Abstract

Diffractive membrane optics has been expected to meet the requirement of large aperture space-based telescopes. However, the flexible membrane has different properties from traditional materials that the desired geometrical form is hardly obtained by current ultra-precision surface manufacturing technologies. A 400 mm aperture membrane substrate was figure-corrected by reactive ion etching from the initial figure error of 105 nm rms to the final figure error of ∼17 nm rms in total effective figuring time of ∼7.5 minutes. The RIE figuring technique with high position accuracy, nanometer level repeatability, and parallel removal manner has exhibited huge potential in figure correction.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]

2012 (1)

P. D. Atcheson, C. Stewart, J. L. Domber, K. Whiteaker, J. Cole, P. Spuhler, A. Seltzer, J. A. Britten, S. N. Dixit, B. Farmer, and L. Smith, “MOIRE: initial demonstration of a transmissive diffractive membrane optic for large lightweight optical telescopes,” Proc. SPIE 8442, 844221 (2012).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

H. P. Stahl, K. Stephens, T. Henrichs, C. Smart, and F. A. Prince, “Single-variable parametric cost models for space telescopes,” Opt. Eng. 49(7), 073006 (2010).
[Crossref]

P. Shore, C. Cunningham, D. Debra, C. Evans, J. Hough, R. Gilmozzi, H. Kunzmann, P. Morantz, and X. Tonnellier, “Precision engineering for astronomy and gravity science,” CIRP Ann. 59(2), 694–716 (2010).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

H. Abe, M. Yoneda, and N. Fujiwara, “Developments of plasma etching technology for fabricating semiconductor devices,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(3), 1435–1455 (2008).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

1989 (1)

S. R. Wilson, D. W. Reicher, and J. R. McNeil, “Surface figuring using neutral ion beams,” Proc. SPIE 0966, 74–81 (1989).
[Crossref]

1971 (1)

Abe, H.

H. Abe, M. Yoneda, and N. Fujiwara, “Developments of plasma etching technology for fabricating semiconductor devices,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(3), 1435–1455 (2008).
[Crossref]

Atcheson, P. D.

P. D. Atcheson, C. Stewart, J. L. Domber, K. Whiteaker, J. Cole, P. Spuhler, A. Seltzer, J. A. Britten, S. N. Dixit, B. Farmer, and L. Smith, “MOIRE: initial demonstration of a transmissive diffractive membrane optic for large lightweight optical telescopes,” Proc. SPIE 8442, 844221 (2012).
[Crossref]

W. D. Tandy, P. D. Atcheson, J. L. Domber, and A. Seltzer, “MOIRE Gossamer Space Telescope—structural challenges and solutions,” in 53rd AIAA/ASME/ASCE/AHS/ASC Structures, Structural Dynamics, and Materials Conference (2012).

Britten, J. A.

P. D. Atcheson, C. Stewart, J. L. Domber, K. Whiteaker, J. Cole, P. Spuhler, A. Seltzer, J. A. Britten, S. N. Dixit, B. Farmer, and L. Smith, “MOIRE: initial demonstration of a transmissive diffractive membrane optic for large lightweight optical telescopes,” Proc. SPIE 8442, 844221 (2012).
[Crossref]

Cole, J.

P. D. Atcheson, C. Stewart, J. L. Domber, K. Whiteaker, J. Cole, P. Spuhler, A. Seltzer, J. A. Britten, S. N. Dixit, B. Farmer, and L. Smith, “MOIRE: initial demonstration of a transmissive diffractive membrane optic for large lightweight optical telescopes,” Proc. SPIE 8442, 844221 (2012).
[Crossref]

Cunningham, C.

P. Shore, C. Cunningham, D. Debra, C. Evans, J. Hough, R. Gilmozzi, H. Kunzmann, P. Morantz, and X. Tonnellier, “Precision engineering for astronomy and gravity science,” CIRP Ann. 59(2), 694–716 (2010).
[Crossref]

Debra, D.

P. Shore, C. Cunningham, D. Debra, C. Evans, J. Hough, R. Gilmozzi, H. Kunzmann, P. Morantz, and X. Tonnellier, “Precision engineering for astronomy and gravity science,” CIRP Ann. 59(2), 694–716 (2010).
[Crossref]

Dieselman, H. D.

Dixit, S. N.

P. D. Atcheson, C. Stewart, J. L. Domber, K. Whiteaker, J. Cole, P. Spuhler, A. Seltzer, J. A. Britten, S. N. Dixit, B. Farmer, and L. Smith, “MOIRE: initial demonstration of a transmissive diffractive membrane optic for large lightweight optical telescopes,” Proc. SPIE 8442, 844221 (2012).
[Crossref]

Domber, J. L.

P. D. Atcheson, C. Stewart, J. L. Domber, K. Whiteaker, J. Cole, P. Spuhler, A. Seltzer, J. A. Britten, S. N. Dixit, B. Farmer, and L. Smith, “MOIRE: initial demonstration of a transmissive diffractive membrane optic for large lightweight optical telescopes,” Proc. SPIE 8442, 844221 (2012).
[Crossref]

W. D. Tandy, P. D. Atcheson, J. L. Domber, and A. Seltzer, “MOIRE Gossamer Space Telescope—structural challenges and solutions,” in 53rd AIAA/ASME/ASCE/AHS/ASC Structures, Structural Dynamics, and Materials Conference (2012).

Douglass, J. W.

Evans, C.

P. Shore, C. Cunningham, D. Debra, C. Evans, J. Hough, R. Gilmozzi, H. Kunzmann, P. Morantz, and X. Tonnellier, “Precision engineering for astronomy and gravity science,” CIRP Ann. 59(2), 694–716 (2010).
[Crossref]

Farmer, B.

P. D. Atcheson, C. Stewart, J. L. Domber, K. Whiteaker, J. Cole, P. Spuhler, A. Seltzer, J. A. Britten, S. N. Dixit, B. Farmer, and L. Smith, “MOIRE: initial demonstration of a transmissive diffractive membrane optic for large lightweight optical telescopes,” Proc. SPIE 8442, 844221 (2012).
[Crossref]

Fujiwara, N.

H. Abe, M. Yoneda, and N. Fujiwara, “Developments of plasma etching technology for fabricating semiconductor devices,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(3), 1435–1455 (2008).
[Crossref]

Gilmozzi, R.

P. Shore, C. Cunningham, D. Debra, C. Evans, J. Hough, R. Gilmozzi, H. Kunzmann, P. Morantz, and X. Tonnellier, “Precision engineering for astronomy and gravity science,” CIRP Ann. 59(2), 694–716 (2010).
[Crossref]

Henrichs, T.

H. P. Stahl, K. Stephens, T. Henrichs, C. Smart, and F. A. Prince, “Single-variable parametric cost models for space telescopes,” Opt. Eng. 49(7), 073006 (2010).
[Crossref]

Hough, J.

P. Shore, C. Cunningham, D. Debra, C. Evans, J. Hough, R. Gilmozzi, H. Kunzmann, P. Morantz, and X. Tonnellier, “Precision engineering for astronomy and gravity science,” CIRP Ann. 59(2), 694–716 (2010).
[Crossref]

Hyde, R. A.

Kunzmann, H.

P. Shore, C. Cunningham, D. Debra, C. Evans, J. Hough, R. Gilmozzi, H. Kunzmann, P. Morantz, and X. Tonnellier, “Precision engineering for astronomy and gravity science,” CIRP Ann. 59(2), 694–716 (2010).
[Crossref]

McNeil, J. R.

S. R. Wilson, D. W. Reicher, and J. R. McNeil, “Surface figuring using neutral ion beams,” Proc. SPIE 0966, 74–81 (1989).
[Crossref]

Morantz, P.

P. Shore, C. Cunningham, D. Debra, C. Evans, J. Hough, R. Gilmozzi, H. Kunzmann, P. Morantz, and X. Tonnellier, “Precision engineering for astronomy and gravity science,” CIRP Ann. 59(2), 694–716 (2010).
[Crossref]

Prince, F. A.

H. P. Stahl, K. Stephens, T. Henrichs, C. Smart, and F. A. Prince, “Single-variable parametric cost models for space telescopes,” Opt. Eng. 49(7), 073006 (2010).
[Crossref]

Reicher, D. W.

S. R. Wilson, D. W. Reicher, and J. R. McNeil, “Surface figuring using neutral ion beams,” Proc. SPIE 0966, 74–81 (1989).
[Crossref]

Schroeder, J. B.

Seltzer, A.

P. D. Atcheson, C. Stewart, J. L. Domber, K. Whiteaker, J. Cole, P. Spuhler, A. Seltzer, J. A. Britten, S. N. Dixit, B. Farmer, and L. Smith, “MOIRE: initial demonstration of a transmissive diffractive membrane optic for large lightweight optical telescopes,” Proc. SPIE 8442, 844221 (2012).
[Crossref]

W. D. Tandy, P. D. Atcheson, J. L. Domber, and A. Seltzer, “MOIRE Gossamer Space Telescope—structural challenges and solutions,” in 53rd AIAA/ASME/ASCE/AHS/ASC Structures, Structural Dynamics, and Materials Conference (2012).

Shore, P.

P. Shore, C. Cunningham, D. Debra, C. Evans, J. Hough, R. Gilmozzi, H. Kunzmann, P. Morantz, and X. Tonnellier, “Precision engineering for astronomy and gravity science,” CIRP Ann. 59(2), 694–716 (2010).
[Crossref]

Smart, C.

H. P. Stahl, K. Stephens, T. Henrichs, C. Smart, and F. A. Prince, “Single-variable parametric cost models for space telescopes,” Opt. Eng. 49(7), 073006 (2010).
[Crossref]

Smith, L.

P. D. Atcheson, C. Stewart, J. L. Domber, K. Whiteaker, J. Cole, P. Spuhler, A. Seltzer, J. A. Britten, S. N. Dixit, B. Farmer, and L. Smith, “MOIRE: initial demonstration of a transmissive diffractive membrane optic for large lightweight optical telescopes,” Proc. SPIE 8442, 844221 (2012).
[Crossref]

Spuhler, P.

P. D. Atcheson, C. Stewart, J. L. Domber, K. Whiteaker, J. Cole, P. Spuhler, A. Seltzer, J. A. Britten, S. N. Dixit, B. Farmer, and L. Smith, “MOIRE: initial demonstration of a transmissive diffractive membrane optic for large lightweight optical telescopes,” Proc. SPIE 8442, 844221 (2012).
[Crossref]

Stahl, H. P.

H. P. Stahl, K. Stephens, T. Henrichs, C. Smart, and F. A. Prince, “Single-variable parametric cost models for space telescopes,” Opt. Eng. 49(7), 073006 (2010).
[Crossref]

Stephens, K.

H. P. Stahl, K. Stephens, T. Henrichs, C. Smart, and F. A. Prince, “Single-variable parametric cost models for space telescopes,” Opt. Eng. 49(7), 073006 (2010).
[Crossref]

Stewart, C.

P. D. Atcheson, C. Stewart, J. L. Domber, K. Whiteaker, J. Cole, P. Spuhler, A. Seltzer, J. A. Britten, S. N. Dixit, B. Farmer, and L. Smith, “MOIRE: initial demonstration of a transmissive diffractive membrane optic for large lightweight optical telescopes,” Proc. SPIE 8442, 844221 (2012).
[Crossref]

Tandy, W. D.

W. D. Tandy, P. D. Atcheson, J. L. Domber, and A. Seltzer, “MOIRE Gossamer Space Telescope—structural challenges and solutions,” in 53rd AIAA/ASME/ASCE/AHS/ASC Structures, Structural Dynamics, and Materials Conference (2012).

Tonnellier, X.

P. Shore, C. Cunningham, D. Debra, C. Evans, J. Hough, R. Gilmozzi, H. Kunzmann, P. Morantz, and X. Tonnellier, “Precision engineering for astronomy and gravity science,” CIRP Ann. 59(2), 694–716 (2010).
[Crossref]

Whiteaker, K.

P. D. Atcheson, C. Stewart, J. L. Domber, K. Whiteaker, J. Cole, P. Spuhler, A. Seltzer, J. A. Britten, S. N. Dixit, B. Farmer, and L. Smith, “MOIRE: initial demonstration of a transmissive diffractive membrane optic for large lightweight optical telescopes,” Proc. SPIE 8442, 844221 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wilson, S. R.

S. R. Wilson, D. W. Reicher, and J. R. McNeil, “Surface figuring using neutral ion beams,” Proc. SPIE 0966, 74–81 (1989).
[Crossref]

Yoneda, M.

H. Abe, M. Yoneda, and N. Fujiwara, “Developments of plasma etching technology for fabricating semiconductor devices,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(3), 1435–1455 (2008).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (2)

CIRP Ann. (1)

P. Shore, C. Cunningham, D. Debra, C. Evans, J. Hough, R. Gilmozzi, H. Kunzmann, P. Morantz, and X. Tonnellier, “Precision engineering for astronomy and gravity science,” CIRP Ann. 59(2), 694–716 (2010).
[Crossref]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

H. Abe, M. Yoneda, and N. Fujiwara, “Developments of plasma etching technology for fabricating semiconductor devices,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(3), 1435–1455 (2008).
[Crossref]

Opt. Eng. (1)

H. P. Stahl, K. Stephens, T. Henrichs, C. Smart, and F. A. Prince, “Single-variable parametric cost models for space telescopes,” Opt. Eng. 49(7), 073006 (2010).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (2)

P. D. Atcheson, C. Stewart, J. L. Domber, K. Whiteaker, J. Cole, P. Spuhler, A. Seltzer, J. A. Britten, S. N. Dixit, B. Farmer, and L. Smith, “MOIRE: initial demonstration of a transmissive diffractive membrane optic for large lightweight optical telescopes,” Proc. SPIE 8442, 844221 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. R. Wilson, D. W. Reicher, and J. R. McNeil, “Surface figuring using neutral ion beams,” Proc. SPIE 0966, 74–81 (1989).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

W. D. Tandy, P. D. Atcheson, J. L. Domber, and A. Seltzer, “MOIRE Gossamer Space Telescope—structural challenges and solutions,” in 53rd AIAA/ASME/ASCE/AHS/ASC Structures, Structural Dynamics, and Materials Conference (2012).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Schematic of one loop in RIE figuring. (a) A membrane was mounted onto a frame; (b) The transmitted wave-front of the membrane substrate was measured; (c) A layer of photoresist was uniformly coated onto the surface of the membrane substrate; (d) the distribution of protected regions and removed regions was patterned onto a chrome mask; (e) UV exposure and developing were achieved; (f) The substrate was figure-corrected in a RIE reactor; (g) The transmitted wave-front of the membrane substrate was measured again.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. The transmitted wave-front of a 400 mm aperture membrane substrate (a) before and (b) after 15 RIE figuring iterations.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Results of the roughness investigation for the 400 mm aperture membrane substrate before and after RIE figuring. Typical surface topographies of the 400 mm aperture membrane in a 0.28 mm×0.28 mm area (a) before and (b) after RIE figuring; (c) Schematic of roughness investigation pattern; (d) Scatter diagram of roughness values for the 400 mm aperture membrane before and after RIE figuring.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Summary table of RIE figuring results