Abstract

We demonstrate the use of a flexible digital servo system for the optical stabilization of both the repetition rate and carrier-envelope offset frequency of a laser frequency comb. The servo system is based entirely on a low-cost field programmable gate array, simple electronic components, and existing open-source software. Utilizing both slow and fast feedback actuators of a commercial mode-locked laser frequency comb, we maintain cycle-slip free locking of optically-derived beatnotes over a 30 hour period and measure residual phase noise at or below ~0.1 rad, corresponding to <100 attosecond timing jitter on the optical phase locks. This stability is sufficient for high-precision frequency comb applications and indicates comparable performance to existing frequency control systems. The modularity of this system allows for it to be easily adapted to suit the servo actuators of a wide variety of laser frequency combs and continuous-wave lasers, reducing cost and complexity barriers, and enabling digital phase control in a wide range of settings.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

Full Article  |  PDF Article
OSA Recommended Articles
Full stabilization and characterization of an optical frequency comb from a diode-pumped solid-state laser with GHz repetition rate

Sargis Hakobyan, Valentin J. Wittwer, Pierre Brochard, Kutan Gürel, Stéphane Schilt, Aline S. Mayer, Ursula Keller, and Thomas Südmeyer
Opt. Express 25(17) 20437-20453 (2017)

Phase locking of a mode-locked titanium–sapphire laser-based optical frequency comb to a reference laser using a fast piezoelectric actuator

Shuhei Hatanaka, Kazuhiko Sugiyama, Masatoshi Mitaki, Masatoshi Misono, Sergey N. Slyusarev, and Masao Kitano
Appl. Opt. 56(12) 3615-3621 (2017)

Fully stabilized optical frequency comb with sub-radian CEO phase noise from a SESAM-modelocked 1.5-µm solid-state laser

Stephane Schilt, Nikola Bucalovic, Vladimir Dolgovskiy, Christian Schori, Max C. Stumpf, Gianni Di Domenico, Selina Pekarek, Andreas E. H. Oehler, Thomas Südmeyer, Ursula Keller, and Pierre Thomann
Opt. Express 19(24) 24171-24181 (2011)

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. J. L. Hall, “Nobel lecture: Defining and measuring optical frequencies,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78(4), 1279–1295 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  2. T. W. Hänsch, “Nobel lecture: Passion for precision,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78(4), 1297–1309 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  3. S. A. Diddams, “The evolving optical frequency comb,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27(11), B51–B62 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  4. C. Gohle, T. Udem, M. Herrmann, J. Rauschenberger, R. Holzwarth, H. A. Schuessler, F. Krausz, and T. W. Hänsch, “A frequency comb in the extreme ultraviolet,” Nature 436(7048), 234–237 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  5. A. Cingöz, D. C. Yost, T. K. Allison, A. Ruehl, M. E. Fermann, I. Hartl, and J. Ye, “Direct frequency comb spectroscopy in the extreme ultraviolet,” Nature 482(7383), 68–71 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  6. A. S. Kowligy, H. Timmers, A. J. Lind, U. Elu, F. C. Cruz, P. G. Schunemann, J. Biegert, and S. A. Diddams, “Infrared electric field sampled frequency comb spectroscopy,” Sci. Adv. 5(6), eaaw8794 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  7. H. Timmers, A. Kowligy, A. Lind, F. C. Cruz, N. Nader, M. Silfies, G. Ycas, T. K. Allison, P. G. Schunemann, S. B. Papp, and S. A. Diddams, “Molecular fingerprinting with bright, broadband infrared frequency combs,” Optica 5(6), 727–732 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  8. M. Kourogi, T. Enami, and M. Ohtsu, “A monolithic optical frequency comb generator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 6(2), 214–217 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  9. D. R. Carlson, D. D. Hickstein, W. Zhang, A. J. Metcalf, F. Quinlan, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “Ultrafast electro-optic light with subcycle control,” Science 361(6409), 1358–1363 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  10. T. J. Kippenberg, A. L. Gaeta, M. Lipson, and M. L. Gorodetsky, “Dissipative kerr solitons in optical microresonators,” Science 361(6402), eaan8083 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  11. T. J. Kippenberg, R. Holzwarth, and S. A. Diddams, “Microresonator-based optical frequency combs,” Science 332(6029), 555–559 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  12. P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator,” Nature 450(7173), 1214–1217 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  13. D. T. Spencer, T. Drake, T. C. Briles, J. Stone, L. C. Sinclair, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, A. Bluestone, N. Volet, T. Komljenovic, L. Chang, S. H. Lee, D. Y. Oh, M.-G. Suh, K. Y. Yang, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, T. J. Kippenberg, E. Norberg, L. Theogarajan, K. Vahala, N. R. Newbury, K. Srinivasan, J. E. Bowers, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “An optical-frequency synthesizer using integrated photonics,” Nature 557(7703), 81–85 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  14. Z. L. Newman, V. Maurice, T. Drake, J. R. Stone, T. C. Briles, D. T. Spencer, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, B. Shen, M.-G. Suh, K. Y. Yang, C. Johnson, D. M. S. Johnson, L. Hollberg, K. J. Vahala, K. Srinivasan, S. A. Diddams, J. Kitching, S. B. Papp, and M. T. Hummon, “Architecture for the photonic integration of an optical atomic clock,” Optica 6(5), 680–685 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  15. K. Predehl, G. Grosche, S. M. F. Raupach, S. Droste, O. Terra, J. Alnis, T. Legero, T. W. Hänsch, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and H. Schnatz, “A 920-kilometer optical fiber link for frequency metrology at the 19th decimal place,” Science 336(6080), 441–444 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  16. O. Lopez, A. Kanj, P.-E. Pottie, D. Rovera, J. Achkar, C. Chardonnet, A. Amy-Klein, and G. Santarelli, “Simultaneous remote transfer of accurate timing and optical frequency over a public fiber network,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 110(1), 3–6 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  17. F. R. Giorgetta, W. C. Swann, L. C. Sinclair, E. Baumann, I. Coddington, and N. R. Newbury, “Optical two-way time and frequency transfer over free space,” Nat. Photonics 7(6), 434–438 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  18. A. D. Ludlow, M. M. Boyd, J. Ye, E. Peik, and P. O. Schmidt, “Optical atomic clocks,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 87(2), 637–701 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  19. I. Coddington, N. Newbury, and W. Swann, “Dual-comb spectroscopy,” Optica 3(4), 414–426 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  20. N. Picqué and T. W. Hänsch, “Frequency comb spectroscopy,” Nat. Photonics 13(3), 146–157 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  21. A. Schliesser, M. Brehm, F. Keilmann, and D. W. van der Weide, “Frequency-comb infrared spectrometer for rapid, remote chemical sensing,” Opt. Express 13(22), 9029–9038 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  22. Z. Zhang, T. Gardiner, and D. T. Reid, “Mid-infrared dual-comb spectroscopy with an optical parametric oscillator,” Opt. Lett. 38(16), 3148–3150 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  23. K. Minoshima and H. Matsumoto, “High-accuracy measurement of 240-m distance in an optical tunnel by use of a compact femtosecond laser,” Appl. Opt. 39(30), 5512–5517 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  24. I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, L. Nenadovic, and N. R. Newbury, “Rapid and precise absolute distance measurements at long range,” Nat. Photonics 3(6), 351–356 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  25. T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, and T. Udem, “Laser frequency combs for astronomical observations,” Science 321(5894), 1335–1337 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  26. T. Wilken, G. L. Curto, R. A. Probst, T. Steinmetz, A. Manescau, L. Pasquini, J. I. González Hernández, R. Rebolo, T. W. Hänsch, T. Udem, and R. Holzwarth, “A spectrograph for exoplanet observations calibrated at the centimetre-per-second level,” Nature 485(7400), 611–614 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  27. A. J. Metcalf, T. Anderson, C. F. Bender, S. Blakeslee, W. Brand, D. R. Carlson, W. D. Cochran, S. A. Diddams, M. Endl, C. Fredrick, S. Halverson, D. D. Hickstein, F. Hearty, J. Jennings, S. Kanodia, K. F. Kaplan, E. Levi, E. Lubar, S. Mahadevan, A. Monson, J. P. Ninan, C. Nitroy, S. Osterman, S. B. Papp, F. Quinlan, L. Ramsey, P. Robertson, A. Roy, C. Schwab, S. Sigurdsson, K. Srinivasan, G. Stefansson, D. A. Sterner, R. Terrien, A. Wolszczan, J. T. Wright, and G. Ycas, “Stellar spectroscopy in the near-infrared with a laser frequency comb,” Optica 6(2), 233–239 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  28. J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. Hänsch, “Measuring the frequency of light with mode-locked lasers,” Opt. Commun. 172(1-6), 59–68 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  29. T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, “Optical frequency metrology,” Nature 416(6877), 233–237 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  30. J.-D. Deschênes, P. Giaccari, and J. Genest, “Optical referencing technique with cw lasers as intermediate oscillators for continuous full delay range frequency comb interferometry,” Opt. Express 18(22), 23358–23370 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  31. T. Ideguchi, A. Poisson, G. Guelachvili, N. Picqué, and T. W. Hänsch, “Adaptive real-time dual-comb spectroscopy,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 3375 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  32. G.-W. Truong, E. M. Waxman, K. C. Cossel, E. Baumann, A. Klose, F. R. Giorgetta, W. C. Swann, N. R. Newbury, and I. Coddington, “Accurate frequency referencing for fieldable dual-comb spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 24(26), 30495–30504 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  33. X. Zhao, G. Hu, B. Zhao, C. Li, Y. Pan, Y. Liu, T. Yasui, and Z. Zheng, “Picometer-resolution dual-comb spectroscopy with a free-running fiber laser,” Opt. Express 24(19), 21833–21845 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  34. D. R. Leibrandt and J. Heidecker, “An open source digital servo for atomic, molecular, and optical physics experiments,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 86(12), 123115 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  35. J.-D. Deschênes, Digital PLL code base, see https://github.com/jddes/Frequency-comb-DPLL .
  36. D. R. Leibrandt, M. J. Thorpe, J. C. Bergquist, and T. Rosenband, “Field-test of a robust, portable, frequency-stable laser,” Opt. Express 19(11), 10278–10286 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  37. L. C. Sinclair, J.-D. Deschênes, L. Sonderhouse, W. C. Swann, I. H. Khader, E. Baumann, N. R. Newbury, and I. Coddington, “Invited article: A compact optically coherent fiber frequency comb,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 86(8), 081301 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  38. M. Lezius, T. Wilken, C. Deutsch, M. Giunta, O. Mandel, A. Thaller, V. Schkolnik, M. Schiemangk, A. Dinkelaker, A. Kohfeldt, A. Wicht, M. Krutzik, A. Peters, O. Hellmig, H. Duncker, K. Sengstock, P. Windpassinger, K. Lampmann, T. Hülsing, T. W. Hänsch, and R. Holzwarth, “Space-borne frequency comb metrology,” Optica 3(12), 1381–1387 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  39. L. C. Sinclair, I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, G. B. Rieker, A. Hati, K. Iwakuni, and N. R. Newbury, “Operation of an optically coherent frequency comb outside the metrology lab,” Opt. Express 22(6), 6996–7006 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  40. L. D’Evelyn, L. Hollberg, and Z. B. Popovic, “A cpw phase-locked loop for diode-laser stabilization,” in 1994 IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium Digest (Cat. No.94CH3389-4), (1994), pp. 65–68 vol.1.
  41. L. Cacciapuoti, M. de Angelis, M. Fattori, G. Lamporesi, T. Petelski, M. Prevedelli, J. Stuhler, and G. M. Tino, “Analog+digital phase and frequency detector for phase locking of diode lasers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76(5), 053111 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  42. D. Herman, S. Droste, E. Baumann, J. Roslund, D. Churin, A. Cingoz, J.-D. Deschênes, I. H. Khader, W. C. Swann, C. Nelson, N. R. Newbury, and I. Coddington, “Femtosecond timekeeping: Slip-free clockwork for optical timescales,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 9(4), 044002 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  43. A. Bluestone, A. Jain, N. Volet, D. T. Spencer, S. B. Papp, S. A. Diddams, J. E. Bowers, and L. Theogarajan, “Heterodyne-based hybrid controller for wide dynamic range optoelectronic frequency synthesis,” Opt. Express 25(23), 29086–29097 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  44. Known suppliers of digital laser control systems include: AOSense Inc., IMRA America, Inc., Menlo Systems GmbH, TOPTICA Photonics AG, and Vescent Photonics, LLC. We recognize this may only be a partial list, and other companies or vendors may be able to provide equivalent digital control systems.
  45. Instrumentation Technologies, LLC, Red Pitaya, see https://www.redpitaya.com .
  46. A. Tourigny-Plante, V. Michaud-Belleau, N. Bourbeau Hébert, H. Bergeron, J. Genest, and J.-D. Deschênes, “An open and flexible digital phase-locked loop for optical metrology,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 89(9), 093103 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  47. M. A. Luda, M. Drechsler, C. T. Schmiegelow, and J. Codnia, “Compact embedded device for lock-in measurements and experiment active control,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 90(2), 023106 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  48. W. Hänsel, H. Hoogland, M. Giunta, S. Schmid, T. Steinmetz, R. Doubek, P. Mayer, S. Dobner, C. Cleff, M. Fischer, and R. Holzwarth, “All polarization-maintaining fiber laser architecture for robust femtosecond pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 123(1), 41 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  49. S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 thz femtosecond laser comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(22), 5102–5105 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  50. S. A. Diddams, T. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, “An optical clock based on a single trapped 199hg+ ion,” Science 293(5531), 825–828 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  51. B. R. Washburn, S. A. Diddams, N. R. Newbury, J. W. Nicholson, M. F. Yan, and C. G. Jørgensen, “Phase-locked, erbium-fiber-laser-based frequency comb in the near infrared,” Opt. Lett. 29(3), 250–252 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  52. Y. Nishida, H. Miyazawa, M. Asobe, O. Tadanaga, and H. Suzuki, “Direct-bonded qpm-ln ridge waveguide with high damage resistance at room temperature,” Electron. Lett. 39(7), 609–611 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  53. W. Hänsel, M. Giunta, M. Lezius, M. Fischer, and R. Holzwarth, “Electro-optic modulator for rapid control of the carrier-envelope offset frequency,” in 2017 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), (2017), pp. 1–2.

2019 (5)

A. S. Kowligy, H. Timmers, A. J. Lind, U. Elu, F. C. Cruz, P. G. Schunemann, J. Biegert, and S. A. Diddams, “Infrared electric field sampled frequency comb spectroscopy,” Sci. Adv. 5(6), eaaw8794 (2019).
[Crossref]

Z. L. Newman, V. Maurice, T. Drake, J. R. Stone, T. C. Briles, D. T. Spencer, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, B. Shen, M.-G. Suh, K. Y. Yang, C. Johnson, D. M. S. Johnson, L. Hollberg, K. J. Vahala, K. Srinivasan, S. A. Diddams, J. Kitching, S. B. Papp, and M. T. Hummon, “Architecture for the photonic integration of an optical atomic clock,” Optica 6(5), 680–685 (2019).
[Crossref]

N. Picqué and T. W. Hänsch, “Frequency comb spectroscopy,” Nat. Photonics 13(3), 146–157 (2019).
[Crossref]

A. J. Metcalf, T. Anderson, C. F. Bender, S. Blakeslee, W. Brand, D. R. Carlson, W. D. Cochran, S. A. Diddams, M. Endl, C. Fredrick, S. Halverson, D. D. Hickstein, F. Hearty, J. Jennings, S. Kanodia, K. F. Kaplan, E. Levi, E. Lubar, S. Mahadevan, A. Monson, J. P. Ninan, C. Nitroy, S. Osterman, S. B. Papp, F. Quinlan, L. Ramsey, P. Robertson, A. Roy, C. Schwab, S. Sigurdsson, K. Srinivasan, G. Stefansson, D. A. Sterner, R. Terrien, A. Wolszczan, J. T. Wright, and G. Ycas, “Stellar spectroscopy in the near-infrared with a laser frequency comb,” Optica 6(2), 233–239 (2019).
[Crossref]

M. A. Luda, M. Drechsler, C. T. Schmiegelow, and J. Codnia, “Compact embedded device for lock-in measurements and experiment active control,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 90(2), 023106 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (6)

D. Herman, S. Droste, E. Baumann, J. Roslund, D. Churin, A. Cingoz, J.-D. Deschênes, I. H. Khader, W. C. Swann, C. Nelson, N. R. Newbury, and I. Coddington, “Femtosecond timekeeping: Slip-free clockwork for optical timescales,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 9(4), 044002 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. Tourigny-Plante, V. Michaud-Belleau, N. Bourbeau Hébert, H. Bergeron, J. Genest, and J.-D. Deschênes, “An open and flexible digital phase-locked loop for optical metrology,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 89(9), 093103 (2018).
[Crossref]

H. Timmers, A. Kowligy, A. Lind, F. C. Cruz, N. Nader, M. Silfies, G. Ycas, T. K. Allison, P. G. Schunemann, S. B. Papp, and S. A. Diddams, “Molecular fingerprinting with bright, broadband infrared frequency combs,” Optica 5(6), 727–732 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. T. Spencer, T. Drake, T. C. Briles, J. Stone, L. C. Sinclair, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, A. Bluestone, N. Volet, T. Komljenovic, L. Chang, S. H. Lee, D. Y. Oh, M.-G. Suh, K. Y. Yang, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, T. J. Kippenberg, E. Norberg, L. Theogarajan, K. Vahala, N. R. Newbury, K. Srinivasan, J. E. Bowers, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “An optical-frequency synthesizer using integrated photonics,” Nature 557(7703), 81–85 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. R. Carlson, D. D. Hickstein, W. Zhang, A. J. Metcalf, F. Quinlan, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “Ultrafast electro-optic light with subcycle control,” Science 361(6409), 1358–1363 (2018).
[Crossref]

T. J. Kippenberg, A. L. Gaeta, M. Lipson, and M. L. Gorodetsky, “Dissipative kerr solitons in optical microresonators,” Science 361(6402), eaan8083 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (2)

A. Bluestone, A. Jain, N. Volet, D. T. Spencer, S. B. Papp, S. A. Diddams, J. E. Bowers, and L. Theogarajan, “Heterodyne-based hybrid controller for wide dynamic range optoelectronic frequency synthesis,” Opt. Express 25(23), 29086–29097 (2017).
[Crossref]

W. Hänsel, H. Hoogland, M. Giunta, S. Schmid, T. Steinmetz, R. Doubek, P. Mayer, S. Dobner, C. Cleff, M. Fischer, and R. Holzwarth, “All polarization-maintaining fiber laser architecture for robust femtosecond pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 123(1), 41 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (4)

2015 (3)

A. D. Ludlow, M. M. Boyd, J. Ye, E. Peik, and P. O. Schmidt, “Optical atomic clocks,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 87(2), 637–701 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. R. Leibrandt and J. Heidecker, “An open source digital servo for atomic, molecular, and optical physics experiments,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 86(12), 123115 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. C. Sinclair, J.-D. Deschênes, L. Sonderhouse, W. C. Swann, I. H. Khader, E. Baumann, N. R. Newbury, and I. Coddington, “Invited article: A compact optically coherent fiber frequency comb,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 86(8), 081301 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

2013 (3)

Z. Zhang, T. Gardiner, and D. T. Reid, “Mid-infrared dual-comb spectroscopy with an optical parametric oscillator,” Opt. Lett. 38(16), 3148–3150 (2013).
[Crossref]

O. Lopez, A. Kanj, P.-E. Pottie, D. Rovera, J. Achkar, C. Chardonnet, A. Amy-Klein, and G. Santarelli, “Simultaneous remote transfer of accurate timing and optical frequency over a public fiber network,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 110(1), 3–6 (2013).
[Crossref]

F. R. Giorgetta, W. C. Swann, L. C. Sinclair, E. Baumann, I. Coddington, and N. R. Newbury, “Optical two-way time and frequency transfer over free space,” Nat. Photonics 7(6), 434–438 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

K. Predehl, G. Grosche, S. M. F. Raupach, S. Droste, O. Terra, J. Alnis, T. Legero, T. W. Hänsch, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and H. Schnatz, “A 920-kilometer optical fiber link for frequency metrology at the 19th decimal place,” Science 336(6080), 441–444 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Cingöz, D. C. Yost, T. K. Allison, A. Ruehl, M. E. Fermann, I. Hartl, and J. Ye, “Direct frequency comb spectroscopy in the extreme ultraviolet,” Nature 482(7383), 68–71 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Wilken, G. L. Curto, R. A. Probst, T. Steinmetz, A. Manescau, L. Pasquini, J. I. González Hernández, R. Rebolo, T. W. Hänsch, T. Udem, and R. Holzwarth, “A spectrograph for exoplanet observations calibrated at the centimetre-per-second level,” Nature 485(7400), 611–614 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

D. R. Leibrandt, M. J. Thorpe, J. C. Bergquist, and T. Rosenband, “Field-test of a robust, portable, frequency-stable laser,” Opt. Express 19(11), 10278–10286 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. J. Kippenberg, R. Holzwarth, and S. A. Diddams, “Microresonator-based optical frequency combs,” Science 332(6029), 555–559 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

2009 (1)

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, L. Nenadovic, and N. R. Newbury, “Rapid and precise absolute distance measurements at long range,” Nat. Photonics 3(6), 351–356 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, and T. Udem, “Laser frequency combs for astronomical observations,” Science 321(5894), 1335–1337 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator,” Nature 450(7173), 1214–1217 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

J. L. Hall, “Nobel lecture: Defining and measuring optical frequencies,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78(4), 1279–1295 (2006).
[Crossref]

T. W. Hänsch, “Nobel lecture: Passion for precision,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78(4), 1297–1309 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (3)

C. Gohle, T. Udem, M. Herrmann, J. Rauschenberger, R. Holzwarth, H. A. Schuessler, F. Krausz, and T. W. Hänsch, “A frequency comb in the extreme ultraviolet,” Nature 436(7048), 234–237 (2005).
[Crossref]

A. Schliesser, M. Brehm, F. Keilmann, and D. W. van der Weide, “Frequency-comb infrared spectrometer for rapid, remote chemical sensing,” Opt. Express 13(22), 9029–9038 (2005).
[Crossref]

L. Cacciapuoti, M. de Angelis, M. Fattori, G. Lamporesi, T. Petelski, M. Prevedelli, J. Stuhler, and G. M. Tino, “Analog+digital phase and frequency detector for phase locking of diode lasers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76(5), 053111 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

2003 (1)

Y. Nishida, H. Miyazawa, M. Asobe, O. Tadanaga, and H. Suzuki, “Direct-bonded qpm-ln ridge waveguide with high damage resistance at room temperature,” Electron. Lett. 39(7), 609–611 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, “Optical frequency metrology,” Nature 416(6877), 233–237 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

S. A. Diddams, T. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, “An optical clock based on a single trapped 199hg+ ion,” Science 293(5531), 825–828 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (2)

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 thz femtosecond laser comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(22), 5102–5105 (2000).
[Crossref]

K. Minoshima and H. Matsumoto, “High-accuracy measurement of 240-m distance in an optical tunnel by use of a compact femtosecond laser,” Appl. Opt. 39(30), 5512–5517 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. Hänsch, “Measuring the frequency of light with mode-locked lasers,” Opt. Commun. 172(1-6), 59–68 (1999).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

M. Kourogi, T. Enami, and M. Ohtsu, “A monolithic optical frequency comb generator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 6(2), 214–217 (1994).
[Crossref]

Achkar, J.

O. Lopez, A. Kanj, P.-E. Pottie, D. Rovera, J. Achkar, C. Chardonnet, A. Amy-Klein, and G. Santarelli, “Simultaneous remote transfer of accurate timing and optical frequency over a public fiber network,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 110(1), 3–6 (2013).
[Crossref]

Allison, T. K.

H. Timmers, A. Kowligy, A. Lind, F. C. Cruz, N. Nader, M. Silfies, G. Ycas, T. K. Allison, P. G. Schunemann, S. B. Papp, and S. A. Diddams, “Molecular fingerprinting with bright, broadband infrared frequency combs,” Optica 5(6), 727–732 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. Cingöz, D. C. Yost, T. K. Allison, A. Ruehl, M. E. Fermann, I. Hartl, and J. Ye, “Direct frequency comb spectroscopy in the extreme ultraviolet,” Nature 482(7383), 68–71 (2012).
[Crossref]

Alnis, J.

K. Predehl, G. Grosche, S. M. F. Raupach, S. Droste, O. Terra, J. Alnis, T. Legero, T. W. Hänsch, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and H. Schnatz, “A 920-kilometer optical fiber link for frequency metrology at the 19th decimal place,” Science 336(6080), 441–444 (2012).
[Crossref]

Amy-Klein, A.

O. Lopez, A. Kanj, P.-E. Pottie, D. Rovera, J. Achkar, C. Chardonnet, A. Amy-Klein, and G. Santarelli, “Simultaneous remote transfer of accurate timing and optical frequency over a public fiber network,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 110(1), 3–6 (2013).
[Crossref]

Anderson, T.

Araujo-Hauck, C.

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, and T. Udem, “Laser frequency combs for astronomical observations,” Science 321(5894), 1335–1337 (2008).
[Crossref]

Arcizet, O.

P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator,” Nature 450(7173), 1214–1217 (2007).
[Crossref]

Asobe, M.

Y. Nishida, H. Miyazawa, M. Asobe, O. Tadanaga, and H. Suzuki, “Direct-bonded qpm-ln ridge waveguide with high damage resistance at room temperature,” Electron. Lett. 39(7), 609–611 (2003).
[Crossref]

Baumann, E.

D. Herman, S. Droste, E. Baumann, J. Roslund, D. Churin, A. Cingoz, J.-D. Deschênes, I. H. Khader, W. C. Swann, C. Nelson, N. R. Newbury, and I. Coddington, “Femtosecond timekeeping: Slip-free clockwork for optical timescales,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 9(4), 044002 (2018).
[Crossref]

G.-W. Truong, E. M. Waxman, K. C. Cossel, E. Baumann, A. Klose, F. R. Giorgetta, W. C. Swann, N. R. Newbury, and I. Coddington, “Accurate frequency referencing for fieldable dual-comb spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 24(26), 30495–30504 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. C. Sinclair, J.-D. Deschênes, L. Sonderhouse, W. C. Swann, I. H. Khader, E. Baumann, N. R. Newbury, and I. Coddington, “Invited article: A compact optically coherent fiber frequency comb,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 86(8), 081301 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. R. Giorgetta, W. C. Swann, L. C. Sinclair, E. Baumann, I. Coddington, and N. R. Newbury, “Optical two-way time and frequency transfer over free space,” Nat. Photonics 7(6), 434–438 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bender, C. F.

Bergeron, H.

A. Tourigny-Plante, V. Michaud-Belleau, N. Bourbeau Hébert, H. Bergeron, J. Genest, and J.-D. Deschênes, “An open and flexible digital phase-locked loop for optical metrology,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 89(9), 093103 (2018).
[Crossref]

Bergquist, J. C.

D. R. Leibrandt, M. J. Thorpe, J. C. Bergquist, and T. Rosenband, “Field-test of a robust, portable, frequency-stable laser,” Opt. Express 19(11), 10278–10286 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. A. Diddams, T. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, “An optical clock based on a single trapped 199hg+ ion,” Science 293(5531), 825–828 (2001).
[Crossref]

Biegert, J.

A. S. Kowligy, H. Timmers, A. J. Lind, U. Elu, F. C. Cruz, P. G. Schunemann, J. Biegert, and S. A. Diddams, “Infrared electric field sampled frequency comb spectroscopy,” Sci. Adv. 5(6), eaaw8794 (2019).
[Crossref]

Blakeslee, S.

Bluestone, A.

D. T. Spencer, T. Drake, T. C. Briles, J. Stone, L. C. Sinclair, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, A. Bluestone, N. Volet, T. Komljenovic, L. Chang, S. H. Lee, D. Y. Oh, M.-G. Suh, K. Y. Yang, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, T. J. Kippenberg, E. Norberg, L. Theogarajan, K. Vahala, N. R. Newbury, K. Srinivasan, J. E. Bowers, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “An optical-frequency synthesizer using integrated photonics,” Nature 557(7703), 81–85 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. Bluestone, A. Jain, N. Volet, D. T. Spencer, S. B. Papp, S. A. Diddams, J. E. Bowers, and L. Theogarajan, “Heterodyne-based hybrid controller for wide dynamic range optoelectronic frequency synthesis,” Opt. Express 25(23), 29086–29097 (2017).
[Crossref]

Bourbeau Hébert, N.

A. Tourigny-Plante, V. Michaud-Belleau, N. Bourbeau Hébert, H. Bergeron, J. Genest, and J.-D. Deschênes, “An open and flexible digital phase-locked loop for optical metrology,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 89(9), 093103 (2018).
[Crossref]

Bowers, J. E.

D. T. Spencer, T. Drake, T. C. Briles, J. Stone, L. C. Sinclair, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, A. Bluestone, N. Volet, T. Komljenovic, L. Chang, S. H. Lee, D. Y. Oh, M.-G. Suh, K. Y. Yang, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, T. J. Kippenberg, E. Norberg, L. Theogarajan, K. Vahala, N. R. Newbury, K. Srinivasan, J. E. Bowers, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “An optical-frequency synthesizer using integrated photonics,” Nature 557(7703), 81–85 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. Bluestone, A. Jain, N. Volet, D. T. Spencer, S. B. Papp, S. A. Diddams, J. E. Bowers, and L. Theogarajan, “Heterodyne-based hybrid controller for wide dynamic range optoelectronic frequency synthesis,” Opt. Express 25(23), 29086–29097 (2017).
[Crossref]

Boyd, M. M.

A. D. Ludlow, M. M. Boyd, J. Ye, E. Peik, and P. O. Schmidt, “Optical atomic clocks,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 87(2), 637–701 (2015).
[Crossref]

Brand, W.

Brehm, M.

Briles, T. C.

Z. L. Newman, V. Maurice, T. Drake, J. R. Stone, T. C. Briles, D. T. Spencer, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, B. Shen, M.-G. Suh, K. Y. Yang, C. Johnson, D. M. S. Johnson, L. Hollberg, K. J. Vahala, K. Srinivasan, S. A. Diddams, J. Kitching, S. B. Papp, and M. T. Hummon, “Architecture for the photonic integration of an optical atomic clock,” Optica 6(5), 680–685 (2019).
[Crossref]

D. T. Spencer, T. Drake, T. C. Briles, J. Stone, L. C. Sinclair, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, A. Bluestone, N. Volet, T. Komljenovic, L. Chang, S. H. Lee, D. Y. Oh, M.-G. Suh, K. Y. Yang, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, T. J. Kippenberg, E. Norberg, L. Theogarajan, K. Vahala, N. R. Newbury, K. Srinivasan, J. E. Bowers, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “An optical-frequency synthesizer using integrated photonics,” Nature 557(7703), 81–85 (2018).
[Crossref]

Cacciapuoti, L.

L. Cacciapuoti, M. de Angelis, M. Fattori, G. Lamporesi, T. Petelski, M. Prevedelli, J. Stuhler, and G. M. Tino, “Analog+digital phase and frequency detector for phase locking of diode lasers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76(5), 053111 (2005).
[Crossref]

Carlson, D. R.

Chang, L.

D. T. Spencer, T. Drake, T. C. Briles, J. Stone, L. C. Sinclair, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, A. Bluestone, N. Volet, T. Komljenovic, L. Chang, S. H. Lee, D. Y. Oh, M.-G. Suh, K. Y. Yang, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, T. J. Kippenberg, E. Norberg, L. Theogarajan, K. Vahala, N. R. Newbury, K. Srinivasan, J. E. Bowers, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “An optical-frequency synthesizer using integrated photonics,” Nature 557(7703), 81–85 (2018).
[Crossref]

Chardonnet, C.

O. Lopez, A. Kanj, P.-E. Pottie, D. Rovera, J. Achkar, C. Chardonnet, A. Amy-Klein, and G. Santarelli, “Simultaneous remote transfer of accurate timing and optical frequency over a public fiber network,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 110(1), 3–6 (2013).
[Crossref]

Churin, D.

D. Herman, S. Droste, E. Baumann, J. Roslund, D. Churin, A. Cingoz, J.-D. Deschênes, I. H. Khader, W. C. Swann, C. Nelson, N. R. Newbury, and I. Coddington, “Femtosecond timekeeping: Slip-free clockwork for optical timescales,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 9(4), 044002 (2018).
[Crossref]

Cingoz, A.

D. Herman, S. Droste, E. Baumann, J. Roslund, D. Churin, A. Cingoz, J.-D. Deschênes, I. H. Khader, W. C. Swann, C. Nelson, N. R. Newbury, and I. Coddington, “Femtosecond timekeeping: Slip-free clockwork for optical timescales,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 9(4), 044002 (2018).
[Crossref]

Cingöz, A.

A. Cingöz, D. C. Yost, T. K. Allison, A. Ruehl, M. E. Fermann, I. Hartl, and J. Ye, “Direct frequency comb spectroscopy in the extreme ultraviolet,” Nature 482(7383), 68–71 (2012).
[Crossref]

Cleff, C.

W. Hänsel, H. Hoogland, M. Giunta, S. Schmid, T. Steinmetz, R. Doubek, P. Mayer, S. Dobner, C. Cleff, M. Fischer, and R. Holzwarth, “All polarization-maintaining fiber laser architecture for robust femtosecond pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 123(1), 41 (2017).
[Crossref]

Cochran, W. D.

Coddington, I.

D. Herman, S. Droste, E. Baumann, J. Roslund, D. Churin, A. Cingoz, J.-D. Deschênes, I. H. Khader, W. C. Swann, C. Nelson, N. R. Newbury, and I. Coddington, “Femtosecond timekeeping: Slip-free clockwork for optical timescales,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 9(4), 044002 (2018).
[Crossref]

I. Coddington, N. Newbury, and W. Swann, “Dual-comb spectroscopy,” Optica 3(4), 414–426 (2016).
[Crossref]

G.-W. Truong, E. M. Waxman, K. C. Cossel, E. Baumann, A. Klose, F. R. Giorgetta, W. C. Swann, N. R. Newbury, and I. Coddington, “Accurate frequency referencing for fieldable dual-comb spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 24(26), 30495–30504 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. C. Sinclair, J.-D. Deschênes, L. Sonderhouse, W. C. Swann, I. H. Khader, E. Baumann, N. R. Newbury, and I. Coddington, “Invited article: A compact optically coherent fiber frequency comb,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 86(8), 081301 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. C. Sinclair, I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, G. B. Rieker, A. Hati, K. Iwakuni, and N. R. Newbury, “Operation of an optically coherent frequency comb outside the metrology lab,” Opt. Express 22(6), 6996–7006 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. R. Giorgetta, W. C. Swann, L. C. Sinclair, E. Baumann, I. Coddington, and N. R. Newbury, “Optical two-way time and frequency transfer over free space,” Nat. Photonics 7(6), 434–438 (2013).
[Crossref]

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, L. Nenadovic, and N. R. Newbury, “Rapid and precise absolute distance measurements at long range,” Nat. Photonics 3(6), 351–356 (2009).
[Crossref]

Codnia, J.

M. A. Luda, M. Drechsler, C. T. Schmiegelow, and J. Codnia, “Compact embedded device for lock-in measurements and experiment active control,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 90(2), 023106 (2019).
[Crossref]

Cossel, K. C.

Cruz, F. C.

A. S. Kowligy, H. Timmers, A. J. Lind, U. Elu, F. C. Cruz, P. G. Schunemann, J. Biegert, and S. A. Diddams, “Infrared electric field sampled frequency comb spectroscopy,” Sci. Adv. 5(6), eaaw8794 (2019).
[Crossref]

H. Timmers, A. Kowligy, A. Lind, F. C. Cruz, N. Nader, M. Silfies, G. Ycas, T. K. Allison, P. G. Schunemann, S. B. Papp, and S. A. Diddams, “Molecular fingerprinting with bright, broadband infrared frequency combs,” Optica 5(6), 727–732 (2018).
[Crossref]

Cundiff, S. T.

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 thz femtosecond laser comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(22), 5102–5105 (2000).
[Crossref]

Curtis, E. A.

S. A. Diddams, T. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, “An optical clock based on a single trapped 199hg+ ion,” Science 293(5531), 825–828 (2001).
[Crossref]

Curto, G. L.

T. Wilken, G. L. Curto, R. A. Probst, T. Steinmetz, A. Manescau, L. Pasquini, J. I. González Hernández, R. Rebolo, T. W. Hänsch, T. Udem, and R. Holzwarth, “A spectrograph for exoplanet observations calibrated at the centimetre-per-second level,” Nature 485(7400), 611–614 (2012).
[Crossref]

D’Evelyn, L.

L. D’Evelyn, L. Hollberg, and Z. B. Popovic, “A cpw phase-locked loop for diode-laser stabilization,” in 1994 IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium Digest (Cat. No.94CH3389-4), (1994), pp. 65–68 vol.1.

D’Odorico, S.

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, and T. Udem, “Laser frequency combs for astronomical observations,” Science 321(5894), 1335–1337 (2008).
[Crossref]

de Angelis, M.

L. Cacciapuoti, M. de Angelis, M. Fattori, G. Lamporesi, T. Petelski, M. Prevedelli, J. Stuhler, and G. M. Tino, “Analog+digital phase and frequency detector for phase locking of diode lasers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76(5), 053111 (2005).
[Crossref]

Del’Haye, P.

P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator,” Nature 450(7173), 1214–1217 (2007).
[Crossref]

Deschênes, J.-D.

D. Herman, S. Droste, E. Baumann, J. Roslund, D. Churin, A. Cingoz, J.-D. Deschênes, I. H. Khader, W. C. Swann, C. Nelson, N. R. Newbury, and I. Coddington, “Femtosecond timekeeping: Slip-free clockwork for optical timescales,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 9(4), 044002 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. Tourigny-Plante, V. Michaud-Belleau, N. Bourbeau Hébert, H. Bergeron, J. Genest, and J.-D. Deschênes, “An open and flexible digital phase-locked loop for optical metrology,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 89(9), 093103 (2018).
[Crossref]

L. C. Sinclair, J.-D. Deschênes, L. Sonderhouse, W. C. Swann, I. H. Khader, E. Baumann, N. R. Newbury, and I. Coddington, “Invited article: A compact optically coherent fiber frequency comb,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 86(8), 081301 (2015).
[Crossref]

J.-D. Deschênes, P. Giaccari, and J. Genest, “Optical referencing technique with cw lasers as intermediate oscillators for continuous full delay range frequency comb interferometry,” Opt. Express 18(22), 23358–23370 (2010).
[Crossref]

J.-D. Deschênes, Digital PLL code base, see https://github.com/jddes/Frequency-comb-DPLL .

Deutsch, C.

Diddams, S. A.

A. S. Kowligy, H. Timmers, A. J. Lind, U. Elu, F. C. Cruz, P. G. Schunemann, J. Biegert, and S. A. Diddams, “Infrared electric field sampled frequency comb spectroscopy,” Sci. Adv. 5(6), eaaw8794 (2019).
[Crossref]

A. J. Metcalf, T. Anderson, C. F. Bender, S. Blakeslee, W. Brand, D. R. Carlson, W. D. Cochran, S. A. Diddams, M. Endl, C. Fredrick, S. Halverson, D. D. Hickstein, F. Hearty, J. Jennings, S. Kanodia, K. F. Kaplan, E. Levi, E. Lubar, S. Mahadevan, A. Monson, J. P. Ninan, C. Nitroy, S. Osterman, S. B. Papp, F. Quinlan, L. Ramsey, P. Robertson, A. Roy, C. Schwab, S. Sigurdsson, K. Srinivasan, G. Stefansson, D. A. Sterner, R. Terrien, A. Wolszczan, J. T. Wright, and G. Ycas, “Stellar spectroscopy in the near-infrared with a laser frequency comb,” Optica 6(2), 233–239 (2019).
[Crossref]

Z. L. Newman, V. Maurice, T. Drake, J. R. Stone, T. C. Briles, D. T. Spencer, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, B. Shen, M.-G. Suh, K. Y. Yang, C. Johnson, D. M. S. Johnson, L. Hollberg, K. J. Vahala, K. Srinivasan, S. A. Diddams, J. Kitching, S. B. Papp, and M. T. Hummon, “Architecture for the photonic integration of an optical atomic clock,” Optica 6(5), 680–685 (2019).
[Crossref]

H. Timmers, A. Kowligy, A. Lind, F. C. Cruz, N. Nader, M. Silfies, G. Ycas, T. K. Allison, P. G. Schunemann, S. B. Papp, and S. A. Diddams, “Molecular fingerprinting with bright, broadband infrared frequency combs,” Optica 5(6), 727–732 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. R. Carlson, D. D. Hickstein, W. Zhang, A. J. Metcalf, F. Quinlan, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “Ultrafast electro-optic light with subcycle control,” Science 361(6409), 1358–1363 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. T. Spencer, T. Drake, T. C. Briles, J. Stone, L. C. Sinclair, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, A. Bluestone, N. Volet, T. Komljenovic, L. Chang, S. H. Lee, D. Y. Oh, M.-G. Suh, K. Y. Yang, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, T. J. Kippenberg, E. Norberg, L. Theogarajan, K. Vahala, N. R. Newbury, K. Srinivasan, J. E. Bowers, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “An optical-frequency synthesizer using integrated photonics,” Nature 557(7703), 81–85 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. Bluestone, A. Jain, N. Volet, D. T. Spencer, S. B. Papp, S. A. Diddams, J. E. Bowers, and L. Theogarajan, “Heterodyne-based hybrid controller for wide dynamic range optoelectronic frequency synthesis,” Opt. Express 25(23), 29086–29097 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. J. Kippenberg, R. Holzwarth, and S. A. Diddams, “Microresonator-based optical frequency combs,” Science 332(6029), 555–559 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. A. Diddams, “The evolving optical frequency comb,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27(11), B51–B62 (2010).
[Crossref]

B. R. Washburn, S. A. Diddams, N. R. Newbury, J. W. Nicholson, M. F. Yan, and C. G. Jørgensen, “Phase-locked, erbium-fiber-laser-based frequency comb in the near infrared,” Opt. Lett. 29(3), 250–252 (2004).
[Crossref]

S. A. Diddams, T. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, “An optical clock based on a single trapped 199hg+ ion,” Science 293(5531), 825–828 (2001).
[Crossref]

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 thz femtosecond laser comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(22), 5102–5105 (2000).
[Crossref]

Dinkelaker, A.

Dobner, S.

W. Hänsel, H. Hoogland, M. Giunta, S. Schmid, T. Steinmetz, R. Doubek, P. Mayer, S. Dobner, C. Cleff, M. Fischer, and R. Holzwarth, “All polarization-maintaining fiber laser architecture for robust femtosecond pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 123(1), 41 (2017).
[Crossref]

Doubek, R.

W. Hänsel, H. Hoogland, M. Giunta, S. Schmid, T. Steinmetz, R. Doubek, P. Mayer, S. Dobner, C. Cleff, M. Fischer, and R. Holzwarth, “All polarization-maintaining fiber laser architecture for robust femtosecond pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 123(1), 41 (2017).
[Crossref]

Drake, T.

Z. L. Newman, V. Maurice, T. Drake, J. R. Stone, T. C. Briles, D. T. Spencer, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, B. Shen, M.-G. Suh, K. Y. Yang, C. Johnson, D. M. S. Johnson, L. Hollberg, K. J. Vahala, K. Srinivasan, S. A. Diddams, J. Kitching, S. B. Papp, and M. T. Hummon, “Architecture for the photonic integration of an optical atomic clock,” Optica 6(5), 680–685 (2019).
[Crossref]

D. T. Spencer, T. Drake, T. C. Briles, J. Stone, L. C. Sinclair, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, A. Bluestone, N. Volet, T. Komljenovic, L. Chang, S. H. Lee, D. Y. Oh, M.-G. Suh, K. Y. Yang, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, T. J. Kippenberg, E. Norberg, L. Theogarajan, K. Vahala, N. R. Newbury, K. Srinivasan, J. E. Bowers, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “An optical-frequency synthesizer using integrated photonics,” Nature 557(7703), 81–85 (2018).
[Crossref]

Drechsler, M.

M. A. Luda, M. Drechsler, C. T. Schmiegelow, and J. Codnia, “Compact embedded device for lock-in measurements and experiment active control,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 90(2), 023106 (2019).
[Crossref]

Droste, S.

D. Herman, S. Droste, E. Baumann, J. Roslund, D. Churin, A. Cingoz, J.-D. Deschênes, I. H. Khader, W. C. Swann, C. Nelson, N. R. Newbury, and I. Coddington, “Femtosecond timekeeping: Slip-free clockwork for optical timescales,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 9(4), 044002 (2018).
[Crossref]

K. Predehl, G. Grosche, S. M. F. Raupach, S. Droste, O. Terra, J. Alnis, T. Legero, T. W. Hänsch, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and H. Schnatz, “A 920-kilometer optical fiber link for frequency metrology at the 19th decimal place,” Science 336(6080), 441–444 (2012).
[Crossref]

Drullinger, R. E.

S. A. Diddams, T. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, “An optical clock based on a single trapped 199hg+ ion,” Science 293(5531), 825–828 (2001).
[Crossref]

Duncker, H.

Elu, U.

A. S. Kowligy, H. Timmers, A. J. Lind, U. Elu, F. C. Cruz, P. G. Schunemann, J. Biegert, and S. A. Diddams, “Infrared electric field sampled frequency comb spectroscopy,” Sci. Adv. 5(6), eaaw8794 (2019).
[Crossref]

Enami, T.

M. Kourogi, T. Enami, and M. Ohtsu, “A monolithic optical frequency comb generator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 6(2), 214–217 (1994).
[Crossref]

Endl, M.

Fattori, M.

L. Cacciapuoti, M. de Angelis, M. Fattori, G. Lamporesi, T. Petelski, M. Prevedelli, J. Stuhler, and G. M. Tino, “Analog+digital phase and frequency detector for phase locking of diode lasers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76(5), 053111 (2005).
[Crossref]

Fermann, M. E.

A. Cingöz, D. C. Yost, T. K. Allison, A. Ruehl, M. E. Fermann, I. Hartl, and J. Ye, “Direct frequency comb spectroscopy in the extreme ultraviolet,” Nature 482(7383), 68–71 (2012).
[Crossref]

Fischer, M.

W. Hänsel, H. Hoogland, M. Giunta, S. Schmid, T. Steinmetz, R. Doubek, P. Mayer, S. Dobner, C. Cleff, M. Fischer, and R. Holzwarth, “All polarization-maintaining fiber laser architecture for robust femtosecond pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 123(1), 41 (2017).
[Crossref]

W. Hänsel, M. Giunta, M. Lezius, M. Fischer, and R. Holzwarth, “Electro-optic modulator for rapid control of the carrier-envelope offset frequency,” in 2017 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), (2017), pp. 1–2.

Fredrick, C.

Gaeta, A. L.

T. J. Kippenberg, A. L. Gaeta, M. Lipson, and M. L. Gorodetsky, “Dissipative kerr solitons in optical microresonators,” Science 361(6402), eaan8083 (2018).
[Crossref]

Gardiner, T.

Genest, J.

A. Tourigny-Plante, V. Michaud-Belleau, N. Bourbeau Hébert, H. Bergeron, J. Genest, and J.-D. Deschênes, “An open and flexible digital phase-locked loop for optical metrology,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 89(9), 093103 (2018).
[Crossref]

J.-D. Deschênes, P. Giaccari, and J. Genest, “Optical referencing technique with cw lasers as intermediate oscillators for continuous full delay range frequency comb interferometry,” Opt. Express 18(22), 23358–23370 (2010).
[Crossref]

Giaccari, P.

Giorgetta, F. R.

G.-W. Truong, E. M. Waxman, K. C. Cossel, E. Baumann, A. Klose, F. R. Giorgetta, W. C. Swann, N. R. Newbury, and I. Coddington, “Accurate frequency referencing for fieldable dual-comb spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 24(26), 30495–30504 (2016).
[Crossref]

F. R. Giorgetta, W. C. Swann, L. C. Sinclair, E. Baumann, I. Coddington, and N. R. Newbury, “Optical two-way time and frequency transfer over free space,” Nat. Photonics 7(6), 434–438 (2013).
[Crossref]

Giunta, M.

W. Hänsel, H. Hoogland, M. Giunta, S. Schmid, T. Steinmetz, R. Doubek, P. Mayer, S. Dobner, C. Cleff, M. Fischer, and R. Holzwarth, “All polarization-maintaining fiber laser architecture for robust femtosecond pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 123(1), 41 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Lezius, T. Wilken, C. Deutsch, M. Giunta, O. Mandel, A. Thaller, V. Schkolnik, M. Schiemangk, A. Dinkelaker, A. Kohfeldt, A. Wicht, M. Krutzik, A. Peters, O. Hellmig, H. Duncker, K. Sengstock, P. Windpassinger, K. Lampmann, T. Hülsing, T. W. Hänsch, and R. Holzwarth, “Space-borne frequency comb metrology,” Optica 3(12), 1381–1387 (2016).
[Crossref]

W. Hänsel, M. Giunta, M. Lezius, M. Fischer, and R. Holzwarth, “Electro-optic modulator for rapid control of the carrier-envelope offset frequency,” in 2017 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), (2017), pp. 1–2.

Gohle, C.

C. Gohle, T. Udem, M. Herrmann, J. Rauschenberger, R. Holzwarth, H. A. Schuessler, F. Krausz, and T. W. Hänsch, “A frequency comb in the extreme ultraviolet,” Nature 436(7048), 234–237 (2005).
[Crossref]

González Hernández, J. I.

T. Wilken, G. L. Curto, R. A. Probst, T. Steinmetz, A. Manescau, L. Pasquini, J. I. González Hernández, R. Rebolo, T. W. Hänsch, T. Udem, and R. Holzwarth, “A spectrograph for exoplanet observations calibrated at the centimetre-per-second level,” Nature 485(7400), 611–614 (2012).
[Crossref]

Gorodetsky, M. L.

T. J. Kippenberg, A. L. Gaeta, M. Lipson, and M. L. Gorodetsky, “Dissipative kerr solitons in optical microresonators,” Science 361(6402), eaan8083 (2018).
[Crossref]

Grosche, G.

K. Predehl, G. Grosche, S. M. F. Raupach, S. Droste, O. Terra, J. Alnis, T. Legero, T. W. Hänsch, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and H. Schnatz, “A 920-kilometer optical fiber link for frequency metrology at the 19th decimal place,” Science 336(6080), 441–444 (2012).
[Crossref]

Guelachvili, G.

T. Ideguchi, A. Poisson, G. Guelachvili, N. Picqué, and T. W. Hänsch, “Adaptive real-time dual-comb spectroscopy,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 3375 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hall, J. L.

J. L. Hall, “Nobel lecture: Defining and measuring optical frequencies,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78(4), 1279–1295 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 thz femtosecond laser comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(22), 5102–5105 (2000).
[Crossref]

Halverson, S.

Hänsch, T.

J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. Hänsch, “Measuring the frequency of light with mode-locked lasers,” Opt. Commun. 172(1-6), 59–68 (1999).
[Crossref]

Hänsch, T. W.

N. Picqué and T. W. Hänsch, “Frequency comb spectroscopy,” Nat. Photonics 13(3), 146–157 (2019).
[Crossref]

M. Lezius, T. Wilken, C. Deutsch, M. Giunta, O. Mandel, A. Thaller, V. Schkolnik, M. Schiemangk, A. Dinkelaker, A. Kohfeldt, A. Wicht, M. Krutzik, A. Peters, O. Hellmig, H. Duncker, K. Sengstock, P. Windpassinger, K. Lampmann, T. Hülsing, T. W. Hänsch, and R. Holzwarth, “Space-borne frequency comb metrology,” Optica 3(12), 1381–1387 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Ideguchi, A. Poisson, G. Guelachvili, N. Picqué, and T. W. Hänsch, “Adaptive real-time dual-comb spectroscopy,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 3375 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Wilken, G. L. Curto, R. A. Probst, T. Steinmetz, A. Manescau, L. Pasquini, J. I. González Hernández, R. Rebolo, T. W. Hänsch, T. Udem, and R. Holzwarth, “A spectrograph for exoplanet observations calibrated at the centimetre-per-second level,” Nature 485(7400), 611–614 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. Predehl, G. Grosche, S. M. F. Raupach, S. Droste, O. Terra, J. Alnis, T. Legero, T. W. Hänsch, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and H. Schnatz, “A 920-kilometer optical fiber link for frequency metrology at the 19th decimal place,” Science 336(6080), 441–444 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, and T. Udem, “Laser frequency combs for astronomical observations,” Science 321(5894), 1335–1337 (2008).
[Crossref]

T. W. Hänsch, “Nobel lecture: Passion for precision,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78(4), 1297–1309 (2006).
[Crossref]

C. Gohle, T. Udem, M. Herrmann, J. Rauschenberger, R. Holzwarth, H. A. Schuessler, F. Krausz, and T. W. Hänsch, “A frequency comb in the extreme ultraviolet,” Nature 436(7048), 234–237 (2005).
[Crossref]

T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, “Optical frequency metrology,” Nature 416(6877), 233–237 (2002).
[Crossref]

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 thz femtosecond laser comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(22), 5102–5105 (2000).
[Crossref]

Hänsel, W.

W. Hänsel, H. Hoogland, M. Giunta, S. Schmid, T. Steinmetz, R. Doubek, P. Mayer, S. Dobner, C. Cleff, M. Fischer, and R. Holzwarth, “All polarization-maintaining fiber laser architecture for robust femtosecond pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 123(1), 41 (2017).
[Crossref]

W. Hänsel, M. Giunta, M. Lezius, M. Fischer, and R. Holzwarth, “Electro-optic modulator for rapid control of the carrier-envelope offset frequency,” in 2017 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), (2017), pp. 1–2.

Hartl, I.

A. Cingöz, D. C. Yost, T. K. Allison, A. Ruehl, M. E. Fermann, I. Hartl, and J. Ye, “Direct frequency comb spectroscopy in the extreme ultraviolet,” Nature 482(7383), 68–71 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hati, A.

Hearty, F.

Heidecker, J.

D. R. Leibrandt and J. Heidecker, “An open source digital servo for atomic, molecular, and optical physics experiments,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 86(12), 123115 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hellmig, O.

Herman, D.

D. Herman, S. Droste, E. Baumann, J. Roslund, D. Churin, A. Cingoz, J.-D. Deschênes, I. H. Khader, W. C. Swann, C. Nelson, N. R. Newbury, and I. Coddington, “Femtosecond timekeeping: Slip-free clockwork for optical timescales,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 9(4), 044002 (2018).
[Crossref]

Herrmann, M.

C. Gohle, T. Udem, M. Herrmann, J. Rauschenberger, R. Holzwarth, H. A. Schuessler, F. Krausz, and T. W. Hänsch, “A frequency comb in the extreme ultraviolet,” Nature 436(7048), 234–237 (2005).
[Crossref]

Hickstein, D. D.

Hollberg, L.

Z. L. Newman, V. Maurice, T. Drake, J. R. Stone, T. C. Briles, D. T. Spencer, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, B. Shen, M.-G. Suh, K. Y. Yang, C. Johnson, D. M. S. Johnson, L. Hollberg, K. J. Vahala, K. Srinivasan, S. A. Diddams, J. Kitching, S. B. Papp, and M. T. Hummon, “Architecture for the photonic integration of an optical atomic clock,” Optica 6(5), 680–685 (2019).
[Crossref]

S. A. Diddams, T. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, “An optical clock based on a single trapped 199hg+ ion,” Science 293(5531), 825–828 (2001).
[Crossref]

L. D’Evelyn, L. Hollberg, and Z. B. Popovic, “A cpw phase-locked loop for diode-laser stabilization,” in 1994 IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium Digest (Cat. No.94CH3389-4), (1994), pp. 65–68 vol.1.

Holzwarth, R.

W. Hänsel, H. Hoogland, M. Giunta, S. Schmid, T. Steinmetz, R. Doubek, P. Mayer, S. Dobner, C. Cleff, M. Fischer, and R. Holzwarth, “All polarization-maintaining fiber laser architecture for robust femtosecond pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 123(1), 41 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Lezius, T. Wilken, C. Deutsch, M. Giunta, O. Mandel, A. Thaller, V. Schkolnik, M. Schiemangk, A. Dinkelaker, A. Kohfeldt, A. Wicht, M. Krutzik, A. Peters, O. Hellmig, H. Duncker, K. Sengstock, P. Windpassinger, K. Lampmann, T. Hülsing, T. W. Hänsch, and R. Holzwarth, “Space-borne frequency comb metrology,” Optica 3(12), 1381–1387 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Wilken, G. L. Curto, R. A. Probst, T. Steinmetz, A. Manescau, L. Pasquini, J. I. González Hernández, R. Rebolo, T. W. Hänsch, T. Udem, and R. Holzwarth, “A spectrograph for exoplanet observations calibrated at the centimetre-per-second level,” Nature 485(7400), 611–614 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. Predehl, G. Grosche, S. M. F. Raupach, S. Droste, O. Terra, J. Alnis, T. Legero, T. W. Hänsch, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and H. Schnatz, “A 920-kilometer optical fiber link for frequency metrology at the 19th decimal place,” Science 336(6080), 441–444 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. J. Kippenberg, R. Holzwarth, and S. A. Diddams, “Microresonator-based optical frequency combs,” Science 332(6029), 555–559 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, and T. Udem, “Laser frequency combs for astronomical observations,” Science 321(5894), 1335–1337 (2008).
[Crossref]

P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator,” Nature 450(7173), 1214–1217 (2007).
[Crossref]

C. Gohle, T. Udem, M. Herrmann, J. Rauschenberger, R. Holzwarth, H. A. Schuessler, F. Krausz, and T. W. Hänsch, “A frequency comb in the extreme ultraviolet,” Nature 436(7048), 234–237 (2005).
[Crossref]

T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, “Optical frequency metrology,” Nature 416(6877), 233–237 (2002).
[Crossref]

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 thz femtosecond laser comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(22), 5102–5105 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. Hänsch, “Measuring the frequency of light with mode-locked lasers,” Opt. Commun. 172(1-6), 59–68 (1999).
[Crossref]

W. Hänsel, M. Giunta, M. Lezius, M. Fischer, and R. Holzwarth, “Electro-optic modulator for rapid control of the carrier-envelope offset frequency,” in 2017 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), (2017), pp. 1–2.

Hoogland, H.

W. Hänsel, H. Hoogland, M. Giunta, S. Schmid, T. Steinmetz, R. Doubek, P. Mayer, S. Dobner, C. Cleff, M. Fischer, and R. Holzwarth, “All polarization-maintaining fiber laser architecture for robust femtosecond pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 123(1), 41 (2017).
[Crossref]

Hu, G.

Hülsing, T.

Hummon, M. T.

Ideguchi, T.

T. Ideguchi, A. Poisson, G. Guelachvili, N. Picqué, and T. W. Hänsch, “Adaptive real-time dual-comb spectroscopy,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 3375 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ilic, B. R.

Z. L. Newman, V. Maurice, T. Drake, J. R. Stone, T. C. Briles, D. T. Spencer, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, B. Shen, M.-G. Suh, K. Y. Yang, C. Johnson, D. M. S. Johnson, L. Hollberg, K. J. Vahala, K. Srinivasan, S. A. Diddams, J. Kitching, S. B. Papp, and M. T. Hummon, “Architecture for the photonic integration of an optical atomic clock,” Optica 6(5), 680–685 (2019).
[Crossref]

D. T. Spencer, T. Drake, T. C. Briles, J. Stone, L. C. Sinclair, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, A. Bluestone, N. Volet, T. Komljenovic, L. Chang, S. H. Lee, D. Y. Oh, M.-G. Suh, K. Y. Yang, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, T. J. Kippenberg, E. Norberg, L. Theogarajan, K. Vahala, N. R. Newbury, K. Srinivasan, J. E. Bowers, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “An optical-frequency synthesizer using integrated photonics,” Nature 557(7703), 81–85 (2018).
[Crossref]

Itano, W. M.

S. A. Diddams, T. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, “An optical clock based on a single trapped 199hg+ ion,” Science 293(5531), 825–828 (2001).
[Crossref]

Iwakuni, K.

Jain, A.

Jennings, J.

Johnson, C.

Johnson, D. M. S.

Jones, D. J.

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 thz femtosecond laser comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(22), 5102–5105 (2000).
[Crossref]

Jørgensen, C. G.

Kanj, A.

O. Lopez, A. Kanj, P.-E. Pottie, D. Rovera, J. Achkar, C. Chardonnet, A. Amy-Klein, and G. Santarelli, “Simultaneous remote transfer of accurate timing and optical frequency over a public fiber network,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 110(1), 3–6 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kanodia, S.

Kaplan, K. F.

Keilmann, F.

Kentischer, T.

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, and T. Udem, “Laser frequency combs for astronomical observations,” Science 321(5894), 1335–1337 (2008).
[Crossref]

Khader, I. H.

D. Herman, S. Droste, E. Baumann, J. Roslund, D. Churin, A. Cingoz, J.-D. Deschênes, I. H. Khader, W. C. Swann, C. Nelson, N. R. Newbury, and I. Coddington, “Femtosecond timekeeping: Slip-free clockwork for optical timescales,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 9(4), 044002 (2018).
[Crossref]

L. C. Sinclair, J.-D. Deschênes, L. Sonderhouse, W. C. Swann, I. H. Khader, E. Baumann, N. R. Newbury, and I. Coddington, “Invited article: A compact optically coherent fiber frequency comb,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 86(8), 081301 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kippenberg, T. J.

T. J. Kippenberg, A. L. Gaeta, M. Lipson, and M. L. Gorodetsky, “Dissipative kerr solitons in optical microresonators,” Science 361(6402), eaan8083 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. T. Spencer, T. Drake, T. C. Briles, J. Stone, L. C. Sinclair, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, A. Bluestone, N. Volet, T. Komljenovic, L. Chang, S. H. Lee, D. Y. Oh, M.-G. Suh, K. Y. Yang, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, T. J. Kippenberg, E. Norberg, L. Theogarajan, K. Vahala, N. R. Newbury, K. Srinivasan, J. E. Bowers, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “An optical-frequency synthesizer using integrated photonics,” Nature 557(7703), 81–85 (2018).
[Crossref]

T. J. Kippenberg, R. Holzwarth, and S. A. Diddams, “Microresonator-based optical frequency combs,” Science 332(6029), 555–559 (2011).
[Crossref]

P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator,” Nature 450(7173), 1214–1217 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kitching, J.

Klose, A.

Kohfeldt, A.

Komljenovic, T.

D. T. Spencer, T. Drake, T. C. Briles, J. Stone, L. C. Sinclair, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, A. Bluestone, N. Volet, T. Komljenovic, L. Chang, S. H. Lee, D. Y. Oh, M.-G. Suh, K. Y. Yang, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, T. J. Kippenberg, E. Norberg, L. Theogarajan, K. Vahala, N. R. Newbury, K. Srinivasan, J. E. Bowers, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “An optical-frequency synthesizer using integrated photonics,” Nature 557(7703), 81–85 (2018).
[Crossref]

Kourogi, M.

M. Kourogi, T. Enami, and M. Ohtsu, “A monolithic optical frequency comb generator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 6(2), 214–217 (1994).
[Crossref]

Kowligy, A.

Kowligy, A. S.

A. S. Kowligy, H. Timmers, A. J. Lind, U. Elu, F. C. Cruz, P. G. Schunemann, J. Biegert, and S. A. Diddams, “Infrared electric field sampled frequency comb spectroscopy,” Sci. Adv. 5(6), eaaw8794 (2019).
[Crossref]

Krausz, F.

C. Gohle, T. Udem, M. Herrmann, J. Rauschenberger, R. Holzwarth, H. A. Schuessler, F. Krausz, and T. W. Hänsch, “A frequency comb in the extreme ultraviolet,” Nature 436(7048), 234–237 (2005).
[Crossref]

Krutzik, M.

Lampmann, K.

Lamporesi, G.

L. Cacciapuoti, M. de Angelis, M. Fattori, G. Lamporesi, T. Petelski, M. Prevedelli, J. Stuhler, and G. M. Tino, “Analog+digital phase and frequency detector for phase locking of diode lasers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76(5), 053111 (2005).
[Crossref]

Lee, S. H.

D. T. Spencer, T. Drake, T. C. Briles, J. Stone, L. C. Sinclair, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, A. Bluestone, N. Volet, T. Komljenovic, L. Chang, S. H. Lee, D. Y. Oh, M.-G. Suh, K. Y. Yang, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, T. J. Kippenberg, E. Norberg, L. Theogarajan, K. Vahala, N. R. Newbury, K. Srinivasan, J. E. Bowers, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “An optical-frequency synthesizer using integrated photonics,” Nature 557(7703), 81–85 (2018).
[Crossref]

Lee, W. D.

S. A. Diddams, T. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, “An optical clock based on a single trapped 199hg+ ion,” Science 293(5531), 825–828 (2001).
[Crossref]

Legero, T.

K. Predehl, G. Grosche, S. M. F. Raupach, S. Droste, O. Terra, J. Alnis, T. Legero, T. W. Hänsch, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and H. Schnatz, “A 920-kilometer optical fiber link for frequency metrology at the 19th decimal place,” Science 336(6080), 441–444 (2012).
[Crossref]

Leibrandt, D. R.

D. R. Leibrandt and J. Heidecker, “An open source digital servo for atomic, molecular, and optical physics experiments,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 86(12), 123115 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. R. Leibrandt, M. J. Thorpe, J. C. Bergquist, and T. Rosenband, “Field-test of a robust, portable, frequency-stable laser,” Opt. Express 19(11), 10278–10286 (2011).
[Crossref]

Levi, E.

Lezius, M.

Li, C.

Li, Q.

Z. L. Newman, V. Maurice, T. Drake, J. R. Stone, T. C. Briles, D. T. Spencer, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, B. Shen, M.-G. Suh, K. Y. Yang, C. Johnson, D. M. S. Johnson, L. Hollberg, K. J. Vahala, K. Srinivasan, S. A. Diddams, J. Kitching, S. B. Papp, and M. T. Hummon, “Architecture for the photonic integration of an optical atomic clock,” Optica 6(5), 680–685 (2019).
[Crossref]

D. T. Spencer, T. Drake, T. C. Briles, J. Stone, L. C. Sinclair, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, A. Bluestone, N. Volet, T. Komljenovic, L. Chang, S. H. Lee, D. Y. Oh, M.-G. Suh, K. Y. Yang, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, T. J. Kippenberg, E. Norberg, L. Theogarajan, K. Vahala, N. R. Newbury, K. Srinivasan, J. E. Bowers, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “An optical-frequency synthesizer using integrated photonics,” Nature 557(7703), 81–85 (2018).
[Crossref]

Lind, A.

Lind, A. J.

A. S. Kowligy, H. Timmers, A. J. Lind, U. Elu, F. C. Cruz, P. G. Schunemann, J. Biegert, and S. A. Diddams, “Infrared electric field sampled frequency comb spectroscopy,” Sci. Adv. 5(6), eaaw8794 (2019).
[Crossref]

Lipson, M.

T. J. Kippenberg, A. L. Gaeta, M. Lipson, and M. L. Gorodetsky, “Dissipative kerr solitons in optical microresonators,” Science 361(6402), eaan8083 (2018).
[Crossref]

Liu, Y.

Lopez, O.

O. Lopez, A. Kanj, P.-E. Pottie, D. Rovera, J. Achkar, C. Chardonnet, A. Amy-Klein, and G. Santarelli, “Simultaneous remote transfer of accurate timing and optical frequency over a public fiber network,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 110(1), 3–6 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lubar, E.

Luda, M. A.

M. A. Luda, M. Drechsler, C. T. Schmiegelow, and J. Codnia, “Compact embedded device for lock-in measurements and experiment active control,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 90(2), 023106 (2019).
[Crossref]

Ludlow, A. D.

A. D. Ludlow, M. M. Boyd, J. Ye, E. Peik, and P. O. Schmidt, “Optical atomic clocks,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 87(2), 637–701 (2015).
[Crossref]

Mahadevan, S.

Mandel, O.

Manescau, A.

T. Wilken, G. L. Curto, R. A. Probst, T. Steinmetz, A. Manescau, L. Pasquini, J. I. González Hernández, R. Rebolo, T. W. Hänsch, T. Udem, and R. Holzwarth, “A spectrograph for exoplanet observations calibrated at the centimetre-per-second level,” Nature 485(7400), 611–614 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, and T. Udem, “Laser frequency combs for astronomical observations,” Science 321(5894), 1335–1337 (2008).
[Crossref]

Matsumoto, H.

Maurice, V.

Mayer, P.

W. Hänsel, H. Hoogland, M. Giunta, S. Schmid, T. Steinmetz, R. Doubek, P. Mayer, S. Dobner, C. Cleff, M. Fischer, and R. Holzwarth, “All polarization-maintaining fiber laser architecture for robust femtosecond pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 123(1), 41 (2017).
[Crossref]

Metcalf, A. J.

Michaud-Belleau, V.

A. Tourigny-Plante, V. Michaud-Belleau, N. Bourbeau Hébert, H. Bergeron, J. Genest, and J.-D. Deschênes, “An open and flexible digital phase-locked loop for optical metrology,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 89(9), 093103 (2018).
[Crossref]

Minoshima, K.

Miyazawa, H.

Y. Nishida, H. Miyazawa, M. Asobe, O. Tadanaga, and H. Suzuki, “Direct-bonded qpm-ln ridge waveguide with high damage resistance at room temperature,” Electron. Lett. 39(7), 609–611 (2003).
[Crossref]

Monson, A.

Murphy, M. T.

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, and T. Udem, “Laser frequency combs for astronomical observations,” Science 321(5894), 1335–1337 (2008).
[Crossref]

Nader, N.

Nelson, C.

D. Herman, S. Droste, E. Baumann, J. Roslund, D. Churin, A. Cingoz, J.-D. Deschênes, I. H. Khader, W. C. Swann, C. Nelson, N. R. Newbury, and I. Coddington, “Femtosecond timekeeping: Slip-free clockwork for optical timescales,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 9(4), 044002 (2018).
[Crossref]

Nenadovic, L.

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, L. Nenadovic, and N. R. Newbury, “Rapid and precise absolute distance measurements at long range,” Nat. Photonics 3(6), 351–356 (2009).
[Crossref]

Newbury, N.

Newbury, N. R.

D. Herman, S. Droste, E. Baumann, J. Roslund, D. Churin, A. Cingoz, J.-D. Deschênes, I. H. Khader, W. C. Swann, C. Nelson, N. R. Newbury, and I. Coddington, “Femtosecond timekeeping: Slip-free clockwork for optical timescales,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 9(4), 044002 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. T. Spencer, T. Drake, T. C. Briles, J. Stone, L. C. Sinclair, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, A. Bluestone, N. Volet, T. Komljenovic, L. Chang, S. H. Lee, D. Y. Oh, M.-G. Suh, K. Y. Yang, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, T. J. Kippenberg, E. Norberg, L. Theogarajan, K. Vahala, N. R. Newbury, K. Srinivasan, J. E. Bowers, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “An optical-frequency synthesizer using integrated photonics,” Nature 557(7703), 81–85 (2018).
[Crossref]

G.-W. Truong, E. M. Waxman, K. C. Cossel, E. Baumann, A. Klose, F. R. Giorgetta, W. C. Swann, N. R. Newbury, and I. Coddington, “Accurate frequency referencing for fieldable dual-comb spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 24(26), 30495–30504 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. C. Sinclair, J.-D. Deschênes, L. Sonderhouse, W. C. Swann, I. H. Khader, E. Baumann, N. R. Newbury, and I. Coddington, “Invited article: A compact optically coherent fiber frequency comb,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 86(8), 081301 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. C. Sinclair, I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, G. B. Rieker, A. Hati, K. Iwakuni, and N. R. Newbury, “Operation of an optically coherent frequency comb outside the metrology lab,” Opt. Express 22(6), 6996–7006 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. R. Giorgetta, W. C. Swann, L. C. Sinclair, E. Baumann, I. Coddington, and N. R. Newbury, “Optical two-way time and frequency transfer over free space,” Nat. Photonics 7(6), 434–438 (2013).
[Crossref]

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, L. Nenadovic, and N. R. Newbury, “Rapid and precise absolute distance measurements at long range,” Nat. Photonics 3(6), 351–356 (2009).
[Crossref]

B. R. Washburn, S. A. Diddams, N. R. Newbury, J. W. Nicholson, M. F. Yan, and C. G. Jørgensen, “Phase-locked, erbium-fiber-laser-based frequency comb in the near infrared,” Opt. Lett. 29(3), 250–252 (2004).
[Crossref]

Newman, Z. L.

Nicholson, J. W.

Ninan, J. P.

Nishida, Y.

Y. Nishida, H. Miyazawa, M. Asobe, O. Tadanaga, and H. Suzuki, “Direct-bonded qpm-ln ridge waveguide with high damage resistance at room temperature,” Electron. Lett. 39(7), 609–611 (2003).
[Crossref]

Nitroy, C.

Norberg, E.

D. T. Spencer, T. Drake, T. C. Briles, J. Stone, L. C. Sinclair, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, A. Bluestone, N. Volet, T. Komljenovic, L. Chang, S. H. Lee, D. Y. Oh, M.-G. Suh, K. Y. Yang, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, T. J. Kippenberg, E. Norberg, L. Theogarajan, K. Vahala, N. R. Newbury, K. Srinivasan, J. E. Bowers, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “An optical-frequency synthesizer using integrated photonics,” Nature 557(7703), 81–85 (2018).
[Crossref]

Oates, C. W.

S. A. Diddams, T. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, “An optical clock based on a single trapped 199hg+ ion,” Science 293(5531), 825–828 (2001).
[Crossref]

Oh, D. Y.

D. T. Spencer, T. Drake, T. C. Briles, J. Stone, L. C. Sinclair, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, A. Bluestone, N. Volet, T. Komljenovic, L. Chang, S. H. Lee, D. Y. Oh, M.-G. Suh, K. Y. Yang, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, T. J. Kippenberg, E. Norberg, L. Theogarajan, K. Vahala, N. R. Newbury, K. Srinivasan, J. E. Bowers, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “An optical-frequency synthesizer using integrated photonics,” Nature 557(7703), 81–85 (2018).
[Crossref]

Ohtsu, M.

M. Kourogi, T. Enami, and M. Ohtsu, “A monolithic optical frequency comb generator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 6(2), 214–217 (1994).
[Crossref]

Osterman, S.

Pan, Y.

Papp, S. B.

A. J. Metcalf, T. Anderson, C. F. Bender, S. Blakeslee, W. Brand, D. R. Carlson, W. D. Cochran, S. A. Diddams, M. Endl, C. Fredrick, S. Halverson, D. D. Hickstein, F. Hearty, J. Jennings, S. Kanodia, K. F. Kaplan, E. Levi, E. Lubar, S. Mahadevan, A. Monson, J. P. Ninan, C. Nitroy, S. Osterman, S. B. Papp, F. Quinlan, L. Ramsey, P. Robertson, A. Roy, C. Schwab, S. Sigurdsson, K. Srinivasan, G. Stefansson, D. A. Sterner, R. Terrien, A. Wolszczan, J. T. Wright, and G. Ycas, “Stellar spectroscopy in the near-infrared with a laser frequency comb,” Optica 6(2), 233–239 (2019).
[Crossref]

Z. L. Newman, V. Maurice, T. Drake, J. R. Stone, T. C. Briles, D. T. Spencer, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, B. Shen, M.-G. Suh, K. Y. Yang, C. Johnson, D. M. S. Johnson, L. Hollberg, K. J. Vahala, K. Srinivasan, S. A. Diddams, J. Kitching, S. B. Papp, and M. T. Hummon, “Architecture for the photonic integration of an optical atomic clock,” Optica 6(5), 680–685 (2019).
[Crossref]

H. Timmers, A. Kowligy, A. Lind, F. C. Cruz, N. Nader, M. Silfies, G. Ycas, T. K. Allison, P. G. Schunemann, S. B. Papp, and S. A. Diddams, “Molecular fingerprinting with bright, broadband infrared frequency combs,” Optica 5(6), 727–732 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. R. Carlson, D. D. Hickstein, W. Zhang, A. J. Metcalf, F. Quinlan, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “Ultrafast electro-optic light with subcycle control,” Science 361(6409), 1358–1363 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. T. Spencer, T. Drake, T. C. Briles, J. Stone, L. C. Sinclair, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, A. Bluestone, N. Volet, T. Komljenovic, L. Chang, S. H. Lee, D. Y. Oh, M.-G. Suh, K. Y. Yang, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, T. J. Kippenberg, E. Norberg, L. Theogarajan, K. Vahala, N. R. Newbury, K. Srinivasan, J. E. Bowers, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “An optical-frequency synthesizer using integrated photonics,” Nature 557(7703), 81–85 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. Bluestone, A. Jain, N. Volet, D. T. Spencer, S. B. Papp, S. A. Diddams, J. E. Bowers, and L. Theogarajan, “Heterodyne-based hybrid controller for wide dynamic range optoelectronic frequency synthesis,” Opt. Express 25(23), 29086–29097 (2017).
[Crossref]

Pasquini, L.

T. Wilken, G. L. Curto, R. A. Probst, T. Steinmetz, A. Manescau, L. Pasquini, J. I. González Hernández, R. Rebolo, T. W. Hänsch, T. Udem, and R. Holzwarth, “A spectrograph for exoplanet observations calibrated at the centimetre-per-second level,” Nature 485(7400), 611–614 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, and T. Udem, “Laser frequency combs for astronomical observations,” Science 321(5894), 1335–1337 (2008).
[Crossref]

Peik, E.

A. D. Ludlow, M. M. Boyd, J. Ye, E. Peik, and P. O. Schmidt, “Optical atomic clocks,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 87(2), 637–701 (2015).
[Crossref]

Petelski, T.

L. Cacciapuoti, M. de Angelis, M. Fattori, G. Lamporesi, T. Petelski, M. Prevedelli, J. Stuhler, and G. M. Tino, “Analog+digital phase and frequency detector for phase locking of diode lasers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76(5), 053111 (2005).
[Crossref]

Peters, A.

Pfeiffer, M. H. P.

D. T. Spencer, T. Drake, T. C. Briles, J. Stone, L. C. Sinclair, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, A. Bluestone, N. Volet, T. Komljenovic, L. Chang, S. H. Lee, D. Y. Oh, M.-G. Suh, K. Y. Yang, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, T. J. Kippenberg, E. Norberg, L. Theogarajan, K. Vahala, N. R. Newbury, K. Srinivasan, J. E. Bowers, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “An optical-frequency synthesizer using integrated photonics,” Nature 557(7703), 81–85 (2018).
[Crossref]

Picqué, N.

N. Picqué and T. W. Hänsch, “Frequency comb spectroscopy,” Nat. Photonics 13(3), 146–157 (2019).
[Crossref]

T. Ideguchi, A. Poisson, G. Guelachvili, N. Picqué, and T. W. Hänsch, “Adaptive real-time dual-comb spectroscopy,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 3375 (2014).
[Crossref]

Poisson, A.

T. Ideguchi, A. Poisson, G. Guelachvili, N. Picqué, and T. W. Hänsch, “Adaptive real-time dual-comb spectroscopy,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 3375 (2014).
[Crossref]

Popovic, Z. B.

L. D’Evelyn, L. Hollberg, and Z. B. Popovic, “A cpw phase-locked loop for diode-laser stabilization,” in 1994 IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium Digest (Cat. No.94CH3389-4), (1994), pp. 65–68 vol.1.

Pottie, P.-E.

O. Lopez, A. Kanj, P.-E. Pottie, D. Rovera, J. Achkar, C. Chardonnet, A. Amy-Klein, and G. Santarelli, “Simultaneous remote transfer of accurate timing and optical frequency over a public fiber network,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 110(1), 3–6 (2013).
[Crossref]

Predehl, K.

K. Predehl, G. Grosche, S. M. F. Raupach, S. Droste, O. Terra, J. Alnis, T. Legero, T. W. Hänsch, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and H. Schnatz, “A 920-kilometer optical fiber link for frequency metrology at the 19th decimal place,” Science 336(6080), 441–444 (2012).
[Crossref]

Prevedelli, M.

L. Cacciapuoti, M. de Angelis, M. Fattori, G. Lamporesi, T. Petelski, M. Prevedelli, J. Stuhler, and G. M. Tino, “Analog+digital phase and frequency detector for phase locking of diode lasers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76(5), 053111 (2005).
[Crossref]

Probst, R. A.

T. Wilken, G. L. Curto, R. A. Probst, T. Steinmetz, A. Manescau, L. Pasquini, J. I. González Hernández, R. Rebolo, T. W. Hänsch, T. Udem, and R. Holzwarth, “A spectrograph for exoplanet observations calibrated at the centimetre-per-second level,” Nature 485(7400), 611–614 (2012).
[Crossref]

Quinlan, F.

Ramsey, L.

Ranka, J. K.

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 thz femtosecond laser comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(22), 5102–5105 (2000).
[Crossref]

Raupach, S. M. F.

K. Predehl, G. Grosche, S. M. F. Raupach, S. Droste, O. Terra, J. Alnis, T. Legero, T. W. Hänsch, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and H. Schnatz, “A 920-kilometer optical fiber link for frequency metrology at the 19th decimal place,” Science 336(6080), 441–444 (2012).
[Crossref]

Rauschenberger, J.

C. Gohle, T. Udem, M. Herrmann, J. Rauschenberger, R. Holzwarth, H. A. Schuessler, F. Krausz, and T. W. Hänsch, “A frequency comb in the extreme ultraviolet,” Nature 436(7048), 234–237 (2005).
[Crossref]

Rebolo, R.

T. Wilken, G. L. Curto, R. A. Probst, T. Steinmetz, A. Manescau, L. Pasquini, J. I. González Hernández, R. Rebolo, T. W. Hänsch, T. Udem, and R. Holzwarth, “A spectrograph for exoplanet observations calibrated at the centimetre-per-second level,” Nature 485(7400), 611–614 (2012).
[Crossref]

Reichert, J.

J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. Hänsch, “Measuring the frequency of light with mode-locked lasers,” Opt. Commun. 172(1-6), 59–68 (1999).
[Crossref]

Reid, D. T.

Rieker, G. B.

Robertson, P.

Rosenband, T.

Roslund, J.

D. Herman, S. Droste, E. Baumann, J. Roslund, D. Churin, A. Cingoz, J.-D. Deschênes, I. H. Khader, W. C. Swann, C. Nelson, N. R. Newbury, and I. Coddington, “Femtosecond timekeeping: Slip-free clockwork for optical timescales,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 9(4), 044002 (2018).
[Crossref]

Rovera, D.

O. Lopez, A. Kanj, P.-E. Pottie, D. Rovera, J. Achkar, C. Chardonnet, A. Amy-Klein, and G. Santarelli, “Simultaneous remote transfer of accurate timing and optical frequency over a public fiber network,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 110(1), 3–6 (2013).
[Crossref]

Roy, A.

Ruehl, A.

A. Cingöz, D. C. Yost, T. K. Allison, A. Ruehl, M. E. Fermann, I. Hartl, and J. Ye, “Direct frequency comb spectroscopy in the extreme ultraviolet,” Nature 482(7383), 68–71 (2012).
[Crossref]

Santarelli, G.

O. Lopez, A. Kanj, P.-E. Pottie, D. Rovera, J. Achkar, C. Chardonnet, A. Amy-Klein, and G. Santarelli, “Simultaneous remote transfer of accurate timing and optical frequency over a public fiber network,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 110(1), 3–6 (2013).
[Crossref]

Schiemangk, M.

Schkolnik, V.

Schliesser, A.

P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator,” Nature 450(7173), 1214–1217 (2007).
[Crossref]

A. Schliesser, M. Brehm, F. Keilmann, and D. W. van der Weide, “Frequency-comb infrared spectrometer for rapid, remote chemical sensing,” Opt. Express 13(22), 9029–9038 (2005).
[Crossref]

Schmid, S.

W. Hänsel, H. Hoogland, M. Giunta, S. Schmid, T. Steinmetz, R. Doubek, P. Mayer, S. Dobner, C. Cleff, M. Fischer, and R. Holzwarth, “All polarization-maintaining fiber laser architecture for robust femtosecond pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 123(1), 41 (2017).
[Crossref]

Schmidt, P. O.

A. D. Ludlow, M. M. Boyd, J. Ye, E. Peik, and P. O. Schmidt, “Optical atomic clocks,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 87(2), 637–701 (2015).
[Crossref]

Schmidt, W.

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, and T. Udem, “Laser frequency combs for astronomical observations,” Science 321(5894), 1335–1337 (2008).
[Crossref]

Schmiegelow, C. T.

M. A. Luda, M. Drechsler, C. T. Schmiegelow, and J. Codnia, “Compact embedded device for lock-in measurements and experiment active control,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 90(2), 023106 (2019).
[Crossref]

Schnatz, H.

K. Predehl, G. Grosche, S. M. F. Raupach, S. Droste, O. Terra, J. Alnis, T. Legero, T. W. Hänsch, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and H. Schnatz, “A 920-kilometer optical fiber link for frequency metrology at the 19th decimal place,” Science 336(6080), 441–444 (2012).
[Crossref]

Schuessler, H. A.

C. Gohle, T. Udem, M. Herrmann, J. Rauschenberger, R. Holzwarth, H. A. Schuessler, F. Krausz, and T. W. Hänsch, “A frequency comb in the extreme ultraviolet,” Nature 436(7048), 234–237 (2005).
[Crossref]

Schunemann, P. G.

A. S. Kowligy, H. Timmers, A. J. Lind, U. Elu, F. C. Cruz, P. G. Schunemann, J. Biegert, and S. A. Diddams, “Infrared electric field sampled frequency comb spectroscopy,” Sci. Adv. 5(6), eaaw8794 (2019).
[Crossref]

H. Timmers, A. Kowligy, A. Lind, F. C. Cruz, N. Nader, M. Silfies, G. Ycas, T. K. Allison, P. G. Schunemann, S. B. Papp, and S. A. Diddams, “Molecular fingerprinting with bright, broadband infrared frequency combs,” Optica 5(6), 727–732 (2018).
[Crossref]

Schwab, C.

Sengstock, K.

Shen, B.

Sigurdsson, S.

Silfies, M.

Sinclair, L. C.

D. T. Spencer, T. Drake, T. C. Briles, J. Stone, L. C. Sinclair, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, A. Bluestone, N. Volet, T. Komljenovic, L. Chang, S. H. Lee, D. Y. Oh, M.-G. Suh, K. Y. Yang, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, T. J. Kippenberg, E. Norberg, L. Theogarajan, K. Vahala, N. R. Newbury, K. Srinivasan, J. E. Bowers, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “An optical-frequency synthesizer using integrated photonics,” Nature 557(7703), 81–85 (2018).
[Crossref]

L. C. Sinclair, J.-D. Deschênes, L. Sonderhouse, W. C. Swann, I. H. Khader, E. Baumann, N. R. Newbury, and I. Coddington, “Invited article: A compact optically coherent fiber frequency comb,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 86(8), 081301 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. C. Sinclair, I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, G. B. Rieker, A. Hati, K. Iwakuni, and N. R. Newbury, “Operation of an optically coherent frequency comb outside the metrology lab,” Opt. Express 22(6), 6996–7006 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. R. Giorgetta, W. C. Swann, L. C. Sinclair, E. Baumann, I. Coddington, and N. R. Newbury, “Optical two-way time and frequency transfer over free space,” Nat. Photonics 7(6), 434–438 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sonderhouse, L.

L. C. Sinclair, J.-D. Deschênes, L. Sonderhouse, W. C. Swann, I. H. Khader, E. Baumann, N. R. Newbury, and I. Coddington, “Invited article: A compact optically coherent fiber frequency comb,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 86(8), 081301 (2015).
[Crossref]

Spencer, D. T.

Z. L. Newman, V. Maurice, T. Drake, J. R. Stone, T. C. Briles, D. T. Spencer, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, B. Shen, M.-G. Suh, K. Y. Yang, C. Johnson, D. M. S. Johnson, L. Hollberg, K. J. Vahala, K. Srinivasan, S. A. Diddams, J. Kitching, S. B. Papp, and M. T. Hummon, “Architecture for the photonic integration of an optical atomic clock,” Optica 6(5), 680–685 (2019).
[Crossref]

D. T. Spencer, T. Drake, T. C. Briles, J. Stone, L. C. Sinclair, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, A. Bluestone, N. Volet, T. Komljenovic, L. Chang, S. H. Lee, D. Y. Oh, M.-G. Suh, K. Y. Yang, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, T. J. Kippenberg, E. Norberg, L. Theogarajan, K. Vahala, N. R. Newbury, K. Srinivasan, J. E. Bowers, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “An optical-frequency synthesizer using integrated photonics,” Nature 557(7703), 81–85 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. Bluestone, A. Jain, N. Volet, D. T. Spencer, S. B. Papp, S. A. Diddams, J. E. Bowers, and L. Theogarajan, “Heterodyne-based hybrid controller for wide dynamic range optoelectronic frequency synthesis,” Opt. Express 25(23), 29086–29097 (2017).
[Crossref]

Srinivasan, K.

Stefansson, G.

Steinmetz, T.

W. Hänsel, H. Hoogland, M. Giunta, S. Schmid, T. Steinmetz, R. Doubek, P. Mayer, S. Dobner, C. Cleff, M. Fischer, and R. Holzwarth, “All polarization-maintaining fiber laser architecture for robust femtosecond pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 123(1), 41 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. Wilken, G. L. Curto, R. A. Probst, T. Steinmetz, A. Manescau, L. Pasquini, J. I. González Hernández, R. Rebolo, T. W. Hänsch, T. Udem, and R. Holzwarth, “A spectrograph for exoplanet observations calibrated at the centimetre-per-second level,” Nature 485(7400), 611–614 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, and T. Udem, “Laser frequency combs for astronomical observations,” Science 321(5894), 1335–1337 (2008).
[Crossref]

Sterner, D. A.

Stone, J.

D. T. Spencer, T. Drake, T. C. Briles, J. Stone, L. C. Sinclair, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, A. Bluestone, N. Volet, T. Komljenovic, L. Chang, S. H. Lee, D. Y. Oh, M.-G. Suh, K. Y. Yang, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, T. J. Kippenberg, E. Norberg, L. Theogarajan, K. Vahala, N. R. Newbury, K. Srinivasan, J. E. Bowers, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “An optical-frequency synthesizer using integrated photonics,” Nature 557(7703), 81–85 (2018).
[Crossref]

Stone, J. R.

Stuhler, J.

L. Cacciapuoti, M. de Angelis, M. Fattori, G. Lamporesi, T. Petelski, M. Prevedelli, J. Stuhler, and G. M. Tino, “Analog+digital phase and frequency detector for phase locking of diode lasers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76(5), 053111 (2005).
[Crossref]

Suh, M.-G.

Z. L. Newman, V. Maurice, T. Drake, J. R. Stone, T. C. Briles, D. T. Spencer, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, B. Shen, M.-G. Suh, K. Y. Yang, C. Johnson, D. M. S. Johnson, L. Hollberg, K. J. Vahala, K. Srinivasan, S. A. Diddams, J. Kitching, S. B. Papp, and M. T. Hummon, “Architecture for the photonic integration of an optical atomic clock,” Optica 6(5), 680–685 (2019).
[Crossref]

D. T. Spencer, T. Drake, T. C. Briles, J. Stone, L. C. Sinclair, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, A. Bluestone, N. Volet, T. Komljenovic, L. Chang, S. H. Lee, D. Y. Oh, M.-G. Suh, K. Y. Yang, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, T. J. Kippenberg, E. Norberg, L. Theogarajan, K. Vahala, N. R. Newbury, K. Srinivasan, J. E. Bowers, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “An optical-frequency synthesizer using integrated photonics,” Nature 557(7703), 81–85 (2018).
[Crossref]

Suzuki, H.

Y. Nishida, H. Miyazawa, M. Asobe, O. Tadanaga, and H. Suzuki, “Direct-bonded qpm-ln ridge waveguide with high damage resistance at room temperature,” Electron. Lett. 39(7), 609–611 (2003).
[Crossref]

Swann, W.

Swann, W. C.

D. Herman, S. Droste, E. Baumann, J. Roslund, D. Churin, A. Cingoz, J.-D. Deschênes, I. H. Khader, W. C. Swann, C. Nelson, N. R. Newbury, and I. Coddington, “Femtosecond timekeeping: Slip-free clockwork for optical timescales,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 9(4), 044002 (2018).
[Crossref]

G.-W. Truong, E. M. Waxman, K. C. Cossel, E. Baumann, A. Klose, F. R. Giorgetta, W. C. Swann, N. R. Newbury, and I. Coddington, “Accurate frequency referencing for fieldable dual-comb spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 24(26), 30495–30504 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. C. Sinclair, J.-D. Deschênes, L. Sonderhouse, W. C. Swann, I. H. Khader, E. Baumann, N. R. Newbury, and I. Coddington, “Invited article: A compact optically coherent fiber frequency comb,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 86(8), 081301 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. C. Sinclair, I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, G. B. Rieker, A. Hati, K. Iwakuni, and N. R. Newbury, “Operation of an optically coherent frequency comb outside the metrology lab,” Opt. Express 22(6), 6996–7006 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. R. Giorgetta, W. C. Swann, L. C. Sinclair, E. Baumann, I. Coddington, and N. R. Newbury, “Optical two-way time and frequency transfer over free space,” Nat. Photonics 7(6), 434–438 (2013).
[Crossref]

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, L. Nenadovic, and N. R. Newbury, “Rapid and precise absolute distance measurements at long range,” Nat. Photonics 3(6), 351–356 (2009).
[Crossref]

Tadanaga, O.

Y. Nishida, H. Miyazawa, M. Asobe, O. Tadanaga, and H. Suzuki, “Direct-bonded qpm-ln ridge waveguide with high damage resistance at room temperature,” Electron. Lett. 39(7), 609–611 (2003).
[Crossref]

Terra, O.

K. Predehl, G. Grosche, S. M. F. Raupach, S. Droste, O. Terra, J. Alnis, T. Legero, T. W. Hänsch, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and H. Schnatz, “A 920-kilometer optical fiber link for frequency metrology at the 19th decimal place,” Science 336(6080), 441–444 (2012).
[Crossref]

Terrien, R.

Thaller, A.

Theogarajan, L.

D. T. Spencer, T. Drake, T. C. Briles, J. Stone, L. C. Sinclair, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, A. Bluestone, N. Volet, T. Komljenovic, L. Chang, S. H. Lee, D. Y. Oh, M.-G. Suh, K. Y. Yang, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, T. J. Kippenberg, E. Norberg, L. Theogarajan, K. Vahala, N. R. Newbury, K. Srinivasan, J. E. Bowers, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “An optical-frequency synthesizer using integrated photonics,” Nature 557(7703), 81–85 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. Bluestone, A. Jain, N. Volet, D. T. Spencer, S. B. Papp, S. A. Diddams, J. E. Bowers, and L. Theogarajan, “Heterodyne-based hybrid controller for wide dynamic range optoelectronic frequency synthesis,” Opt. Express 25(23), 29086–29097 (2017).
[Crossref]

Thorpe, M. J.

Timmers, H.

A. S. Kowligy, H. Timmers, A. J. Lind, U. Elu, F. C. Cruz, P. G. Schunemann, J. Biegert, and S. A. Diddams, “Infrared electric field sampled frequency comb spectroscopy,” Sci. Adv. 5(6), eaaw8794 (2019).
[Crossref]

H. Timmers, A. Kowligy, A. Lind, F. C. Cruz, N. Nader, M. Silfies, G. Ycas, T. K. Allison, P. G. Schunemann, S. B. Papp, and S. A. Diddams, “Molecular fingerprinting with bright, broadband infrared frequency combs,” Optica 5(6), 727–732 (2018).
[Crossref]

Tino, G. M.

L. Cacciapuoti, M. de Angelis, M. Fattori, G. Lamporesi, T. Petelski, M. Prevedelli, J. Stuhler, and G. M. Tino, “Analog+digital phase and frequency detector for phase locking of diode lasers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76(5), 053111 (2005).
[Crossref]

Tourigny-Plante, A.

A. Tourigny-Plante, V. Michaud-Belleau, N. Bourbeau Hébert, H. Bergeron, J. Genest, and J.-D. Deschênes, “An open and flexible digital phase-locked loop for optical metrology,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 89(9), 093103 (2018).
[Crossref]

Truong, G.-W.

Udem, T.

K. Predehl, G. Grosche, S. M. F. Raupach, S. Droste, O. Terra, J. Alnis, T. Legero, T. W. Hänsch, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and H. Schnatz, “A 920-kilometer optical fiber link for frequency metrology at the 19th decimal place,” Science 336(6080), 441–444 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Wilken, G. L. Curto, R. A. Probst, T. Steinmetz, A. Manescau, L. Pasquini, J. I. González Hernández, R. Rebolo, T. W. Hänsch, T. Udem, and R. Holzwarth, “A spectrograph for exoplanet observations calibrated at the centimetre-per-second level,” Nature 485(7400), 611–614 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, and T. Udem, “Laser frequency combs for astronomical observations,” Science 321(5894), 1335–1337 (2008).
[Crossref]

C. Gohle, T. Udem, M. Herrmann, J. Rauschenberger, R. Holzwarth, H. A. Schuessler, F. Krausz, and T. W. Hänsch, “A frequency comb in the extreme ultraviolet,” Nature 436(7048), 234–237 (2005).
[Crossref]

T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, “Optical frequency metrology,” Nature 416(6877), 233–237 (2002).
[Crossref]

S. A. Diddams, T. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, “An optical clock based on a single trapped 199hg+ ion,” Science 293(5531), 825–828 (2001).
[Crossref]

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 thz femtosecond laser comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(22), 5102–5105 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. Hänsch, “Measuring the frequency of light with mode-locked lasers,” Opt. Commun. 172(1-6), 59–68 (1999).
[Crossref]

Vahala, K.

D. T. Spencer, T. Drake, T. C. Briles, J. Stone, L. C. Sinclair, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, A. Bluestone, N. Volet, T. Komljenovic, L. Chang, S. H. Lee, D. Y. Oh, M.-G. Suh, K. Y. Yang, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, T. J. Kippenberg, E. Norberg, L. Theogarajan, K. Vahala, N. R. Newbury, K. Srinivasan, J. E. Bowers, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “An optical-frequency synthesizer using integrated photonics,” Nature 557(7703), 81–85 (2018).
[Crossref]

Vahala, K. J.

van der Weide, D. W.

Vogel, K. R.

S. A. Diddams, T. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, “An optical clock based on a single trapped 199hg+ ion,” Science 293(5531), 825–828 (2001).
[Crossref]

Volet, N.

D. T. Spencer, T. Drake, T. C. Briles, J. Stone, L. C. Sinclair, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, A. Bluestone, N. Volet, T. Komljenovic, L. Chang, S. H. Lee, D. Y. Oh, M.-G. Suh, K. Y. Yang, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, T. J. Kippenberg, E. Norberg, L. Theogarajan, K. Vahala, N. R. Newbury, K. Srinivasan, J. E. Bowers, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “An optical-frequency synthesizer using integrated photonics,” Nature 557(7703), 81–85 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. Bluestone, A. Jain, N. Volet, D. T. Spencer, S. B. Papp, S. A. Diddams, J. E. Bowers, and L. Theogarajan, “Heterodyne-based hybrid controller for wide dynamic range optoelectronic frequency synthesis,” Opt. Express 25(23), 29086–29097 (2017).
[Crossref]

Washburn, B. R.

Waxman, E. M.

Westly, D.

Z. L. Newman, V. Maurice, T. Drake, J. R. Stone, T. C. Briles, D. T. Spencer, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, B. Shen, M.-G. Suh, K. Y. Yang, C. Johnson, D. M. S. Johnson, L. Hollberg, K. J. Vahala, K. Srinivasan, S. A. Diddams, J. Kitching, S. B. Papp, and M. T. Hummon, “Architecture for the photonic integration of an optical atomic clock,” Optica 6(5), 680–685 (2019).
[Crossref]

D. T. Spencer, T. Drake, T. C. Briles, J. Stone, L. C. Sinclair, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, A. Bluestone, N. Volet, T. Komljenovic, L. Chang, S. H. Lee, D. Y. Oh, M.-G. Suh, K. Y. Yang, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, T. J. Kippenberg, E. Norberg, L. Theogarajan, K. Vahala, N. R. Newbury, K. Srinivasan, J. E. Bowers, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “An optical-frequency synthesizer using integrated photonics,” Nature 557(7703), 81–85 (2018).
[Crossref]

Wicht, A.

Wilken, T.

M. Lezius, T. Wilken, C. Deutsch, M. Giunta, O. Mandel, A. Thaller, V. Schkolnik, M. Schiemangk, A. Dinkelaker, A. Kohfeldt, A. Wicht, M. Krutzik, A. Peters, O. Hellmig, H. Duncker, K. Sengstock, P. Windpassinger, K. Lampmann, T. Hülsing, T. W. Hänsch, and R. Holzwarth, “Space-borne frequency comb metrology,” Optica 3(12), 1381–1387 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Wilken, G. L. Curto, R. A. Probst, T. Steinmetz, A. Manescau, L. Pasquini, J. I. González Hernández, R. Rebolo, T. W. Hänsch, T. Udem, and R. Holzwarth, “A spectrograph for exoplanet observations calibrated at the centimetre-per-second level,” Nature 485(7400), 611–614 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, and T. Udem, “Laser frequency combs for astronomical observations,” Science 321(5894), 1335–1337 (2008).
[Crossref]

P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator,” Nature 450(7173), 1214–1217 (2007).
[Crossref]

Windeler, R. S.

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 thz femtosecond laser comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(22), 5102–5105 (2000).
[Crossref]

Windpassinger, P.

Wineland, D. J.

S. A. Diddams, T. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, “An optical clock based on a single trapped 199hg+ ion,” Science 293(5531), 825–828 (2001).
[Crossref]

Wolszczan, A.

Wright, J. T.

Yan, M. F.

Yang, K. Y.

Z. L. Newman, V. Maurice, T. Drake, J. R. Stone, T. C. Briles, D. T. Spencer, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, B. Shen, M.-G. Suh, K. Y. Yang, C. Johnson, D. M. S. Johnson, L. Hollberg, K. J. Vahala, K. Srinivasan, S. A. Diddams, J. Kitching, S. B. Papp, and M. T. Hummon, “Architecture for the photonic integration of an optical atomic clock,” Optica 6(5), 680–685 (2019).
[Crossref]

D. T. Spencer, T. Drake, T. C. Briles, J. Stone, L. C. Sinclair, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, A. Bluestone, N. Volet, T. Komljenovic, L. Chang, S. H. Lee, D. Y. Oh, M.-G. Suh, K. Y. Yang, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, T. J. Kippenberg, E. Norberg, L. Theogarajan, K. Vahala, N. R. Newbury, K. Srinivasan, J. E. Bowers, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “An optical-frequency synthesizer using integrated photonics,” Nature 557(7703), 81–85 (2018).
[Crossref]

Yasui, T.

Ycas, G.

Ye, J.

A. D. Ludlow, M. M. Boyd, J. Ye, E. Peik, and P. O. Schmidt, “Optical atomic clocks,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 87(2), 637–701 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Cingöz, D. C. Yost, T. K. Allison, A. Ruehl, M. E. Fermann, I. Hartl, and J. Ye, “Direct frequency comb spectroscopy in the extreme ultraviolet,” Nature 482(7383), 68–71 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 thz femtosecond laser comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(22), 5102–5105 (2000).
[Crossref]

Yost, D. C.

A. Cingöz, D. C. Yost, T. K. Allison, A. Ruehl, M. E. Fermann, I. Hartl, and J. Ye, “Direct frequency comb spectroscopy in the extreme ultraviolet,” Nature 482(7383), 68–71 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhang, W.

D. R. Carlson, D. D. Hickstein, W. Zhang, A. J. Metcalf, F. Quinlan, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “Ultrafast electro-optic light with subcycle control,” Science 361(6409), 1358–1363 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Z.

Zhao, B.

Zhao, X.

Zheng, Z.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. (2)

W. Hänsel, H. Hoogland, M. Giunta, S. Schmid, T. Steinmetz, R. Doubek, P. Mayer, S. Dobner, C. Cleff, M. Fischer, and R. Holzwarth, “All polarization-maintaining fiber laser architecture for robust femtosecond pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 123(1), 41 (2017).
[Crossref]

O. Lopez, A. Kanj, P.-E. Pottie, D. Rovera, J. Achkar, C. Chardonnet, A. Amy-Klein, and G. Santarelli, “Simultaneous remote transfer of accurate timing and optical frequency over a public fiber network,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 110(1), 3–6 (2013).
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (1)

Y. Nishida, H. Miyazawa, M. Asobe, O. Tadanaga, and H. Suzuki, “Direct-bonded qpm-ln ridge waveguide with high damage resistance at room temperature,” Electron. Lett. 39(7), 609–611 (2003).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

M. Kourogi, T. Enami, and M. Ohtsu, “A monolithic optical frequency comb generator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 6(2), 214–217 (1994).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Nat. Commun. (1)

T. Ideguchi, A. Poisson, G. Guelachvili, N. Picqué, and T. W. Hänsch, “Adaptive real-time dual-comb spectroscopy,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 3375 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (3)

F. R. Giorgetta, W. C. Swann, L. C. Sinclair, E. Baumann, I. Coddington, and N. R. Newbury, “Optical two-way time and frequency transfer over free space,” Nat. Photonics 7(6), 434–438 (2013).
[Crossref]

N. Picqué and T. W. Hänsch, “Frequency comb spectroscopy,” Nat. Photonics 13(3), 146–157 (2019).
[Crossref]

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, L. Nenadovic, and N. R. Newbury, “Rapid and precise absolute distance measurements at long range,” Nat. Photonics 3(6), 351–356 (2009).
[Crossref]

Nature (6)

T. Wilken, G. L. Curto, R. A. Probst, T. Steinmetz, A. Manescau, L. Pasquini, J. I. González Hernández, R. Rebolo, T. W. Hänsch, T. Udem, and R. Holzwarth, “A spectrograph for exoplanet observations calibrated at the centimetre-per-second level,” Nature 485(7400), 611–614 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. Gohle, T. Udem, M. Herrmann, J. Rauschenberger, R. Holzwarth, H. A. Schuessler, F. Krausz, and T. W. Hänsch, “A frequency comb in the extreme ultraviolet,” Nature 436(7048), 234–237 (2005).
[Crossref]

A. Cingöz, D. C. Yost, T. K. Allison, A. Ruehl, M. E. Fermann, I. Hartl, and J. Ye, “Direct frequency comb spectroscopy in the extreme ultraviolet,” Nature 482(7383), 68–71 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator,” Nature 450(7173), 1214–1217 (2007).
[Crossref]

D. T. Spencer, T. Drake, T. C. Briles, J. Stone, L. C. Sinclair, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, A. Bluestone, N. Volet, T. Komljenovic, L. Chang, S. H. Lee, D. Y. Oh, M.-G. Suh, K. Y. Yang, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, T. J. Kippenberg, E. Norberg, L. Theogarajan, K. Vahala, N. R. Newbury, K. Srinivasan, J. E. Bowers, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “An optical-frequency synthesizer using integrated photonics,” Nature 557(7703), 81–85 (2018).
[Crossref]

T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, “Optical frequency metrology,” Nature 416(6877), 233–237 (2002).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (1)

J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. Hänsch, “Measuring the frequency of light with mode-locked lasers,” Opt. Commun. 172(1-6), 59–68 (1999).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (7)

D. R. Leibrandt, M. J. Thorpe, J. C. Bergquist, and T. Rosenband, “Field-test of a robust, portable, frequency-stable laser,” Opt. Express 19(11), 10278–10286 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Schliesser, M. Brehm, F. Keilmann, and D. W. van der Weide, “Frequency-comb infrared spectrometer for rapid, remote chemical sensing,” Opt. Express 13(22), 9029–9038 (2005).
[Crossref]

J.-D. Deschênes, P. Giaccari, and J. Genest, “Optical referencing technique with cw lasers as intermediate oscillators for continuous full delay range frequency comb interferometry,” Opt. Express 18(22), 23358–23370 (2010).
[Crossref]

L. C. Sinclair, I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, G. B. Rieker, A. Hati, K. Iwakuni, and N. R. Newbury, “Operation of an optically coherent frequency comb outside the metrology lab,” Opt. Express 22(6), 6996–7006 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. Zhao, G. Hu, B. Zhao, C. Li, Y. Pan, Y. Liu, T. Yasui, and Z. Zheng, “Picometer-resolution dual-comb spectroscopy with a free-running fiber laser,” Opt. Express 24(19), 21833–21845 (2016).
[Crossref]

G.-W. Truong, E. M. Waxman, K. C. Cossel, E. Baumann, A. Klose, F. R. Giorgetta, W. C. Swann, N. R. Newbury, and I. Coddington, “Accurate frequency referencing for fieldable dual-comb spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 24(26), 30495–30504 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Bluestone, A. Jain, N. Volet, D. T. Spencer, S. B. Papp, S. A. Diddams, J. E. Bowers, and L. Theogarajan, “Heterodyne-based hybrid controller for wide dynamic range optoelectronic frequency synthesis,” Opt. Express 25(23), 29086–29097 (2017).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Optica (5)

M. Lezius, T. Wilken, C. Deutsch, M. Giunta, O. Mandel, A. Thaller, V. Schkolnik, M. Schiemangk, A. Dinkelaker, A. Kohfeldt, A. Wicht, M. Krutzik, A. Peters, O. Hellmig, H. Duncker, K. Sengstock, P. Windpassinger, K. Lampmann, T. Hülsing, T. W. Hänsch, and R. Holzwarth, “Space-borne frequency comb metrology,” Optica 3(12), 1381–1387 (2016).
[Crossref]

I. Coddington, N. Newbury, and W. Swann, “Dual-comb spectroscopy,” Optica 3(4), 414–426 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Timmers, A. Kowligy, A. Lind, F. C. Cruz, N. Nader, M. Silfies, G. Ycas, T. K. Allison, P. G. Schunemann, S. B. Papp, and S. A. Diddams, “Molecular fingerprinting with bright, broadband infrared frequency combs,” Optica 5(6), 727–732 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. J. Metcalf, T. Anderson, C. F. Bender, S. Blakeslee, W. Brand, D. R. Carlson, W. D. Cochran, S. A. Diddams, M. Endl, C. Fredrick, S. Halverson, D. D. Hickstein, F. Hearty, J. Jennings, S. Kanodia, K. F. Kaplan, E. Levi, E. Lubar, S. Mahadevan, A. Monson, J. P. Ninan, C. Nitroy, S. Osterman, S. B. Papp, F. Quinlan, L. Ramsey, P. Robertson, A. Roy, C. Schwab, S. Sigurdsson, K. Srinivasan, G. Stefansson, D. A. Sterner, R. Terrien, A. Wolszczan, J. T. Wright, and G. Ycas, “Stellar spectroscopy in the near-infrared with a laser frequency comb,” Optica 6(2), 233–239 (2019).
[Crossref]

Z. L. Newman, V. Maurice, T. Drake, J. R. Stone, T. C. Briles, D. T. Spencer, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, B. Shen, M.-G. Suh, K. Y. Yang, C. Johnson, D. M. S. Johnson, L. Hollberg, K. J. Vahala, K. Srinivasan, S. A. Diddams, J. Kitching, S. B. Papp, and M. T. Hummon, “Architecture for the photonic integration of an optical atomic clock,” Optica 6(5), 680–685 (2019).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Appl. (1)

D. Herman, S. Droste, E. Baumann, J. Roslund, D. Churin, A. Cingoz, J.-D. Deschênes, I. H. Khader, W. C. Swann, C. Nelson, N. R. Newbury, and I. Coddington, “Femtosecond timekeeping: Slip-free clockwork for optical timescales,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 9(4), 044002 (2018).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 thz femtosecond laser comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(22), 5102–5105 (2000).
[Crossref]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (3)

A. D. Ludlow, M. M. Boyd, J. Ye, E. Peik, and P. O. Schmidt, “Optical atomic clocks,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 87(2), 637–701 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. L. Hall, “Nobel lecture: Defining and measuring optical frequencies,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78(4), 1279–1295 (2006).
[Crossref]

T. W. Hänsch, “Nobel lecture: Passion for precision,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78(4), 1297–1309 (2006).
[Crossref]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (5)

A. Tourigny-Plante, V. Michaud-Belleau, N. Bourbeau Hébert, H. Bergeron, J. Genest, and J.-D. Deschênes, “An open and flexible digital phase-locked loop for optical metrology,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 89(9), 093103 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. A. Luda, M. Drechsler, C. T. Schmiegelow, and J. Codnia, “Compact embedded device for lock-in measurements and experiment active control,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 90(2), 023106 (2019).
[Crossref]

L. Cacciapuoti, M. de Angelis, M. Fattori, G. Lamporesi, T. Petelski, M. Prevedelli, J. Stuhler, and G. M. Tino, “Analog+digital phase and frequency detector for phase locking of diode lasers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76(5), 053111 (2005).
[Crossref]

D. R. Leibrandt and J. Heidecker, “An open source digital servo for atomic, molecular, and optical physics experiments,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 86(12), 123115 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. C. Sinclair, J.-D. Deschênes, L. Sonderhouse, W. C. Swann, I. H. Khader, E. Baumann, N. R. Newbury, and I. Coddington, “Invited article: A compact optically coherent fiber frequency comb,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 86(8), 081301 (2015).
[Crossref]

Sci. Adv. (1)

A. S. Kowligy, H. Timmers, A. J. Lind, U. Elu, F. C. Cruz, P. G. Schunemann, J. Biegert, and S. A. Diddams, “Infrared electric field sampled frequency comb spectroscopy,” Sci. Adv. 5(6), eaaw8794 (2019).
[Crossref]

Science (6)

K. Predehl, G. Grosche, S. M. F. Raupach, S. Droste, O. Terra, J. Alnis, T. Legero, T. W. Hänsch, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and H. Schnatz, “A 920-kilometer optical fiber link for frequency metrology at the 19th decimal place,” Science 336(6080), 441–444 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. R. Carlson, D. D. Hickstein, W. Zhang, A. J. Metcalf, F. Quinlan, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “Ultrafast electro-optic light with subcycle control,” Science 361(6409), 1358–1363 (2018).
[Crossref]

T. J. Kippenberg, A. L. Gaeta, M. Lipson, and M. L. Gorodetsky, “Dissipative kerr solitons in optical microresonators,” Science 361(6402), eaan8083 (2018).
[Crossref]

T. J. Kippenberg, R. Holzwarth, and S. A. Diddams, “Microresonator-based optical frequency combs,” Science 332(6029), 555–559 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, and T. Udem, “Laser frequency combs for astronomical observations,” Science 321(5894), 1335–1337 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. A. Diddams, T. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, “An optical clock based on a single trapped 199hg+ ion,” Science 293(5531), 825–828 (2001).
[Crossref]

Other (5)

W. Hänsel, M. Giunta, M. Lezius, M. Fischer, and R. Holzwarth, “Electro-optic modulator for rapid control of the carrier-envelope offset frequency,” in 2017 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), (2017), pp. 1–2.

J.-D. Deschênes, Digital PLL code base, see https://github.com/jddes/Frequency-comb-DPLL .

L. D’Evelyn, L. Hollberg, and Z. B. Popovic, “A cpw phase-locked loop for diode-laser stabilization,” in 1994 IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium Digest (Cat. No.94CH3389-4), (1994), pp. 65–68 vol.1.

Known suppliers of digital laser control systems include: AOSense Inc., IMRA America, Inc., Menlo Systems GmbH, TOPTICA Photonics AG, and Vescent Photonics, LLC. We recognize this may only be a partial list, and other companies or vendors may be able to provide equivalent digital control systems.

Instrumentation Technologies, LLC, Red Pitaya, see https://www.redpitaya.com .

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) Block diagram showing the generation and detection of $f_{ceo}$ and $f_{beat}$. Femtosecond pulses from the laser are amplified in Erbium-doped fiber and compressed in PM-1550 fiber to produce an octave-spanning spectrum in HNLF. A free-space, dual-ridge, PPLN waveguide with poling periods optimized for second harmonic generation at 1005 nm doubles light at 2 µm to 1 µm. We detect $f_{ceo}$ at 1 µm, while 1550 nm supercontinuum light is mixed with light from a cavity-stabilized 1550 nm laser to produce $f_{beat}$. (b) Block diagram showing the electronics feedback chain used to lock $f_{ceo}$ and $f_{beat}$. EDFA: erbium-doped fiber amplifier, HNLF: highly non-linear fiber, PPLN: periodically-poled lithium niobate.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Supercontinuum produced in HNLF. Vertical boxes highlight portions of the octave-spanning spectrum used to produce the $f_{ceo}$ beatnote. To broaden sufficiently, we use 80 fs input pulses with ~1 nJ pulse energy and 56 cm of PM-HNLF with dispersion 5.7 ps/(nm km) and non-linearity 10.5 (W km)$^{-1}$.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Free-running beat notes measured at 300 kHz resolution bandwidth. a. The $f_{ceo}$ heterodyne shows 38 dB SNR. b. The $f_{beat}$ heterodyne shows 43 dB SNR.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. a. Stabilized $f_{ceo}$ beatnote at 10 Hz resolution bandwidth. b. Stabilized $f_{beat}$ beatnote at 10 Hz resolution bandwidth.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. a. Phase noise (black) and integrated phase noise (purple) on $f_{beat}$. The total integrated phase noise from 100 Hz to 2 MHz is 114 mrad. b. Phase noise (black) and integrated phase noise (purple) on $f_{ceo}$. The total integrated phase noise from 100 Hz to 2 MHz is 40 mrad.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Frequency error from set-points over 30 hour period. (a) Frequency error in optical beat notes $f_{ceo}$ (blue) and $f_{beat}$ (red). The standard deviations of $f_{ceo}$ and $f_{beat}$ are 0.2 mHz and 0.1 mHz, respectively. (b) Frequency error in $f_{rep}$. After correcting for a linear drift, the standard deviation of $f_{rep}$ is calculated as 0.1 mHz. All measurements were made by external frequency counters.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Allan Deviations for $f_{ceo}$ (blue), $f_{beat}$ (red), and $f_{rep}$ (green), during an optical lock. For small averaging times, all three frequencies are limited by the RF source used to clock the phase-locks and counters. For averaging times exceeding ~100 s, the slow drift of the 1550 nm cavity limits the stability of $f_{rep}$. The respective carriers frequencies of $f_{ceo}$, $f_{beat}$, and $f_{rep}$ are 300 THz, 193 THz, and 500 MHz.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Feedback Chain Characteristics for Optical Locks.