Abstract

The phase-shifting method is widely used in digital holography (DH) to extract object light from interference fringes. We propose a fast phase-shifting DH that uses a ferroelectric liquid crystal (FLC) as a phase retarder. The FLC with its spontaneous polarization has a response speed of $< {1}\,{\textrm{ms}}$ and can perform phase modulation faster than conventionally used nematic liquid crystals (NLCs). However, because the FLC cannot perform continuous phase modulation, the conventional phase-shifting method cannot be used. We propose a novel two-step phase-shifting method for DH using the FLC retarder and evaluate this method’s accuracy and effectiveness experimentally. The experimental results show that the proposed method can measure wavefronts at high speed with high accuracy, and it is also effective for measurement of biological samples.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2018 (1)

S. Yoshida, “Measurement of moving objects with phase-shifting digital holography using liquid crystal retarder,” Opt. Commun. 420, 141–146 (2018).
[Crossref]

2015 (1)

2014 (3)

J. Zhang, Y. Xie, G. Li, Y. Ye, and B. E. A. Saleh, “Single-shot phase-shifting digital holography,” Opt. Eng. 53(11), 112316 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Xia, Y. Awatsuji, K. Nishio, and O. Matoba, “One million fps digital holography,” Electron. Lett. 50(23), 1693–1695 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Fujii, T. Tahara, P. Xia, T. Kakue, Y. Awatsuji, K. Nishio, S. Ura, T. Kubota, and O. Matoba, “A4-sized parallel phase-shifting digital holography system,” J. Disp. Technol. 10(2), 132–137 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

T. Kakue, J. Yuasa, M. Fujii, P. Xia, T. Tahara, Y. Awatsuji, K. Nishio, S. Ura, T. Kubota, and O. Matoba, “Light-in-flight recording by parallel phase-shifting digital holography,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(9), 092501 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

T. Kakue, S. Itoh, P. Xia, T. Tahara, Y. Awatsuji, K. Nishio, S. Ura, T. Kubota, and O. Matoba, “Single-shot femtosecond-pulsed phase-shifting digital holography,” Opt. Express 20(18), 20286–20291 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Tahara, R. Yonesaka, S. Yamamoto, T. Kakue, P. Xia, Y. Awatsuji, K. Nishio, S. Ura, T. Kubota, and O. Matoba, “High-speed three-dimensional microscope for dynamically moving biological objects based on parallel phase-shifting digital holographic microscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18(4), 1387–1393 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

M. Fujii, T. Kakue, K. Ito, T. Tahara, Y. Shimozato, Y. Awatsuji, K. Nishio, S. Ura, T. Kubota, and O. Matoba, “Construction of a portable parallel phase-shifting digital holography system,” Opt. Eng. 50(9), 091304 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

2009 (1)

2008 (1)

2006 (2)

2004 (1)

Y. Awatsuji, M. Sasada, and T. Kubota, “Parallel quasi-phase-shifting digital holography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(6), 1069–1071 (2004).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

2001 (1)

B. Ngoi, K. Venkatakrishnan, N. Sivakumar, and T. Bo, “Instantaneous phase shifting arrangement for microsurface profiling of flat surfaces,” Opt. Commun. 190(1-6), 109–116 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

S. Lai, B. King, and M. A. Neifeld, “Wave front reconstruction by means of phase-shifting digital in-line holography,” Opt. Commun. 173(1-6), 155–160 (2000).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

1994 (1)

1982 (1)

1980 (1)

N. A. Clark and S. T. Lagerwall, “Submicrosecond bistable electro-optic switching in liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 36(11), 899–901 (1980).
[Crossref]

Awatsuji, Y.

P. Xia, Y. Awatsuji, K. Nishio, and O. Matoba, “One million fps digital holography,” Electron. Lett. 50(23), 1693–1695 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Fujii, T. Tahara, P. Xia, T. Kakue, Y. Awatsuji, K. Nishio, S. Ura, T. Kubota, and O. Matoba, “A4-sized parallel phase-shifting digital holography system,” J. Disp. Technol. 10(2), 132–137 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Kakue, J. Yuasa, M. Fujii, P. Xia, T. Tahara, Y. Awatsuji, K. Nishio, S. Ura, T. Kubota, and O. Matoba, “Light-in-flight recording by parallel phase-shifting digital holography,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(9), 092501 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Tahara, R. Yonesaka, S. Yamamoto, T. Kakue, P. Xia, Y. Awatsuji, K. Nishio, S. Ura, T. Kubota, and O. Matoba, “High-speed three-dimensional microscope for dynamically moving biological objects based on parallel phase-shifting digital holographic microscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18(4), 1387–1393 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Kakue, S. Itoh, P. Xia, T. Tahara, Y. Awatsuji, K. Nishio, S. Ura, T. Kubota, and O. Matoba, “Single-shot femtosecond-pulsed phase-shifting digital holography,” Opt. Express 20(18), 20286–20291 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Fujii, T. Kakue, K. Ito, T. Tahara, Y. Shimozato, Y. Awatsuji, K. Nishio, S. Ura, T. Kubota, and O. Matoba, “Construction of a portable parallel phase-shifting digital holography system,” Opt. Eng. 50(9), 091304 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. Tahara, K. Ito, M. Fujii, T. Kakue, Y. Shimozato, Y. Awatsuji, K. Nishio, S. Ura, T. Kubota, and O. Matoba, “Experimental demonstration of parallel two-step phase-shifting digital holography,” Opt. Express 18(18), 18975–18980 (2010).
[Crossref]

T. Kakue, Y. Moritani, K. Ito, Y. Shimozato, Y. Awatsuji, K. Nishio, S. Ura, T. Kubota, and O. Matoba, “Image quality improvement of parallel four-step phase-shifting digital holography by using the algorithm of parallel two-step phase-shifting digital holography,” Opt. Express 18(9), 9555–9560 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. Awatsuji, T. Tahara, A. Kaneko, T. Koyama, K. Nishio, S. Ura, T. Kubota, and O. Matoba, “Parallel two-step phase-shifting digital holography,” Appl. Opt. 47(19), D183–D189 (2008).
[Crossref]

Y. Awatsuji, M. Sasada, and T. Kubota, “Parallel quasi-phase-shifting digital holography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(6), 1069–1071 (2004).
[Crossref]

Bo, T.

B. Ngoi, K. Venkatakrishnan, N. Sivakumar, and T. Bo, “Instantaneous phase shifting arrangement for microsurface profiling of flat surfaces,” Opt. Commun. 190(1-6), 109–116 (2001).
[Crossref]

Cai, L. Z.

Clark, N. A.

N. A. Clark and S. T. Lagerwall, “Submicrosecond bistable electro-optic switching in liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 36(11), 899–901 (1980).
[Crossref]

Dong, G. Y.

Falldorf, C.

U. Schnars, C. Falldorf, J. Watson, and W. Jüptner, Digital Holography and Wavefront Sensing (Springer, 2015).

Fujii, M.

M. Fujii, T. Tahara, P. Xia, T. Kakue, Y. Awatsuji, K. Nishio, S. Ura, T. Kubota, and O. Matoba, “A4-sized parallel phase-shifting digital holography system,” J. Disp. Technol. 10(2), 132–137 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Kakue, J. Yuasa, M. Fujii, P. Xia, T. Tahara, Y. Awatsuji, K. Nishio, S. Ura, T. Kubota, and O. Matoba, “Light-in-flight recording by parallel phase-shifting digital holography,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(9), 092501 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Fujii, T. Kakue, K. Ito, T. Tahara, Y. Shimozato, Y. Awatsuji, K. Nishio, S. Ura, T. Kubota, and O. Matoba, “Construction of a portable parallel phase-shifting digital holography system,” Opt. Eng. 50(9), 091304 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. Tahara, K. Ito, M. Fujii, T. Kakue, Y. Shimozato, Y. Awatsuji, K. Nishio, S. Ura, T. Kubota, and O. Matoba, “Experimental demonstration of parallel two-step phase-shifting digital holography,” Opt. Express 18(18), 18975–18980 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ghiglia, D. C.

Hosoi, K.

Ina, H.

Ito, K.

Itoh, S.

Jüptner, W.

U. Schnars, C. Falldorf, J. Watson, and W. Jüptner, Digital Holography and Wavefront Sensing (Springer, 2015).

Kakue, T.

M. Fujii, T. Tahara, P. Xia, T. Kakue, Y. Awatsuji, K. Nishio, S. Ura, T. Kubota, and O. Matoba, “A4-sized parallel phase-shifting digital holography system,” J. Disp. Technol. 10(2), 132–137 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Kakue, J. Yuasa, M. Fujii, P. Xia, T. Tahara, Y. Awatsuji, K. Nishio, S. Ura, T. Kubota, and O. Matoba, “Light-in-flight recording by parallel phase-shifting digital holography,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(9), 092501 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Tahara, R. Yonesaka, S. Yamamoto, T. Kakue, P. Xia, Y. Awatsuji, K. Nishio, S. Ura, T. Kubota, and O. Matoba, “High-speed three-dimensional microscope for dynamically moving biological objects based on parallel phase-shifting digital holographic microscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18(4), 1387–1393 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Kakue, S. Itoh, P. Xia, T. Tahara, Y. Awatsuji, K. Nishio, S. Ura, T. Kubota, and O. Matoba, “Single-shot femtosecond-pulsed phase-shifting digital holography,” Opt. Express 20(18), 20286–20291 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Fujii, T. Kakue, K. Ito, T. Tahara, Y. Shimozato, Y. Awatsuji, K. Nishio, S. Ura, T. Kubota, and O. Matoba, “Construction of a portable parallel phase-shifting digital holography system,” Opt. Eng. 50(9), 091304 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. Tahara, K. Ito, M. Fujii, T. Kakue, Y. Shimozato, Y. Awatsuji, K. Nishio, S. Ura, T. Kubota, and O. Matoba, “Experimental demonstration of parallel two-step phase-shifting digital holography,” Opt. Express 18(18), 18975–18980 (2010).
[Crossref]

T. Kakue, Y. Moritani, K. Ito, Y. Shimozato, Y. Awatsuji, K. Nishio, S. Ura, T. Kubota, and O. Matoba, “Image quality improvement of parallel four-step phase-shifting digital holography by using the algorithm of parallel two-step phase-shifting digital holography,” Opt. Express 18(9), 9555–9560 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kaneko, A.

Kato, J.

King, B.

S. Lai, B. King, and M. A. Neifeld, “Wave front reconstruction by means of phase-shifting digital in-line holography,” Opt. Commun. 173(1-6), 155–160 (2000).
[Crossref]

Kobayashi, S.

Koyama, T.

Kubota, T.

M. Fujii, T. Tahara, P. Xia, T. Kakue, Y. Awatsuji, K. Nishio, S. Ura, T. Kubota, and O. Matoba, “A4-sized parallel phase-shifting digital holography system,” J. Disp. Technol. 10(2), 132–137 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Kakue, J. Yuasa, M. Fujii, P. Xia, T. Tahara, Y. Awatsuji, K. Nishio, S. Ura, T. Kubota, and O. Matoba, “Light-in-flight recording by parallel phase-shifting digital holography,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(9), 092501 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Tahara, R. Yonesaka, S. Yamamoto, T. Kakue, P. Xia, Y. Awatsuji, K. Nishio, S. Ura, T. Kubota, and O. Matoba, “High-speed three-dimensional microscope for dynamically moving biological objects based on parallel phase-shifting digital holographic microscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18(4), 1387–1393 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Kakue, S. Itoh, P. Xia, T. Tahara, Y. Awatsuji, K. Nishio, S. Ura, T. Kubota, and O. Matoba, “Single-shot femtosecond-pulsed phase-shifting digital holography,” Opt. Express 20(18), 20286–20291 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Fujii, T. Kakue, K. Ito, T. Tahara, Y. Shimozato, Y. Awatsuji, K. Nishio, S. Ura, T. Kubota, and O. Matoba, “Construction of a portable parallel phase-shifting digital holography system,” Opt. Eng. 50(9), 091304 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. Tahara, K. Ito, M. Fujii, T. Kakue, Y. Shimozato, Y. Awatsuji, K. Nishio, S. Ura, T. Kubota, and O. Matoba, “Experimental demonstration of parallel two-step phase-shifting digital holography,” Opt. Express 18(18), 18975–18980 (2010).
[Crossref]

T. Kakue, Y. Moritani, K. Ito, Y. Shimozato, Y. Awatsuji, K. Nishio, S. Ura, T. Kubota, and O. Matoba, “Image quality improvement of parallel four-step phase-shifting digital holography by using the algorithm of parallel two-step phase-shifting digital holography,” Opt. Express 18(9), 9555–9560 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. Awatsuji, T. Tahara, A. Kaneko, T. Koyama, K. Nishio, S. Ura, T. Kubota, and O. Matoba, “Parallel two-step phase-shifting digital holography,” Appl. Opt. 47(19), D183–D189 (2008).
[Crossref]

Y. Awatsuji, M. Sasada, and T. Kubota, “Parallel quasi-phase-shifting digital holography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(6), 1069–1071 (2004).
[Crossref]

Lagerwall, S. T.

N. A. Clark and S. T. Lagerwall, “Submicrosecond bistable electro-optic switching in liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 36(11), 899–901 (1980).
[Crossref]

Lai, S.

S. Lai, B. King, and M. A. Neifeld, “Wave front reconstruction by means of phase-shifting digital in-line holography,” Opt. Commun. 173(1-6), 155–160 (2000).
[Crossref]

Li, G.

J. Zhang, Y. Xie, G. Li, Y. Ye, and B. E. A. Saleh, “Single-shot phase-shifting digital holography,” Opt. Eng. 53(11), 112316 (2014).
[Crossref]

Liu, J.-P.

Matoba, O.

M. Fujii, T. Tahara, P. Xia, T. Kakue, Y. Awatsuji, K. Nishio, S. Ura, T. Kubota, and O. Matoba, “A4-sized parallel phase-shifting digital holography system,” J. Disp. Technol. 10(2), 132–137 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Xia, Y. Awatsuji, K. Nishio, and O. Matoba, “One million fps digital holography,” Electron. Lett. 50(23), 1693–1695 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Kakue, J. Yuasa, M. Fujii, P. Xia, T. Tahara, Y. Awatsuji, K. Nishio, S. Ura, T. Kubota, and O. Matoba, “Light-in-flight recording by parallel phase-shifting digital holography,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(9), 092501 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Tahara, R. Yonesaka, S. Yamamoto, T. Kakue, P. Xia, Y. Awatsuji, K. Nishio, S. Ura, T. Kubota, and O. Matoba, “High-speed three-dimensional microscope for dynamically moving biological objects based on parallel phase-shifting digital holographic microscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18(4), 1387–1393 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Kakue, S. Itoh, P. Xia, T. Tahara, Y. Awatsuji, K. Nishio, S. Ura, T. Kubota, and O. Matoba, “Single-shot femtosecond-pulsed phase-shifting digital holography,” Opt. Express 20(18), 20286–20291 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Fujii, T. Kakue, K. Ito, T. Tahara, Y. Shimozato, Y. Awatsuji, K. Nishio, S. Ura, T. Kubota, and O. Matoba, “Construction of a portable parallel phase-shifting digital holography system,” Opt. Eng. 50(9), 091304 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. Tahara, K. Ito, M. Fujii, T. Kakue, Y. Shimozato, Y. Awatsuji, K. Nishio, S. Ura, T. Kubota, and O. Matoba, “Experimental demonstration of parallel two-step phase-shifting digital holography,” Opt. Express 18(18), 18975–18980 (2010).
[Crossref]

T. Kakue, Y. Moritani, K. Ito, Y. Shimozato, Y. Awatsuji, K. Nishio, S. Ura, T. Kubota, and O. Matoba, “Image quality improvement of parallel four-step phase-shifting digital holography by using the algorithm of parallel two-step phase-shifting digital holography,” Opt. Express 18(9), 9555–9560 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. Awatsuji, T. Tahara, A. Kaneko, T. Koyama, K. Nishio, S. Ura, T. Kubota, and O. Matoba, “Parallel two-step phase-shifting digital holography,” Appl. Opt. 47(19), D183–D189 (2008).
[Crossref]

O. Matoba, K. Hosoi, K. Nitta, and T. Yoshimura, “Fast acquisition system for digital holograms and image processing for three-dimensional display with data manipulation,” Appl. Opt. 45(35), 8945–8950 (2006).
[Crossref]

Matsumura, T.

Meng, X. F.

Moritani, Y.

Neifeld, M. A.

S. Lai, B. King, and M. A. Neifeld, “Wave front reconstruction by means of phase-shifting digital in-line holography,” Opt. Commun. 173(1-6), 155–160 (2000).
[Crossref]

Ngoi, B.

B. Ngoi, K. Venkatakrishnan, N. Sivakumar, and T. Bo, “Instantaneous phase shifting arrangement for microsurface profiling of flat surfaces,” Opt. Commun. 190(1-6), 109–116 (2001).
[Crossref]

Nishio, K.

M. Fujii, T. Tahara, P. Xia, T. Kakue, Y. Awatsuji, K. Nishio, S. Ura, T. Kubota, and O. Matoba, “A4-sized parallel phase-shifting digital holography system,” J. Disp. Technol. 10(2), 132–137 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Xia, Y. Awatsuji, K. Nishio, and O. Matoba, “One million fps digital holography,” Electron. Lett. 50(23), 1693–1695 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Kakue, J. Yuasa, M. Fujii, P. Xia, T. Tahara, Y. Awatsuji, K. Nishio, S. Ura, T. Kubota, and O. Matoba, “Light-in-flight recording by parallel phase-shifting digital holography,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(9), 092501 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Tahara, R. Yonesaka, S. Yamamoto, T. Kakue, P. Xia, Y. Awatsuji, K. Nishio, S. Ura, T. Kubota, and O. Matoba, “High-speed three-dimensional microscope for dynamically moving biological objects based on parallel phase-shifting digital holographic microscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18(4), 1387–1393 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Kakue, S. Itoh, P. Xia, T. Tahara, Y. Awatsuji, K. Nishio, S. Ura, T. Kubota, and O. Matoba, “Single-shot femtosecond-pulsed phase-shifting digital holography,” Opt. Express 20(18), 20286–20291 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Fujii, T. Kakue, K. Ito, T. Tahara, Y. Shimozato, Y. Awatsuji, K. Nishio, S. Ura, T. Kubota, and O. Matoba, “Construction of a portable parallel phase-shifting digital holography system,” Opt. Eng. 50(9), 091304 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. Tahara, K. Ito, M. Fujii, T. Kakue, Y. Shimozato, Y. Awatsuji, K. Nishio, S. Ura, T. Kubota, and O. Matoba, “Experimental demonstration of parallel two-step phase-shifting digital holography,” Opt. Express 18(18), 18975–18980 (2010).
[Crossref]

T. Kakue, Y. Moritani, K. Ito, Y. Shimozato, Y. Awatsuji, K. Nishio, S. Ura, T. Kubota, and O. Matoba, “Image quality improvement of parallel four-step phase-shifting digital holography by using the algorithm of parallel two-step phase-shifting digital holography,” Opt. Express 18(9), 9555–9560 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. Awatsuji, T. Tahara, A. Kaneko, T. Koyama, K. Nishio, S. Ura, T. Kubota, and O. Matoba, “Parallel two-step phase-shifting digital holography,” Appl. Opt. 47(19), D183–D189 (2008).
[Crossref]

Nitta, K.

Nozawa, J.

Okamoto, A.

Poon, T.-C.

Romero, L. A.

Saleh, B. E. A.

J. Zhang, Y. Xie, G. Li, Y. Ye, and B. E. A. Saleh, “Single-shot phase-shifting digital holography,” Opt. Eng. 53(11), 112316 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. E. A. Saleh and M. C. Teich, “Polarization optics,” in Fundamentals of Photonics, 2nd ed. (Wiley, 2007), pp. 197–242.

Sasada, M.

Y. Awatsuji, M. Sasada, and T. Kubota, “Parallel quasi-phase-shifting digital holography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(6), 1069–1071 (2004).
[Crossref]

Schnars, U.

U. Schnars, C. Falldorf, J. Watson, and W. Jüptner, Digital Holography and Wavefront Sensing (Springer, 2015).

Shen, X. X.

Shibukawa, A.

Shimozato, Y.

Sivakumar, N.

B. Ngoi, K. Venkatakrishnan, N. Sivakumar, and T. Bo, “Instantaneous phase shifting arrangement for microsurface profiling of flat surfaces,” Opt. Commun. 190(1-6), 109–116 (2001).
[Crossref]

Tahara, T.

M. Fujii, T. Tahara, P. Xia, T. Kakue, Y. Awatsuji, K. Nishio, S. Ura, T. Kubota, and O. Matoba, “A4-sized parallel phase-shifting digital holography system,” J. Disp. Technol. 10(2), 132–137 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Kakue, J. Yuasa, M. Fujii, P. Xia, T. Tahara, Y. Awatsuji, K. Nishio, S. Ura, T. Kubota, and O. Matoba, “Light-in-flight recording by parallel phase-shifting digital holography,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(9), 092501 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Tahara, R. Yonesaka, S. Yamamoto, T. Kakue, P. Xia, Y. Awatsuji, K. Nishio, S. Ura, T. Kubota, and O. Matoba, “High-speed three-dimensional microscope for dynamically moving biological objects based on parallel phase-shifting digital holographic microscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18(4), 1387–1393 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Kakue, S. Itoh, P. Xia, T. Tahara, Y. Awatsuji, K. Nishio, S. Ura, T. Kubota, and O. Matoba, “Single-shot femtosecond-pulsed phase-shifting digital holography,” Opt. Express 20(18), 20286–20291 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Fujii, T. Kakue, K. Ito, T. Tahara, Y. Shimozato, Y. Awatsuji, K. Nishio, S. Ura, T. Kubota, and O. Matoba, “Construction of a portable parallel phase-shifting digital holography system,” Opt. Eng. 50(9), 091304 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. Tahara, K. Ito, M. Fujii, T. Kakue, Y. Shimozato, Y. Awatsuji, K. Nishio, S. Ura, T. Kubota, and O. Matoba, “Experimental demonstration of parallel two-step phase-shifting digital holography,” Opt. Express 18(18), 18975–18980 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. Awatsuji, T. Tahara, A. Kaneko, T. Koyama, K. Nishio, S. Ura, T. Kubota, and O. Matoba, “Parallel two-step phase-shifting digital holography,” Appl. Opt. 47(19), D183–D189 (2008).
[Crossref]

Takabayashi, M.

Takeda, M.

Teich, M. C.

B. E. A. Saleh and M. C. Teich, “Polarization optics,” in Fundamentals of Photonics, 2nd ed. (Wiley, 2007), pp. 197–242.

Tomita, A.

Ura, S.

M. Fujii, T. Tahara, P. Xia, T. Kakue, Y. Awatsuji, K. Nishio, S. Ura, T. Kubota, and O. Matoba, “A4-sized parallel phase-shifting digital holography system,” J. Disp. Technol. 10(2), 132–137 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Kakue, J. Yuasa, M. Fujii, P. Xia, T. Tahara, Y. Awatsuji, K. Nishio, S. Ura, T. Kubota, and O. Matoba, “Light-in-flight recording by parallel phase-shifting digital holography,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(9), 092501 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Tahara, R. Yonesaka, S. Yamamoto, T. Kakue, P. Xia, Y. Awatsuji, K. Nishio, S. Ura, T. Kubota, and O. Matoba, “High-speed three-dimensional microscope for dynamically moving biological objects based on parallel phase-shifting digital holographic microscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18(4), 1387–1393 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Kakue, S. Itoh, P. Xia, T. Tahara, Y. Awatsuji, K. Nishio, S. Ura, T. Kubota, and O. Matoba, “Single-shot femtosecond-pulsed phase-shifting digital holography,” Opt. Express 20(18), 20286–20291 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Fujii, T. Kakue, K. Ito, T. Tahara, Y. Shimozato, Y. Awatsuji, K. Nishio, S. Ura, T. Kubota, and O. Matoba, “Construction of a portable parallel phase-shifting digital holography system,” Opt. Eng. 50(9), 091304 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. Tahara, K. Ito, M. Fujii, T. Kakue, Y. Shimozato, Y. Awatsuji, K. Nishio, S. Ura, T. Kubota, and O. Matoba, “Experimental demonstration of parallel two-step phase-shifting digital holography,” Opt. Express 18(18), 18975–18980 (2010).
[Crossref]

T. Kakue, Y. Moritani, K. Ito, Y. Shimozato, Y. Awatsuji, K. Nishio, S. Ura, T. Kubota, and O. Matoba, “Image quality improvement of parallel four-step phase-shifting digital holography by using the algorithm of parallel two-step phase-shifting digital holography,” Opt. Express 18(9), 9555–9560 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. Awatsuji, T. Tahara, A. Kaneko, T. Koyama, K. Nishio, S. Ura, T. Kubota, and O. Matoba, “Parallel two-step phase-shifting digital holography,” Appl. Opt. 47(19), D183–D189 (2008).
[Crossref]

Venkatakrishnan, K.

B. Ngoi, K. Venkatakrishnan, N. Sivakumar, and T. Bo, “Instantaneous phase shifting arrangement for microsurface profiling of flat surfaces,” Opt. Commun. 190(1-6), 109–116 (2001).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y. R.

Watson, J.

U. Schnars, C. Falldorf, J. Watson, and W. Jüptner, Digital Holography and Wavefront Sensing (Springer, 2015).

Xia, P.

P. Xia, Y. Awatsuji, K. Nishio, and O. Matoba, “One million fps digital holography,” Electron. Lett. 50(23), 1693–1695 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Fujii, T. Tahara, P. Xia, T. Kakue, Y. Awatsuji, K. Nishio, S. Ura, T. Kubota, and O. Matoba, “A4-sized parallel phase-shifting digital holography system,” J. Disp. Technol. 10(2), 132–137 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Kakue, J. Yuasa, M. Fujii, P. Xia, T. Tahara, Y. Awatsuji, K. Nishio, S. Ura, T. Kubota, and O. Matoba, “Light-in-flight recording by parallel phase-shifting digital holography,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(9), 092501 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Tahara, R. Yonesaka, S. Yamamoto, T. Kakue, P. Xia, Y. Awatsuji, K. Nishio, S. Ura, T. Kubota, and O. Matoba, “High-speed three-dimensional microscope for dynamically moving biological objects based on parallel phase-shifting digital holographic microscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18(4), 1387–1393 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Kakue, S. Itoh, P. Xia, T. Tahara, Y. Awatsuji, K. Nishio, S. Ura, T. Kubota, and O. Matoba, “Single-shot femtosecond-pulsed phase-shifting digital holography,” Opt. Express 20(18), 20286–20291 (2012).
[Crossref]

Xie, Y.

J. Zhang, Y. Xie, G. Li, Y. Ye, and B. E. A. Saleh, “Single-shot phase-shifting digital holography,” Opt. Eng. 53(11), 112316 (2014).
[Crossref]

Xu, X. F.

Yamaguchi, I.

Yamamoto, S.

T. Tahara, R. Yonesaka, S. Yamamoto, T. Kakue, P. Xia, Y. Awatsuji, K. Nishio, S. Ura, T. Kubota, and O. Matoba, “High-speed three-dimensional microscope for dynamically moving biological objects based on parallel phase-shifting digital holographic microscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18(4), 1387–1393 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yang, X. L.

Ye, Y.

J. Zhang, Y. Xie, G. Li, Y. Ye, and B. E. A. Saleh, “Single-shot phase-shifting digital holography,” Opt. Eng. 53(11), 112316 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yonesaka, R.

T. Tahara, R. Yonesaka, S. Yamamoto, T. Kakue, P. Xia, Y. Awatsuji, K. Nishio, S. Ura, T. Kubota, and O. Matoba, “High-speed three-dimensional microscope for dynamically moving biological objects based on parallel phase-shifting digital holographic microscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18(4), 1387–1393 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yoshida, S.

S. Yoshida, “Measurement of moving objects with phase-shifting digital holography using liquid crystal retarder,” Opt. Commun. 420, 141–146 (2018).
[Crossref]

Yoshimura, T.

Yuasa, J.

T. Kakue, J. Yuasa, M. Fujii, P. Xia, T. Tahara, Y. Awatsuji, K. Nishio, S. Ura, T. Kubota, and O. Matoba, “Light-in-flight recording by parallel phase-shifting digital holography,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(9), 092501 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhang, J.

J. Zhang, Y. Xie, G. Li, Y. Ye, and B. E. A. Saleh, “Single-shot phase-shifting digital holography,” Opt. Eng. 53(11), 112316 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhang, T.

Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Phys. Express (1)

T. Kakue, J. Yuasa, M. Fujii, P. Xia, T. Tahara, Y. Awatsuji, K. Nishio, S. Ura, T. Kubota, and O. Matoba, “Light-in-flight recording by parallel phase-shifting digital holography,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(9), 092501 (2013).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

Y. Awatsuji, M. Sasada, and T. Kubota, “Parallel quasi-phase-shifting digital holography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(6), 1069–1071 (2004).
[Crossref]

N. A. Clark and S. T. Lagerwall, “Submicrosecond bistable electro-optic switching in liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 36(11), 899–901 (1980).
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (1)

P. Xia, Y. Awatsuji, K. Nishio, and O. Matoba, “One million fps digital holography,” Electron. Lett. 50(23), 1693–1695 (2014).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

T. Tahara, R. Yonesaka, S. Yamamoto, T. Kakue, P. Xia, Y. Awatsuji, K. Nishio, S. Ura, T. Kubota, and O. Matoba, “High-speed three-dimensional microscope for dynamically moving biological objects based on parallel phase-shifting digital holographic microscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18(4), 1387–1393 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Disp. Technol. (1)

M. Fujii, T. Tahara, P. Xia, T. Kakue, Y. Awatsuji, K. Nishio, S. Ura, T. Kubota, and O. Matoba, “A4-sized parallel phase-shifting digital holography system,” J. Disp. Technol. 10(2), 132–137 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Opt. Commun. (3)

B. Ngoi, K. Venkatakrishnan, N. Sivakumar, and T. Bo, “Instantaneous phase shifting arrangement for microsurface profiling of flat surfaces,” Opt. Commun. 190(1-6), 109–116 (2001).
[Crossref]

S. Lai, B. King, and M. A. Neifeld, “Wave front reconstruction by means of phase-shifting digital in-line holography,” Opt. Commun. 173(1-6), 155–160 (2000).
[Crossref]

S. Yoshida, “Measurement of moving objects with phase-shifting digital holography using liquid crystal retarder,” Opt. Commun. 420, 141–146 (2018).
[Crossref]

Opt. Eng. (2)

J. Zhang, Y. Xie, G. Li, Y. Ye, and B. E. A. Saleh, “Single-shot phase-shifting digital holography,” Opt. Eng. 53(11), 112316 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Fujii, T. Kakue, K. Ito, T. Tahara, Y. Shimozato, Y. Awatsuji, K. Nishio, S. Ura, T. Kubota, and O. Matoba, “Construction of a portable parallel phase-shifting digital holography system,” Opt. Eng. 50(9), 091304 (2011).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Other (2)

B. E. A. Saleh and M. C. Teich, “Polarization optics,” in Fundamentals of Photonics, 2nd ed. (Wiley, 2007), pp. 197–242.

U. Schnars, C. Falldorf, J. Watson, and W. Jüptner, Digital Holography and Wavefront Sensing (Springer, 2015).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Motion of liquid crystal molecules. (a) In the planar aligned NLC, the molecules are oriented perpendicular to the film thickness direction when no voltage is applied, but the molecules tilt in the film thickness direction depending on the magnitude of the applied voltage. NLCs are usually driven with AC voltages to prevent charge accumulation. (b) In the surface-stabilized FLC, the injected molecules rotate in the in-plane direction, depending on the direction in which the electric field is applied.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Measurement results for the properties of the FLC. (a) Retardation. (b) Rotation angle of molecules. The horizontal axis shows the rotation angles of the polarizer (a) and the retarder (b), while the vertical axis shows the intensity.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Measurement results for the response time of the FLC. The horizontal axis represents the time, and the right and left vertical axes represent the voltage applied to the FLC and the output voltage of the PD, respectively.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Optical setup for phase-shifting digital holography using FLC retarder. ECLD: external cavity laser diode; AP: anamorphic prism pair; SF: spatial filter; BS: beam splitter; M: mirror; OL: object lens with focal length $f= {20}\,{\textrm{mm}}$; IL: imaging lens with $f= {80}\,{\textrm{mm}}$; CMOS: complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor image sensor.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Measurement results for the interference fringes and the reconstructed wavefront. (a) Interference fringe $I_{1}$. (b) Interference fringe $I_{2}$. (c) Phase distribution $\psi$ of the reconstructed object light. (d) Cross-section of the phase distribution along the solid red line in part (c).
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Reconstructed phases for biological samples. (a) Onion epidermal layer. (b) Stem of a loofah. The phase distributions were unwrapped using Ghiglia and Romero’s method [25].
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Reconstructed phases for a moving Paramecium. (a) $t = {0}\,{\textrm{ms}}$. (b) $t = {3}\,{\textrm{ms}}$.

Equations (14)

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J(ϕ)=[eiϕ/200eiϕ/2],
J(ϕ,θ)=[cosϕ2+isinϕ2cos2θisinϕ2sin2θisinϕ2sin2θcosϕ2isinϕ2cos2θ].
u1=J(ϕ,90)u=b[eiϕ/20]=b[cosϕ2isinϕ20]u2=J(ϕ,90+θ)u=b[cosϕ2isinϕ2cos2θisinϕ2sin2θ],
I1=|uo+u1|2=Io+Ir+2ab(cosψcosϕ2sinψsinϕ2)I2=|uo+u2|2=Io+Ir+2ab(cosψcosϕ2sinψsinϕ2cos2θ),
sinψ=I2I14absin2θsinϕ2cosψ=I2I1cos2θ2(Io+Ir)sin2θ4absin2θcosϕ2,
Io=v(v24uw)1/22u,
u=4sin4θsin2ϕ2v=4sin2θsin2ϕ2(I2I1cos2θ+2Ircosϕsin2θ)w=cos2ϕ2(I1I2)2+sin2ϕ2(I2I1cos2θ2Irsin2θ)2.
v=4sin4θsin2ϕ2[(acosψ+2bcosϕ2)2+a2(1+sin2ψ)]v24uw=256b2sin8θsin4ϕ2cos2ϕ2(acosψ+bcosϕ2)2.
ψ=tan1[(I2I1)cotϕ2I2I1cos2θ2(Io+Ir)sin2θ].
I=sin2(φϕ2).
I=sin2ϕ2sin22θ.
uQ=Q(0)J(ϕ,45)[10]=eπi/4[cosϕ2sinϕ2].
uP(φ)=P(90+φ)uQ=eπi/4[sin2φcosϕ2sinφcosφsinϕ2cos2φsinϕ2sinφcosφcosϕ2]P(φ)=[cos2φsinφcosφsinφcosφsin2φ].
uT=P(90)J(ϕ,90+θ)[10]=[0isinϕ2sin2θ].