Abstract

Ultrafast speed, large angle, and high resolution optical beam steering using widely tunable lasers combined with properly cascaded transmission gratings has been demonstrated. An efficacy of 0.26°/nm has been achieved in free space with three cascaded transmission gratings. Combined with angular magnification through a 4-f system, 28° sweeping angle has been demonstrated with a 34 nm wavelength tuning. Through fast wavelength tuning, ultra-fast beam steering (>10/s) has been achieved with an angular resolution of about 0.15° and a small beam divergence of below 0.06°.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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2018 (1)

2017 (1)

W. Akemann, C. Ventalon, J. Léger, B. Mathieu, S. Dieudonné, B. Blochet, S. Gigan, and L. Bourdieu, “Ultra-fast 3D scanning and holographic illumination in non-linear microscopy using acousto-optic deflectors,” Proc. SPIE 10251, 102510L (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (1)

2015 (1)

X. Shang, J. Tan, O. Willekens, J. Smet, P. Joshi, D. Cuypers, E. Islamaj, J. Beeckman, K. Neyts, M. Vervaeke, H. Thienpont, and H. Smet, “Electrically controllable liquid crystal component for efficient light steering,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(2), 1–13 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

2013 (2)

W. Guo, P. Binetti, C. Althouse, M. Masanovic, H. Ambrosius, L. Johansson, and L. Coldren, “Two-dimensional optical beam steering with InP-based photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(4), 6100212 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Mur, B. Kavčič, and I. Poberaj, “Fast and precise Laguerre–Gaussian beam steering with acousto-optic deflectors,” Appl. Opt. 52(26), 6506–6511 (2013).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

P. F. McManamon, P. J. Bos, M. J. Escuti, J. Heikenfeld, S. Serati, H. Xie, and E. A. Watson, “A review of phased array steering for narrow-band electrooptical systems,” Proc. IEEE 97(6), 1078–1096 (2009).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

S. Yin, J. H. Kim, F. Wu, P. Ruffin, and C. Luo, “Ultra-fast speed, low grating lobe optical beam steering using unequally spaced phased array technique,” Opt. Commun. 270(1), 41–46 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

K. Nakamura, J. Miyazu, M. Sasaura, and K. Fujiura, “Wide-angle, low-voltage electro-optic beam deflection based on space-charge-controlled mode of electrical conduction in KTa1-xNbxO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(13), 131115 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

S. Hisatake, K. Shibuya, and T. Kobayashi, “Ultrafast traveling-wave electro-optic deflector using domain-engineered LiTaO3 crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(8), 081101 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Lee, D. Kim, Y. Wu, C. Yu, S. Lee, and S. Wu, “High-speed infrared phase modulators using short helical pitch ferroelectric liquid crystals,” Opt. Express 13(20), 7732–7740 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

David C. Jones and Chris Stace, “Beam steering of a fiber-bundle laser output using phased array techniques,” Proc. SPIE 5335(1), 125–131 (2004).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

A. Wehr and U. Lohr, “Airborne laser scanning—an introduction and overview,” ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry & Remote Sensing. 54(2-3), 68–82 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

S.-C. Wooh and Y. Shi, “Influence of phased array element size on beam steering behavior,” Ultrasonics 36(6), 737–749 (1998).
[Crossref]

1982 (1)

1960 (1)

H. Unz, “Linear arrays with arbitrarily distributed elements,” IRE Trans. Antennas Propag. 8(2), 222–223 (1960).
[Crossref]

Akemann, W.

W. Akemann, C. Ventalon, J. Léger, B. Mathieu, S. Dieudonné, B. Blochet, S. Gigan, and L. Bourdieu, “Ultra-fast 3D scanning and holographic illumination in non-linear microscopy using acousto-optic deflectors,” Proc. SPIE 10251, 102510L (2017).
[Crossref]

Althouse, C.

W. Guo, P. Binetti, C. Althouse, M. Masanovic, H. Ambrosius, L. Johansson, and L. Coldren, “Two-dimensional optical beam steering with InP-based photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(4), 6100212 (2013).
[Crossref]

W. Guo, P. Binetti, C. Althouse, H. Ambrosius, L. Johansson, and L. Coldren, “InP photonic integrated circuit with on-chip monitors for optical beam steering,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Semiconductor Laser Conference (IEEE, 2012), pp. 16–17.

Ambrosius, H.

W. Guo, P. Binetti, C. Althouse, M. Masanovic, H. Ambrosius, L. Johansson, and L. Coldren, “Two-dimensional optical beam steering with InP-based photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(4), 6100212 (2013).
[Crossref]

W. Guo, P. Binetti, C. Althouse, H. Ambrosius, L. Johansson, and L. Coldren, “InP photonic integrated circuit with on-chip monitors for optical beam steering,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Semiconductor Laser Conference (IEEE, 2012), pp. 16–17.

Beeckman, J.

X. Shang, J. Tan, O. Willekens, J. Smet, P. Joshi, D. Cuypers, E. Islamaj, J. Beeckman, K. Neyts, M. Vervaeke, H. Thienpont, and H. Smet, “Electrically controllable liquid crystal component for efficient light steering,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(2), 1–13 (2015).
[Crossref]

Belland, P.

Binetti, P.

W. Guo, P. Binetti, C. Althouse, M. Masanovic, H. Ambrosius, L. Johansson, and L. Coldren, “Two-dimensional optical beam steering with InP-based photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(4), 6100212 (2013).
[Crossref]

W. Guo, P. Binetti, C. Althouse, H. Ambrosius, L. Johansson, and L. Coldren, “InP photonic integrated circuit with on-chip monitors for optical beam steering,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Semiconductor Laser Conference (IEEE, 2012), pp. 16–17.

Blochet, B.

W. Akemann, C. Ventalon, J. Léger, B. Mathieu, S. Dieudonné, B. Blochet, S. Gigan, and L. Bourdieu, “Ultra-fast 3D scanning and holographic illumination in non-linear microscopy using acousto-optic deflectors,” Proc. SPIE 10251, 102510L (2017).
[Crossref]

Bos, P. J.

P. F. McManamon, P. J. Bos, M. J. Escuti, J. Heikenfeld, S. Serati, H. Xie, and E. A. Watson, “A review of phased array steering for narrow-band electrooptical systems,” Proc. IEEE 97(6), 1078–1096 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bourdieu, L.

W. Akemann, C. Ventalon, J. Léger, B. Mathieu, S. Dieudonné, B. Blochet, S. Gigan, and L. Bourdieu, “Ultra-fast 3D scanning and holographic illumination in non-linear microscopy using acousto-optic deflectors,” Proc. SPIE 10251, 102510L (2017).
[Crossref]

Coldren, L.

W. Guo, P. Binetti, C. Althouse, M. Masanovic, H. Ambrosius, L. Johansson, and L. Coldren, “Two-dimensional optical beam steering with InP-based photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(4), 6100212 (2013).
[Crossref]

W. Guo, P. Binetti, C. Althouse, H. Ambrosius, L. Johansson, and L. Coldren, “InP photonic integrated circuit with on-chip monitors for optical beam steering,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Semiconductor Laser Conference (IEEE, 2012), pp. 16–17.

Coolbaugh, D.

Crenn, J. P.

Cua, M.

Cuypers, D.

X. Shang, J. Tan, O. Willekens, J. Smet, P. Joshi, D. Cuypers, E. Islamaj, J. Beeckman, K. Neyts, M. Vervaeke, H. Thienpont, and H. Smet, “Electrically controllable liquid crystal component for efficient light steering,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(2), 1–13 (2015).
[Crossref]

Dieudonné, S.

W. Akemann, C. Ventalon, J. Léger, B. Mathieu, S. Dieudonné, B. Blochet, S. Gigan, and L. Bourdieu, “Ultra-fast 3D scanning and holographic illumination in non-linear microscopy using acousto-optic deflectors,” Proc. SPIE 10251, 102510L (2017).
[Crossref]

Doylend, J. K.

Escuti, M. J.

P. F. McManamon, P. J. Bos, M. J. Escuti, J. Heikenfeld, S. Serati, H. Xie, and E. A. Watson, “A review of phased array steering for narrow-band electrooptical systems,” Proc. IEEE 97(6), 1078–1096 (2009).
[Crossref]

Faraon, A.

Feshali, A.

Fujiura, K.

K. Nakamura, J. Miyazu, M. Sasaura, and K. Fujiura, “Wide-angle, low-voltage electro-optic beam deflection based on space-charge-controlled mode of electrical conduction in KTa1-xNbxO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(13), 131115 (2006).
[Crossref]

Gigan, S.

W. Akemann, C. Ventalon, J. Léger, B. Mathieu, S. Dieudonné, B. Blochet, S. Gigan, and L. Bourdieu, “Ultra-fast 3D scanning and holographic illumination in non-linear microscopy using acousto-optic deflectors,” Proc. SPIE 10251, 102510L (2017).
[Crossref]

Guo, W.

W. Guo, P. Binetti, C. Althouse, M. Masanovic, H. Ambrosius, L. Johansson, and L. Coldren, “Two-dimensional optical beam steering with InP-based photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(4), 6100212 (2013).
[Crossref]

W. Guo, P. Binetti, C. Althouse, H. Ambrosius, L. Johansson, and L. Coldren, “InP photonic integrated circuit with on-chip monitors for optical beam steering,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Semiconductor Laser Conference (IEEE, 2012), pp. 16–17.

Heck, J.

Heikenfeld, J.

P. F. McManamon, P. J. Bos, M. J. Escuti, J. Heikenfeld, S. Serati, H. Xie, and E. A. Watson, “A review of phased array steering for narrow-band electrooptical systems,” Proc. IEEE 97(6), 1078–1096 (2009).
[Crossref]

Hisatake, S.

S. Hisatake, K. Shibuya, and T. Kobayashi, “Ultrafast traveling-wave electro-optic deflector using domain-engineered LiTaO3 crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(8), 081101 (2005).
[Crossref]

Horie, Y.

Hutchison, D. N.

Islamaj, E.

X. Shang, J. Tan, O. Willekens, J. Smet, P. Joshi, D. Cuypers, E. Islamaj, J. Beeckman, K. Neyts, M. Vervaeke, H. Thienpont, and H. Smet, “Electrically controllable liquid crystal component for efficient light steering,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(2), 1–13 (2015).
[Crossref]

Johansson, L.

W. Guo, P. Binetti, C. Althouse, M. Masanovic, H. Ambrosius, L. Johansson, and L. Coldren, “Two-dimensional optical beam steering with InP-based photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(4), 6100212 (2013).
[Crossref]

W. Guo, P. Binetti, C. Althouse, H. Ambrosius, L. Johansson, and L. Coldren, “InP photonic integrated circuit with on-chip monitors for optical beam steering,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Semiconductor Laser Conference (IEEE, 2012), pp. 16–17.

Jones, David C.

David C. Jones and Chris Stace, “Beam steering of a fiber-bundle laser output using phased array techniques,” Proc. SPIE 5335(1), 125–131 (2004).
[Crossref]

Joshi, P.

X. Shang, J. Tan, O. Willekens, J. Smet, P. Joshi, D. Cuypers, E. Islamaj, J. Beeckman, K. Neyts, M. Vervaeke, H. Thienpont, and H. Smet, “Electrically controllable liquid crystal component for efficient light steering,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(2), 1–13 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kavcic, B.

Kim, D.

Kim, J. H.

S. Yin, J. H. Kim, F. Wu, P. Ruffin, and C. Luo, “Ultra-fast speed, low grating lobe optical beam steering using unequally spaced phased array technique,” Opt. Commun. 270(1), 41–46 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kim, W.

Kobayashi, T.

S. Hisatake, K. Shibuya, and T. Kobayashi, “Ultrafast traveling-wave electro-optic deflector using domain-engineered LiTaO3 crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(8), 081101 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kumar, R.

Leake, G.

Lee, J.

Lee, S.

Léger, J.

W. Akemann, C. Ventalon, J. Léger, B. Mathieu, S. Dieudonné, B. Blochet, S. Gigan, and L. Bourdieu, “Ultra-fast 3D scanning and holographic illumination in non-linear microscopy using acousto-optic deflectors,” Proc. SPIE 10251, 102510L (2017).
[Crossref]

Lohr, U.

A. Wehr and U. Lohr, “Airborne laser scanning—an introduction and overview,” ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry & Remote Sensing. 54(2-3), 68–82 (1999).
[Crossref]

Luo, C.

S. Yin, J. H. Kim, F. Wu, P. Ruffin, and C. Luo, “Ultra-fast speed, low grating lobe optical beam steering using unequally spaced phased array technique,” Opt. Commun. 270(1), 41–46 (2007).
[Crossref]

Masanovic, M.

W. Guo, P. Binetti, C. Althouse, M. Masanovic, H. Ambrosius, L. Johansson, and L. Coldren, “Two-dimensional optical beam steering with InP-based photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(4), 6100212 (2013).
[Crossref]

Mathieu, B.

W. Akemann, C. Ventalon, J. Léger, B. Mathieu, S. Dieudonné, B. Blochet, S. Gigan, and L. Bourdieu, “Ultra-fast 3D scanning and holographic illumination in non-linear microscopy using acousto-optic deflectors,” Proc. SPIE 10251, 102510L (2017).
[Crossref]

McManamon, P. F.

P. F. McManamon, P. J. Bos, M. J. Escuti, J. Heikenfeld, S. Serati, H. Xie, and E. A. Watson, “A review of phased array steering for narrow-band electrooptical systems,” Proc. IEEE 97(6), 1078–1096 (2009).
[Crossref]

Miyazu, J.

K. Nakamura, J. Miyazu, M. Sasaura, and K. Fujiura, “Wide-angle, low-voltage electro-optic beam deflection based on space-charge-controlled mode of electrical conduction in KTa1-xNbxO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(13), 131115 (2006).
[Crossref]

Moresco, M.

Mur, J.

Nakamura, K.

K. Nakamura, J. Miyazu, M. Sasaura, and K. Fujiura, “Wide-angle, low-voltage electro-optic beam deflection based on space-charge-controlled mode of electrical conduction in KTa1-xNbxO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(13), 131115 (2006).
[Crossref]

Neyts, K.

X. Shang, J. Tan, O. Willekens, J. Smet, P. Joshi, D. Cuypers, E. Islamaj, J. Beeckman, K. Neyts, M. Vervaeke, H. Thienpont, and H. Smet, “Electrically controllable liquid crystal component for efficient light steering,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(2), 1–13 (2015).
[Crossref]

Phare, C. T.

Poberaj, I.

Rong, H.

Ruffin, P.

S. Yin, J. H. Kim, F. Wu, P. Ruffin, and C. Luo, “Ultra-fast speed, low grating lobe optical beam steering using unequally spaced phased array technique,” Opt. Commun. 270(1), 41–46 (2007).
[Crossref]

Sasaura, M.

K. Nakamura, J. Miyazu, M. Sasaura, and K. Fujiura, “Wide-angle, low-voltage electro-optic beam deflection based on space-charge-controlled mode of electrical conduction in KTa1-xNbxO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(13), 131115 (2006).
[Crossref]

Serati, S.

P. F. McManamon, P. J. Bos, M. J. Escuti, J. Heikenfeld, S. Serati, H. Xie, and E. A. Watson, “A review of phased array steering for narrow-band electrooptical systems,” Proc. IEEE 97(6), 1078–1096 (2009).
[Crossref]

Shang, X.

X. Shang, J. Tan, O. Willekens, J. Smet, P. Joshi, D. Cuypers, E. Islamaj, J. Beeckman, K. Neyts, M. Vervaeke, H. Thienpont, and H. Smet, “Electrically controllable liquid crystal component for efficient light steering,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(2), 1–13 (2015).
[Crossref]

Shi, Y.

S.-C. Wooh and Y. Shi, “Influence of phased array element size on beam steering behavior,” Ultrasonics 36(6), 737–749 (1998).
[Crossref]

Shibuya, K.

S. Hisatake, K. Shibuya, and T. Kobayashi, “Ultrafast traveling-wave electro-optic deflector using domain-engineered LiTaO3 crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(8), 081101 (2005).
[Crossref]

Singh, S.

J. Zhang and S. Singh, “Visual-lidar odometry and mapping: low-drift, robust, and fast,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Robotics and Automation (IEEE, 2015), pp. 2174–2181.

Smet, H.

X. Shang, J. Tan, O. Willekens, J. Smet, P. Joshi, D. Cuypers, E. Islamaj, J. Beeckman, K. Neyts, M. Vervaeke, H. Thienpont, and H. Smet, “Electrically controllable liquid crystal component for efficient light steering,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(2), 1–13 (2015).
[Crossref]

Smet, J.

X. Shang, J. Tan, O. Willekens, J. Smet, P. Joshi, D. Cuypers, E. Islamaj, J. Beeckman, K. Neyts, M. Vervaeke, H. Thienpont, and H. Smet, “Electrically controllable liquid crystal component for efficient light steering,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(2), 1–13 (2015).
[Crossref]

Stace, Chris

David C. Jones and Chris Stace, “Beam steering of a fiber-bundle laser output using phased array techniques,” Proc. SPIE 5335(1), 125–131 (2004).
[Crossref]

Sun, J.

Tan, J.

X. Shang, J. Tan, O. Willekens, J. Smet, P. Joshi, D. Cuypers, E. Islamaj, J. Beeckman, K. Neyts, M. Vervaeke, H. Thienpont, and H. Smet, “Electrically controllable liquid crystal component for efficient light steering,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(2), 1–13 (2015).
[Crossref]

Thienpont, H.

X. Shang, J. Tan, O. Willekens, J. Smet, P. Joshi, D. Cuypers, E. Islamaj, J. Beeckman, K. Neyts, M. Vervaeke, H. Thienpont, and H. Smet, “Electrically controllable liquid crystal component for efficient light steering,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(2), 1–13 (2015).
[Crossref]

Unz, H.

H. Unz, “Linear arrays with arbitrarily distributed elements,” IRE Trans. Antennas Propag. 8(2), 222–223 (1960).
[Crossref]

Ventalon, C.

W. Akemann, C. Ventalon, J. Léger, B. Mathieu, S. Dieudonné, B. Blochet, S. Gigan, and L. Bourdieu, “Ultra-fast 3D scanning and holographic illumination in non-linear microscopy using acousto-optic deflectors,” Proc. SPIE 10251, 102510L (2017).
[Crossref]

Vervaeke, M.

X. Shang, J. Tan, O. Willekens, J. Smet, P. Joshi, D. Cuypers, E. Islamaj, J. Beeckman, K. Neyts, M. Vervaeke, H. Thienpont, and H. Smet, “Electrically controllable liquid crystal component for efficient light steering,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(2), 1–13 (2015).
[Crossref]

Watson, E. A.

P. F. McManamon, P. J. Bos, M. J. Escuti, J. Heikenfeld, S. Serati, H. Xie, and E. A. Watson, “A review of phased array steering for narrow-band electrooptical systems,” Proc. IEEE 97(6), 1078–1096 (2009).
[Crossref]

Watts, M. R.

Wehr, A.

A. Wehr and U. Lohr, “Airborne laser scanning—an introduction and overview,” ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry & Remote Sensing. 54(2-3), 68–82 (1999).
[Crossref]

Willekens, O.

X. Shang, J. Tan, O. Willekens, J. Smet, P. Joshi, D. Cuypers, E. Islamaj, J. Beeckman, K. Neyts, M. Vervaeke, H. Thienpont, and H. Smet, “Electrically controllable liquid crystal component for efficient light steering,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(2), 1–13 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wooh, S.-C.

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S. Yin, J. H. Kim, F. Wu, P. Ruffin, and C. Luo, “Ultra-fast speed, low grating lobe optical beam steering using unequally spaced phased array technique,” Opt. Commun. 270(1), 41–46 (2007).
[Crossref]

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P. F. McManamon, P. J. Bos, M. J. Escuti, J. Heikenfeld, S. Serati, H. Xie, and E. A. Watson, “A review of phased array steering for narrow-band electrooptical systems,” Proc. IEEE 97(6), 1078–1096 (2009).
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https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Active_electronically_scanned_array .

HDL- 64E in Velodyne Website, http://velodynelidar.com/lidar/hdlproducts/hdl64e.aspx .

J. Zhang and S. Singh, “Visual-lidar odometry and mapping: low-drift, robust, and fast,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Robotics and Automation (IEEE, 2015), pp. 2174–2181.

W. Guo, P. Binetti, C. Althouse, H. Ambrosius, L. Johansson, and L. Coldren, “InP photonic integrated circuit with on-chip monitors for optical beam steering,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Semiconductor Laser Conference (IEEE, 2012), pp. 16–17.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. The structure of beam steering device.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. The structure of an angle amplifier.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. The SG-DBR tunable laser output spectra ranging from 1529 nm to 1563 nm with 1 nm step.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Steering angle in the longitudinal direction versus wavelength without and with the angle amplifier.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. (a) Laser output spectra for two wavelengths and for fast switching between them; (b) Oscilloscope trace from two photodetectors located at positions corresponding to the two steering directions.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Laser output spectra ranging from 1544 nm to 1546 nm with a step of 0.2 nm and the beam steering angle in the longitudinal direction versus wavelength.

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

d×(sinθi+sinθm)=m×λ
ψ=dθ1dλ=1d×cosθ1
ω1ωi=cosθ1cosθi
φλπω
Γ=φ1φi=ωiω1=cosθicosθ1
ψ=dθdλ1d×cosθ11×1d×cosθ12×1d×cosθ1k
Γ=ωi1ω11×ωi2ω12×ωikω1k=cosθi1cosθ11×cosθi2cosθ12×cosθikcosθ1k