Abstract

Comprehensive studies were carried out to investigate potential applications of hybrid metal halide perovskites in next-generation white light-emitting diodes (LEDs). We investigated the effect of spectral power distributions on the color quality of white light to provide guidelines for designing white LED devices. The white light was obtained by combining appropriate ratios of blue, green, yellow, and red light emitted from hybrid halide perovskites [MAPb(BrxI1-x)3]. The color characteristics of white light were evaluated by calculating CIE 1931 chromaticity coordinates, correlated color temperature (CCT), general color rendering index (Ra), special color rendering indices (R9-R15), Duv, and luminous efficacy of radiation (LER). The high tunability of CCT from 2298 K (warm white) to 8270 K (cool white) with CRI up to 95.4 has been achieved by tuning the ratios of integrated areas of different emissions with extremely small Duv (0.00002-0.0043) indicating the neutral appearance (not greenish or pinkish) of the obtained white light. High LER above 300 lm/W demonstrates that the high vision performance of white LEDs based on perovskite materials. This work provides strong motivation and guidelines for further developing this type of materials for white LEDs with the goal of realizing widespread adoption of white LEDs in general illumination market.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2019 (5)

T. Zhou, M. Wang, Z. Zang, X. Tang, and L. Fang, “Two-dimensional lead-free hybrid halide perovskite using superatom anions with tunable electronic properties,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 191, 33–38 (2019).
[Crossref]

B. Yang, M. Wang, X. Hu, T. Zhou, and Z. Zang, “Highly efficient semitransparent CsPbIBr2 perovskite solar cells via low-temperature processed In2S3 as electron-transport-layer,” Nano Energy 57, 718–727 (2019).
[Crossref]

H. Yuce, T. Guner, S. Balci, and M. M. Demir, “Phosphor-based white LED by various glassy particles: control over luminous efficiency,” Opt. Lett. 44(3), 479–482 (2019).
[Crossref]

Z. Guo, K. Liu, L. Zheng, T.-M. Shih, Y. Lu, T. Wu, Y. Lin, Y. Zhang, J. Zheng, and J. Chen, “Investigation on three-hump phosphor-coated white light-emitting diodes for healthy lighting by genetic algorithm,” IEEE Photonics J. 11(1), 1–10 (2019).
[Crossref]

G. C. Adhikari, P. Vargas, H. Zhu, A. Grigoriev, and P. Zhu, “Tetradic Phosphor White Light with Variable CCT and Superlative CRI through Organolead Halide Perovskite Nanocrystals,” Nanoscale Adv. 1(5), 1791–1798 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (17)

S. Chatterjee and A. J. Pal, “Influence of metal substitution on hybrid halide perovskites: towards lead-free perovskite solar cells,” J. Mater. Chem. A 6(9), 3793–3823 (2018).
[Crossref]

G. C. Adhikari, H. Zhu, P. A. Vargas, and P. Zhu, “UV-Green Emission from Organolead Bromide Perovskite Nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Chem. C 122(26), 15041–15046 (2018).
[Crossref]

P. Zhu, W. Wang, H. Zhu, P. Vargas, and A. Bont, “Optical Properties of Eu3+-Doped Y2O3 Nanotubes and Nanosheets Synthesized by Hydrothermal Method,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(1), 1–10 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Liu, Y. K. Ooi, S. M. Islam, H. Xing, D. Jena, and J. Zhang, “234 nm and 246 nm AlN-Delta-GaN quantum well deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112(1), 011101 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. K. Ooi and J. Zhang, “Light Extraction Efficiency Analysis of Flip-Chip Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes With Patterned Sapphire Substrate,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(4), 1–13 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Wang, Z. Zang, B. Yang, X. Hu, K. Sun, and L. Sun, “Performance improvement of perovskite solar cells through enhanced hole extraction: The role of iodide concentration gradient,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 185, 117–123 (2018).
[Crossref]

H. J. Snaith, “Present status and future prospects of perovskite photovoltaics,” Nat. Mater. 17(5), 372–376 (2018).
[Crossref]

Q. Zhang and Y. Yin, “All-Inorganic Metal Halide Perovskite Nanocrystals: Opportunities and Challenges,” ACS Cent. Sci. 4(6), 668–679 (2018).
[Crossref]

T. Guner and M. M. Demir, “A Review on Halide Perovskites as Color Conversion Layers in White Light Emitting Diode Applications,” Phys. Status Solidi A 215(13), 1800120 (2018).
[Crossref]

Q. A. Akkerman, G. Rainò, M. V. Kovalenko, and L. Manna, “Genesis, challenges and opportunities for colloidal lead halide perovskite nanocrystals,” Nat. Mater. 17(5), 394–405 (2018).
[Crossref]

L. Zhang, L. Wang, K. Wang, and B. Zou, “Pressure-Induced Structural Evolution and Optical Properties of Metal-Halide Perovskite CsPbCl3,” J. Phys. Chem. C 122(27), 15220–15225 (2018).
[Crossref]

L. Zhang, C. Liu, L. Wang, C. Liu, K. Wang, and B. Zou, “Pressure-Induced Emission Enhancement, Band-Gap Narrowing, and Metallization of Halide Perovskite Cs3Bi2I9,” Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 57(35), 11213–11217 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. W. Dai, B. W. Hsu, C. Y. Chen, C. A. Lee, H. Y. Liu, H. F. Wang, Y. C. Huang, T. L. Wu, A. Manikandan, R. M. Ho, C. S. Tsao, C. H. Cheng, Y. L. Chueh, and H. W. Lin, “Perovskite Quantum Dots with Near Unity Solution and Neat-Film Photoluminescent Quantum Yield by Novel Spray Synthesis,” Adv. Mater. 30(7), 1705532 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Sun, J. Yang, J. I. Lee, J. H. Cho, and M. S. Kang, “Lead-Free Perovskite Nanocrystals for Light-Emitting Devices,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 9(7), 1573–1583 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. D. Smith and H. I. Karunadasa, “White-Light Emission from Layered Halide Perovskites,” Acc. Chem. Res. 51(3), 619–627 (2018).
[Crossref]

G. Lozano, “The Role of Metal Halide Perovskites in Next-Generation Lighting Devices,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 9(14), 3987–3997 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. He, Y. Cheng, R. Yuan, L. Zhou, J. Jiang, T. Xu, W. Chen, Z. Liu, W. Xiang, and X. Liang, “Mn-Doped cesium lead halide perovskite nanocrystals with dual-color emission for WLED,” Dyes Pigm. 152, 146–154 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (6)

Y.-W. Zhang, G. Wu, H. Dang, K. Ma, and S. Chen, “Multicolored Mixed-Organic-Cation Perovskite Quantum Dots (FAxMA1−xPbX3, X = Br and I) for White Light-Emitting Diodes,” Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 56(36), 10053–10059 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Ma, X.-Y. Du, Y.-W. Zhang, and S. Chen, “In situ fabrication of halide perovskite nanocrystals embedded in polymer composites via microfluidic spinning microreactors,” J. Mater. Chem. C 5(36), 9398–9404 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Nagaoka, K. Hills-Kimball, R. Tan, R. Li, Z. Wang, and O. Chen, “Nanocube Superlattices of Cesium Lead Bromide Perovskites and Pressure-Induced Phase Transformations at Atomic and Mesoscale Levels,” Adv. Mater. 29(18), 1606666 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. T. Shimizu, M. Böhmer, D. Estrada, S. Gangwal, S. Grabowski, H. Bechtel, E. Kang, K. J. Vampola, D. Chamberlin, O. B. Shchekin, and J. Bhardwaj, “Toward commercial realization of quantum dot based white light-emitting diodes for general illumination,” Photonics Res. 5(2), A1–A6 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. Zeng, T. Zhou, C. Leng, Z. Zang, M. Wang, W. Hu, X. Tang, S. Lu, L. Fang, and M. Zhou, “Performance improvement of perovskite solar cells by employing a CdSe quantum dot/PCBM composite as an electron transport layer,” J. Mater. Chem. A 5(33), 17499–17505 (2017).
[Crossref]

W. Zhang, W. Yang, P. Zhong, S. Mei, G. Zhang, G. Chen, G. He, and R. Guo, “Spectral optimization of color temperature tunable white LEDs based on perovskite quantum dots for ultrahigh color rendition,” Opt. Mater. Express 7(9), 3065 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (4)

W. Yang, P. Zhong, S. Mei, Q. Chen, W. Zhang, J. Zhu, R. Guo, and G. He, “Photometric Optimization of Color Temperature Tunable Quantum Dots Converted White LEDs for Excellent Color Rendition,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(5), 1–11 (2016).
[Crossref]

F. Palazon, F. Di Stasio, Q. A. Akkerman, R. Krahne, M. Prato, and L. Manna, “Polymer-Free Films of Inorganic Halide Perovskite Nanocrystals as UV-to-White Color-Conversion Layers in LEDs,” Chem. Mater. 28(9), 2902–2906 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Zheng, S. Wu, G. Chen, S. Dang, Y. Zhuang, Z. Guo, Y. Lu, Q. Cheng, and C. Chen, “Blue-emitting Ca5(PO4)3Cl:Eu2+ phosphor for near-UV pumped light emitting diodes: Electronic structures, luminescence properties and LED fabrications,” J. Alloys Compd. 663, 332–339 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Li, Y. Wu, S. Zhang, B. Cai, Y. Gu, and H. Zheng, “CsPbX3 quantum dots for lighting and displays: room-temperature synthesis, photoluminescence superiorities, underlying origins and white light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 26, 2435–2445 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (4)

S. Pathak, N. Sakai, F. Wisnivesky Rocca Rivarola, S. D. Stranks, J. Liu, G. E. Eperon, C. Ducati, K. Wojciechowski, J. T. Griffiths, A. A. Haghighirad, A. Pellaroque, R. H. Friend, and H. J. Snaith, “Perovskite Crystals for Tunable White Light Emission,” Chem. Mater. 27(23), 8066–8075 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Pust, P. J. Schmidt, and W. Schnick, “A Revolution in Lighting,” Nat. Mater. 14(5), 454–458 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Zhu and N. Tansu, “Effect of Packing Density and Packing Geometry on Light Extraction of III-Nitride Light-Emitting Diodes with Microsphere Arrays,” Photonics Res. 3(4), 184–191 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Protesescu, S. Yakunin, M. I. Bodnarchuk, F. Krieg, R. Caputo, C. H. Hendon, R. X. Yang, A. Walsh, and M. V. Kovalenko, “Nanocrystals of Cesium Lead Halide Perovskites (CsPbX3, X = Cl, Br, and I): Novel Optoelectronic Materials Showing Bright Emission with Wide Color Gamut,” Nano Lett. 15(6), 3692–3696 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (5)

F. Hao, C. C. Stoumpos, D. H. Cao, R. P. H. Chang, and M. G. Kanatzidis, “Lead-free solid-state organic–inorganic halide perovskite solar cells,” Nat. Photonics 8(6), 489–494 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Ohno, “Practical Use and Calculation of CCT and Duv,” LEUKOS 10(1), 47–55 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Xiao, Y.-J. Lu, T.-M. Shih, L.-H. Zhu, S.-Q. Lin, P. J. Pagni, and Z. Chen, “Improvements on Remote Diffuser-Phosphor-Packaged Light-Emitting Diode Systems,” IEEE Photonics J. 6(2), 1–8 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Pust, V. Weiler, C. Hecht, A. Tucks, A. S. Wochnik, A. K. Henss, D. Wiechert, C. Scheu, P. J. Schmidt, and W. Schnick, “Narrow-Band Red-Emitting Sr[LiAl3N4]:Eu2+ as a Next-Generation LED-Phosphor Material,” Nat. Mater. 13(9), 891–896 (2014).
[Crossref]

E. R. Dohner, E. T. Hoke, and H. I. Karunadasa, “Self-Assembly of Broadband White-Light Emitters,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 136(5), 1718–1721 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

N. A. Fromer and M. S. Diallo, “Nanotechnology and clean energy: sustainable utilization and supply of critical materials,” J. Nanopart. Res. 15(11), 2011 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. Li, J. D. Budai, F. Liu, J. Y. Howe, J. Zhang, X.-J. Wang, Z. Gu, C. Sun, R. S. Meltzer, and Z. Pan, “New yellow Ba0.93Eu0.07Al2O4 phosphor for warm-white light-emitting diodes through single-emitting-center conversion,” Light: Sci. Appl. 2(1), e50 (2013).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

S. Sarkar, N. S. Karan, and N. Pradhan, “Ultrasmall color-tunable copper-doped ternary semiconductor nanocrystal emitters,” Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 50(27), 6065–6069 (2011).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

Y. Yang, O. Chen, A. Angerhofer, and Y. C. Cao, “On Doping CdS/ZnS Core/Shell Nanocrystals with Mn,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130(46), 15649–15661 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and Future of High-Power Light-Emitting Diodes for Solid-State Lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 3(2), 160–175 (2007).
[Crossref]

N. Kimura, K. Sakuma, S. Hirafune, K. Asano, N. Hirosaki, and R.-J. Xie, “Extrahigh color rendering white light-emitting diode lamps using oxynitride and nitride phosphors excited by blue light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(5), 051109 (2007).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

Y. Ohno, “Spectral design considerations for white LED color rendering,” Opt. Eng. 44(11), 111302 (2005).
[Crossref]

K. Sakuma, N. Hirosaki, N. Kimura, M. Ohashi, R.-J. Xie, Y. Yamamoto, T. Suehiro, K. Asano, and D. Tanaka, “White light-emitting diode lamps using oxynitride and nitride phosphor materials,” IEICE transactions on electronics E88-C(11), 2057–2064 (2005).
[Crossref]

Adhikari, G. C.

G. C. Adhikari, P. Vargas, H. Zhu, A. Grigoriev, and P. Zhu, “Tetradic Phosphor White Light with Variable CCT and Superlative CRI through Organolead Halide Perovskite Nanocrystals,” Nanoscale Adv. 1(5), 1791–1798 (2019).
[Crossref]

G. C. Adhikari, H. Zhu, P. A. Vargas, and P. Zhu, “UV-Green Emission from Organolead Bromide Perovskite Nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Chem. C 122(26), 15041–15046 (2018).
[Crossref]

Akkerman, Q. A.

Q. A. Akkerman, G. Rainò, M. V. Kovalenko, and L. Manna, “Genesis, challenges and opportunities for colloidal lead halide perovskite nanocrystals,” Nat. Mater. 17(5), 394–405 (2018).
[Crossref]

F. Palazon, F. Di Stasio, Q. A. Akkerman, R. Krahne, M. Prato, and L. Manna, “Polymer-Free Films of Inorganic Halide Perovskite Nanocrystals as UV-to-White Color-Conversion Layers in LEDs,” Chem. Mater. 28(9), 2902–2906 (2016).
[Crossref]

Angerhofer, A.

Y. Yang, O. Chen, A. Angerhofer, and Y. C. Cao, “On Doping CdS/ZnS Core/Shell Nanocrystals with Mn,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130(46), 15649–15661 (2008).
[Crossref]

Asano, K.

N. Kimura, K. Sakuma, S. Hirafune, K. Asano, N. Hirosaki, and R.-J. Xie, “Extrahigh color rendering white light-emitting diode lamps using oxynitride and nitride phosphors excited by blue light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(5), 051109 (2007).
[Crossref]

K. Sakuma, N. Hirosaki, N. Kimura, M. Ohashi, R.-J. Xie, Y. Yamamoto, T. Suehiro, K. Asano, and D. Tanaka, “White light-emitting diode lamps using oxynitride and nitride phosphor materials,” IEICE transactions on electronics E88-C(11), 2057–2064 (2005).
[Crossref]

Balci, S.

Bauer, D. B.

D. B. Bauer, D. Diamond, J. Li, M. McKittrick, D. Sandalow, and P. Telleen, “2011 Critical Materials Strategy Summary.”.

Bechtel, H.

K. T. Shimizu, M. Böhmer, D. Estrada, S. Gangwal, S. Grabowski, H. Bechtel, E. Kang, K. J. Vampola, D. Chamberlin, O. B. Shchekin, and J. Bhardwaj, “Toward commercial realization of quantum dot based white light-emitting diodes for general illumination,” Photonics Res. 5(2), A1–A6 (2017).
[Crossref]

Bhardwaj, J.

K. T. Shimizu, M. Böhmer, D. Estrada, S. Gangwal, S. Grabowski, H. Bechtel, E. Kang, K. J. Vampola, D. Chamberlin, O. B. Shchekin, and J. Bhardwaj, “Toward commercial realization of quantum dot based white light-emitting diodes for general illumination,” Photonics Res. 5(2), A1–A6 (2017).
[Crossref]

Bodnarchuk, M. I.

L. Protesescu, S. Yakunin, M. I. Bodnarchuk, F. Krieg, R. Caputo, C. H. Hendon, R. X. Yang, A. Walsh, and M. V. Kovalenko, “Nanocrystals of Cesium Lead Halide Perovskites (CsPbX3, X = Cl, Br, and I): Novel Optoelectronic Materials Showing Bright Emission with Wide Color Gamut,” Nano Lett. 15(6), 3692–3696 (2015).
[Crossref]

Böhmer, M.

K. T. Shimizu, M. Böhmer, D. Estrada, S. Gangwal, S. Grabowski, H. Bechtel, E. Kang, K. J. Vampola, D. Chamberlin, O. B. Shchekin, and J. Bhardwaj, “Toward commercial realization of quantum dot based white light-emitting diodes for general illumination,” Photonics Res. 5(2), A1–A6 (2017).
[Crossref]

Bont, A.

P. Zhu, W. Wang, H. Zhu, P. Vargas, and A. Bont, “Optical Properties of Eu3+-Doped Y2O3 Nanotubes and Nanosheets Synthesized by Hydrothermal Method,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(1), 1–10 (2018).
[Crossref]

Budai, J. D.

X. Li, J. D. Budai, F. Liu, J. Y. Howe, J. Zhang, X.-J. Wang, Z. Gu, C. Sun, R. S. Meltzer, and Z. Pan, “New yellow Ba0.93Eu0.07Al2O4 phosphor for warm-white light-emitting diodes through single-emitting-center conversion,” Light: Sci. Appl. 2(1), e50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Cai, B.

X. Li, Y. Wu, S. Zhang, B. Cai, Y. Gu, and H. Zheng, “CsPbX3 quantum dots for lighting and displays: room-temperature synthesis, photoluminescence superiorities, underlying origins and white light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 26, 2435–2445 (2016).
[Crossref]

Cao, D. H.

F. Hao, C. C. Stoumpos, D. H. Cao, R. P. H. Chang, and M. G. Kanatzidis, “Lead-free solid-state organic–inorganic halide perovskite solar cells,” Nat. Photonics 8(6), 489–494 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cao, Y. C.

Y. Yang, O. Chen, A. Angerhofer, and Y. C. Cao, “On Doping CdS/ZnS Core/Shell Nanocrystals with Mn,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130(46), 15649–15661 (2008).
[Crossref]

Caputo, R.

L. Protesescu, S. Yakunin, M. I. Bodnarchuk, F. Krieg, R. Caputo, C. H. Hendon, R. X. Yang, A. Walsh, and M. V. Kovalenko, “Nanocrystals of Cesium Lead Halide Perovskites (CsPbX3, X = Cl, Br, and I): Novel Optoelectronic Materials Showing Bright Emission with Wide Color Gamut,” Nano Lett. 15(6), 3692–3696 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chamberlin, D.

K. T. Shimizu, M. Böhmer, D. Estrada, S. Gangwal, S. Grabowski, H. Bechtel, E. Kang, K. J. Vampola, D. Chamberlin, O. B. Shchekin, and J. Bhardwaj, “Toward commercial realization of quantum dot based white light-emitting diodes for general illumination,” Photonics Res. 5(2), A1–A6 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chang, R. P. H.

F. Hao, C. C. Stoumpos, D. H. Cao, R. P. H. Chang, and M. G. Kanatzidis, “Lead-free solid-state organic–inorganic halide perovskite solar cells,” Nat. Photonics 8(6), 489–494 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chatterjee, S.

S. Chatterjee and A. J. Pal, “Influence of metal substitution on hybrid halide perovskites: towards lead-free perovskite solar cells,” J. Mater. Chem. A 6(9), 3793–3823 (2018).
[Crossref]

Chen, C.

J. Zheng, S. Wu, G. Chen, S. Dang, Y. Zhuang, Z. Guo, Y. Lu, Q. Cheng, and C. Chen, “Blue-emitting Ca5(PO4)3Cl:Eu2+ phosphor for near-UV pumped light emitting diodes: Electronic structures, luminescence properties and LED fabrications,” J. Alloys Compd. 663, 332–339 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chen, C. Y.

S. W. Dai, B. W. Hsu, C. Y. Chen, C. A. Lee, H. Y. Liu, H. F. Wang, Y. C. Huang, T. L. Wu, A. Manikandan, R. M. Ho, C. S. Tsao, C. H. Cheng, Y. L. Chueh, and H. W. Lin, “Perovskite Quantum Dots with Near Unity Solution and Neat-Film Photoluminescent Quantum Yield by Novel Spray Synthesis,” Adv. Mater. 30(7), 1705532 (2018).
[Crossref]

Chen, G.

W. Zhang, W. Yang, P. Zhong, S. Mei, G. Zhang, G. Chen, G. He, and R. Guo, “Spectral optimization of color temperature tunable white LEDs based on perovskite quantum dots for ultrahigh color rendition,” Opt. Mater. Express 7(9), 3065 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Zheng, S. Wu, G. Chen, S. Dang, Y. Zhuang, Z. Guo, Y. Lu, Q. Cheng, and C. Chen, “Blue-emitting Ca5(PO4)3Cl:Eu2+ phosphor for near-UV pumped light emitting diodes: Electronic structures, luminescence properties and LED fabrications,” J. Alloys Compd. 663, 332–339 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chen, J.

Z. Guo, K. Liu, L. Zheng, T.-M. Shih, Y. Lu, T. Wu, Y. Lin, Y. Zhang, J. Zheng, and J. Chen, “Investigation on three-hump phosphor-coated white light-emitting diodes for healthy lighting by genetic algorithm,” IEEE Photonics J. 11(1), 1–10 (2019).
[Crossref]

Chen, O.

Y. Nagaoka, K. Hills-Kimball, R. Tan, R. Li, Z. Wang, and O. Chen, “Nanocube Superlattices of Cesium Lead Bromide Perovskites and Pressure-Induced Phase Transformations at Atomic and Mesoscale Levels,” Adv. Mater. 29(18), 1606666 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Yang, O. Chen, A. Angerhofer, and Y. C. Cao, “On Doping CdS/ZnS Core/Shell Nanocrystals with Mn,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130(46), 15649–15661 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chen, Q.

W. Yang, P. Zhong, S. Mei, Q. Chen, W. Zhang, J. Zhu, R. Guo, and G. He, “Photometric Optimization of Color Temperature Tunable Quantum Dots Converted White LEDs for Excellent Color Rendition,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(5), 1–11 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chen, S.

Y.-W. Zhang, G. Wu, H. Dang, K. Ma, and S. Chen, “Multicolored Mixed-Organic-Cation Perovskite Quantum Dots (FAxMA1−xPbX3, X = Br and I) for White Light-Emitting Diodes,” Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 56(36), 10053–10059 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Ma, X.-Y. Du, Y.-W. Zhang, and S. Chen, “In situ fabrication of halide perovskite nanocrystals embedded in polymer composites via microfluidic spinning microreactors,” J. Mater. Chem. C 5(36), 9398–9404 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chen, W.

M. He, Y. Cheng, R. Yuan, L. Zhou, J. Jiang, T. Xu, W. Chen, Z. Liu, W. Xiang, and X. Liang, “Mn-Doped cesium lead halide perovskite nanocrystals with dual-color emission for WLED,” Dyes Pigm. 152, 146–154 (2018).
[Crossref]

Chen, Z.

H. Xiao, Y.-J. Lu, T.-M. Shih, L.-H. Zhu, S.-Q. Lin, P. J. Pagni, and Z. Chen, “Improvements on Remote Diffuser-Phosphor-Packaged Light-Emitting Diode Systems,” IEEE Photonics J. 6(2), 1–8 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cheng, C. H.

S. W. Dai, B. W. Hsu, C. Y. Chen, C. A. Lee, H. Y. Liu, H. F. Wang, Y. C. Huang, T. L. Wu, A. Manikandan, R. M. Ho, C. S. Tsao, C. H. Cheng, Y. L. Chueh, and H. W. Lin, “Perovskite Quantum Dots with Near Unity Solution and Neat-Film Photoluminescent Quantum Yield by Novel Spray Synthesis,” Adv. Mater. 30(7), 1705532 (2018).
[Crossref]

Cheng, Q.

J. Zheng, S. Wu, G. Chen, S. Dang, Y. Zhuang, Z. Guo, Y. Lu, Q. Cheng, and C. Chen, “Blue-emitting Ca5(PO4)3Cl:Eu2+ phosphor for near-UV pumped light emitting diodes: Electronic structures, luminescence properties and LED fabrications,” J. Alloys Compd. 663, 332–339 (2016).
[Crossref]

Cheng, Y.

M. He, Y. Cheng, R. Yuan, L. Zhou, J. Jiang, T. Xu, W. Chen, Z. Liu, W. Xiang, and X. Liang, “Mn-Doped cesium lead halide perovskite nanocrystals with dual-color emission for WLED,” Dyes Pigm. 152, 146–154 (2018).
[Crossref]

Cho, J. H.

J. Sun, J. Yang, J. I. Lee, J. H. Cho, and M. S. Kang, “Lead-Free Perovskite Nanocrystals for Light-Emitting Devices,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 9(7), 1573–1583 (2018).
[Crossref]

Chueh, Y. L.

S. W. Dai, B. W. Hsu, C. Y. Chen, C. A. Lee, H. Y. Liu, H. F. Wang, Y. C. Huang, T. L. Wu, A. Manikandan, R. M. Ho, C. S. Tsao, C. H. Cheng, Y. L. Chueh, and H. W. Lin, “Perovskite Quantum Dots with Near Unity Solution and Neat-Film Photoluminescent Quantum Yield by Novel Spray Synthesis,” Adv. Mater. 30(7), 1705532 (2018).
[Crossref]

Craford, M. G.

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and Future of High-Power Light-Emitting Diodes for Solid-State Lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 3(2), 160–175 (2007).
[Crossref]

Dai, S. W.

S. W. Dai, B. W. Hsu, C. Y. Chen, C. A. Lee, H. Y. Liu, H. F. Wang, Y. C. Huang, T. L. Wu, A. Manikandan, R. M. Ho, C. S. Tsao, C. H. Cheng, Y. L. Chueh, and H. W. Lin, “Perovskite Quantum Dots with Near Unity Solution and Neat-Film Photoluminescent Quantum Yield by Novel Spray Synthesis,” Adv. Mater. 30(7), 1705532 (2018).
[Crossref]

Dang, H.

Y.-W. Zhang, G. Wu, H. Dang, K. Ma, and S. Chen, “Multicolored Mixed-Organic-Cation Perovskite Quantum Dots (FAxMA1−xPbX3, X = Br and I) for White Light-Emitting Diodes,” Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 56(36), 10053–10059 (2017).
[Crossref]

Dang, S.

J. Zheng, S. Wu, G. Chen, S. Dang, Y. Zhuang, Z. Guo, Y. Lu, Q. Cheng, and C. Chen, “Blue-emitting Ca5(PO4)3Cl:Eu2+ phosphor for near-UV pumped light emitting diodes: Electronic structures, luminescence properties and LED fabrications,” J. Alloys Compd. 663, 332–339 (2016).
[Crossref]

Demir, M. M.

H. Yuce, T. Guner, S. Balci, and M. M. Demir, “Phosphor-based white LED by various glassy particles: control over luminous efficiency,” Opt. Lett. 44(3), 479–482 (2019).
[Crossref]

T. Guner and M. M. Demir, “A Review on Halide Perovskites as Color Conversion Layers in White Light Emitting Diode Applications,” Phys. Status Solidi A 215(13), 1800120 (2018).
[Crossref]

Di Stasio, F.

F. Palazon, F. Di Stasio, Q. A. Akkerman, R. Krahne, M. Prato, and L. Manna, “Polymer-Free Films of Inorganic Halide Perovskite Nanocrystals as UV-to-White Color-Conversion Layers in LEDs,” Chem. Mater. 28(9), 2902–2906 (2016).
[Crossref]

Diallo, M. S.

N. A. Fromer and M. S. Diallo, “Nanotechnology and clean energy: sustainable utilization and supply of critical materials,” J. Nanopart. Res. 15(11), 2011 (2013).
[Crossref]

Diamond, D.

D. B. Bauer, D. Diamond, J. Li, M. McKittrick, D. Sandalow, and P. Telleen, “2011 Critical Materials Strategy Summary.”.

Dohner, E. R.

E. R. Dohner, E. T. Hoke, and H. I. Karunadasa, “Self-Assembly of Broadband White-Light Emitters,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 136(5), 1718–1721 (2014).
[Crossref]

Du, X.-Y.

K. Ma, X.-Y. Du, Y.-W. Zhang, and S. Chen, “In situ fabrication of halide perovskite nanocrystals embedded in polymer composites via microfluidic spinning microreactors,” J. Mater. Chem. C 5(36), 9398–9404 (2017).
[Crossref]

Ducati, C.

S. Pathak, N. Sakai, F. Wisnivesky Rocca Rivarola, S. D. Stranks, J. Liu, G. E. Eperon, C. Ducati, K. Wojciechowski, J. T. Griffiths, A. A. Haghighirad, A. Pellaroque, R. H. Friend, and H. J. Snaith, “Perovskite Crystals for Tunable White Light Emission,” Chem. Mater. 27(23), 8066–8075 (2015).
[Crossref]

Eperon, G. E.

S. Pathak, N. Sakai, F. Wisnivesky Rocca Rivarola, S. D. Stranks, J. Liu, G. E. Eperon, C. Ducati, K. Wojciechowski, J. T. Griffiths, A. A. Haghighirad, A. Pellaroque, R. H. Friend, and H. J. Snaith, “Perovskite Crystals for Tunable White Light Emission,” Chem. Mater. 27(23), 8066–8075 (2015).
[Crossref]

Estrada, D.

K. T. Shimizu, M. Böhmer, D. Estrada, S. Gangwal, S. Grabowski, H. Bechtel, E. Kang, K. J. Vampola, D. Chamberlin, O. B. Shchekin, and J. Bhardwaj, “Toward commercial realization of quantum dot based white light-emitting diodes for general illumination,” Photonics Res. 5(2), A1–A6 (2017).
[Crossref]

Fang, L.

T. Zhou, M. Wang, Z. Zang, X. Tang, and L. Fang, “Two-dimensional lead-free hybrid halide perovskite using superatom anions with tunable electronic properties,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 191, 33–38 (2019).
[Crossref]

X. Zeng, T. Zhou, C. Leng, Z. Zang, M. Wang, W. Hu, X. Tang, S. Lu, L. Fang, and M. Zhou, “Performance improvement of perovskite solar cells by employing a CdSe quantum dot/PCBM composite as an electron transport layer,” J. Mater. Chem. A 5(33), 17499–17505 (2017).
[Crossref]

Friend, R. H.

S. Pathak, N. Sakai, F. Wisnivesky Rocca Rivarola, S. D. Stranks, J. Liu, G. E. Eperon, C. Ducati, K. Wojciechowski, J. T. Griffiths, A. A. Haghighirad, A. Pellaroque, R. H. Friend, and H. J. Snaith, “Perovskite Crystals for Tunable White Light Emission,” Chem. Mater. 27(23), 8066–8075 (2015).
[Crossref]

Fromer, N. A.

N. A. Fromer and M. S. Diallo, “Nanotechnology and clean energy: sustainable utilization and supply of critical materials,” J. Nanopart. Res. 15(11), 2011 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gangwal, S.

K. T. Shimizu, M. Böhmer, D. Estrada, S. Gangwal, S. Grabowski, H. Bechtel, E. Kang, K. J. Vampola, D. Chamberlin, O. B. Shchekin, and J. Bhardwaj, “Toward commercial realization of quantum dot based white light-emitting diodes for general illumination,” Photonics Res. 5(2), A1–A6 (2017).
[Crossref]

Grabowski, S.

K. T. Shimizu, M. Böhmer, D. Estrada, S. Gangwal, S. Grabowski, H. Bechtel, E. Kang, K. J. Vampola, D. Chamberlin, O. B. Shchekin, and J. Bhardwaj, “Toward commercial realization of quantum dot based white light-emitting diodes for general illumination,” Photonics Res. 5(2), A1–A6 (2017).
[Crossref]

Griffiths, J. T.

S. Pathak, N. Sakai, F. Wisnivesky Rocca Rivarola, S. D. Stranks, J. Liu, G. E. Eperon, C. Ducati, K. Wojciechowski, J. T. Griffiths, A. A. Haghighirad, A. Pellaroque, R. H. Friend, and H. J. Snaith, “Perovskite Crystals for Tunable White Light Emission,” Chem. Mater. 27(23), 8066–8075 (2015).
[Crossref]

Grigoriev, A.

G. C. Adhikari, P. Vargas, H. Zhu, A. Grigoriev, and P. Zhu, “Tetradic Phosphor White Light with Variable CCT and Superlative CRI through Organolead Halide Perovskite Nanocrystals,” Nanoscale Adv. 1(5), 1791–1798 (2019).
[Crossref]

Gu, Y.

X. Li, Y. Wu, S. Zhang, B. Cai, Y. Gu, and H. Zheng, “CsPbX3 quantum dots for lighting and displays: room-temperature synthesis, photoluminescence superiorities, underlying origins and white light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 26, 2435–2445 (2016).
[Crossref]

Gu, Z.

X. Li, J. D. Budai, F. Liu, J. Y. Howe, J. Zhang, X.-J. Wang, Z. Gu, C. Sun, R. S. Meltzer, and Z. Pan, “New yellow Ba0.93Eu0.07Al2O4 phosphor for warm-white light-emitting diodes through single-emitting-center conversion,” Light: Sci. Appl. 2(1), e50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Guner, T.

H. Yuce, T. Guner, S. Balci, and M. M. Demir, “Phosphor-based white LED by various glassy particles: control over luminous efficiency,” Opt. Lett. 44(3), 479–482 (2019).
[Crossref]

T. Guner and M. M. Demir, “A Review on Halide Perovskites as Color Conversion Layers in White Light Emitting Diode Applications,” Phys. Status Solidi A 215(13), 1800120 (2018).
[Crossref]

Guo, R.

W. Zhang, W. Yang, P. Zhong, S. Mei, G. Zhang, G. Chen, G. He, and R. Guo, “Spectral optimization of color temperature tunable white LEDs based on perovskite quantum dots for ultrahigh color rendition,” Opt. Mater. Express 7(9), 3065 (2017).
[Crossref]

W. Yang, P. Zhong, S. Mei, Q. Chen, W. Zhang, J. Zhu, R. Guo, and G. He, “Photometric Optimization of Color Temperature Tunable Quantum Dots Converted White LEDs for Excellent Color Rendition,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(5), 1–11 (2016).
[Crossref]

Guo, Z.

Z. Guo, K. Liu, L. Zheng, T.-M. Shih, Y. Lu, T. Wu, Y. Lin, Y. Zhang, J. Zheng, and J. Chen, “Investigation on three-hump phosphor-coated white light-emitting diodes for healthy lighting by genetic algorithm,” IEEE Photonics J. 11(1), 1–10 (2019).
[Crossref]

J. Zheng, S. Wu, G. Chen, S. Dang, Y. Zhuang, Z. Guo, Y. Lu, Q. Cheng, and C. Chen, “Blue-emitting Ca5(PO4)3Cl:Eu2+ phosphor for near-UV pumped light emitting diodes: Electronic structures, luminescence properties and LED fabrications,” J. Alloys Compd. 663, 332–339 (2016).
[Crossref]

Haghighirad, A. A.

S. Pathak, N. Sakai, F. Wisnivesky Rocca Rivarola, S. D. Stranks, J. Liu, G. E. Eperon, C. Ducati, K. Wojciechowski, J. T. Griffiths, A. A. Haghighirad, A. Pellaroque, R. H. Friend, and H. J. Snaith, “Perovskite Crystals for Tunable White Light Emission,” Chem. Mater. 27(23), 8066–8075 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hao, F.

F. Hao, C. C. Stoumpos, D. H. Cao, R. P. H. Chang, and M. G. Kanatzidis, “Lead-free solid-state organic–inorganic halide perovskite solar cells,” Nat. Photonics 8(6), 489–494 (2014).
[Crossref]

Harbers, G.

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E. R. Dohner, E. T. Hoke, and H. I. Karunadasa, “Self-Assembly of Broadband White-Light Emitters,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 136(5), 1718–1721 (2014).
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N. Kimura, K. Sakuma, S. Hirafune, K. Asano, N. Hirosaki, and R.-J. Xie, “Extrahigh color rendering white light-emitting diode lamps using oxynitride and nitride phosphors excited by blue light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(5), 051109 (2007).
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K. Sakuma, N. Hirosaki, N. Kimura, M. Ohashi, R.-J. Xie, Y. Yamamoto, T. Suehiro, K. Asano, and D. Tanaka, “White light-emitting diode lamps using oxynitride and nitride phosphor materials,” IEICE transactions on electronics E88-C(11), 2057–2064 (2005).
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Q. A. Akkerman, G. Rainò, M. V. Kovalenko, and L. Manna, “Genesis, challenges and opportunities for colloidal lead halide perovskite nanocrystals,” Nat. Mater. 17(5), 394–405 (2018).
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F. Palazon, F. Di Stasio, Q. A. Akkerman, R. Krahne, M. Prato, and L. Manna, “Polymer-Free Films of Inorganic Halide Perovskite Nanocrystals as UV-to-White Color-Conversion Layers in LEDs,” Chem. Mater. 28(9), 2902–2906 (2016).
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J. Sun, J. Yang, J. I. Lee, J. H. Cho, and M. S. Kang, “Lead-Free Perovskite Nanocrystals for Light-Emitting Devices,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 9(7), 1573–1583 (2018).
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Y. Nagaoka, K. Hills-Kimball, R. Tan, R. Li, Z. Wang, and O. Chen, “Nanocube Superlattices of Cesium Lead Bromide Perovskites and Pressure-Induced Phase Transformations at Atomic and Mesoscale Levels,” Adv. Mater. 29(18), 1606666 (2017).
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M. He, Y. Cheng, R. Yuan, L. Zhou, J. Jiang, T. Xu, W. Chen, Z. Liu, W. Xiang, and X. Liang, “Mn-Doped cesium lead halide perovskite nanocrystals with dual-color emission for WLED,” Dyes Pigm. 152, 146–154 (2018).
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X. Li, J. D. Budai, F. Liu, J. Y. Howe, J. Zhang, X.-J. Wang, Z. Gu, C. Sun, R. S. Meltzer, and Z. Pan, “New yellow Ba0.93Eu0.07Al2O4 phosphor for warm-white light-emitting diodes through single-emitting-center conversion,” Light: Sci. Appl. 2(1), e50 (2013).
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Z. Guo, K. Liu, L. Zheng, T.-M. Shih, Y. Lu, T. Wu, Y. Lin, Y. Zhang, J. Zheng, and J. Chen, “Investigation on three-hump phosphor-coated white light-emitting diodes for healthy lighting by genetic algorithm,” IEEE Photonics J. 11(1), 1–10 (2019).
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J. Zheng, S. Wu, G. Chen, S. Dang, Y. Zhuang, Z. Guo, Y. Lu, Q. Cheng, and C. Chen, “Blue-emitting Ca5(PO4)3Cl:Eu2+ phosphor for near-UV pumped light emitting diodes: Electronic structures, luminescence properties and LED fabrications,” J. Alloys Compd. 663, 332–339 (2016).
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F. Palazon, F. Di Stasio, Q. A. Akkerman, R. Krahne, M. Prato, and L. Manna, “Polymer-Free Films of Inorganic Halide Perovskite Nanocrystals as UV-to-White Color-Conversion Layers in LEDs,” Chem. Mater. 28(9), 2902–2906 (2016).
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W. Zhang, W. Yang, P. Zhong, S. Mei, G. Zhang, G. Chen, G. He, and R. Guo, “Spectral optimization of color temperature tunable white LEDs based on perovskite quantum dots for ultrahigh color rendition,” Opt. Mater. Express 7(9), 3065 (2017).
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Pan, Z.

X. Li, J. D. Budai, F. Liu, J. Y. Howe, J. Zhang, X.-J. Wang, Z. Gu, C. Sun, R. S. Meltzer, and Z. Pan, “New yellow Ba0.93Eu0.07Al2O4 phosphor for warm-white light-emitting diodes through single-emitting-center conversion,” Light: Sci. Appl. 2(1), e50 (2013).
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Phys. Status Solidi A (1)

T. Guner and M. M. Demir, “A Review on Halide Perovskites as Color Conversion Layers in White Light Emitting Diode Applications,” Phys. Status Solidi A 215(13), 1800120 (2018).
[Crossref]

Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells (2)

T. Zhou, M. Wang, Z. Zang, X. Tang, and L. Fang, “Two-dimensional lead-free hybrid halide perovskite using superatom anions with tunable electronic properties,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 191, 33–38 (2019).
[Crossref]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Photoluminescence spectra of blue-, green-, yellow-, and red-emitting organic metal halide perovskites excited by UV light (λ∼400 nm).
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. General CRI (Ra), and CCT of different combinations of blue, green, yellow, and red light. The background color represents the appearance of a blackbody at different temperatures.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. LER, CRI (Ra), and CCT of different combinations of blue, green, yellow, and red light. The color of points represents the color temperature.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. The spectral power distribution of white light with various CCT (2298 K-8270 K).
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Chromaticity coordinates of white light in the CIE 1931 chromaticity diagram.

Tables (2)

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Table 1. Color characteristics of selected LEDs with tunable CCT from warm white to cool white.

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Table 2. Color characteristics (R9-R15) of selected LEDs.

Equations (3)

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S C = r B × S B + r G × S G + r Y × S Y + r R × S R ,
r B = 0 : 0.1 : 1 , r G = 0 : 0.1 : 1 , r Y = 0 : 0.1 : 1 , r R = 0 : 0.1 : 1.
R a t i o s ( B : G : Y : R ) = ( r B × I B ) : ( r G × I G ) : ( r Y × I Y ) : ( r R × I R ) ,