, C. Porzier, A. Roman, and J.-M. Fedeli, “Low-loss (<1 dB) and polarization-insensitive edge fiber couplers fabricated on 200-mm silicon-on-insulator wafers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(11), 739–741 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Micromech. Microeng. (1)

S. Irmer, K. Alex, J. Daleiden, I. Kommallein, M. Oliveira, F. Römer, A. Tarraf, and H. Hillmer, “Surface micromachined optical low-cost all-air-gap filters based on stress-optimized Si3N4 layers,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 15(4), 867–872 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

W. N. Ye and Y. Xiong, “Review on silicon photonics: history and recent advances,” J. Mod. Opt. 60(16), 1299–1320 (2013).
[Crossref]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

D. Taillaert, F. V. Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Grating Couplers for Coupling between Optical Fibers and Nanophotonic Waveguides,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(8A), 6071–6077 (2006).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (1)

M. Pu, L. Liu, H. Ou, K. Yvind, and J. M. Hvam, “Ultra-low-loss inverted taper coupler for silicon-on-insulator ridge waveguide,” Opt. Commun. 283(19), 3678–3682 (2010).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (9)

P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, S. Wang, D.-X. Xu, M. Vachon, S. Janz, J. Lapointe, Y. Painchaud, and M.-J. Picard, “Broadband polarization independent nanophotonic coupler for silicon waveguides with ultra-high efficiency,” Opt. Express 23(17), 22553–22563 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Papes, P. Cheben, D. Benedikovic, J. H. Schmid, J. Pond, R. Halir, A. Ortega-Monux, G. Wanguemert-Perez, W. N. Ye, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, M. Dado, and V. Vasinek, “Fiber-chip edge coupler with large mode size for silicon photonic wire waveguides,” Opt. Express 24(5), 5026–5038 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Park, S. Kim, J. Park, J. Joo, and G. Kim, “A fiber-to-chip coupler based on Si/SiON cascaded tapers for Si photonic chips,” Opt. Express 21(24), 29313–29319 (2013).
[Crossref]

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) The spot-size converter (SSC) perspective-view (b) Top-view. The stack taper has three tapered sections (L1a, L1b, L1c); while the NW taper has two tapered sections (L2a, L2b). The dashed lines (ii), (iii) indicate the center locations of the tapered sections L1b and L2a.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. TE and TM effective indices of the fundamental modes of isolated NW, isolated stack, and of the supermodes of the SSC versus the width of the NW. The inset in the figure shows the zoom in area of the first cross-over between TE0 and TM0 supermode. The plots on the right shows the magnitude of electric field of TE0 and TE1 superrmodes of the SSC near the phase-matching point.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Power transmitted by the SSC versus the length of the most sensitive section of the taper i.e. first section of NW taper L2a.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a) Side-view and (b) Top-view of the absolute of electric field distribution along the propagation direction x in the SSC when the TE0 mode is input from the edge facet.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Cross-sectional mode profile (a)-(d) of the TE0 supermode along the SSC at positions (i)-(iv) shown in Fig. 1(b). It clearly shows a complete mode transition from the stack to the nanowire. The transition of the TM mode follows the same trend.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. The total taper loss versus wavelength for the TE0 and TM0 supermode of the entire SSC.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. The total taper loss versus the variations in the width of the stack and NW taper tip for the TE0 and TM0 supermode of the entire SSC.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. The total taper loss of the TE0 supermode (left) and the TM0 supermode (right) versus variations in the thickness of the Si3N4 and SiO2 layers in the stack of the SSC.
Fig. 9.
Fig. 9. The total taper loss of the TE0 and TM0 supermode as a function of the variation in thickness of the SiO2 buffer layer between the NW and the stack of the entire SSC (left) and as a function of the variation in the lateral misalignment between the NW and the stack waveguide of the entire SSC (right).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Overlap of fields at SSC-Fiber interface