Abstract

The design of white light-emitting diodes is carried out to achieve highly efficient white light emission with superior color quality, good vision performance, and healthy effect on human circadian rhythms. Here, the white light is obtained by combing five different emissions (blue, cyan, green, yellow, and red) from organolead halide perovskites [MAPb(BrxI1-x)3, MA-CH3NH3]. The color characteristics are evaluated by calculating the CIE coordinates, the correlated-color temperature (CCT), the color-rendering indices (CRI: Ra, R9-R15), and the Duv. Vision performance is evaluated by calculating the luminous efficacy of radiation. The effect of white light on human circadian rhythms is evaluated by calculating the circadian action factor (CAF). The results show that the white lights with a tunable CCT from 2851 K to 8315 K, extremely high CRI (up to 98.7), and small Duv (0.0002 – 0.0055) have been obtained by engineering the spectral power distributions. In addition, excellent vision performance and highly tunable CAF are demonstrated. These findings demonstrate that these types of materials are promising candidates to achieve highly efficient white light emission with excellent color quality and vision performance.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2019 (7)

Z. Ren, Y. Lu, H. Yao, H. Sun, C. Liao, J. Dai, C. Chen, J. Ryou, J. Yan, J. Wang, J. Li, and X. Li, “III-Nitride Deep UV LED Without Electron Blocking Layer,” IEEE Photonics J. 11(2), 1–11 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. J. Kim and M. Brown, “Impact of domestic energy-efficiency policies on foreign innovation: The case of lighting technologies,” Energy Policy 128, 539–552 (2019).
[Crossref]

G. C. Adhikari, P. A. Vargas, H. Zhu, and P. Zhu, “Saponification Precipitation Method for CsPbBr3 Nanocrystals with Blue-Green Tunable Emission,” J. Phys. Chem. C 123(2), 1406–1412 (2019).
[Crossref]

G. C. Adhikari, S. Thapa, H. Zhu, A. Grigoriev, and P. Zhu, “Synthesis of CsPbBr3 and Transformation into Cs4PbBr6 Crystals for White Light Emission with High CRI and Tunable CCT,” J. Phys. Chem. C 123(18), 12023–12028 (2019).
[Crossref]

Z. Guo, K. Liu, L. Zheng, T.-m. Shih, Y. Lu, T. Wu, Y. Lin, Y. Zhang, J. Zheng, and J. Chen, “Investigation on three-hump phosphor-coated white light-emitting diodes for healthy lighting by genetic algorithm,” IEEE Photonics J. 11(1), 1–10 (2019).
[Crossref]

P. Zhu, H. Zhu, G. C. Adhikari, and S. Thapa, “Spectral optimization of white light from hybrid metal halide perovskites,” OSA Continuum 2(6), 1880–1888 (2019).
[Crossref]

G. C. Adhikari, P. A. Vargas, H. Zhu, A. Grigoriev, and P. Zhu, “Tetradic phosphor white light with variable CCT and superlative CRI through organolead halide perovskite nanocrystals,” Nanoscale Adv. 1, 1791–1798 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (19)

G. C. Adhikari, H. Zhu, P. A. Vargas, and P. Zhu, “UV-Green Emission from Organolead Bromide Perovskite Nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Chem. C 122(26), 15041–15046 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Sun, J. Yang, J. I. Lee, J. H. Cho, and M. S. Kang, “Lead-Free Perovskite Nanocrystals for Light-Emitting Devices,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 9(7), 1573–1583 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. D. Smith and H. I. Karunadasa, “White-Light Emission from Layered Halide Perovskites,” Acc. Chem. Res. 51(3), 619–627 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. W. Dai, B. W. Hsu, C. Y. Chen, C. A. Lee, H. Y. Liu, H. F. Wang, Y. C. Huang, T. L. Wu, A. Manikandan, R. M. Ho, C. S. Tsao, C. H. Cheng, Y. L. Chueh, and H. W. Lin, “Perovskite Quantum Dots with Near Unity Solution and Neat-Film Photoluminescent Quantum Yield by Novel Spray Synthesis,” Adv. Mater. 30(7), 1705532 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. He, Y. Cheng, R. Yuan, L. Zhou, J. Jiang, T. Xu, W. Chen, Z. Liu, W. Xiang, and X. Liang, “Mn-Doped cesium lead halide perovskite nanocrystals with dual-color emission for WLED,” Dyes Pigm. 152, 146–154 (2018).
[Crossref]

G. Lozano, “The Role of Metal Halide Perovskites in Next-Generation Lighting Devices,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 9(14), 3987–3997 (2018).
[Crossref]

B. J. Bohn, Y. Tong, M. Gramlich, M. L. Lai, M. Döblinger, K. Wang, R. L. Z. Hoye, P. Müller-Buschbaum, S. D. Stranks, A. S. Urban, L. Polavarapu, and J. Feldmann, “Boosting Tunable Blue Luminescence of Halide Perovskite Nanoplatelets through Postsynthetic Surface Trap Repair,” Nano Lett. 18(8), 5231–5238 (2018).
[Crossref]

T. Guner and M. M. Demir, “A Review on Halide Perovskites as Color Conversion Layers in White Light Emitting Diode Applications,” Phys. Status Solidi A 215(13), 1800120 (2018).
[Crossref]

Q. A. Akkerman, G. Rainò, M. V. Kovalenko, and L. Manna, “Genesis, challenges and opportunities for colloidal lead halide perovskite nanocrystals,” Nat. Mater. 17(5), 394–405 (2018).
[Crossref]

L. Zhang, L. Wang, K. Wang, and B. Zou, “Pressure-Induced Structural Evolution and Optical Properties of Metal-Halide Perovskite CsPbCl3,” J. Phys. Chem. C 122(27), 15220–15225 (2018).
[Crossref]

L. Zhang, C. Liu, L. Wang, C. Liu, K. Wang, and B. Zou, “Pressure-Induced Emission Enhancement, Band-Gap Narrowing, and Metallization of Halide Perovskite Cs3Bi2I9,” Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 57(35), 11213–11217 (2018).
[Crossref]

Z. Zhou, Y. Li, M. Xia, Y. Zhong, N. Zhou, and H. T. Hintzen, “Improved luminescence and energy-transfer properties of Ca14Al10Zn6O35:Ti4+,Mn4+ deep-red-emitting phosphors with high brightness for light-emitting diode (LED) plant-growth lighting,” Dalton Trans. 47(38), 13713–13721 (2018).
[Crossref]

P. Zhu, W. Wang, H. Zhu, P. Vargas, and A. Bont, “Optical Properties of Eu3+-Doped Y2O3 Nanotubes and Nanosheets Synthesized by Hydrothermal Method,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(1), 1–10 (2018).
[Crossref]

Q. Zhang and Y. Yin, “All-Inorganic Metal Halide Perovskite Nanocrystals: Opportunities and Challenges,” ACS Cent. Sci. 4(6), 668–679 (2018).
[Crossref]

H. J. Snaith, “Present status and future prospects of perovskite photovoltaics,” Nat. Mater. 17(5), 372–376 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Yan, W. Qiu, G. Wu, P. Heremans, and H. Chen, “Recent progress in 2D/quasi-2D layered metal halide perovskites for solar cells,” J. Mater. Chem. A 6(24), 11063–11077 (2018).
[Crossref]

M.-C. Wu, W.-C. Chen, S.-H. Chan, and W.-F. Su, “The effect of strontium and barium doping on perovskite-structured energy materials for photovoltaic applications,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 429, 9–15 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Liu, Y. K. Ooi, S. M. Islam, H. Xing, D. Jena, and J. Zhang, “234 nm and 246 nm AlN-Delta-GaN quantum well deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112(1), 011101 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. K. Ooi and J. Zhang, “Light Extraction Efficiency Analysis of Flip-Chip Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes With Patterned Sapphire Substrate,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(4), 1–13 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (8)

B. Janjua, H. Sun, C. Zhao, D. H. Anjum, D. Priante, A. A. Alhamoud, F. Wu, X. Li, A. M. Albadri, A. Y. Alyamani, M. M. El-Desouki, T. K. Ng, and B. S. Ooi, “Droop-free AlxGa1-xN/AlyGa1-yN quantum-disks-in-nanowires ultraviolet LED emitting at 337 nm on metal/silicon substrates,” Opt. Express 25(2), 1381–1390 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. T. Shimizu, M. Böhmer, D. Estrada, S. Gangwal, S. Grabowski, H. Bechtel, E. Kang, K. J. Vampola, D. Chamberlin, O. B. Shchekin, and J. Bhardwaj, “Toward commercial realization of quantum dot based white light-emitting diodes for general illumination,” Photonics Res. 5(2), A1–A6 (2017).
[Crossref]

V. Kumar, O. M. Ntwaeaborwa, T. Soga, V. Dutta, and H. C. Swart, “Rare Earth Doped Zinc Oxide Nanophosphor Powder: A Future Material for Solid State Lighting and Solar Cells,” ACS Photonics 4(11), 2613–2637 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Nagaoka, K. Hills-Kimball, R. Tan, R. Li, Z. Wang, and O. Chen, “Nanocube Superlattices of Cesium Lead Bromide Perovskites and Pressure-Induced Phase Transformations at Atomic and Mesoscale Levels,” Adv. Mater. 29(18), 1606666 (2017).
[Crossref]

D. B. Khadka, Y. Shirai, M. Yanagida, T. Masuda, and K. Miyano, “Enhancement in Efficiency and Optoelectronic Quality of Perovskite Thin Films Annealed in MACl Vapor,” Sustainable Energy Fuels 1(4), 755–766 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Ma, X.-Y. Du, Y.-W. Zhang, and S. Chen, “In situ fabrication of halide perovskite nanocrystals embedded in polymer composites via microfluidic spinning microreactors,” J. Mater. Chem. C 5(36), 9398–9404 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y.-W. Zhang, G. Wu, H. Dang, K. Ma, and S. Chen, “Multicolored Mixed-Organic-Cation Perovskite Quantum Dots (FAxMA1−xPbX3, X = Br and I) for White Light-Emitting Diodes,” Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 56(36), 10053–10059 (2017).
[Crossref]

W. Zhang, W. Yang, P. Zhong, S. Mei, G. Zhang, G. Chen, G. He, and R. Guo, “Spectral optimization of color temperature tunable white LEDs based on perovskite quantum dots for ultrahigh color rendition,” Opt. Mater. Express 7(9), 3065–3076 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (6)

C.-W. Sher, C.-H. Lin, H.-Y. Lin, C.-C. Lin, C.-H. Huang, K.-J. Chen, J.-R. Li, K.-Y. Wang, H.-H. Tu, C.-C. Fu, and H.-C. Kuo, “A high quality liquid-type quantum dot white light-emitting diode,” Nanoscale 8(2), 1117–1122 (2016).
[Crossref]

F. Palazon, F. Di Stasio, Q. A. Akkerman, R. Krahne, M. Prato, and L. Manna, “Polymer-Free Films of Inorganic Halide Perovskite Nanocrystals as UV-to-White Color-Conversion Layers in LEDs,” Chem. Mater. 28(9), 2902–2906 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. C. Yoon, H. Kang, S. Lee, J. H. Oh, H. Yang, and Y. R. Do, “Study of Perovskite QD Down-Converted LEDs and Six-Color White LEDs for Future Displays with Excellent Color Performance,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8(28), 18189–18200 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Li, Y. Wu, S. Zhang, B. Cai, Y. Gu, J. Song, and H. Zeng, “CsPbX3 Quantum Dots for Lighting and Displays: Room-Temperature Synthesis, Photoluminescence Superiorities, Underlying Origins and White Light-Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 26(15), 2435–2445 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Zheng, S. Wu, G. Chen, S. Dang, Y. Zhuang, Z. Guo, Y. Lu, Q. Cheng, and C. Chen, “Blue-emitting Ca5(PO4)3Cl:Eu2+ phosphor for near-UV pumped light emitting diodes: Electronic structures, luminescence properties and LED fabrications,” J. Alloys Compd. 663, 332–339 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Zheng, T. Wu, Y. Lu, Y. Gao, Y. Wang, L. Zhu, Z. Guo, and Z. Chen, “Spectral Optimization of Three-Primary LEDs by Considering the Circadian Action Factor,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(6), 1–9 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (6)

P. Pust, P. J. Schmidt, and W. Schnick, “A Revolution in Lighting,” Nat. Mater. 14(5), 454–458 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Zhu and N. Tansu, “Effect of Packing Density and Packing Geometry on Light Extraction of III-Nitride Light-Emitting Diodes with Microsphere Arrays,” Photonics Res. 3(4), 184–191 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Protesescu, S. Yakunin, M. I. Bodnarchuk, F. Krieg, R. Caputo, C. H. Hendon, R. X. Yang, A. Walsh, and M. V. Kovalenko, “Nanocrystals of Cesium Lead Halide Perovskites (CsPbX3, X = Cl, Br, and I): Novel Optoelectronic Materials Showing Bright Emission with Wide Color Gamut,” Nano Lett. 15(6), 3692–3696 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. H. Oh, H. Yoo, H. K. Park, and Y. R. Do, “Analysis of circadian properties and healthy levels of blue light from smartphones at night,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 11325 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Pathak, N. Sakai, F. Wisnivesky Rocca Rivarola, S. D. Stranks, J. Liu, G. E. Eperon, C. Ducati, K. Wojciechowski, J. T. Griffiths, A. A. Haghighirad, A. Pellaroque, R. H. Friend, and H. J. Snaith, “Perovskite Crystals for Tunable White Light Emission,” Chem. Mater. 27(23), 8066–8075 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. David, P. T. Fini, K. W. Houser, Y. Ohno, M. P. Royer, K. A. G. Smet, M. Wei, and L. Whitehead, “Development of the IES method for evaluating the color rendition of light sources,” Opt. Express 23(12), 15888–15906 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (3)

E. R. Dohner, E. T. Hoke, and H. I. Karunadasa, “Self-Assembly of Broadband White-Light Emitters,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 136(5), 1718–1721 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Xiao, Y.-J. Lu, T.-M. Shih, L.-H. Zhu, S.-Q. Lin, P. J. Pagni, and Z. Chen, “Improvements on Remote Diffuser-Phosphor-Packaged Light-Emitting Diode Systems,” IEEE Photonics J. 6(2), 1–8 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Pust, V. Weiler, C. Hecht, A. Tucks, A. S. Wochnik, A. K. Henss, D. Wiechert, C. Scheu, P. J. Schmidt, and W. Schnick, “Narrow-Band Red-Emitting Sr[LiAl3N4]:Eu2+ as a Next-Generation LED-Phosphor Material,” Nat. Mater. 13(9), 891–896 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

X. Li, J. D. Budai, F. Liu, J. Y. Howe, J. Zhang, X.-J. Wang, Z. Gu, C. Sun, R. S. Meltzer, and Z. Pan, “New yellow Ba0.93Eu0.07Al2O4 phosphor for warm-white light-emitting diodes through single-emitting-center conversion,” Light: Sci. Appl. 2(1), e50 (2013).
[Crossref]

N. A. Fromer and M. S. Diallo, “Nanotechnology and clean energy: sustainable utilization and supply of critical materials,” J. Nanopart. Res. 15(11), 2011 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

2010 (1)

W. Davis and Y. Ohno, “Color quality scale,” Opt. Eng. 49(3), 033602 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

J. J. Wierer, A. David, and M. M. Megens, “III-nitride photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with high extraction efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 163–169 (2009).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and Future of High-Power Light-Emitting Diodes for Solid-State Lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 3(2), 160–175 (2007).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

Y. Q. Li, A. C. A. Delsing, G. de With, and H. T. Hintzen, “Luminescence Properties of Eu2+-Activated Alkaline-Earth Silicon-Oxynitride MSi2O2-δN2+2/3δ(M = Ca, Sr, Ba): A Promising Class of Novel LED Conversion Phosphors,” Chem. Mater. 17(12), 3242–3248 (2005).
[Crossref]

Adhikari, G. C.

G. C. Adhikari, P. A. Vargas, H. Zhu, and P. Zhu, “Saponification Precipitation Method for CsPbBr3 Nanocrystals with Blue-Green Tunable Emission,” J. Phys. Chem. C 123(2), 1406–1412 (2019).
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G. C. Adhikari, S. Thapa, H. Zhu, A. Grigoriev, and P. Zhu, “Synthesis of CsPbBr3 and Transformation into Cs4PbBr6 Crystals for White Light Emission with High CRI and Tunable CCT,” J. Phys. Chem. C 123(18), 12023–12028 (2019).
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G. C. Adhikari, P. A. Vargas, H. Zhu, A. Grigoriev, and P. Zhu, “Tetradic phosphor white light with variable CCT and superlative CRI through organolead halide perovskite nanocrystals,” Nanoscale Adv. 1, 1791–1798 (2019).
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P. Zhu, H. Zhu, G. C. Adhikari, and S. Thapa, “Spectral optimization of white light from hybrid metal halide perovskites,” OSA Continuum 2(6), 1880–1888 (2019).
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G. C. Adhikari, H. Zhu, P. A. Vargas, and P. Zhu, “UV-Green Emission from Organolead Bromide Perovskite Nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Chem. C 122(26), 15041–15046 (2018).
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Akkerman, Q. A.

Q. A. Akkerman, G. Rainò, M. V. Kovalenko, and L. Manna, “Genesis, challenges and opportunities for colloidal lead halide perovskite nanocrystals,” Nat. Mater. 17(5), 394–405 (2018).
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F. Palazon, F. Di Stasio, Q. A. Akkerman, R. Krahne, M. Prato, and L. Manna, “Polymer-Free Films of Inorganic Halide Perovskite Nanocrystals as UV-to-White Color-Conversion Layers in LEDs,” Chem. Mater. 28(9), 2902–2906 (2016).
[Crossref]

Albadri, A. M.

Alhamoud, A. A.

Alyamani, A. Y.

Anjum, D. H.

Bauer, D. B.

D. B. Bauer, D. Diamond, J. Li, M. McKittrick, D. Sandalow, and P. Telleen, “2011 Critical Materials Strategy Summary,” 2011 Critical Materials Strategy Summary (2011).

Bechtel, H.

K. T. Shimizu, M. Böhmer, D. Estrada, S. Gangwal, S. Grabowski, H. Bechtel, E. Kang, K. J. Vampola, D. Chamberlin, O. B. Shchekin, and J. Bhardwaj, “Toward commercial realization of quantum dot based white light-emitting diodes for general illumination,” Photonics Res. 5(2), A1–A6 (2017).
[Crossref]

Bhardwaj, J.

K. T. Shimizu, M. Böhmer, D. Estrada, S. Gangwal, S. Grabowski, H. Bechtel, E. Kang, K. J. Vampola, D. Chamberlin, O. B. Shchekin, and J. Bhardwaj, “Toward commercial realization of quantum dot based white light-emitting diodes for general illumination,” Photonics Res. 5(2), A1–A6 (2017).
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Bieske, K.

D. Gall and K. Bieske, “Definition and measurement of circadian radiometric quantities,” in Proceedings of the CIE Symposium'04 on Light and Health, 2004), 129–132.

Bodnarchuk, M. I.

L. Protesescu, S. Yakunin, M. I. Bodnarchuk, F. Krieg, R. Caputo, C. H. Hendon, R. X. Yang, A. Walsh, and M. V. Kovalenko, “Nanocrystals of Cesium Lead Halide Perovskites (CsPbX3, X = Cl, Br, and I): Novel Optoelectronic Materials Showing Bright Emission with Wide Color Gamut,” Nano Lett. 15(6), 3692–3696 (2015).
[Crossref]

Böhmer, M.

K. T. Shimizu, M. Böhmer, D. Estrada, S. Gangwal, S. Grabowski, H. Bechtel, E. Kang, K. J. Vampola, D. Chamberlin, O. B. Shchekin, and J. Bhardwaj, “Toward commercial realization of quantum dot based white light-emitting diodes for general illumination,” Photonics Res. 5(2), A1–A6 (2017).
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Bohn, B. J.

B. J. Bohn, Y. Tong, M. Gramlich, M. L. Lai, M. Döblinger, K. Wang, R. L. Z. Hoye, P. Müller-Buschbaum, S. D. Stranks, A. S. Urban, L. Polavarapu, and J. Feldmann, “Boosting Tunable Blue Luminescence of Halide Perovskite Nanoplatelets through Postsynthetic Surface Trap Repair,” Nano Lett. 18(8), 5231–5238 (2018).
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Bont, A.

P. Zhu, W. Wang, H. Zhu, P. Vargas, and A. Bont, “Optical Properties of Eu3+-Doped Y2O3 Nanotubes and Nanosheets Synthesized by Hydrothermal Method,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(1), 1–10 (2018).
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Brown, M.

Y. J. Kim and M. Brown, “Impact of domestic energy-efficiency policies on foreign innovation: The case of lighting technologies,” Energy Policy 128, 539–552 (2019).
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Budai, J. D.

X. Li, J. D. Budai, F. Liu, J. Y. Howe, J. Zhang, X.-J. Wang, Z. Gu, C. Sun, R. S. Meltzer, and Z. Pan, “New yellow Ba0.93Eu0.07Al2O4 phosphor for warm-white light-emitting diodes through single-emitting-center conversion,” Light: Sci. Appl. 2(1), e50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Cai, B.

X. Li, Y. Wu, S. Zhang, B. Cai, Y. Gu, J. Song, and H. Zeng, “CsPbX3 Quantum Dots for Lighting and Displays: Room-Temperature Synthesis, Photoluminescence Superiorities, Underlying Origins and White Light-Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 26(15), 2435–2445 (2016).
[Crossref]

Caputo, R.

L. Protesescu, S. Yakunin, M. I. Bodnarchuk, F. Krieg, R. Caputo, C. H. Hendon, R. X. Yang, A. Walsh, and M. V. Kovalenko, “Nanocrystals of Cesium Lead Halide Perovskites (CsPbX3, X = Cl, Br, and I): Novel Optoelectronic Materials Showing Bright Emission with Wide Color Gamut,” Nano Lett. 15(6), 3692–3696 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chamberlin, D.

K. T. Shimizu, M. Böhmer, D. Estrada, S. Gangwal, S. Grabowski, H. Bechtel, E. Kang, K. J. Vampola, D. Chamberlin, O. B. Shchekin, and J. Bhardwaj, “Toward commercial realization of quantum dot based white light-emitting diodes for general illumination,” Photonics Res. 5(2), A1–A6 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chan, S.-H.

M.-C. Wu, W.-C. Chen, S.-H. Chan, and W.-F. Su, “The effect of strontium and barium doping on perovskite-structured energy materials for photovoltaic applications,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 429, 9–15 (2018).
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Chen, C.

Z. Ren, Y. Lu, H. Yao, H. Sun, C. Liao, J. Dai, C. Chen, J. Ryou, J. Yan, J. Wang, J. Li, and X. Li, “III-Nitride Deep UV LED Without Electron Blocking Layer,” IEEE Photonics J. 11(2), 1–11 (2019).
[Crossref]

J. Zheng, S. Wu, G. Chen, S. Dang, Y. Zhuang, Z. Guo, Y. Lu, Q. Cheng, and C. Chen, “Blue-emitting Ca5(PO4)3Cl:Eu2+ phosphor for near-UV pumped light emitting diodes: Electronic structures, luminescence properties and LED fabrications,” J. Alloys Compd. 663, 332–339 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chen, C. Y.

S. W. Dai, B. W. Hsu, C. Y. Chen, C. A. Lee, H. Y. Liu, H. F. Wang, Y. C. Huang, T. L. Wu, A. Manikandan, R. M. Ho, C. S. Tsao, C. H. Cheng, Y. L. Chueh, and H. W. Lin, “Perovskite Quantum Dots with Near Unity Solution and Neat-Film Photoluminescent Quantum Yield by Novel Spray Synthesis,” Adv. Mater. 30(7), 1705532 (2018).
[Crossref]

Chen, G.

W. Zhang, W. Yang, P. Zhong, S. Mei, G. Zhang, G. Chen, G. He, and R. Guo, “Spectral optimization of color temperature tunable white LEDs based on perovskite quantum dots for ultrahigh color rendition,” Opt. Mater. Express 7(9), 3065–3076 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Zheng, S. Wu, G. Chen, S. Dang, Y. Zhuang, Z. Guo, Y. Lu, Q. Cheng, and C. Chen, “Blue-emitting Ca5(PO4)3Cl:Eu2+ phosphor for near-UV pumped light emitting diodes: Electronic structures, luminescence properties and LED fabrications,” J. Alloys Compd. 663, 332–339 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chen, H.

J. Yan, W. Qiu, G. Wu, P. Heremans, and H. Chen, “Recent progress in 2D/quasi-2D layered metal halide perovskites for solar cells,” J. Mater. Chem. A 6(24), 11063–11077 (2018).
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Chen, J.

Z. Guo, K. Liu, L. Zheng, T.-m. Shih, Y. Lu, T. Wu, Y. Lin, Y. Zhang, J. Zheng, and J. Chen, “Investigation on three-hump phosphor-coated white light-emitting diodes for healthy lighting by genetic algorithm,” IEEE Photonics J. 11(1), 1–10 (2019).
[Crossref]

Chen, K.-J.

C.-W. Sher, C.-H. Lin, H.-Y. Lin, C.-C. Lin, C.-H. Huang, K.-J. Chen, J.-R. Li, K.-Y. Wang, H.-H. Tu, C.-C. Fu, and H.-C. Kuo, “A high quality liquid-type quantum dot white light-emitting diode,” Nanoscale 8(2), 1117–1122 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chen, O.

Y. Nagaoka, K. Hills-Kimball, R. Tan, R. Li, Z. Wang, and O. Chen, “Nanocube Superlattices of Cesium Lead Bromide Perovskites and Pressure-Induced Phase Transformations at Atomic and Mesoscale Levels,” Adv. Mater. 29(18), 1606666 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chen, S.

K. Ma, X.-Y. Du, Y.-W. Zhang, and S. Chen, “In situ fabrication of halide perovskite nanocrystals embedded in polymer composites via microfluidic spinning microreactors,” J. Mater. Chem. C 5(36), 9398–9404 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y.-W. Zhang, G. Wu, H. Dang, K. Ma, and S. Chen, “Multicolored Mixed-Organic-Cation Perovskite Quantum Dots (FAxMA1−xPbX3, X = Br and I) for White Light-Emitting Diodes,” Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 56(36), 10053–10059 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chen, W.

M. He, Y. Cheng, R. Yuan, L. Zhou, J. Jiang, T. Xu, W. Chen, Z. Liu, W. Xiang, and X. Liang, “Mn-Doped cesium lead halide perovskite nanocrystals with dual-color emission for WLED,” Dyes Pigm. 152, 146–154 (2018).
[Crossref]

Chen, W.-C.

M.-C. Wu, W.-C. Chen, S.-H. Chan, and W.-F. Su, “The effect of strontium and barium doping on perovskite-structured energy materials for photovoltaic applications,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 429, 9–15 (2018).
[Crossref]

Chen, Z.

L. Zheng, T. Wu, Y. Lu, Y. Gao, Y. Wang, L. Zhu, Z. Guo, and Z. Chen, “Spectral Optimization of Three-Primary LEDs by Considering the Circadian Action Factor,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(6), 1–9 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Xiao, Y.-J. Lu, T.-M. Shih, L.-H. Zhu, S.-Q. Lin, P. J. Pagni, and Z. Chen, “Improvements on Remote Diffuser-Phosphor-Packaged Light-Emitting Diode Systems,” IEEE Photonics J. 6(2), 1–8 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cheng, C. H.

S. W. Dai, B. W. Hsu, C. Y. Chen, C. A. Lee, H. Y. Liu, H. F. Wang, Y. C. Huang, T. L. Wu, A. Manikandan, R. M. Ho, C. S. Tsao, C. H. Cheng, Y. L. Chueh, and H. W. Lin, “Perovskite Quantum Dots with Near Unity Solution and Neat-Film Photoluminescent Quantum Yield by Novel Spray Synthesis,” Adv. Mater. 30(7), 1705532 (2018).
[Crossref]

Cheng, Q.

J. Zheng, S. Wu, G. Chen, S. Dang, Y. Zhuang, Z. Guo, Y. Lu, Q. Cheng, and C. Chen, “Blue-emitting Ca5(PO4)3Cl:Eu2+ phosphor for near-UV pumped light emitting diodes: Electronic structures, luminescence properties and LED fabrications,” J. Alloys Compd. 663, 332–339 (2016).
[Crossref]

Cheng, Y.

M. He, Y. Cheng, R. Yuan, L. Zhou, J. Jiang, T. Xu, W. Chen, Z. Liu, W. Xiang, and X. Liang, “Mn-Doped cesium lead halide perovskite nanocrystals with dual-color emission for WLED,” Dyes Pigm. 152, 146–154 (2018).
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Cho, J. H.

J. Sun, J. Yang, J. I. Lee, J. H. Cho, and M. S. Kang, “Lead-Free Perovskite Nanocrystals for Light-Emitting Devices,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 9(7), 1573–1583 (2018).
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Choudhury, A. K. R.

A. K. R. Choudhury, “4 - Principles of colour perception,” in Principles of Colour and Appearance Measurement, A. K. R. Choudhury, ed. (Woodhead Publishing, 2014), pp. 144–184.

Chueh, Y. L.

S. W. Dai, B. W. Hsu, C. Y. Chen, C. A. Lee, H. Y. Liu, H. F. Wang, Y. C. Huang, T. L. Wu, A. Manikandan, R. M. Ho, C. S. Tsao, C. H. Cheng, Y. L. Chueh, and H. W. Lin, “Perovskite Quantum Dots with Near Unity Solution and Neat-Film Photoluminescent Quantum Yield by Novel Spray Synthesis,” Adv. Mater. 30(7), 1705532 (2018).
[Crossref]

Craford, M. G.

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and Future of High-Power Light-Emitting Diodes for Solid-State Lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 3(2), 160–175 (2007).
[Crossref]

Dai, J.

Z. Ren, Y. Lu, H. Yao, H. Sun, C. Liao, J. Dai, C. Chen, J. Ryou, J. Yan, J. Wang, J. Li, and X. Li, “III-Nitride Deep UV LED Without Electron Blocking Layer,” IEEE Photonics J. 11(2), 1–11 (2019).
[Crossref]

Dai, S. W.

S. W. Dai, B. W. Hsu, C. Y. Chen, C. A. Lee, H. Y. Liu, H. F. Wang, Y. C. Huang, T. L. Wu, A. Manikandan, R. M. Ho, C. S. Tsao, C. H. Cheng, Y. L. Chueh, and H. W. Lin, “Perovskite Quantum Dots with Near Unity Solution and Neat-Film Photoluminescent Quantum Yield by Novel Spray Synthesis,” Adv. Mater. 30(7), 1705532 (2018).
[Crossref]

Dang, H.

Y.-W. Zhang, G. Wu, H. Dang, K. Ma, and S. Chen, “Multicolored Mixed-Organic-Cation Perovskite Quantum Dots (FAxMA1−xPbX3, X = Br and I) for White Light-Emitting Diodes,” Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 56(36), 10053–10059 (2017).
[Crossref]

Dang, S.

J. Zheng, S. Wu, G. Chen, S. Dang, Y. Zhuang, Z. Guo, Y. Lu, Q. Cheng, and C. Chen, “Blue-emitting Ca5(PO4)3Cl:Eu2+ phosphor for near-UV pumped light emitting diodes: Electronic structures, luminescence properties and LED fabrications,” J. Alloys Compd. 663, 332–339 (2016).
[Crossref]

David, A.

A. David, P. T. Fini, K. W. Houser, Y. Ohno, M. P. Royer, K. A. G. Smet, M. Wei, and L. Whitehead, “Development of the IES method for evaluating the color rendition of light sources,” Opt. Express 23(12), 15888–15906 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. J. Wierer, A. David, and M. M. Megens, “III-nitride photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with high extraction efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 163–169 (2009).
[Crossref]

Davis, W.

W. Davis and Y. Ohno, “Color quality scale,” Opt. Eng. 49(3), 033602 (2010).
[Crossref]

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Y. Q. Li, A. C. A. Delsing, G. de With, and H. T. Hintzen, “Luminescence Properties of Eu2+-Activated Alkaline-Earth Silicon-Oxynitride MSi2O2-δN2+2/3δ(M = Ca, Sr, Ba): A Promising Class of Novel LED Conversion Phosphors,” Chem. Mater. 17(12), 3242–3248 (2005).
[Crossref]

Delsing, A. C. A.

Y. Q. Li, A. C. A. Delsing, G. de With, and H. T. Hintzen, “Luminescence Properties of Eu2+-Activated Alkaline-Earth Silicon-Oxynitride MSi2O2-δN2+2/3δ(M = Ca, Sr, Ba): A Promising Class of Novel LED Conversion Phosphors,” Chem. Mater. 17(12), 3242–3248 (2005).
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Di Stasio, F.

F. Palazon, F. Di Stasio, Q. A. Akkerman, R. Krahne, M. Prato, and L. Manna, “Polymer-Free Films of Inorganic Halide Perovskite Nanocrystals as UV-to-White Color-Conversion Layers in LEDs,” Chem. Mater. 28(9), 2902–2906 (2016).
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Z. Zhou, Y. Li, M. Xia, Y. Zhong, N. Zhou, and H. T. Hintzen, “Improved luminescence and energy-transfer properties of Ca14Al10Zn6O35:Ti4+,Mn4+ deep-red-emitting phosphors with high brightness for light-emitting diode (LED) plant-growth lighting,” Dalton Trans. 47(38), 13713–13721 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zhou, Z.

Z. Zhou, Y. Li, M. Xia, Y. Zhong, N. Zhou, and H. T. Hintzen, “Improved luminescence and energy-transfer properties of Ca14Al10Zn6O35:Ti4+,Mn4+ deep-red-emitting phosphors with high brightness for light-emitting diode (LED) plant-growth lighting,” Dalton Trans. 47(38), 13713–13721 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zhu, H.

G. C. Adhikari, P. A. Vargas, H. Zhu, and P. Zhu, “Saponification Precipitation Method for CsPbBr3 Nanocrystals with Blue-Green Tunable Emission,” J. Phys. Chem. C 123(2), 1406–1412 (2019).
[Crossref]

G. C. Adhikari, P. A. Vargas, H. Zhu, A. Grigoriev, and P. Zhu, “Tetradic phosphor white light with variable CCT and superlative CRI through organolead halide perovskite nanocrystals,” Nanoscale Adv. 1, 1791–1798 (2019).
[Crossref]

G. C. Adhikari, S. Thapa, H. Zhu, A. Grigoriev, and P. Zhu, “Synthesis of CsPbBr3 and Transformation into Cs4PbBr6 Crystals for White Light Emission with High CRI and Tunable CCT,” J. Phys. Chem. C 123(18), 12023–12028 (2019).
[Crossref]

P. Zhu, H. Zhu, G. C. Adhikari, and S. Thapa, “Spectral optimization of white light from hybrid metal halide perovskites,” OSA Continuum 2(6), 1880–1888 (2019).
[Crossref]

G. C. Adhikari, H. Zhu, P. A. Vargas, and P. Zhu, “UV-Green Emission from Organolead Bromide Perovskite Nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Chem. C 122(26), 15041–15046 (2018).
[Crossref]

P. Zhu, W. Wang, H. Zhu, P. Vargas, and A. Bont, “Optical Properties of Eu3+-Doped Y2O3 Nanotubes and Nanosheets Synthesized by Hydrothermal Method,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(1), 1–10 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zhu, L.

L. Zheng, T. Wu, Y. Lu, Y. Gao, Y. Wang, L. Zhu, Z. Guo, and Z. Chen, “Spectral Optimization of Three-Primary LEDs by Considering the Circadian Action Factor,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(6), 1–9 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhu, L.-H.

H. Xiao, Y.-J. Lu, T.-M. Shih, L.-H. Zhu, S.-Q. Lin, P. J. Pagni, and Z. Chen, “Improvements on Remote Diffuser-Phosphor-Packaged Light-Emitting Diode Systems,” IEEE Photonics J. 6(2), 1–8 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhu, P.

G. C. Adhikari, P. A. Vargas, H. Zhu, and P. Zhu, “Saponification Precipitation Method for CsPbBr3 Nanocrystals with Blue-Green Tunable Emission,” J. Phys. Chem. C 123(2), 1406–1412 (2019).
[Crossref]

G. C. Adhikari, P. A. Vargas, H. Zhu, A. Grigoriev, and P. Zhu, “Tetradic phosphor white light with variable CCT and superlative CRI through organolead halide perovskite nanocrystals,” Nanoscale Adv. 1, 1791–1798 (2019).
[Crossref]

G. C. Adhikari, S. Thapa, H. Zhu, A. Grigoriev, and P. Zhu, “Synthesis of CsPbBr3 and Transformation into Cs4PbBr6 Crystals for White Light Emission with High CRI and Tunable CCT,” J. Phys. Chem. C 123(18), 12023–12028 (2019).
[Crossref]

P. Zhu, H. Zhu, G. C. Adhikari, and S. Thapa, “Spectral optimization of white light from hybrid metal halide perovskites,” OSA Continuum 2(6), 1880–1888 (2019).
[Crossref]

G. C. Adhikari, H. Zhu, P. A. Vargas, and P. Zhu, “UV-Green Emission from Organolead Bromide Perovskite Nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Chem. C 122(26), 15041–15046 (2018).
[Crossref]

P. Zhu, W. Wang, H. Zhu, P. Vargas, and A. Bont, “Optical Properties of Eu3+-Doped Y2O3 Nanotubes and Nanosheets Synthesized by Hydrothermal Method,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(1), 1–10 (2018).
[Crossref]

P. Zhu and N. Tansu, “Effect of Packing Density and Packing Geometry on Light Extraction of III-Nitride Light-Emitting Diodes with Microsphere Arrays,” Photonics Res. 3(4), 184–191 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhuang, Y.

J. Zheng, S. Wu, G. Chen, S. Dang, Y. Zhuang, Z. Guo, Y. Lu, Q. Cheng, and C. Chen, “Blue-emitting Ca5(PO4)3Cl:Eu2+ phosphor for near-UV pumped light emitting diodes: Electronic structures, luminescence properties and LED fabrications,” J. Alloys Compd. 663, 332–339 (2016).
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Zou, B.

L. Zhang, C. Liu, L. Wang, C. Liu, K. Wang, and B. Zou, “Pressure-Induced Emission Enhancement, Band-Gap Narrowing, and Metallization of Halide Perovskite Cs3Bi2I9,” Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 57(35), 11213–11217 (2018).
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L. Zhang, L. Wang, K. Wang, and B. Zou, “Pressure-Induced Structural Evolution and Optical Properties of Metal-Halide Perovskite CsPbCl3,” J. Phys. Chem. C 122(27), 15220–15225 (2018).
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Acc. Chem. Res. (1)

M. D. Smith and H. I. Karunadasa, “White-Light Emission from Layered Halide Perovskites,” Acc. Chem. Res. 51(3), 619–627 (2018).
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ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces (1)

H. C. Yoon, H. Kang, S. Lee, J. H. Oh, H. Yang, and Y. R. Do, “Study of Perovskite QD Down-Converted LEDs and Six-Color White LEDs for Future Displays with Excellent Color Performance,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8(28), 18189–18200 (2016).
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ACS Cent. Sci. (1)

Q. Zhang and Y. Yin, “All-Inorganic Metal Halide Perovskite Nanocrystals: Opportunities and Challenges,” ACS Cent. Sci. 4(6), 668–679 (2018).
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ACS Photonics (1)

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L. Zhang, C. Liu, L. Wang, C. Liu, K. Wang, and B. Zou, “Pressure-Induced Emission Enhancement, Band-Gap Narrowing, and Metallization of Halide Perovskite Cs3Bi2I9,” Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 57(35), 11213–11217 (2018).
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Z. Zhou, Y. Li, M. Xia, Y. Zhong, N. Zhou, and H. T. Hintzen, “Improved luminescence and energy-transfer properties of Ca14Al10Zn6O35:Ti4+,Mn4+ deep-red-emitting phosphors with high brightness for light-emitting diode (LED) plant-growth lighting,” Dalton Trans. 47(38), 13713–13721 (2018).
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M. He, Y. Cheng, R. Yuan, L. Zhou, J. Jiang, T. Xu, W. Chen, Z. Liu, W. Xiang, and X. Liang, “Mn-Doped cesium lead halide perovskite nanocrystals with dual-color emission for WLED,” Dyes Pigm. 152, 146–154 (2018).
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Y. J. Kim and M. Brown, “Impact of domestic energy-efficiency policies on foreign innovation: The case of lighting technologies,” Energy Policy 128, 539–552 (2019).
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IEEE Photonics J. (6)

H. Xiao, Y.-J. Lu, T.-M. Shih, L.-H. Zhu, S.-Q. Lin, P. J. Pagni, and Z. Chen, “Improvements on Remote Diffuser-Phosphor-Packaged Light-Emitting Diode Systems,” IEEE Photonics J. 6(2), 1–8 (2014).
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L. Zheng, T. Wu, Y. Lu, Y. Gao, Y. Wang, L. Zhu, Z. Guo, and Z. Chen, “Spectral Optimization of Three-Primary LEDs by Considering the Circadian Action Factor,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(6), 1–9 (2016).
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P. Zhu, W. Wang, H. Zhu, P. Vargas, and A. Bont, “Optical Properties of Eu3+-Doped Y2O3 Nanotubes and Nanosheets Synthesized by Hydrothermal Method,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(1), 1–10 (2018).
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J. Zheng, S. Wu, G. Chen, S. Dang, Y. Zhuang, Z. Guo, Y. Lu, Q. Cheng, and C. Chen, “Blue-emitting Ca5(PO4)3Cl:Eu2+ phosphor for near-UV pumped light emitting diodes: Electronic structures, luminescence properties and LED fabrications,” J. Alloys Compd. 663, 332–339 (2016).
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J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

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K. Ma, X.-Y. Du, Y.-W. Zhang, and S. Chen, “In situ fabrication of halide perovskite nanocrystals embedded in polymer composites via microfluidic spinning microreactors,” J. Mater. Chem. C 5(36), 9398–9404 (2017).
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L. Zhang, L. Wang, K. Wang, and B. Zou, “Pressure-Induced Structural Evolution and Optical Properties of Metal-Halide Perovskite CsPbCl3,” J. Phys. Chem. C 122(27), 15220–15225 (2018).
[Crossref]

G. C. Adhikari, P. A. Vargas, H. Zhu, and P. Zhu, “Saponification Precipitation Method for CsPbBr3 Nanocrystals with Blue-Green Tunable Emission,” J. Phys. Chem. C 123(2), 1406–1412 (2019).
[Crossref]

G. C. Adhikari, S. Thapa, H. Zhu, A. Grigoriev, and P. Zhu, “Synthesis of CsPbBr3 and Transformation into Cs4PbBr6 Crystals for White Light Emission with High CRI and Tunable CCT,” J. Phys. Chem. C 123(18), 12023–12028 (2019).
[Crossref]

G. C. Adhikari, H. Zhu, P. A. Vargas, and P. Zhu, “UV-Green Emission from Organolead Bromide Perovskite Nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Chem. C 122(26), 15041–15046 (2018).
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J. Phys. Chem. Lett. (2)

G. Lozano, “The Role of Metal Halide Perovskites in Next-Generation Lighting Devices,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 9(14), 3987–3997 (2018).
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Figures (10)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) UV-visible absorption spectra, (b) PL spectra, and (c) excitation spectra of blue-, cyan-, green-, yellow-, and red-emitting organolead halide perovskites. (d) Multi-pixel white LED device structure, which consists of a UV LED and a remote color conversion layer.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. The color matching functions [$\overline x (\lambda )$,$\overline y (\lambda )$ and $\overline z (\lambda )$], spectral luminous efficiency function [$V(\lambda )$], and spectral circadian efficiency function [$C(\lambda )$] [62,63].
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) The ratios of five different colors in the white light with various CCT (2827 K - 8315 K), (b) CCT with different relative power ratios of blue, cyan, and green to yellow and red emissions. The color bar indicates the CRI with corresponding CCT.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a) The spectral power distribution of white light with various CCTs (2827 K - 8315 K). (b) The chromaticity coordinates of white light in the CIE 1931 chromaticity diagram.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. The LER as a function of CRI at different CCTs: (a) CCT = 2700-2800 K, (b) CCT = 3000-3100 K, (c) CCT = 4000-4100 K, and (d) CCT = 6500-6600 K.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. The LER as a function of CCT at various CRIs: (a) CRI = 81.0-82.0, (b) CRI = 85.0-86.0, (c) CRI = 90.0-91.0, (d) CRI = 95.0-97.8. The color of points represents corresponding CRI on the color bar.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. (a) The ratios of spectral distribution of blue, cyan, green, yellow, and red emissions for obtaining white light with various LER, (b) LER as a function of ratios of blue, cyan, and green emissions to yellow and red emissions (the color of points represents CRI as labeled on color bar).
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. CAF as a function of CRI at various CCTs: (a) CCT = 2700–2800 K, (b) CCT = 3000–3100 K, (c) CCT = 4000–4100 K, and (d) CCT = 6500–6600 K.
Fig. 9.
Fig. 9. The CAF as a function of CCT at different CRIs: (a) CRI = 81.0 - 82.0, (b) CRI = 85.0 - 86.0, (c) CRI = 90.0 - 91.0, (d) CRI = 95.0 - 96.0, (e) CRI = 97.0 - 98.0, and (f) CRI = 98.0 - 99.0. The color of points represents corresponding CRI on the color bar.
Fig. 10.
Fig. 10. (a) CAF changes with power ratios of five different emissions and (b) CAF as a function of ratios of the sum of blue, cyan, and green emissions to the sum of yellow and red emissions. The color of points represents corresponding CRI on the color bar.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1. The optical properties of MAPb(BrxI1-x)3 nanocrystals.

Tables Icon

Table 2. Color characteristics of selected LEDs with tunable CCT from warm to cool white.

Tables Icon

Table 3. Color characteristics of selected LEDs.

Equations (21)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

S t o t a l ( λ ) = r B × S B ( λ ) + r C × S C ( λ ) + r G × S G ( λ ) + r Y × S Y ( λ ) + r R × S R ( λ ) ,
r B = 0 : 0.1 : 1 , r C = 0 : 0.1 : 1 , r G = 0 : 0.1 : 1 , r Y = 0 : 0.1 : 1 , r R = 0 : 0.1 : 1.
R a t i o s ( B : C : G : Y : R ) = ( r B × I B ) : ( r C × I C ) : ( r G × I G ) : ( r Y × I Y ) : ( r R × I R ) ,
X = 380 780 S t o t a l ( λ ) x ¯ ( λ ) d λ ,
Y = 380 780 S t o t a l ( λ ) y ¯ ( λ ) d λ ,
Z = 380 780 S t o t a l ( λ ) z ¯ ( λ ) d λ .
x = X X + Y + Z ,
y = Y X + Y + Z .
C C T = 449 n 3 + 352 n 2 682.3 n + 5520.33 ,
Φ V = K m 380 780 S t o t a l ( λ ) V ( λ ) d λ ,
L E R ( l m / W ) = 683 ( l m / W ) 380 780 S t o t a l ( λ ) V ( λ ) d λ 380 780 S t o t a l ( λ ) d λ .
Φ C = K C 380 780 S t o t a l ( λ ) C ( λ ) d λ ,
C E R ( b l m / W ) = 683 ( l m / W ) 380 780 S t o t a l ( λ ) C ( λ ) d λ 380 780 S t o t a l ( λ ) d λ ,
C A F = K C 380 780 S t o t a l ( λ ) C ( λ ) d λ K m 380 780 S t o t a l ( λ ) V ( λ ) d λ
R c o l o r = r c o l o r × I c o l o r r B × I B + r C × I C + r G × I G + r Y × I Y + r R × I R ,
R b l u e + R c y a n + R g r e e n + R y e l l o w + R r e d = 1.
C C T ( R ) = 1800 + 2530 R + 1110 R 2 ,
L E R ( R ) = 333 + 22 R 9 R 2 .
C A F ( C C T ) = ( 2.4 + 2.5 C C T 0.1 C C T 2 ) × 10 4 ,
C A F ( C C T ) = ( 2.8 + 2.7 C C T 0.1 C C T 2 ) × 10 4 ,
C A F ( R ) = 0.08 + 0.87 R 0.15 R 2 .