Abstract

To establish a time reference frame between two users in quantum key distribution, a synchronization calibration process is usually applied for the case of using gated mode single-photon detectors (SPDs). Traditionally, the synchronization calibration is independently implemented by the line length measurement for each SPD. However, this will leave a loophole that has been experimentally demonstrated by a special attack. Here, we propose an alternative synchronization scheme by fixing the relative delay of the signal time window among all SPDs and jointly performing the line length measurement with multiple SPDs under combining low-precision with high-precision synchronization. The new scheme is not only immune to the vulnerability but also improves the synchronization time from usually a few seconds to tens of milliseconds.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2017 (2)

S.-K. Liao, W.-Q. Cai, W.-Y. Liu, L. Zhang, Y. Li, J.-G. Ren, J. Yin, Q. Shen, Y. Cao, Z.-P. Li, F.-Z. Li, X.-W. Chen, L.-H. Sun, J.-J. Jia, J.-C. Wu, X.-J. Jiang, J.-F. Wang, Y.-M. Huang, Q. Wang, Y.-L. Zhou, L. Deng, T. Xi, L. Ma, T. Hu, Q. Zhang, Y.-A. Chen, N.-L. Liu, X.-B. Wang, Z.-C. Zhu, C.-Y. Lu, R. Shu, C.-Z. Peng, J.-Y. Wang, and J.-W. Pan, “Satellite-to-ground quantum key distribution,” Nature 549(7670), 43–47 (2017).
[Crossref]

L.-J. Wang, K.-H. Zou, W. Sun, Y. Mao, Y.-X. Zhu, H.-L. Yin, Q. Chen, Y. Zhao, F. Zhang, T.-Y. Chen, and J.-W. Pan, “Long-distance copropagation of quantum key distribution and terabit classical optical data channels,” Phys. Rev. A 95(1), 012301 (2017).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

C. C. W. Lim, M. Curty, N. Walenta, F. Xu, and H. Zbinden, “Concise security bounds for practical decoy-state quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. A 89(2), 022307 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. H. Bennett and G. Brassard, “Quantum cryptography: public key distribution and coin tossing,” Theor. Comput. Sci. 560, 7–11 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

B. Fröhlich, J. F. Dynes, M. Lucamarini, A. W. Sharpe, Z. Yuan, and A. J. Shields, “A quantum access network,” Nature 501(7465), 69–72 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

M. Tomamichel, C. C. W. Lim, N. Gisin, and R. Renner, “Tight finite-key analysis for quantum cryptography,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 634 (2012).
[Crossref]

X.-L. Liang, J.-H. Liu, Q. Wang, D.-B. Du, J. Ma, G. Jin, Z.-B. Chen, J. Zhang, and J.-W. Pan, “Fully integrated ingaas/inp single-photon detector module with gigahertz sine wave gating,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83(8), 083111 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

2009 (4)

R. H. Hadfield, “Single-photon detectors for optical quantum information applications,” Nat. Photonics 3(12), 696–705 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. Rosenberg, C. G. Peterson, J. Harrington, P. R. Rice, N. Dallmann, K. Tyagi, K. McCabe, S. Nam, B. Baek, R. Hadfield, R. Hughes, and J. Nordholt, “Practical long-distance quantum key distribution system using decoy levels,” New J. Phys. 11(4), 045009 (2009).
[Crossref]

Z. Yuan, A. Dixon, J. Dynes, A. Sharpe, and A. Shields, “Practical gigahertz quantum key distribution based on avalanche photodiodes,” New J. Phys. 11(4), 045019 (2009).
[Crossref]

V. Scarani, H. Bechmann-Pasquinucci, N. J. Cerf, M. Dušek, N. Lütkenhaus, and M. Peev, “The security of practical quantum key distribution,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81(3), 1301–1350 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

Y. Zhao, C.-H. F. Fung, B. Qi, C. Chen, and H.-K. Lo, “Quantum hacking: Experimental demonstration of time-shift attack against practical quantum-key-distribution systems,” Phys. Rev. A 78(4), 042333 (2008).
[Crossref]

V. Makarov and J. Skaar, “Faked states attack using detector efficiency mismatch on sarg04, phase-time, dpsk, and ekert protocols,” Quantum Inf. Comput. 8, 622–635 (2008).

2007 (5)

B. Qi, C.-H. F. Fung, H.-K. Lo, and X. Ma, “Time-shift attack in practical quantum cryptosystems,” Quantum Inf. Comput. 7, 73–82 (2007).

I. Ali-Khan, C. J. Broadbent, and J. C. Howell, “Large-alphabet quantum key distribution using energy-time entangled bipartite states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(6), 060503 (2007).
[Crossref]

D. Rosenberg, J. W. Harrington, P. R. Rice, P. A. Hiskett, C. G. Peterson, R. J. Hughes, A. E. Lita, S. W. Nam, and J. E. Nordholt, “Long-distance decoy-state quantum key distribution in optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(1), 010503 (2007).
[Crossref]

T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, M. Fürst, R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Scheidl, J. Perdigues, Z. Sodnik, C. Kurtsiefer, J. G. Rarity, A. Zeilinger, and H. Weinfurter, “Experimental demonstration of free-space decoy-state quantum key distribution over 144 km,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(1), 010504 (2007).
[Crossref]

C.-Z. Peng, J. Zhang, D. Yang, W.-B. Gao, H.-X. Ma, H. Yin, H.-P. Zeng, T. Yang, X.-B. Wang, and J.-W. Pan, “Experimental long-distance decoy-state quantum key distribution based on polarization encoding,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(1), 010505 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

V. Makarov, A. Anisimov, and J. Skaar, “Effects of detector efficiency mismatch on security of quantum cryptosystems,” Phys. Rev. A 74(2), 022313 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (3)

V. Makarov and D. R. Hjelme, “Faked states attack on quantum cryptosystems,” J. Mod. Opt. 52(5), 691–705 (2005).
[Crossref]

X.-B. Wang, “Beating the photon-number-splitting attack in practical quantum cryptography,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(23), 230503 (2005).
[Crossref]

H.-K. Lo, X. Ma, and K. Chen, “Decoy state quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(23), 230504 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

D. Gottesman, H.-K. Lo, N. Lutkenhaus, and J. Preskill, “Security of quantum key distribution with imperfect devices,” Quantum Inf. Comput. 4, 325–360 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

W.-Y. Hwang, “Quantum key distribution with high loss: toward global secure communication,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(5), 057901 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, “Quantum cryptography,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 74(1), 145–195 (2002).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

P. W. Shor and J. Preskill, “Simple proof of security of the bb84 quantum key distribution protocol,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(2), 441–444 (2000).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

A. K. Ekert, “Quantum cryptography based on bell’s theorem,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67(6), 661–663 (1991).
[Crossref]

Ali-Khan, I.

I. Ali-Khan, C. J. Broadbent, and J. C. Howell, “Large-alphabet quantum key distribution using energy-time entangled bipartite states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(6), 060503 (2007).
[Crossref]

Allacher, A.

amd Nambu, K

Anisimov, A.

V. Makarov, A. Anisimov, and J. Skaar, “Effects of detector efficiency mismatch on security of quantum cryptosystems,” Phys. Rev. A 74(2), 022313 (2006).
[Crossref]

Asai, T.

Baek, B.

D. Rosenberg, C. G. Peterson, J. Harrington, P. R. Rice, N. Dallmann, K. Tyagi, K. McCabe, S. Nam, B. Baek, R. Hadfield, R. Hughes, and J. Nordholt, “Practical long-distance quantum key distribution system using decoy levels,” New J. Phys. 11(4), 045009 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bechmann-Pasquinucci, H.

V. Scarani, H. Bechmann-Pasquinucci, N. J. Cerf, M. Dušek, N. Lütkenhaus, and M. Peev, “The security of practical quantum key distribution,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81(3), 1301–1350 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bennett, C. H.

C. H. Bennett and G. Brassard, “Quantum cryptography: public key distribution and coin tossing,” Theor. Comput. Sci. 560, 7–11 (2014).
[Crossref]

Brassard, G.

C. H. Bennett and G. Brassard, “Quantum cryptography: public key distribution and coin tossing,” Theor. Comput. Sci. 560, 7–11 (2014).
[Crossref]

Broadbent, C. J.

I. Ali-Khan, C. J. Broadbent, and J. C. Howell, “Large-alphabet quantum key distribution using energy-time entangled bipartite states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(6), 060503 (2007).
[Crossref]

Bunandar, D.

C. Lee, D. Bunandar, Z. Zhang, G. R. Steinbrecher, P. B. Dixon, F. N. Wong, J. H. Shapiro, S. A. Hamilton, and D. Englund, “High-rate large-alphabet quantum key distribution over deployed telecom fiber,” in In 2016 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), (Optical Society of America, 2016), pp. 1–2.

Cai, W.-Q.

S.-K. Liao, W.-Q. Cai, W.-Y. Liu, L. Zhang, Y. Li, J.-G. Ren, J. Yin, Q. Shen, Y. Cao, Z.-P. Li, F.-Z. Li, X.-W. Chen, L.-H. Sun, J.-J. Jia, J.-C. Wu, X.-J. Jiang, J.-F. Wang, Y.-M. Huang, Q. Wang, Y.-L. Zhou, L. Deng, T. Xi, L. Ma, T. Hu, Q. Zhang, Y.-A. Chen, N.-L. Liu, X.-B. Wang, Z.-C. Zhu, C.-Y. Lu, R. Shu, C.-Z. Peng, J.-Y. Wang, and J.-W. Pan, “Satellite-to-ground quantum key distribution,” Nature 549(7670), 43–47 (2017).
[Crossref]

Cao, Y.

S.-K. Liao, W.-Q. Cai, W.-Y. Liu, L. Zhang, Y. Li, J.-G. Ren, J. Yin, Q. Shen, Y. Cao, Z.-P. Li, F.-Z. Li, X.-W. Chen, L.-H. Sun, J.-J. Jia, J.-C. Wu, X.-J. Jiang, J.-F. Wang, Y.-M. Huang, Q. Wang, Y.-L. Zhou, L. Deng, T. Xi, L. Ma, T. Hu, Q. Zhang, Y.-A. Chen, N.-L. Liu, X.-B. Wang, Z.-C. Zhu, C.-Y. Lu, R. Shu, C.-Z. Peng, J.-Y. Wang, and J.-W. Pan, “Satellite-to-ground quantum key distribution,” Nature 549(7670), 43–47 (2017).
[Crossref]

Cerf, N. J.

V. Scarani, H. Bechmann-Pasquinucci, N. J. Cerf, M. Dušek, N. Lütkenhaus, and M. Peev, “The security of practical quantum key distribution,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81(3), 1301–1350 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chen, C.

Y. Zhao, C.-H. F. Fung, B. Qi, C. Chen, and H.-K. Lo, “Quantum hacking: Experimental demonstration of time-shift attack against practical quantum-key-distribution systems,” Phys. Rev. A 78(4), 042333 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chen, K.

H.-K. Lo, X. Ma, and K. Chen, “Decoy state quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(23), 230504 (2005).
[Crossref]

Chen, Q.

L.-J. Wang, K.-H. Zou, W. Sun, Y. Mao, Y.-X. Zhu, H.-L. Yin, Q. Chen, Y. Zhao, F. Zhang, T.-Y. Chen, and J.-W. Pan, “Long-distance copropagation of quantum key distribution and terabit classical optical data channels,” Phys. Rev. A 95(1), 012301 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chen, T.-Y.

L.-J. Wang, K.-H. Zou, W. Sun, Y. Mao, Y.-X. Zhu, H.-L. Yin, Q. Chen, Y. Zhao, F. Zhang, T.-Y. Chen, and J.-W. Pan, “Long-distance copropagation of quantum key distribution and terabit classical optical data channels,” Phys. Rev. A 95(1), 012301 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chen, X.-W.

S.-K. Liao, W.-Q. Cai, W.-Y. Liu, L. Zhang, Y. Li, J.-G. Ren, J. Yin, Q. Shen, Y. Cao, Z.-P. Li, F.-Z. Li, X.-W. Chen, L.-H. Sun, J.-J. Jia, J.-C. Wu, X.-J. Jiang, J.-F. Wang, Y.-M. Huang, Q. Wang, Y.-L. Zhou, L. Deng, T. Xi, L. Ma, T. Hu, Q. Zhang, Y.-A. Chen, N.-L. Liu, X.-B. Wang, Z.-C. Zhu, C.-Y. Lu, R. Shu, C.-Z. Peng, J.-Y. Wang, and J.-W. Pan, “Satellite-to-ground quantum key distribution,” Nature 549(7670), 43–47 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.-A.

S.-K. Liao, W.-Q. Cai, W.-Y. Liu, L. Zhang, Y. Li, J.-G. Ren, J. Yin, Q. Shen, Y. Cao, Z.-P. Li, F.-Z. Li, X.-W. Chen, L.-H. Sun, J.-J. Jia, J.-C. Wu, X.-J. Jiang, J.-F. Wang, Y.-M. Huang, Q. Wang, Y.-L. Zhou, L. Deng, T. Xi, L. Ma, T. Hu, Q. Zhang, Y.-A. Chen, N.-L. Liu, X.-B. Wang, Z.-C. Zhu, C.-Y. Lu, R. Shu, C.-Z. Peng, J.-Y. Wang, and J.-W. Pan, “Satellite-to-ground quantum key distribution,” Nature 549(7670), 43–47 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chen, Z.-B.

X.-L. Liang, J.-H. Liu, Q. Wang, D.-B. Du, J. Ma, G. Jin, Z.-B. Chen, J. Zhang, and J.-W. Pan, “Fully integrated ingaas/inp single-photon detector module with gigahertz sine wave gating,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83(8), 083111 (2012).
[Crossref]

Curty, M.

C. C. W. Lim, M. Curty, N. Walenta, F. Xu, and H. Zbinden, “Concise security bounds for practical decoy-state quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. A 89(2), 022307 (2014).
[Crossref]

Dallmann, N.

D. Rosenberg, C. G. Peterson, J. Harrington, P. R. Rice, N. Dallmann, K. Tyagi, K. McCabe, S. Nam, B. Baek, R. Hadfield, R. Hughes, and J. Nordholt, “Practical long-distance quantum key distribution system using decoy levels,” New J. Phys. 11(4), 045009 (2009).
[Crossref]

Deng, L.

S.-K. Liao, W.-Q. Cai, W.-Y. Liu, L. Zhang, Y. Li, J.-G. Ren, J. Yin, Q. Shen, Y. Cao, Z.-P. Li, F.-Z. Li, X.-W. Chen, L.-H. Sun, J.-J. Jia, J.-C. Wu, X.-J. Jiang, J.-F. Wang, Y.-M. Huang, Q. Wang, Y.-L. Zhou, L. Deng, T. Xi, L. Ma, T. Hu, Q. Zhang, Y.-A. Chen, N.-L. Liu, X.-B. Wang, Z.-C. Zhu, C.-Y. Lu, R. Shu, C.-Z. Peng, J.-Y. Wang, and J.-W. Pan, “Satellite-to-ground quantum key distribution,” Nature 549(7670), 43–47 (2017).
[Crossref]

Dixon, A.

Z. Yuan, A. Dixon, J. Dynes, A. Sharpe, and A. Shields, “Practical gigahertz quantum key distribution based on avalanche photodiodes,” New J. Phys. 11(4), 045019 (2009).
[Crossref]

Dixon, A. R.

Dixon, P. B.

C. Lee, D. Bunandar, Z. Zhang, G. R. Steinbrecher, P. B. Dixon, F. N. Wong, J. H. Shapiro, S. A. Hamilton, and D. Englund, “High-rate large-alphabet quantum key distribution over deployed telecom fiber,” in In 2016 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), (Optical Society of America, 2016), pp. 1–2.

Domeki, T.

Du, D.-B.

X.-L. Liang, J.-H. Liu, Q. Wang, D.-B. Du, J. Ma, G. Jin, Z.-B. Chen, J. Zhang, and J.-W. Pan, “Fully integrated ingaas/inp single-photon detector module with gigahertz sine wave gating,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83(8), 083111 (2012).
[Crossref]

Dušek, M.

V. Scarani, H. Bechmann-Pasquinucci, N. J. Cerf, M. Dušek, N. Lütkenhaus, and M. Peev, “The security of practical quantum key distribution,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81(3), 1301–1350 (2009).
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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. The experimental result.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Schematic diagram of parallel synchronization.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Schematic diagram of polarization-coding QKD. PM, polarization modulator. IM, intensity modulator. FBG-50G, fiber Bragg grating. ATT, optical attenuator. CWDM, coarse wavelength division multiplexing. EPC, electronic polarization controller. PBS, polarization beam splitter. SPD, single-photon detector.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. The timing response histogram of the detected counts of implementation method I. a, low-precision synchronization. The time search range of $\textrm {SPD}_{1}$ is [0, 2.5] ns, the time search range of $\textrm {SPD}_{2}$ is [2.5, 5.0] ns, the time search range of $\textrm {SPD}_{3}$ is [5.0, 7.5] ns, and time search range of $\textrm {SPD}_{4}$ is [7.5, 10.0] ns. b, high-precision synchronization. The time search range of $\textrm {SPD}_{1}$ is [2040, 2060] ps, the time search range of $\textrm {SPD}_{2}$ is [2070, 2090] ps, the time search range of $\textrm {SPD}_{3}$ is [2100, 2120] ps, and time search range of $\textrm {SPD}_{4}$ is [2130, 2150] ps.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. The timing response histogram of the detected counts of implementation method III. a, low-precision synchronization. The time search range of $\textrm {SPD}_{1}$ is [0,2.5] ns, the time search range of $\textrm {SPD}_{2}$ is [2.5, 5.0] ns, the time search range of $\textrm {SPD}_{3}$ is [5.0, 7.5] ns, and time search range of $\textrm {SPD}_{4}$ is [7.5, 10.0] ns. b, high-precision synchronization. The time windows for the first round are $1.62$ ns for $\textrm {SPD}_{1}$, $1.81$ ns for $\textrm {SPD}_{2}$, $2.00$ ns for $\textrm {SPD}_{3}$, and $2.19$ ns for $\textrm {SPD}_{4}$. The time windows for the second round are $2.03$ ns for $\textrm {SPD}_{1}$, $2.07$ ns for $\textrm {SPD}_{2}$, $2.11$ ns for $\textrm {SPD}_{3}$, and $2.15$ ns for $\textrm {SPD}_{4}$. The time windows for the third round are $2.04$ ns for $\textrm {SPD}_{1}$, $2.05$ ns for $\textrm {SPD}_{2}$, $2.06$ ns for $\textrm {SPD}_{3}$, and $2.08$ ns for $\textrm {SPD}_{4}$.

Equations (3)

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Δ T i = T i T 1 ,
R a i = [ i 1 N f + Δ T i , i N f + Δ T i ]
T 1 = m i n { 10000 4 × t × 1 + t 4 × 10 × 5 } ,