Abstract

This manuscript presents design considerations and testing of a 3D printed lens with an outer diameter of 0.5mm. Off-the-shelf GRIN and half-ball lenses with the same outer diameter were used to compare the angular field of view and resolution at object distances between 5mm and 100mm. Results show the performance of this 3D printed optic is between that of the half-ball lens and the GRIN lens with the possibility for improvement. This opens opportunities in the sub-millimeter, refractive optics space. Our goal is to utilize 3D printed lenses in a sub-millimeter diameter endoscope for in vivo imaging.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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2019 (2)

2018 (1)

X. Chen, W. Liu, B. Dong, J. Lee, H. O. T. Ware, H. F. Zhang, and C. Sun, “High-speed 3d printing of millimeter-size customized aspheric imaging lenses with sub 7 nm surface roughness,” Adv. Mater. 30(18), 1705683 (2018).
[Crossref]

2016 (2)

T. Gissibl, S. Thiele, A. Herkommer, and H. Giessen, “Two-photon direct laser writing of ultracompact multi-lens objectives,” Nat. Photonics 10(8), 554–560 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Gissibl, S. Thiele, A. Herkommer, and H. Giessen, “Sub-micrometre accurate free-form optics by three-dimensional printing on single-mode fibres,” Nat. Commun. 7(1), 11763 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (1)

Y.-L. Sung, J. Jeang, C.-H. Lee, and W.-C. Shih, “Fabricating optical lenses by inkjet printing and heat-assisted in situ curing of polydimethylsiloxane for smartphone microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(4), 047005 (2015).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

C. Pan, T. Wu, M. Chen, Y. Chang, C. Lee, and J. Huang, “Hot embossing of micro-lens array on bulk metallic glass,” Sens. Actuators, A 141(2), 422–431 (2008).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

W. Moench and H. Zappe, “Fabrication and testing of micro-lens arrays by all-liquid techniques,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 6(4), 330–337 (2004).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

X. Lu and L. S. Khim, “A statistical experimental study of the injection molding of optical lenses,” J. Mater. Process. Technol. 113(1-3), 189–195 (2001). 5th Asia Pacific conference on Materials processing.
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

L. Y. Lin, S. S. Lee, K. S. J. Pister, and M. C. Wu, “Micro-machined three-dimensional micro-optics for integrated free-space optical system,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 6(12), 1445–1447 (1994).
[Crossref]

Assefa, B.

Biskop, J.

Chang, Y.

C. Pan, T. Wu, M. Chen, Y. Chang, C. Lee, and J. Huang, “Hot embossing of micro-lens array on bulk metallic glass,” Sens. Actuators, A 141(2), 422–431 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chen, M.

C. Pan, T. Wu, M. Chen, Y. Chang, C. Lee, and J. Huang, “Hot embossing of micro-lens array on bulk metallic glass,” Sens. Actuators, A 141(2), 422–431 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chen, T.

W. R. Cox, D. J. Hayes, T. Chen, D. W. Ussery, D. L. MacFarlane, and E. Wilson, “Fabrication of micro-optics by microjet printing,” (1995).

Chen, X.

X. Chen, W. Liu, B. Dong, J. Lee, H. O. T. Ware, H. F. Zhang, and C. Sun, “High-speed 3d printing of millimeter-size customized aspheric imaging lenses with sub 7 nm surface roughness,” Adv. Mater. 30(18), 1705683 (2018).
[Crossref]

Cox, W. R.

W. R. Cox, D. J. Hayes, T. Chen, D. W. Ussery, D. L. MacFarlane, and E. Wilson, “Fabrication of micro-optics by microjet printing,” (1995).

Dong, B.

X. Chen, W. Liu, B. Dong, J. Lee, H. O. T. Ware, H. F. Zhang, and C. Sun, “High-speed 3d printing of millimeter-size customized aspheric imaging lenses with sub 7 nm surface roughness,” Adv. Mater. 30(18), 1705683 (2018).
[Crossref]

Giessen, H.

T. Gissibl, S. Thiele, A. Herkommer, and H. Giessen, “Two-photon direct laser writing of ultracompact multi-lens objectives,” Nat. Photonics 10(8), 554–560 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Gissibl, S. Thiele, A. Herkommer, and H. Giessen, “Sub-micrometre accurate free-form optics by three-dimensional printing on single-mode fibres,” Nat. Commun. 7(1), 11763 (2016).
[Crossref]

Gissibl, T.

T. Gissibl, S. Thiele, A. Herkommer, and H. Giessen, “Sub-micrometre accurate free-form optics by three-dimensional printing on single-mode fibres,” Nat. Commun. 7(1), 11763 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Gissibl, S. Thiele, A. Herkommer, and H. Giessen, “Two-photon direct laser writing of ultracompact multi-lens objectives,” Nat. Photonics 10(8), 554–560 (2016).
[Crossref]

Greivenkamp, J.

J. Greivenkamp, Field Gide to Geometrical Optics (SPIE Press, Bellingham, WA, 2004), third printing ed.

Hayes, D. J.

W. R. Cox, D. J. Hayes, T. Chen, D. W. Ussery, D. L. MacFarlane, and E. Wilson, “Fabrication of micro-optics by microjet printing,” (1995).

Herkommer, A.

T. Gissibl, S. Thiele, A. Herkommer, and H. Giessen, “Two-photon direct laser writing of ultracompact multi-lens objectives,” Nat. Photonics 10(8), 554–560 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Gissibl, S. Thiele, A. Herkommer, and H. Giessen, “Sub-micrometre accurate free-form optics by three-dimensional printing on single-mode fibres,” Nat. Commun. 7(1), 11763 (2016).
[Crossref]

Huang, J.

C. Pan, T. Wu, M. Chen, Y. Chang, C. Lee, and J. Huang, “Hot embossing of micro-lens array on bulk metallic glass,” Sens. Actuators, A 141(2), 422–431 (2008).
[Crossref]

Jeang, J.

Y.-L. Sung, J. Jeang, C.-H. Lee, and W.-C. Shih, “Fabricating optical lenses by inkjet printing and heat-assisted in situ curing of polydimethylsiloxane for smartphone microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(4), 047005 (2015).
[Crossref]

Khim, L. S.

X. Lu and L. S. Khim, “A statistical experimental study of the injection molding of optical lenses,” J. Mater. Process. Technol. 113(1-3), 189–195 (2001). 5th Asia Pacific conference on Materials processing.
[Crossref]

Kuittinen, M.

Lee, C.

C. Pan, T. Wu, M. Chen, Y. Chang, C. Lee, and J. Huang, “Hot embossing of micro-lens array on bulk metallic glass,” Sens. Actuators, A 141(2), 422–431 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lee, C.-H.

Y.-L. Sung, J. Jeang, C.-H. Lee, and W.-C. Shih, “Fabricating optical lenses by inkjet printing and heat-assisted in situ curing of polydimethylsiloxane for smartphone microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(4), 047005 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lee, J.

X. Chen, W. Liu, B. Dong, J. Lee, H. O. T. Ware, H. F. Zhang, and C. Sun, “High-speed 3d printing of millimeter-size customized aspheric imaging lenses with sub 7 nm surface roughness,” Adv. Mater. 30(18), 1705683 (2018).
[Crossref]

Lee, S. S.

L. Y. Lin, S. S. Lee, K. S. J. Pister, and M. C. Wu, “Micro-machined three-dimensional micro-optics for integrated free-space optical system,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 6(12), 1445–1447 (1994).
[Crossref]

Lin, L. Y.

L. Y. Lin, S. S. Lee, K. S. J. Pister, and M. C. Wu, “Micro-machined three-dimensional micro-optics for integrated free-space optical system,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 6(12), 1445–1447 (1994).
[Crossref]

Liu, W.

X. Chen, W. Liu, B. Dong, J. Lee, H. O. T. Ware, H. F. Zhang, and C. Sun, “High-speed 3d printing of millimeter-size customized aspheric imaging lenses with sub 7 nm surface roughness,” Adv. Mater. 30(18), 1705683 (2018).
[Crossref]

Lu, X.

X. Lu and L. S. Khim, “A statistical experimental study of the injection molding of optical lenses,” J. Mater. Process. Technol. 113(1-3), 189–195 (2001). 5th Asia Pacific conference on Materials processing.
[Crossref]

MacFarlane, D. L.

W. R. Cox, D. J. Hayes, T. Chen, D. W. Ussery, D. L. MacFarlane, and E. Wilson, “Fabrication of micro-optics by microjet printing,” (1995).

Moench, W.

W. Moench and H. Zappe, “Fabrication and testing of micro-lens arrays by all-liquid techniques,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 6(4), 330–337 (2004).
[Crossref]

Nissinen, V.

Ouyang, X.

Pan, C.

C. Pan, T. Wu, M. Chen, Y. Chang, C. Lee, and J. Huang, “Hot embossing of micro-lens array on bulk metallic glass,” Sens. Actuators, A 141(2), 422–431 (2008).
[Crossref]

Pekkarinen, M.

Pister, K. S. J.

L. Y. Lin, S. S. Lee, K. S. J. Pister, and M. C. Wu, “Micro-machined three-dimensional micro-optics for integrated free-space optical system,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 6(12), 1445–1447 (1994).
[Crossref]

Saarinen, J.

Saastamoinen, T.

Shih, W.-C.

Y.-L. Sung, J. Jeang, C.-H. Lee, and W.-C. Shih, “Fabricating optical lenses by inkjet printing and heat-assisted in situ curing of polydimethylsiloxane for smartphone microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(4), 047005 (2015).
[Crossref]

Sun, C.

X. Chen, W. Liu, B. Dong, J. Lee, H. O. T. Ware, H. F. Zhang, and C. Sun, “High-speed 3d printing of millimeter-size customized aspheric imaging lenses with sub 7 nm surface roughness,” Adv. Mater. 30(18), 1705683 (2018).
[Crossref]

Sung, Y.-L.

Y.-L. Sung, J. Jeang, C.-H. Lee, and W.-C. Shih, “Fabricating optical lenses by inkjet printing and heat-assisted in situ curing of polydimethylsiloxane for smartphone microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(4), 047005 (2015).
[Crossref]

Thiele, S.

T. Gissibl, S. Thiele, A. Herkommer, and H. Giessen, “Two-photon direct laser writing of ultracompact multi-lens objectives,” Nat. Photonics 10(8), 554–560 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Gissibl, S. Thiele, A. Herkommer, and H. Giessen, “Sub-micrometre accurate free-form optics by three-dimensional printing on single-mode fibres,” Nat. Commun. 7(1), 11763 (2016).
[Crossref]

Turunen, J.

Ussery, D. W.

W. R. Cox, D. J. Hayes, T. Chen, D. W. Ussery, D. L. MacFarlane, and E. Wilson, “Fabrication of micro-optics by microjet printing,” (1995).

Ware, H. O. T.

X. Chen, W. Liu, B. Dong, J. Lee, H. O. T. Ware, H. F. Zhang, and C. Sun, “High-speed 3d printing of millimeter-size customized aspheric imaging lenses with sub 7 nm surface roughness,” Adv. Mater. 30(18), 1705683 (2018).
[Crossref]

Wilson, E.

W. R. Cox, D. J. Hayes, T. Chen, D. W. Ussery, D. L. MacFarlane, and E. Wilson, “Fabrication of micro-optics by microjet printing,” (1995).

Wu, J.

Wu, M. C.

L. Y. Lin, S. S. Lee, K. S. J. Pister, and M. C. Wu, “Micro-machined three-dimensional micro-optics for integrated free-space optical system,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 6(12), 1445–1447 (1994).
[Crossref]

Wu, T.

C. Pan, T. Wu, M. Chen, Y. Chang, C. Lee, and J. Huang, “Hot embossing of micro-lens array on bulk metallic glass,” Sens. Actuators, A 141(2), 422–431 (2008).
[Crossref]

Yin, Z.

Zappe, H.

W. Moench and H. Zappe, “Fabrication and testing of micro-lens arrays by all-liquid techniques,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 6(4), 330–337 (2004).
[Crossref]

Zhang, A. P.

Zhang, H. F.

X. Chen, W. Liu, B. Dong, J. Lee, H. O. T. Ware, H. F. Zhang, and C. Sun, “High-speed 3d printing of millimeter-size customized aspheric imaging lenses with sub 7 nm surface roughness,” Adv. Mater. 30(18), 1705683 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zhou, C.

Adv. Mater. (1)

X. Chen, W. Liu, B. Dong, J. Lee, H. O. T. Ware, H. F. Zhang, and C. Sun, “High-speed 3d printing of millimeter-size customized aspheric imaging lenses with sub 7 nm surface roughness,” Adv. Mater. 30(18), 1705683 (2018).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

L. Y. Lin, S. S. Lee, K. S. J. Pister, and M. C. Wu, “Micro-machined three-dimensional micro-optics for integrated free-space optical system,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 6(12), 1445–1447 (1994).
[Crossref]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

Y.-L. Sung, J. Jeang, C.-H. Lee, and W.-C. Shih, “Fabricating optical lenses by inkjet printing and heat-assisted in situ curing of polydimethylsiloxane for smartphone microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(4), 047005 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Mater. Process. Technol. (1)

X. Lu and L. S. Khim, “A statistical experimental study of the injection molding of optical lenses,” J. Mater. Process. Technol. 113(1-3), 189–195 (2001). 5th Asia Pacific conference on Materials processing.
[Crossref]

J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

W. Moench and H. Zappe, “Fabrication and testing of micro-lens arrays by all-liquid techniques,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 6(4), 330–337 (2004).
[Crossref]

Nat. Commun. (1)

T. Gissibl, S. Thiele, A. Herkommer, and H. Giessen, “Sub-micrometre accurate free-form optics by three-dimensional printing on single-mode fibres,” Nat. Commun. 7(1), 11763 (2016).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (1)

T. Gissibl, S. Thiele, A. Herkommer, and H. Giessen, “Two-photon direct laser writing of ultracompact multi-lens objectives,” Nat. Photonics 10(8), 554–560 (2016).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

OSA Continuum (1)

Sens. Actuators, A (1)

C. Pan, T. Wu, M. Chen, Y. Chang, C. Lee, and J. Huang, “Hot embossing of micro-lens array on bulk metallic glass,” Sens. Actuators, A 141(2), 422–431 (2008).
[Crossref]

Other (2)

W. R. Cox, D. J. Hayes, T. Chen, D. W. Ussery, D. L. MacFarlane, and E. Wilson, “Fabrication of micro-optics by microjet printing,” (1995).

J. Greivenkamp, Field Gide to Geometrical Optics (SPIE Press, Bellingham, WA, 2004), third printing ed.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (A) The theoretical MTF on axis at a 20mm object distance for a GRIN lens, the 3D printed lens, and a fused silica half-ball lens. (B) Theoretical tangential and sagittal MTF for the 15$^{\circ }$ field of view for the same three lenses.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (A) Image of the 3D printed lens with a 4x objective. (B) 3D render of the prescribed lens in Solidworks.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Surface profile of the 3D printed lens as measured by the NewView 3D Optical Surface Profiler. The data points from slice 1 were used to compare to the ideal shape.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (A) Cross section of measured data from the NewView Profiler plotted with the designed surface shape. (B) Design shape subtracted from the measured data. The calculated RMS total shape error is 595.5nm.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Images at object distances of 5mm, 20mm, and 100mm for each of the 3 lenses being tested.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Summary of the angular field of view and the smallest resolvable element in lp/mm at 4 object distances for the half-ball lens, 3D printed lens, and GRIN lens.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

S a g = c r 2 1 + 1 ( 1 + k ) c 2 r 2 .
C = I m a x I m i n I m a x + I m i n .
θ F F O V = 2 θ F O V = 2 t a n 1 ( n k 2 d ) .

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