Abstract

We reported on the femtosecond (fs) laser induced permanent refractive index changes, stress-induced birefringence, and micro-photoluminescence properties of Nd3+, Y3+ codoped CaF2 crystals. Permanent changes in the linear optical properties were studied for various pulse energies (0.01 - 5 µJ) at two different repetition rates (10 kHz and 500 kHz). Optimum quantitative phase changes are close to - 1.7π radians within an irradiated area, surrounded by positive phase changes due to the stress field that can reach + 0.7π. Provided that, we avoid heat-accumulation at 500 kHz, written laser lines offer higher linear birefringence on the order of λ/4 at 200 nm. From the spectroscopic point of view, we observed the Raman changes and micro-photoluminescence spectra of irradiated fs-laser Nd3+, Y3+ doped CaF2.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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2017 (4)

R. Li, W. Nie, Q. Lu, C. Cheng, Z. Shang, J. R. V. de Aldana, and F. Chen, “Femtosecond-laser-written superficial cladding waveguides in Nd:CaF2 crystal,” Opt. Laser Technol. 92, 163–167 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Cao, B. Poumellec, L. Mazerolles, F. Brisset, A.-L. Helbert, S. Surble, X. He, and M. Lancry, “Nanoscale phase separation in lithium niobium silicate glass by femtosecond laser irradiation,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 100(1), 115–124 (2017).
[Crossref]

Z. Sun, B. Mei, W. Li, X. Liu, and L. Su, “Synthesis and optical characterization of Nd, Y: CaF2 transparent ceramics,” Opt. Mater. 71, 35–40 (2017).
[Crossref]

B. Hari Babu, M. Niu, T. Billotte, P. Bi, F. Zheng, B. Poumellec, M. Lancry, and X.-T. Hao, “Femtosecond laser processing induced low loss waveguides in multicomponent glasses,” Opt. Mater. Express 7(10), 3580–3590 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (3)

2015 (5)

C. Li, M. Fan, J. Liu, L. Su, D. Jiang, X. Qian, and J. Xu, “Operation of continuous wave and Q-switching on diode-pumped Nd, Y:CaF2 disordered crystal,” Opt. Laser Technol. 69, 140–143 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Desmarchelier, B. Poumellec, F. Brisset, S. Mazerat, and M. Lancry, “In the heart of femtosecond laser induced Nanogratings: From porous nanoplanes to form birefringence,” World J. Nano Sci. Eng. 05(04), 115–125 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Jiang, Y. Zhan, Q. Zhang, F. Ma, L. Su, F. Tang, X. Qian, and J. Xu, “Nd, Y:CaF2 laser crystals: novel spectral properties and laser performance from a controlled local structure,” CrystEngComm 17(38), 7398–7405 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Zhu, L. Zhang, Z. Gao, J. Wang, Z. Wang, L. Su, L. Zheng, J. Wang, J. Xu, and Z. Wei, “Diode-pumped femtosecond mode-locked Nd, Y-codoped CaF2 laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 12(3), 035801 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Gross, M. Dubov, and M. J. Withford, “On the use of the Type I and II scheme for classifying ultrafast laser direct-write photonics,” Opt. Express 23(6), 7767–7770 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (3)

M. Beresna, M. Gecevicius, and P. G. Kazansky, “Ultrafast laser direct writing and nanostructuring in transparent materials,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 6(3), 293–339 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. Chen and J. R. Vazquez de Aldana, “Optical waveguides in crystalline dielectric materials produced by femtosecond-laser micromachining,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(2), 251–275 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Fan, B. Poumellec, R. Desmarchelier, H. Zeng, B. Bourguignon, G. Chen, and M. Lancry, “Asymmetric orientational writing dependence on polarization and direction in Li2O-Nb2O5-SiO2 glass with femtosecond laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. B 117(2), 737–747 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

S. Sun, L. Su, Y. Yuan, and Z. Sun, “Femtosecond laser-inscribed waveguides in Nd3+;Y3+:SrF2 crystals,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 11(11), 112301 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. B. Su, Q. G. Wang, H. J. Li, G. Brasse, P. Camy, J. L. Doualan, A. Braud, R. Moncorge, Y. Y. Zhan, L. H. Zheng, X. B. Qian, and J. Xu, “Spectroscopic properties and CW laser operation of Nd, Y-codoped CaF2 single crystals,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(3), 035804 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Lancry, B. Poumellec, J. Canning, K. Cook, J. C. Pulin, and F. Brisset, “Ultrafast nanoporous silica formation driven by femtosecond laser irradiation,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(6), 953–962 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

2011 (3)

M. Lancry, B. Poumellec, A. C. -Erraji, M. Beresna, and P. G. Kazansky, “Dependence of the femtosecond laser refractive index change thresholds on the chemical composition of doped-silica glasses,” Opt. Mater. Express 1(4), 711–723 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Benayas, W. F. Silva, A. Rodenas, C. Jacinto, J. V. de Aldana, F. Chen, Y. Tan, R. R. Thomsom, N. D. Psaila, D. T. Reid, G. A. Torchia, A. K. Kar, and D. Jaque, “Ultrafast laser writing of optical waveguides in ceramic Yb:YAG: a study of thermal and non-thermal regimes,” Appl. Phys. A 104(1), 301–309 (2011).
[Crossref]

R. Osellame, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, G. Cerullo, and M. Pollnau, “Femtosecond laser microstructuring: an enabling tool for optofluidic lab-on-chips,” Laser Photonics Rev. 5(3), 442–463 (2011).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

J. Siebenmorgen, K. Petermann, G. Huber, K. Rademaker, S. Nolte, and A. Tunnermann, “Femtosecond laser written stress-induced Nd:Y3Al5O12 (YAG) channel waveguide laser,” Appl. Phys. B 97(2), 251–255 (2009).
[Crossref]

G. D. Valle, R. Osellame, and P. Laporta, “Micromachining of photonic devices by femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 11(1), 013001 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

2006 (1)

A. Rodenas, J. A. S. Garcia, D. Jaque, G. A. Torchia, C. Mendez, I. Arias, L. Roso, and F. A. -Rueda, “Optical investigation of femtosecond laser induced microstress in neodymium doped lithium niobate crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(3), 033521 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (5)

Y. Shimotsuma, K. Hirao, P. G. Kazansky, and J. Qiu, “Three-dimensional micro- and nano-fabrication in transparent materials by femtosecond laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(7A), 4735–4748 (2005).
[Crossref]

Y. Shimotsuma, K. Hirao, J. Qiu, and P. G. Kazansky, “Nano-modification inside transparent materials by femtosecond laser single beam,” Mod. Phys. Lett. B 19(05), 225–238 (2005).
[Crossref]

C. W. Ponader, R. E. Youngman, and C. M. Smith, “Structural studies of (Ca,Sr)F2 single crystals with Raman and NMR spectroscopies,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 88(9), 2447–2450 (2005).
[Crossref]

S. M. Eaton, H. Zhang, P. R. Herman, F. Yoshino, L. Shah, J. Bovatsek, and A. Y. Arai, “Heat accumulation effects in femtosecond laser-written waveguides with variable repetition rate,” Opt. Express 13(12), 4708–4716 (2005).
[Crossref]

A. G. Okhrimchuk, A. V. Shestakov, I. Khrushchev, and J. Mitchell, “Depressed cladding, buried waveguide laser formed in a YAG:Nd3+ crystal by femtosecond laser writing,” Opt. Lett. 30(17), 2248–2250 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (3)

E. Bricchi, B. G. Klappauf, and P. G. Kazansky, “Form birefringence and negative index change created by femtosecond direct writing in transparent materials,” Opt. Lett. 29(1), 119–121 (2004).
[Crossref]

P. Camy, J. L. Doualan, S. Renard, A. Braud, V. Menard, and R. Moncorge, “Tm3+:CaF2 for 1.9 µm laser operation,” Opt. Commun. 236(4-6), 395–402 (2004).
[Crossref]

V. Petit, J. L. Doualan, P. Camy, V. Menard, and R. Moncorge, “CW and tunable laser operation of Yb3+ doped CaF2,” Appl. Phys. B 78(6), 681–684 (2004).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

C. Labbe, J. L. Doualan, P. Camy, R. Moncorge, and M. Thuau, “The 2.8 µm laser properties of Er3+ doped CaF2 crystals,” Opt. Commun. 209(1-3), 193–199 (2002).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

F. Korte, S. Nolte, B. N. Chichkov, T. Bauer, G. Kamlage, T. Wagner, C. Fallnich, and H. Welling, “Far-field and near-field material processing with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl Phys A 69(S7), S7–S11 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

M. Mizuguchi, H. Hosono, H. Kawazoe, and T. Ogawa, “Generation of optical absorption bands in CaF2 single crystals by ArF excimer laser irradiation: Effect of yttrium impurity,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol., A 16(5), 3052–3057 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (2)

E. N. Glezer and E. Mazur, “Ultrafast-laser driven micro-explosions in transparent materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(7), 882–884 (1997).
[Crossref]

R. E. Schenker and W. G. Oldham, “Ultraviolet induced densification in fused silica,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(3), 1065–1071 (1997).
[Crossref]

Arai, A. Y.

Arias, I.

A. Rodenas, J. A. S. Garcia, D. Jaque, G. A. Torchia, C. Mendez, I. Arias, L. Roso, and F. A. -Rueda, “Optical investigation of femtosecond laser induced microstress in neodymium doped lithium niobate crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(3), 033521 (2006).
[Crossref]

Athanasiou, C.

Bauer, T.

F. Korte, S. Nolte, B. N. Chichkov, T. Bauer, G. Kamlage, T. Wagner, C. Fallnich, and H. Welling, “Far-field and near-field material processing with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl Phys A 69(S7), S7–S11 (1999).
[Crossref]

Bellouard, Y.

Benayas, A.

A. Benayas, W. F. Silva, A. Rodenas, C. Jacinto, J. V. de Aldana, F. Chen, Y. Tan, R. R. Thomsom, N. D. Psaila, D. T. Reid, G. A. Torchia, A. K. Kar, and D. Jaque, “Ultrafast laser writing of optical waveguides in ceramic Yb:YAG: a study of thermal and non-thermal regimes,” Appl. Phys. A 104(1), 301–309 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bennion, I.

Beresna, M.

Bi, P.

Billotte, T.

Bourguignon, B.

C. Fan, B. Poumellec, R. Desmarchelier, H. Zeng, B. Bourguignon, G. Chen, and M. Lancry, “Asymmetric orientational writing dependence on polarization and direction in Li2O-Nb2O5-SiO2 glass with femtosecond laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. B 117(2), 737–747 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bovatsek, J.

Brandt, N.

Brasse, G.

L. B. Su, Q. G. Wang, H. J. Li, G. Brasse, P. Camy, J. L. Doualan, A. Braud, R. Moncorge, Y. Y. Zhan, L. H. Zheng, X. B. Qian, and J. Xu, “Spectroscopic properties and CW laser operation of Nd, Y-codoped CaF2 single crystals,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(3), 035804 (2013).
[Crossref]

Braud, A.

L. B. Su, Q. G. Wang, H. J. Li, G. Brasse, P. Camy, J. L. Doualan, A. Braud, R. Moncorge, Y. Y. Zhan, L. H. Zheng, X. B. Qian, and J. Xu, “Spectroscopic properties and CW laser operation of Nd, Y-codoped CaF2 single crystals,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(3), 035804 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Camy, J. L. Doualan, S. Renard, A. Braud, V. Menard, and R. Moncorge, “Tm3+:CaF2 for 1.9 µm laser operation,” Opt. Commun. 236(4-6), 395–402 (2004).
[Crossref]

Bricchi, E.

Brisset, F.

J. Cao, B. Poumellec, L. Mazerolles, F. Brisset, A.-L. Helbert, S. Surble, X. He, and M. Lancry, “Nanoscale phase separation in lithium niobium silicate glass by femtosecond laser irradiation,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 100(1), 115–124 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. Desmarchelier, B. Poumellec, F. Brisset, S. Mazerat, and M. Lancry, “In the heart of femtosecond laser induced Nanogratings: From porous nanoplanes to form birefringence,” World J. Nano Sci. Eng. 05(04), 115–125 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Lancry, B. Poumellec, J. Canning, K. Cook, J. C. Pulin, and F. Brisset, “Ultrafast nanoporous silica formation driven by femtosecond laser irradiation,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(6), 953–962 (2013).
[Crossref]

Camy, P.

L. B. Su, Q. G. Wang, H. J. Li, G. Brasse, P. Camy, J. L. Doualan, A. Braud, R. Moncorge, Y. Y. Zhan, L. H. Zheng, X. B. Qian, and J. Xu, “Spectroscopic properties and CW laser operation of Nd, Y-codoped CaF2 single crystals,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(3), 035804 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Camy, J. L. Doualan, S. Renard, A. Braud, V. Menard, and R. Moncorge, “Tm3+:CaF2 for 1.9 µm laser operation,” Opt. Commun. 236(4-6), 395–402 (2004).
[Crossref]

V. Petit, J. L. Doualan, P. Camy, V. Menard, and R. Moncorge, “CW and tunable laser operation of Yb3+ doped CaF2,” Appl. Phys. B 78(6), 681–684 (2004).
[Crossref]

C. Labbe, J. L. Doualan, P. Camy, R. Moncorge, and M. Thuau, “The 2.8 µm laser properties of Er3+ doped CaF2 crystals,” Opt. Commun. 209(1-3), 193–199 (2002).
[Crossref]

Canning, J.

M. Lancry, B. Poumellec, J. Canning, K. Cook, J. C. Pulin, and F. Brisset, “Ultrafast nanoporous silica formation driven by femtosecond laser irradiation,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(6), 953–962 (2013).
[Crossref]

Cao, J.

J. Cao, B. Poumellec, L. Mazerolles, F. Brisset, A.-L. Helbert, S. Surble, X. He, and M. Lancry, “Nanoscale phase separation in lithium niobium silicate glass by femtosecond laser irradiation,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 100(1), 115–124 (2017).
[Crossref]

Cerullo, G.

R. Osellame, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, G. Cerullo, and M. Pollnau, “Femtosecond laser microstructuring: an enabling tool for optofluidic lab-on-chips,” Laser Photonics Rev. 5(3), 442–463 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chen, F.

R. Li, W. Nie, Q. Lu, C. Cheng, Z. Shang, J. R. V. de Aldana, and F. Chen, “Femtosecond-laser-written superficial cladding waveguides in Nd:CaF2 crystal,” Opt. Laser Technol. 92, 163–167 (2017).
[Crossref]

F. Chen and J. R. Vazquez de Aldana, “Optical waveguides in crystalline dielectric materials produced by femtosecond-laser micromachining,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(2), 251–275 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Ren, N. Dong, J. Macdonald, F. Chen, H. Zhang, and A. K. Kar, “Continuous wave channel waveguide lasers in Nd:LuVO4 fabricated by direct femtosecond laser writing,” Opt. Express 20(3), 1969–1974 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Benayas, W. F. Silva, A. Rodenas, C. Jacinto, J. V. de Aldana, F. Chen, Y. Tan, R. R. Thomsom, N. D. Psaila, D. T. Reid, G. A. Torchia, A. K. Kar, and D. Jaque, “Ultrafast laser writing of optical waveguides in ceramic Yb:YAG: a study of thermal and non-thermal regimes,” Appl. Phys. A 104(1), 301–309 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chen, G.

C. Fan, B. Poumellec, R. Desmarchelier, H. Zeng, B. Bourguignon, G. Chen, and M. Lancry, “Asymmetric orientational writing dependence on polarization and direction in Li2O-Nb2O5-SiO2 glass with femtosecond laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. B 117(2), 737–747 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cheng, C.

R. Li, W. Nie, Q. Lu, C. Cheng, Z. Shang, J. R. V. de Aldana, and F. Chen, “Femtosecond-laser-written superficial cladding waveguides in Nd:CaF2 crystal,” Opt. Laser Technol. 92, 163–167 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chichkov, B. N.

F. Korte, S. Nolte, B. N. Chichkov, T. Bauer, G. Kamlage, T. Wagner, C. Fallnich, and H. Welling, “Far-field and near-field material processing with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl Phys A 69(S7), S7–S11 (1999).
[Crossref]

Cook, K.

M. Lancry, B. Poumellec, J. Canning, K. Cook, J. C. Pulin, and F. Brisset, “Ultrafast nanoporous silica formation driven by femtosecond laser irradiation,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(6), 953–962 (2013).
[Crossref]

de Aldana, J. R. V.

R. Li, W. Nie, Q. Lu, C. Cheng, Z. Shang, J. R. V. de Aldana, and F. Chen, “Femtosecond-laser-written superficial cladding waveguides in Nd:CaF2 crystal,” Opt. Laser Technol. 92, 163–167 (2017).
[Crossref]

de Aldana, J. V.

A. Benayas, W. F. Silva, A. Rodenas, C. Jacinto, J. V. de Aldana, F. Chen, Y. Tan, R. R. Thomsom, N. D. Psaila, D. T. Reid, G. A. Torchia, A. K. Kar, and D. Jaque, “Ultrafast laser writing of optical waveguides in ceramic Yb:YAG: a study of thermal and non-thermal regimes,” Appl. Phys. A 104(1), 301–309 (2011).
[Crossref]

Desmarchelier, R.

R. Desmarchelier, B. Poumellec, F. Brisset, S. Mazerat, and M. Lancry, “In the heart of femtosecond laser induced Nanogratings: From porous nanoplanes to form birefringence,” World J. Nano Sci. Eng. 05(04), 115–125 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Fan, B. Poumellec, R. Desmarchelier, H. Zeng, B. Bourguignon, G. Chen, and M. Lancry, “Asymmetric orientational writing dependence on polarization and direction in Li2O-Nb2O5-SiO2 glass with femtosecond laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. B 117(2), 737–747 (2014).
[Crossref]

Dong, N.

Doualan, J. L.

L. B. Su, Q. G. Wang, H. J. Li, G. Brasse, P. Camy, J. L. Doualan, A. Braud, R. Moncorge, Y. Y. Zhan, L. H. Zheng, X. B. Qian, and J. Xu, “Spectroscopic properties and CW laser operation of Nd, Y-codoped CaF2 single crystals,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(3), 035804 (2013).
[Crossref]

V. Petit, J. L. Doualan, P. Camy, V. Menard, and R. Moncorge, “CW and tunable laser operation of Yb3+ doped CaF2,” Appl. Phys. B 78(6), 681–684 (2004).
[Crossref]

P. Camy, J. L. Doualan, S. Renard, A. Braud, V. Menard, and R. Moncorge, “Tm3+:CaF2 for 1.9 µm laser operation,” Opt. Commun. 236(4-6), 395–402 (2004).
[Crossref]

C. Labbe, J. L. Doualan, P. Camy, R. Moncorge, and M. Thuau, “The 2.8 µm laser properties of Er3+ doped CaF2 crystals,” Opt. Commun. 209(1-3), 193–199 (2002).
[Crossref]

Dubov, M.

Dürr, F.

F. Dürr, “Laser-Induced Stress Changes in Optical Fibers,” PhD thesis no. 3314 (Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Lausanne, 2005).

Eaton, S. M.

-Erraji, A. C.

Fallnich, C.

F. Korte, S. Nolte, B. N. Chichkov, T. Bauer, G. Kamlage, T. Wagner, C. Fallnich, and H. Welling, “Far-field and near-field material processing with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl Phys A 69(S7), S7–S11 (1999).
[Crossref]

Fan, C.

C. Fan, B. Poumellec, R. Desmarchelier, H. Zeng, B. Bourguignon, G. Chen, and M. Lancry, “Asymmetric orientational writing dependence on polarization and direction in Li2O-Nb2O5-SiO2 glass with femtosecond laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. B 117(2), 737–747 (2014).
[Crossref]

Fan, M.

C. Li, M. Fan, J. Liu, L. Su, D. Jiang, X. Qian, and J. Xu, “Operation of continuous wave and Q-switching on diode-pumped Nd, Y:CaF2 disordered crystal,” Opt. Laser Technol. 69, 140–143 (2015).
[Crossref]

Fan, X.

Gao, Z.

J. Zhu, L. Zhang, Z. Gao, J. Wang, Z. Wang, L. Su, L. Zheng, J. Wang, J. Xu, and Z. Wei, “Diode-pumped femtosecond mode-locked Nd, Y-codoped CaF2 laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 12(3), 035801 (2015).
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Garcia, J. A. S.

A. Rodenas, J. A. S. Garcia, D. Jaque, G. A. Torchia, C. Mendez, I. Arias, L. Roso, and F. A. -Rueda, “Optical investigation of femtosecond laser induced microstress in neodymium doped lithium niobate crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(3), 033521 (2006).
[Crossref]

Gecevicius, M.

M. Beresna, M. Gecevicius, and P. G. Kazansky, “Ultrafast laser direct writing and nanostructuring in transparent materials,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 6(3), 293–339 (2014).
[Crossref]

Glezer, E. N.

E. N. Glezer and E. Mazur, “Ultrafast-laser driven micro-explosions in transparent materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(7), 882–884 (1997).
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Gottmann, J.

Gross, S.

Hao, X.-T.

Hari Babu, B.

He, X.

J. Cao, B. Poumellec, L. Mazerolles, F. Brisset, A.-L. Helbert, S. Surble, X. He, and M. Lancry, “Nanoscale phase separation in lithium niobium silicate glass by femtosecond laser irradiation,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 100(1), 115–124 (2017).
[Crossref]

Helbert, A.-L.

J. Cao, B. Poumellec, L. Mazerolles, F. Brisset, A.-L. Helbert, S. Surble, X. He, and M. Lancry, “Nanoscale phase separation in lithium niobium silicate glass by femtosecond laser irradiation,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 100(1), 115–124 (2017).
[Crossref]

Herman, P. R.

Hirao, K.

Y. Shimotsuma, K. Hirao, J. Qiu, and P. G. Kazansky, “Nano-modification inside transparent materials by femtosecond laser single beam,” Mod. Phys. Lett. B 19(05), 225–238 (2005).
[Crossref]

Y. Shimotsuma, K. Hirao, P. G. Kazansky, and J. Qiu, “Three-dimensional micro- and nano-fabrication in transparent materials by femtosecond laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(7A), 4735–4748 (2005).
[Crossref]

Hoekstra, H. J. W. M.

R. Osellame, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, G. Cerullo, and M. Pollnau, “Femtosecond laser microstructuring: an enabling tool for optofluidic lab-on-chips,” Laser Photonics Rev. 5(3), 442–463 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hosono, H.

M. Mizuguchi, H. Hosono, H. Kawazoe, and T. Ogawa, “Generation of optical absorption bands in CaF2 single crystals by ArF excimer laser irradiation: Effect of yttrium impurity,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol., A 16(5), 3052–3057 (1998).
[Crossref]

Huber, G.

J. Siebenmorgen, K. Petermann, G. Huber, K. Rademaker, S. Nolte, and A. Tunnermann, “Femtosecond laser written stress-induced Nd:Y3Al5O12 (YAG) channel waveguide laser,” Appl. Phys. B 97(2), 251–255 (2009).
[Crossref]

Jacinto, C.

A. Benayas, W. F. Silva, A. Rodenas, C. Jacinto, J. V. de Aldana, F. Chen, Y. Tan, R. R. Thomsom, N. D. Psaila, D. T. Reid, G. A. Torchia, A. K. Kar, and D. Jaque, “Ultrafast laser writing of optical waveguides in ceramic Yb:YAG: a study of thermal and non-thermal regimes,” Appl. Phys. A 104(1), 301–309 (2011).
[Crossref]

Jaque, D.

A. Benayas, W. F. Silva, A. Rodenas, C. Jacinto, J. V. de Aldana, F. Chen, Y. Tan, R. R. Thomsom, N. D. Psaila, D. T. Reid, G. A. Torchia, A. K. Kar, and D. Jaque, “Ultrafast laser writing of optical waveguides in ceramic Yb:YAG: a study of thermal and non-thermal regimes,” Appl. Phys. A 104(1), 301–309 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Rodenas, J. A. S. Garcia, D. Jaque, G. A. Torchia, C. Mendez, I. Arias, L. Roso, and F. A. -Rueda, “Optical investigation of femtosecond laser induced microstress in neodymium doped lithium niobate crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(3), 033521 (2006).
[Crossref]

Jiang, D.

D. Jiang, Y. Zhan, Q. Zhang, F. Ma, L. Su, F. Tang, X. Qian, and J. Xu, “Nd, Y:CaF2 laser crystals: novel spectral properties and laser performance from a controlled local structure,” CrystEngComm 17(38), 7398–7405 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Li, M. Fan, J. Liu, L. Su, D. Jiang, X. Qian, and J. Xu, “Operation of continuous wave and Q-switching on diode-pumped Nd, Y:CaF2 disordered crystal,” Opt. Laser Technol. 69, 140–143 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kamlage, G.

F. Korte, S. Nolte, B. N. Chichkov, T. Bauer, G. Kamlage, T. Wagner, C. Fallnich, and H. Welling, “Far-field and near-field material processing with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl Phys A 69(S7), S7–S11 (1999).
[Crossref]

Kar, A. K.

Y. Ren, N. Dong, J. Macdonald, F. Chen, H. Zhang, and A. K. Kar, “Continuous wave channel waveguide lasers in Nd:LuVO4 fabricated by direct femtosecond laser writing,” Opt. Express 20(3), 1969–1974 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Benayas, W. F. Silva, A. Rodenas, C. Jacinto, J. V. de Aldana, F. Chen, Y. Tan, R. R. Thomsom, N. D. Psaila, D. T. Reid, G. A. Torchia, A. K. Kar, and D. Jaque, “Ultrafast laser writing of optical waveguides in ceramic Yb:YAG: a study of thermal and non-thermal regimes,” Appl. Phys. A 104(1), 301–309 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kawazoe, H.

M. Mizuguchi, H. Hosono, H. Kawazoe, and T. Ogawa, “Generation of optical absorption bands in CaF2 single crystals by ArF excimer laser irradiation: Effect of yttrium impurity,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol., A 16(5), 3052–3057 (1998).
[Crossref]

Kazansky, P. G.

M. Beresna, M. Gecevicius, and P. G. Kazansky, “Ultrafast laser direct writing and nanostructuring in transparent materials,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 6(3), 293–339 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Lancry, B. Poumellec, A. C. -Erraji, M. Beresna, and P. G. Kazansky, “Dependence of the femtosecond laser refractive index change thresholds on the chemical composition of doped-silica glasses,” Opt. Mater. Express 1(4), 711–723 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. Shimotsuma, K. Hirao, P. G. Kazansky, and J. Qiu, “Three-dimensional micro- and nano-fabrication in transparent materials by femtosecond laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(7A), 4735–4748 (2005).
[Crossref]

Y. Shimotsuma, K. Hirao, J. Qiu, and P. G. Kazansky, “Nano-modification inside transparent materials by femtosecond laser single beam,” Mod. Phys. Lett. B 19(05), 225–238 (2005).
[Crossref]

E. Bricchi, B. G. Klappauf, and P. G. Kazansky, “Form birefringence and negative index change created by femtosecond direct writing in transparent materials,” Opt. Lett. 29(1), 119–121 (2004).
[Crossref]

Khrushchev, I.

Klappauf, B. G.

Korte, F.

F. Korte, S. Nolte, B. N. Chichkov, T. Bauer, G. Kamlage, T. Wagner, C. Fallnich, and H. Welling, “Far-field and near-field material processing with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl Phys A 69(S7), S7–S11 (1999).
[Crossref]

Labbe, C.

C. Labbe, J. L. Doualan, P. Camy, R. Moncorge, and M. Thuau, “The 2.8 µm laser properties of Er3+ doped CaF2 crystals,” Opt. Commun. 209(1-3), 193–199 (2002).
[Crossref]

Lancry, M.

J. Cao, B. Poumellec, L. Mazerolles, F. Brisset, A.-L. Helbert, S. Surble, X. He, and M. Lancry, “Nanoscale phase separation in lithium niobium silicate glass by femtosecond laser irradiation,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 100(1), 115–124 (2017).
[Crossref]

B. Hari Babu, M. Niu, T. Billotte, P. Bi, F. Zheng, B. Poumellec, M. Lancry, and X.-T. Hao, “Femtosecond laser processing induced low loss waveguides in multicomponent glasses,” Opt. Mater. Express 7(10), 3580–3590 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. Desmarchelier, B. Poumellec, F. Brisset, S. Mazerat, and M. Lancry, “In the heart of femtosecond laser induced Nanogratings: From porous nanoplanes to form birefringence,” World J. Nano Sci. Eng. 05(04), 115–125 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Fan, B. Poumellec, R. Desmarchelier, H. Zeng, B. Bourguignon, G. Chen, and M. Lancry, “Asymmetric orientational writing dependence on polarization and direction in Li2O-Nb2O5-SiO2 glass with femtosecond laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. B 117(2), 737–747 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Lancry, B. Poumellec, J. Canning, K. Cook, J. C. Pulin, and F. Brisset, “Ultrafast nanoporous silica formation driven by femtosecond laser irradiation,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(6), 953–962 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Lancry, B. Poumellec, A. C. -Erraji, M. Beresna, and P. G. Kazansky, “Dependence of the femtosecond laser refractive index change thresholds on the chemical composition of doped-silica glasses,” Opt. Mater. Express 1(4), 711–723 (2011).
[Crossref]

Laporta, P.

G. D. Valle, R. Osellame, and P. Laporta, “Micromachining of photonic devices by femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 11(1), 013001 (2009).
[Crossref]

Li, C.

C. Li, M. Fan, J. Liu, L. Su, D. Jiang, X. Qian, and J. Xu, “Operation of continuous wave and Q-switching on diode-pumped Nd, Y:CaF2 disordered crystal,” Opt. Laser Technol. 69, 140–143 (2015).
[Crossref]

Li, H. J.

L. B. Su, Q. G. Wang, H. J. Li, G. Brasse, P. Camy, J. L. Doualan, A. Braud, R. Moncorge, Y. Y. Zhan, L. H. Zheng, X. B. Qian, and J. Xu, “Spectroscopic properties and CW laser operation of Nd, Y-codoped CaF2 single crystals,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(3), 035804 (2013).
[Crossref]

Li, R.

R. Li, W. Nie, Q. Lu, C. Cheng, Z. Shang, J. R. V. de Aldana, and F. Chen, “Femtosecond-laser-written superficial cladding waveguides in Nd:CaF2 crystal,” Opt. Laser Technol. 92, 163–167 (2017).
[Crossref]

Li, W.

Z. Sun, B. Mei, W. Li, X. Liu, and L. Su, “Synthesis and optical characterization of Nd, Y: CaF2 transparent ceramics,” Opt. Mater. 71, 35–40 (2017).
[Crossref]

Liu, J.

Liu, X.

Z. Sun, B. Mei, W. Li, X. Liu, and L. Su, “Synthesis and optical characterization of Nd, Y: CaF2 transparent ceramics,” Opt. Mater. 71, 35–40 (2017).
[Crossref]

Lu, Q.

R. Li, W. Nie, Q. Lu, C. Cheng, Z. Shang, J. R. V. de Aldana, and F. Chen, “Femtosecond-laser-written superficial cladding waveguides in Nd:CaF2 crystal,” Opt. Laser Technol. 92, 163–167 (2017).
[Crossref]

Ma, F.

D. Jiang, Y. Zhan, Q. Zhang, F. Ma, L. Su, F. Tang, X. Qian, and J. Xu, “Nd, Y:CaF2 laser crystals: novel spectral properties and laser performance from a controlled local structure,” CrystEngComm 17(38), 7398–7405 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ma, W.

Macdonald, J.

Mazerat, S.

R. Desmarchelier, B. Poumellec, F. Brisset, S. Mazerat, and M. Lancry, “In the heart of femtosecond laser induced Nanogratings: From porous nanoplanes to form birefringence,” World J. Nano Sci. Eng. 05(04), 115–125 (2015).
[Crossref]

Mazerolles, L.

J. Cao, B. Poumellec, L. Mazerolles, F. Brisset, A.-L. Helbert, S. Surble, X. He, and M. Lancry, “Nanoscale phase separation in lithium niobium silicate glass by femtosecond laser irradiation,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 100(1), 115–124 (2017).
[Crossref]

Mazur, E.

E. N. Glezer and E. Mazur, “Ultrafast-laser driven micro-explosions in transparent materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(7), 882–884 (1997).
[Crossref]

McMillen, B.

Mei, B.

Z. Sun, B. Mei, W. Li, X. Liu, and L. Su, “Synthesis and optical characterization of Nd, Y: CaF2 transparent ceramics,” Opt. Mater. 71, 35–40 (2017).
[Crossref]

Menard, V.

V. Petit, J. L. Doualan, P. Camy, V. Menard, and R. Moncorge, “CW and tunable laser operation of Yb3+ doped CaF2,” Appl. Phys. B 78(6), 681–684 (2004).
[Crossref]

P. Camy, J. L. Doualan, S. Renard, A. Braud, V. Menard, and R. Moncorge, “Tm3+:CaF2 for 1.9 µm laser operation,” Opt. Commun. 236(4-6), 395–402 (2004).
[Crossref]

Mendez, C.

A. Rodenas, J. A. S. Garcia, D. Jaque, G. A. Torchia, C. Mendez, I. Arias, L. Roso, and F. A. -Rueda, “Optical investigation of femtosecond laser induced microstress in neodymium doped lithium niobate crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(3), 033521 (2006).
[Crossref]

Mezentsev, V.

Mitchell, J.

Mizuguchi, M.

M. Mizuguchi, H. Hosono, H. Kawazoe, and T. Ogawa, “Generation of optical absorption bands in CaF2 single crystals by ArF excimer laser irradiation: Effect of yttrium impurity,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol., A 16(5), 3052–3057 (1998).
[Crossref]

Moncorge, R.

L. B. Su, Q. G. Wang, H. J. Li, G. Brasse, P. Camy, J. L. Doualan, A. Braud, R. Moncorge, Y. Y. Zhan, L. H. Zheng, X. B. Qian, and J. Xu, “Spectroscopic properties and CW laser operation of Nd, Y-codoped CaF2 single crystals,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(3), 035804 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Camy, J. L. Doualan, S. Renard, A. Braud, V. Menard, and R. Moncorge, “Tm3+:CaF2 for 1.9 µm laser operation,” Opt. Commun. 236(4-6), 395–402 (2004).
[Crossref]

V. Petit, J. L. Doualan, P. Camy, V. Menard, and R. Moncorge, “CW and tunable laser operation of Yb3+ doped CaF2,” Appl. Phys. B 78(6), 681–684 (2004).
[Crossref]

C. Labbe, J. L. Doualan, P. Camy, R. Moncorge, and M. Thuau, “The 2.8 µm laser properties of Er3+ doped CaF2 crystals,” Opt. Commun. 209(1-3), 193–199 (2002).
[Crossref]

Nie, W.

R. Li, W. Nie, Q. Lu, C. Cheng, Z. Shang, J. R. V. de Aldana, and F. Chen, “Femtosecond-laser-written superficial cladding waveguides in Nd:CaF2 crystal,” Opt. Laser Technol. 92, 163–167 (2017).
[Crossref]

Niu, M.

Nolte, S.

J. Siebenmorgen, K. Petermann, G. Huber, K. Rademaker, S. Nolte, and A. Tunnermann, “Femtosecond laser written stress-induced Nd:Y3Al5O12 (YAG) channel waveguide laser,” Appl. Phys. B 97(2), 251–255 (2009).
[Crossref]

F. Korte, S. Nolte, B. N. Chichkov, T. Bauer, G. Kamlage, T. Wagner, C. Fallnich, and H. Welling, “Far-field and near-field material processing with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl Phys A 69(S7), S7–S11 (1999).
[Crossref]

Ogawa, T.

M. Mizuguchi, H. Hosono, H. Kawazoe, and T. Ogawa, “Generation of optical absorption bands in CaF2 single crystals by ArF excimer laser irradiation: Effect of yttrium impurity,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol., A 16(5), 3052–3057 (1998).
[Crossref]

Okhrimchuk, A.

Okhrimchuk, A. G.

Oldham, W. G.

R. E. Schenker and W. G. Oldham, “Ultraviolet induced densification in fused silica,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(3), 1065–1071 (1997).
[Crossref]

Osellame, R.

R. Osellame, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, G. Cerullo, and M. Pollnau, “Femtosecond laser microstructuring: an enabling tool for optofluidic lab-on-chips,” Laser Photonics Rev. 5(3), 442–463 (2011).
[Crossref]

G. D. Valle, R. Osellame, and P. Laporta, “Micromachining of photonic devices by femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 11(1), 013001 (2009).
[Crossref]

Petermann, K.

J. Siebenmorgen, K. Petermann, G. Huber, K. Rademaker, S. Nolte, and A. Tunnermann, “Femtosecond laser written stress-induced Nd:Y3Al5O12 (YAG) channel waveguide laser,” Appl. Phys. B 97(2), 251–255 (2009).
[Crossref]

Petit, V.

V. Petit, J. L. Doualan, P. Camy, V. Menard, and R. Moncorge, “CW and tunable laser operation of Yb3+ doped CaF2,” Appl. Phys. B 78(6), 681–684 (2004).
[Crossref]

Pollnau, M.

R. Osellame, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, G. Cerullo, and M. Pollnau, “Femtosecond laser microstructuring: an enabling tool for optofluidic lab-on-chips,” Laser Photonics Rev. 5(3), 442–463 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ponader, C. W.

C. W. Ponader, R. E. Youngman, and C. M. Smith, “Structural studies of (Ca,Sr)F2 single crystals with Raman and NMR spectroscopies,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 88(9), 2447–2450 (2005).
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Poumellec, B.

J. Cao, B. Poumellec, L. Mazerolles, F. Brisset, A.-L. Helbert, S. Surble, X. He, and M. Lancry, “Nanoscale phase separation in lithium niobium silicate glass by femtosecond laser irradiation,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 100(1), 115–124 (2017).
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B. Hari Babu, M. Niu, T. Billotte, P. Bi, F. Zheng, B. Poumellec, M. Lancry, and X.-T. Hao, “Femtosecond laser processing induced low loss waveguides in multicomponent glasses,” Opt. Mater. Express 7(10), 3580–3590 (2017).
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R. Desmarchelier, B. Poumellec, F. Brisset, S. Mazerat, and M. Lancry, “In the heart of femtosecond laser induced Nanogratings: From porous nanoplanes to form birefringence,” World J. Nano Sci. Eng. 05(04), 115–125 (2015).
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C. Fan, B. Poumellec, R. Desmarchelier, H. Zeng, B. Bourguignon, G. Chen, and M. Lancry, “Asymmetric orientational writing dependence on polarization and direction in Li2O-Nb2O5-SiO2 glass with femtosecond laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. B 117(2), 737–747 (2014).
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M. Lancry, B. Poumellec, J. Canning, K. Cook, J. C. Pulin, and F. Brisset, “Ultrafast nanoporous silica formation driven by femtosecond laser irradiation,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(6), 953–962 (2013).
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M. Lancry, B. Poumellec, A. C. -Erraji, M. Beresna, and P. G. Kazansky, “Dependence of the femtosecond laser refractive index change thresholds on the chemical composition of doped-silica glasses,” Opt. Mater. Express 1(4), 711–723 (2011).
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A. Benayas, W. F. Silva, A. Rodenas, C. Jacinto, J. V. de Aldana, F. Chen, Y. Tan, R. R. Thomsom, N. D. Psaila, D. T. Reid, G. A. Torchia, A. K. Kar, and D. Jaque, “Ultrafast laser writing of optical waveguides in ceramic Yb:YAG: a study of thermal and non-thermal regimes,” Appl. Phys. A 104(1), 301–309 (2011).
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Pulin, J. C.

M. Lancry, B. Poumellec, J. Canning, K. Cook, J. C. Pulin, and F. Brisset, “Ultrafast nanoporous silica formation driven by femtosecond laser irradiation,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(6), 953–962 (2013).
[Crossref]

Qian, X.

D. Jiang, Y. Zhan, Q. Zhang, F. Ma, L. Su, F. Tang, X. Qian, and J. Xu, “Nd, Y:CaF2 laser crystals: novel spectral properties and laser performance from a controlled local structure,” CrystEngComm 17(38), 7398–7405 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Li, M. Fan, J. Liu, L. Su, D. Jiang, X. Qian, and J. Xu, “Operation of continuous wave and Q-switching on diode-pumped Nd, Y:CaF2 disordered crystal,” Opt. Laser Technol. 69, 140–143 (2015).
[Crossref]

Qian, X. B.

L. B. Su, Q. G. Wang, H. J. Li, G. Brasse, P. Camy, J. L. Doualan, A. Braud, R. Moncorge, Y. Y. Zhan, L. H. Zheng, X. B. Qian, and J. Xu, “Spectroscopic properties and CW laser operation of Nd, Y-codoped CaF2 single crystals,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(3), 035804 (2013).
[Crossref]

Qiu, J.

D. Tan, K. N. Sharafudeen, Y. Yue, and J. Qiu, “Femtosecond laser induced phenomena in transparent solid materials: Fundamentals and applications,” Prog. Mater. Sci. 76, 154–228 (2016).
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Y. Shimotsuma, K. Hirao, J. Qiu, and P. G. Kazansky, “Nano-modification inside transparent materials by femtosecond laser single beam,” Mod. Phys. Lett. B 19(05), 225–238 (2005).
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Y. Shimotsuma, K. Hirao, P. G. Kazansky, and J. Qiu, “Three-dimensional micro- and nano-fabrication in transparent materials by femtosecond laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(7A), 4735–4748 (2005).
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J. Siebenmorgen, K. Petermann, G. Huber, K. Rademaker, S. Nolte, and A. Tunnermann, “Femtosecond laser written stress-induced Nd:Y3Al5O12 (YAG) channel waveguide laser,” Appl. Phys. B 97(2), 251–255 (2009).
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A. Benayas, W. F. Silva, A. Rodenas, C. Jacinto, J. V. de Aldana, F. Chen, Y. Tan, R. R. Thomsom, N. D. Psaila, D. T. Reid, G. A. Torchia, A. K. Kar, and D. Jaque, “Ultrafast laser writing of optical waveguides in ceramic Yb:YAG: a study of thermal and non-thermal regimes,” Appl. Phys. A 104(1), 301–309 (2011).
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Renard, S.

P. Camy, J. L. Doualan, S. Renard, A. Braud, V. Menard, and R. Moncorge, “Tm3+:CaF2 for 1.9 µm laser operation,” Opt. Commun. 236(4-6), 395–402 (2004).
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A. Benayas, W. F. Silva, A. Rodenas, C. Jacinto, J. V. de Aldana, F. Chen, Y. Tan, R. R. Thomsom, N. D. Psaila, D. T. Reid, G. A. Torchia, A. K. Kar, and D. Jaque, “Ultrafast laser writing of optical waveguides in ceramic Yb:YAG: a study of thermal and non-thermal regimes,” Appl. Phys. A 104(1), 301–309 (2011).
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A. Rodenas, J. A. S. Garcia, D. Jaque, G. A. Torchia, C. Mendez, I. Arias, L. Roso, and F. A. -Rueda, “Optical investigation of femtosecond laser induced microstress in neodymium doped lithium niobate crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(3), 033521 (2006).
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Roso, L.

A. Rodenas, J. A. S. Garcia, D. Jaque, G. A. Torchia, C. Mendez, I. Arias, L. Roso, and F. A. -Rueda, “Optical investigation of femtosecond laser induced microstress in neodymium doped lithium niobate crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(3), 033521 (2006).
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A. Rodenas, J. A. S. Garcia, D. Jaque, G. A. Torchia, C. Mendez, I. Arias, L. Roso, and F. A. -Rueda, “Optical investigation of femtosecond laser induced microstress in neodymium doped lithium niobate crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(3), 033521 (2006).
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R. E. Schenker and W. G. Oldham, “Ultraviolet induced densification in fused silica,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(3), 1065–1071 (1997).
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Shang, Z.

R. Li, W. Nie, Q. Lu, C. Cheng, Z. Shang, J. R. V. de Aldana, and F. Chen, “Femtosecond-laser-written superficial cladding waveguides in Nd:CaF2 crystal,” Opt. Laser Technol. 92, 163–167 (2017).
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D. Tan, K. N. Sharafudeen, Y. Yue, and J. Qiu, “Femtosecond laser induced phenomena in transparent solid materials: Fundamentals and applications,” Prog. Mater. Sci. 76, 154–228 (2016).
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Shestakov, A.

Shestakov, A. V.

Shimotsuma, Y.

Y. Shimotsuma, K. Hirao, J. Qiu, and P. G. Kazansky, “Nano-modification inside transparent materials by femtosecond laser single beam,” Mod. Phys. Lett. B 19(05), 225–238 (2005).
[Crossref]

Y. Shimotsuma, K. Hirao, P. G. Kazansky, and J. Qiu, “Three-dimensional micro- and nano-fabrication in transparent materials by femtosecond laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(7A), 4735–4748 (2005).
[Crossref]

Siebenmorgen, J.

J. Siebenmorgen, K. Petermann, G. Huber, K. Rademaker, S. Nolte, and A. Tunnermann, “Femtosecond laser written stress-induced Nd:Y3Al5O12 (YAG) channel waveguide laser,” Appl. Phys. B 97(2), 251–255 (2009).
[Crossref]

Silva, W. F.

A. Benayas, W. F. Silva, A. Rodenas, C. Jacinto, J. V. de Aldana, F. Chen, Y. Tan, R. R. Thomsom, N. D. Psaila, D. T. Reid, G. A. Torchia, A. K. Kar, and D. Jaque, “Ultrafast laser writing of optical waveguides in ceramic Yb:YAG: a study of thermal and non-thermal regimes,” Appl. Phys. A 104(1), 301–309 (2011).
[Crossref]

Smith, C. M.

C. W. Ponader, R. E. Youngman, and C. M. Smith, “Structural studies of (Ca,Sr)F2 single crystals with Raman and NMR spectroscopies,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 88(9), 2447–2450 (2005).
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Su, L.

Z. Sun, B. Mei, W. Li, X. Liu, and L. Su, “Synthesis and optical characterization of Nd, Y: CaF2 transparent ceramics,” Opt. Mater. 71, 35–40 (2017).
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J. Liu, X. Fan, J. Liu, W. Ma, J. Wang, and L. Su, “Mid-infrared self-Q-switched Er, Pr:CaF2 diode-pumped laser,” Opt. Lett. 41(20), 4660–4663 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Zhu, L. Zhang, Z. Gao, J. Wang, Z. Wang, L. Su, L. Zheng, J. Wang, J. Xu, and Z. Wei, “Diode-pumped femtosecond mode-locked Nd, Y-codoped CaF2 laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 12(3), 035801 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Li, M. Fan, J. Liu, L. Su, D. Jiang, X. Qian, and J. Xu, “Operation of continuous wave and Q-switching on diode-pumped Nd, Y:CaF2 disordered crystal,” Opt. Laser Technol. 69, 140–143 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Jiang, Y. Zhan, Q. Zhang, F. Ma, L. Su, F. Tang, X. Qian, and J. Xu, “Nd, Y:CaF2 laser crystals: novel spectral properties and laser performance from a controlled local structure,” CrystEngComm 17(38), 7398–7405 (2015).
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S. Sun, L. Su, Y. Yuan, and Z. Sun, “Femtosecond laser-inscribed waveguides in Nd3+;Y3+:SrF2 crystals,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 11(11), 112301 (2013).
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Sun, Z.

Z. Sun, B. Mei, W. Li, X. Liu, and L. Su, “Synthesis and optical characterization of Nd, Y: CaF2 transparent ceramics,” Opt. Mater. 71, 35–40 (2017).
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S. Sun, L. Su, Y. Yuan, and Z. Sun, “Femtosecond laser-inscribed waveguides in Nd3+;Y3+:SrF2 crystals,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 11(11), 112301 (2013).
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J. Cao, B. Poumellec, L. Mazerolles, F. Brisset, A.-L. Helbert, S. Surble, X. He, and M. Lancry, “Nanoscale phase separation in lithium niobium silicate glass by femtosecond laser irradiation,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 100(1), 115–124 (2017).
[Crossref]

Tan, D.

D. Tan, K. N. Sharafudeen, Y. Yue, and J. Qiu, “Femtosecond laser induced phenomena in transparent solid materials: Fundamentals and applications,” Prog. Mater. Sci. 76, 154–228 (2016).
[Crossref]

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A. Benayas, W. F. Silva, A. Rodenas, C. Jacinto, J. V. de Aldana, F. Chen, Y. Tan, R. R. Thomsom, N. D. Psaila, D. T. Reid, G. A. Torchia, A. K. Kar, and D. Jaque, “Ultrafast laser writing of optical waveguides in ceramic Yb:YAG: a study of thermal and non-thermal regimes,” Appl. Phys. A 104(1), 301–309 (2011).
[Crossref]

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D. Jiang, Y. Zhan, Q. Zhang, F. Ma, L. Su, F. Tang, X. Qian, and J. Xu, “Nd, Y:CaF2 laser crystals: novel spectral properties and laser performance from a controlled local structure,” CrystEngComm 17(38), 7398–7405 (2015).
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A. Benayas, W. F. Silva, A. Rodenas, C. Jacinto, J. V. de Aldana, F. Chen, Y. Tan, R. R. Thomsom, N. D. Psaila, D. T. Reid, G. A. Torchia, A. K. Kar, and D. Jaque, “Ultrafast laser writing of optical waveguides in ceramic Yb:YAG: a study of thermal and non-thermal regimes,” Appl. Phys. A 104(1), 301–309 (2011).
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A. Benayas, W. F. Silva, A. Rodenas, C. Jacinto, J. V. de Aldana, F. Chen, Y. Tan, R. R. Thomsom, N. D. Psaila, D. T. Reid, G. A. Torchia, A. K. Kar, and D. Jaque, “Ultrafast laser writing of optical waveguides in ceramic Yb:YAG: a study of thermal and non-thermal regimes,” Appl. Phys. A 104(1), 301–309 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Rodenas, J. A. S. Garcia, D. Jaque, G. A. Torchia, C. Mendez, I. Arias, L. Roso, and F. A. -Rueda, “Optical investigation of femtosecond laser induced microstress in neodymium doped lithium niobate crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(3), 033521 (2006).
[Crossref]

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J. Siebenmorgen, K. Petermann, G. Huber, K. Rademaker, S. Nolte, and A. Tunnermann, “Femtosecond laser written stress-induced Nd:Y3Al5O12 (YAG) channel waveguide laser,” Appl. Phys. B 97(2), 251–255 (2009).
[Crossref]

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G. D. Valle, R. Osellame, and P. Laporta, “Micromachining of photonic devices by femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 11(1), 013001 (2009).
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F. Chen and J. R. Vazquez de Aldana, “Optical waveguides in crystalline dielectric materials produced by femtosecond-laser micromachining,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(2), 251–275 (2014).
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F. Korte, S. Nolte, B. N. Chichkov, T. Bauer, G. Kamlage, T. Wagner, C. Fallnich, and H. Welling, “Far-field and near-field material processing with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl Phys A 69(S7), S7–S11 (1999).
[Crossref]

Wang, J.

J. Liu, X. Fan, J. Liu, W. Ma, J. Wang, and L. Su, “Mid-infrared self-Q-switched Er, Pr:CaF2 diode-pumped laser,” Opt. Lett. 41(20), 4660–4663 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Zhu, L. Zhang, Z. Gao, J. Wang, Z. Wang, L. Su, L. Zheng, J. Wang, J. Xu, and Z. Wei, “Diode-pumped femtosecond mode-locked Nd, Y-codoped CaF2 laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 12(3), 035801 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Zhu, L. Zhang, Z. Gao, J. Wang, Z. Wang, L. Su, L. Zheng, J. Wang, J. Xu, and Z. Wei, “Diode-pumped femtosecond mode-locked Nd, Y-codoped CaF2 laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 12(3), 035801 (2015).
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L. B. Su, Q. G. Wang, H. J. Li, G. Brasse, P. Camy, J. L. Doualan, A. Braud, R. Moncorge, Y. Y. Zhan, L. H. Zheng, X. B. Qian, and J. Xu, “Spectroscopic properties and CW laser operation of Nd, Y-codoped CaF2 single crystals,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(3), 035804 (2013).
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J. Zhu, L. Zhang, Z. Gao, J. Wang, Z. Wang, L. Su, L. Zheng, J. Wang, J. Xu, and Z. Wei, “Diode-pumped femtosecond mode-locked Nd, Y-codoped CaF2 laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 12(3), 035801 (2015).
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J. Zhu, L. Zhang, Z. Gao, J. Wang, Z. Wang, L. Su, L. Zheng, J. Wang, J. Xu, and Z. Wei, “Diode-pumped femtosecond mode-locked Nd, Y-codoped CaF2 laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 12(3), 035801 (2015).
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F. Korte, S. Nolte, B. N. Chichkov, T. Bauer, G. Kamlage, T. Wagner, C. Fallnich, and H. Welling, “Far-field and near-field material processing with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl Phys A 69(S7), S7–S11 (1999).
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Wortmann, D.

Xu, J.

C. Li, M. Fan, J. Liu, L. Su, D. Jiang, X. Qian, and J. Xu, “Operation of continuous wave and Q-switching on diode-pumped Nd, Y:CaF2 disordered crystal,” Opt. Laser Technol. 69, 140–143 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Zhu, L. Zhang, Z. Gao, J. Wang, Z. Wang, L. Su, L. Zheng, J. Wang, J. Xu, and Z. Wei, “Diode-pumped femtosecond mode-locked Nd, Y-codoped CaF2 laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 12(3), 035801 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Jiang, Y. Zhan, Q. Zhang, F. Ma, L. Su, F. Tang, X. Qian, and J. Xu, “Nd, Y:CaF2 laser crystals: novel spectral properties and laser performance from a controlled local structure,” CrystEngComm 17(38), 7398–7405 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. B. Su, Q. G. Wang, H. J. Li, G. Brasse, P. Camy, J. L. Doualan, A. Braud, R. Moncorge, Y. Y. Zhan, L. H. Zheng, X. B. Qian, and J. Xu, “Spectroscopic properties and CW laser operation of Nd, Y-codoped CaF2 single crystals,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(3), 035804 (2013).
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Yoshino, F.

Youngman, R. E.

C. W. Ponader, R. E. Youngman, and C. M. Smith, “Structural studies of (Ca,Sr)F2 single crystals with Raman and NMR spectroscopies,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 88(9), 2447–2450 (2005).
[Crossref]

Yuan, Y.

Yue, Y.

D. Tan, K. N. Sharafudeen, Y. Yue, and J. Qiu, “Femtosecond laser induced phenomena in transparent solid materials: Fundamentals and applications,” Prog. Mater. Sci. 76, 154–228 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zeng, H.

C. Fan, B. Poumellec, R. Desmarchelier, H. Zeng, B. Bourguignon, G. Chen, and M. Lancry, “Asymmetric orientational writing dependence on polarization and direction in Li2O-Nb2O5-SiO2 glass with femtosecond laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. B 117(2), 737–747 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhan, Y.

D. Jiang, Y. Zhan, Q. Zhang, F. Ma, L. Su, F. Tang, X. Qian, and J. Xu, “Nd, Y:CaF2 laser crystals: novel spectral properties and laser performance from a controlled local structure,” CrystEngComm 17(38), 7398–7405 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhan, Y. Y.

L. B. Su, Q. G. Wang, H. J. Li, G. Brasse, P. Camy, J. L. Doualan, A. Braud, R. Moncorge, Y. Y. Zhan, L. H. Zheng, X. B. Qian, and J. Xu, “Spectroscopic properties and CW laser operation of Nd, Y-codoped CaF2 single crystals,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(3), 035804 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhang, H.

Zhang, L.

J. Zhu, L. Zhang, Z. Gao, J. Wang, Z. Wang, L. Su, L. Zheng, J. Wang, J. Xu, and Z. Wei, “Diode-pumped femtosecond mode-locked Nd, Y-codoped CaF2 laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 12(3), 035801 (2015).
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Zhang, Q.

D. Jiang, Y. Zhan, Q. Zhang, F. Ma, L. Su, F. Tang, X. Qian, and J. Xu, “Nd, Y:CaF2 laser crystals: novel spectral properties and laser performance from a controlled local structure,” CrystEngComm 17(38), 7398–7405 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zheng, F.

Zheng, L.

J. Zhu, L. Zhang, Z. Gao, J. Wang, Z. Wang, L. Su, L. Zheng, J. Wang, J. Xu, and Z. Wei, “Diode-pumped femtosecond mode-locked Nd, Y-codoped CaF2 laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 12(3), 035801 (2015).
[Crossref]

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L. B. Su, Q. G. Wang, H. J. Li, G. Brasse, P. Camy, J. L. Doualan, A. Braud, R. Moncorge, Y. Y. Zhan, L. H. Zheng, X. B. Qian, and J. Xu, “Spectroscopic properties and CW laser operation of Nd, Y-codoped CaF2 single crystals,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(3), 035804 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhu, J.

J. Zhu, L. Zhang, Z. Gao, J. Wang, Z. Wang, L. Su, L. Zheng, J. Wang, J. Xu, and Z. Wei, “Diode-pumped femtosecond mode-locked Nd, Y-codoped CaF2 laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 12(3), 035801 (2015).
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Adv. Opt. Photonics (1)

M. Beresna, M. Gecevicius, and P. G. Kazansky, “Ultrafast laser direct writing and nanostructuring in transparent materials,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 6(3), 293–339 (2014).
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Appl Phys A (1)

F. Korte, S. Nolte, B. N. Chichkov, T. Bauer, G. Kamlage, T. Wagner, C. Fallnich, and H. Welling, “Far-field and near-field material processing with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl Phys A 69(S7), S7–S11 (1999).
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Appl. Phys. A (1)

A. Benayas, W. F. Silva, A. Rodenas, C. Jacinto, J. V. de Aldana, F. Chen, Y. Tan, R. R. Thomsom, N. D. Psaila, D. T. Reid, G. A. Torchia, A. K. Kar, and D. Jaque, “Ultrafast laser writing of optical waveguides in ceramic Yb:YAG: a study of thermal and non-thermal regimes,” Appl. Phys. A 104(1), 301–309 (2011).
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Appl. Phys. B (3)

C. Fan, B. Poumellec, R. Desmarchelier, H. Zeng, B. Bourguignon, G. Chen, and M. Lancry, “Asymmetric orientational writing dependence on polarization and direction in Li2O-Nb2O5-SiO2 glass with femtosecond laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. B 117(2), 737–747 (2014).
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J. Siebenmorgen, K. Petermann, G. Huber, K. Rademaker, S. Nolte, and A. Tunnermann, “Femtosecond laser written stress-induced Nd:Y3Al5O12 (YAG) channel waveguide laser,” Appl. Phys. B 97(2), 251–255 (2009).
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J. Am. Ceram. Soc. (2)

C. W. Ponader, R. E. Youngman, and C. M. Smith, “Structural studies of (Ca,Sr)F2 single crystals with Raman and NMR spectroscopies,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 88(9), 2447–2450 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Cao, B. Poumellec, L. Mazerolles, F. Brisset, A.-L. Helbert, S. Surble, X. He, and M. Lancry, “Nanoscale phase separation in lithium niobium silicate glass by femtosecond laser irradiation,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 100(1), 115–124 (2017).
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A. Rodenas, J. A. S. Garcia, D. Jaque, G. A. Torchia, C. Mendez, I. Arias, L. Roso, and F. A. -Rueda, “Optical investigation of femtosecond laser induced microstress in neodymium doped lithium niobate crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(3), 033521 (2006).
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G. D. Valle, R. Osellame, and P. Laporta, “Micromachining of photonic devices by femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 11(1), 013001 (2009).
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Y. Shimotsuma, K. Hirao, P. G. Kazansky, and J. Qiu, “Three-dimensional micro- and nano-fabrication in transparent materials by femtosecond laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(7A), 4735–4748 (2005).
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F. Chen and J. R. Vazquez de Aldana, “Optical waveguides in crystalline dielectric materials produced by femtosecond-laser micromachining,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(2), 251–275 (2014).
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M. Lancry, B. Poumellec, J. Canning, K. Cook, J. C. Pulin, and F. Brisset, “Ultrafast nanoporous silica formation driven by femtosecond laser irradiation,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(6), 953–962 (2013).
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L. B. Su, Q. G. Wang, H. J. Li, G. Brasse, P. Camy, J. L. Doualan, A. Braud, R. Moncorge, Y. Y. Zhan, L. H. Zheng, X. B. Qian, and J. Xu, “Spectroscopic properties and CW laser operation of Nd, Y-codoped CaF2 single crystals,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(3), 035804 (2013).
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Y. Shimotsuma, K. Hirao, J. Qiu, and P. G. Kazansky, “Nano-modification inside transparent materials by femtosecond laser single beam,” Mod. Phys. Lett. B 19(05), 225–238 (2005).
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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Absorption spectrum of pristine Nd,Y:CaF2 crystal in the spectral range of 300-900 nm.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Detailed analyses of the laser track (a) phase change profile, inset shows QPM image of the Nd,Y:CaF2 crystal for 2.0 µJ at 10 kHz, and (b) phase change in radians according to the pulse energy for two different repetition rates (10 and 500 kHz).
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Optical retardance R (proportional to the linear birefringence) of Nd,Y:CaF2 crystal as a function of pulse energies for two different repetition rates (10 and 500 kHz).
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Examples of waveguide end face cross-section images written using double line for a typical pulse energy of 0.5 µJ and a repetition rate of 10 kHz. Dotted line represents light guiding and mode profile pictures of Nd,Y:CaF2 crystal with double line separations of (a) 5 µm, (b) 8 µm, (c) 12 µm, (d) 15 µm and (e) 20 µm for TM polarization with a pulse energy of 0.8 µJ at 10 kHz.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Propagation loss (dB cm-1) of prototypes waveguides inside Nd,Y:CaF2 crystal as a function of double lines separation at two different pulse energies. Losses were measured for TM polarization.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Raman spectra of Nd,Y:CaF2 crystal bulk and on the cladding (10 kHz).
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. PL spectra of Nd,Y:CaF2 crystal waveguides as a function of pulse energies (λex=532 nm) at 10 kHz with a power of 0.65 mW. The inset shows PL spectra of pristine, 10 kHz and 500 kHz at 0.3 µJ.

Equations (2)

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Δ n e = n 3 2 ( p 11 ε e + 2 p 12 ε / / / / e ) Δ n / / / / e = n 3 2 [ ( p 11 + p 12 ) ε / / / / e + p 12 ε e ]
Δ n e = n 3 2 2 p 12 ε 0 Δ n / / / / T + Δ n T 2 = Δ n p + n 3 4 ( p 11 + 3 p 12 ) ε 0 Δ n / / / / e = n 3 2 ( p 11 + p 12 ) ε 0 Δ n / / / / T Δ n T = Δ n / / / / e Δ n e = n 3 2 ( p 11 p 12 ) ε 0

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