Abstract

We present results from non-interferometric quantitative phase imaging (QPI) for thickness estimation and morphological analysis of human spermatozoa. QPI along with algorithms for image processing enable localization and quantification of subcellular structures of spermatozoa, including the acrosomal, nuclear, mid-piece, and tail regions. This approach based on the transport of intensity equation (TIE) using a simple brightfield microscope renders quantitative phase image with nanometric depth sensitivity, allowing the precise subcellular structural resolution of human spermatozoa. We demonstrate the potential of TIE in real-time phase imaging and the morphological analysis of spermatozoa. We first calibrate the TIE using microbeads and a standard phase target of known dimensions. Image processing for quantitative volume estimation of nuclei and acrosomal regions is carried out on the reconstructed quantitative phase images. We also apply a Hilbert transform-based image processing algorithm to the retrieved phase for visualization of vacuoles present on the sperm head.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2018 (5)

L. Liu, M. E. Kandel, M. Rubessa, S. Schreiber, M. B. Wheeler, and G. Popescu, “Topography and refractometry of sperm cells using spatial light interference microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 23(2), 1–6 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Park, C. Depeursinge, and G. Popescu, “Quantitative phase imaging in biomedicine,” Nat. Photonics 12(10), 578–589 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. U. Daloglu, W. Luo, F. Shabbir, F. Lin, K. Kim, I. Lee, J. Q. Jiang, W. J. Cai, V. Ramesh, M. Y. Yu, and A. Ozcan, “Label-free 3D computational imaging of spermatozoon locomotion, head spin and flagellum beating over a large volume,” Light Sci. Appl. 7(1), 17121 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Muschol, C. Wenders, and G. Wennemuth, “Four-dimensional analysis by high-speed holographic imaging reveals a chiral memory of sperm flagella,” PLoS One 13(6), e0199678 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Lee, J. H. Choi, S. Ryu, D. Jung, J. Song, J. S. Lee, and C. Joo, “Color-coded LED microscopy for quantitative phase imaging: Implementation and application to sperm motility analysis,” Methods 136, 66–74 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2017 (3)

P. K. Poola and R. John, “Label-free nanoscale characterization of red blood cell structure and dynamics using single-shot transport of intensity equation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(10), 1–7 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. H. Nguyen, M. E. Kandel, M. Rubessa, M. B. Wheeler, and G. Popescu, “Gradient light interference microscopy for 3D imaging of unlabeled specimens,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 210 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Balberg, M. Levi, K. Kalinowski, I. Barnea, S. K. Mirsky, and N. T. Shaked, “Localized measurements of physical parameters within human sperm cells obtained with wide-field interferometry,” J. Biophotonics 10(10), 1305–1314 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (4)

V. P. Pandiyan, K. Khare, and R. John, “Quantitative phase imaging of live cells with near on-axis digital holographic microscopy using constrained optimization approach,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(10), 106003 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. K. Poola, V. P. Pandiyan, V. Jayaraman, and R. John, “Quantitative label-free sperm imaging by means of transport of intensity,” Proc. SPIE 9718, 97180O (2016).

V. P. Pandiyan and R. John, “Optofluidic bioimaging platform for quantitative phase imaging of lab on a chip devices using digital holographic microscopy,” Appl. Opt. 55(3), A54–A59 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. S. Li, C. W. Chen, K. F. Lin, H. R. Chen, C. Y. Tsai, C. H. Chen, and W. F. Hsieh, “Phase retrieval by using the transport-of-intensity equation with Hilbert transform,” Opt. Lett. 41(7), 1616–1619 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (5)

2014 (3)

2013 (2)

C. Zuo, Q. Chen, Y. Yu, and A. Asundi, “Transport-of-intensity phase imaging using Savitzky-Golay differentiation filter--theory and applications,” Opt. Express 21(5), 5346–5362 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Zuo, Q. Chen, W. Qu, and A. Asundi, “Direct continuous phase demodulation in digital holography with use of the transport-of-intensity equation,” Opt. Commun. 309, 221–226 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

T. Kim, S. Sridharan, and G. Popescu, “Gradient field microscopy of unstained specimens,” Opt. Express 20(6), 6737–6745 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. G. Franco, A. L. Mauri, C. G. Petersen, F. C. Massaro, L. F. I. Silva, V. Felipe, M. Cavagna, A. Pontes, R. L. R. Baruffi, J. B. A. Oliveira, and L. D. Vagnini, “Large nuclear vacuoles are indicative of abnormal chromatin packaging in human spermatozoa,” Int. J. Androl. 35(1), 46–51 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (4)

Z. Wang, L. Millet, M. Mir, H. Ding, S. Unarunotai, J. Rogers, M. U. Gillette, and G. Popescu, “Spatial light interference microscopy (SLIM),” Opt. Express 19(2), 1016–1026 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Crha, J. Zakova, M. Huser, P. Ventruba, E. Lousova, and M. Pohanka, “Digital holographic microscopy in human sperm imaging,” J. Assist. Reprod. Genet. 28(8), 725–729 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Wilding, G. Coppola, L. di Matteo, A. Palagiano, E. Fusco, and B. Dale, “Intracytoplasmic injection of morphologically selected spermatozoa (IMSI) improves outcome after assisted reproduction by deselecting physiologically poor quality spermatozoa,” J. Assist. Reprod. Genet. 28(3), 253–262 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. L. R. Barratt, S. Mansell, C. Beaton, S. Tardif, and S. K. Oxenham, “Diagnostic tools in male infertility-the question of sperm dysfunction,” Asian J. Androl. 13(1), 53–58 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

T. Freour, A. Delvigne, and P. Barrière, “Evaluation of the male of the infertile couple,” J. Gynecol. Obstet. Biol. Reprod. (Paris) 39(8), S45–S52 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Di Caprio, M. A. Gioffre, N. Saffioti, S. Grilli, P. Ferraro, R. Puglisi, D. Balduzzi, A. Galli, and G. Coppola, “Quantitative label-free animal sperm imaging by means of digital holographic microscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(4), 833–840 (2010).
[Crossref]

L. Waller, L. Tian, and G. Barbastathis, “Transport of Intensity imaging with higher order derivatives,” Opt. Express 18(12), 12552–12561 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

2008 (2)

V. Centonze Frohlich, “Phase contrast and differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy,” J. Vis. Exp. 17(17), e844 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. G. Franco, R. L. R. Baruffi, A. L. Mauri, C. G. Petersen, J. B. A. Oliveira, and L. Vagnini, “Significance of large nuclear vacuoles in human spermatozoa: implications for ICSI,” Reprod. Biomed. Online 17(1), 42–45 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

2006 (3)

G. Popescu, T. Ikeda, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Diffraction phase microscopy for quantifying cell structure and dynamics,” Opt. Lett. 31(6), 775–777 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. E. Gureyev, Ya. I. Nesterets, D. M. Paganin, A. Pogany, and S. W. Wilkins, “Linear algorithms for phase retrieval in the Fresnel region. 2. Partially coherent illumination,” Opt. Commun. 259(2), 569–580 (2006).
[Crossref]

D. A. Paduch, “Testicular cancer and male infertility,” Curr. Opin. Urol. 16(6), 419–427 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (3)

J. D. Raman, C. F. Nobert, and M. Goldstein, “Increased incidence of testicular cancer in men presenting with infertility and abnormal semen analysis,” J. Urol. 174(5), 1819–1822 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Ishizuka and B. Allman, “Phase measurement of atomic resolution image using transport of intensity equation,” J. Electron Microsc. (Tokyo) 54(3), 191–197 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Ikeda, G. Popescu, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Hilbert phase microscopy for investigating fast dynamics in transparent systems,” Opt. Lett. 30(10), 1165–1167 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

C. J. Bellair, C. L. Curl, B. E. Allman, P. J. Harris, A. Roberts, L. M. D. Delbridge, and K. A. Nugent, “Quantitative phase amplitude microscopy IV: imaging thick specimens,” J. Microsc. 214(1), 62–69 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Paganin, A. Barty, P. J. McMahon, and K. A. Nugent, “Quantitative phase-amplitude microscopy. III. The effects of noise,” J. Microsc. 214(1), 51–61 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

W. Ombelet, K. Deblaere, E. Bosmans, A. Cox, P. Jacobs, M. Janssen, and M. Nijs, “Semen quality and intrauterine insemination,” Reprod. Biomed. Online 7(4), 485–492 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. P. Dadoune, “Expression of mammalian spermatozoal nucleoproteins,” Microsc. Res. Tech. 61(1), 56–75 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (3)

B. Bartoov, A. Berkovitz, F. Eltes, A. Kogosowski, Y. Menezo, and Y. Barak, “Real-time fine morphology of motile human sperm cells is associated with IVF-ICSI outcome,” J. Androl. 23(1), 1–8 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. D. Barone-Nugent, A. Barty, and K. A. Nugent, “Quantitative phase-amplitude microscopy I: optical microscopy,” J. Microsc. 206(3), 194–203 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. V. Volkov, Y. Zhu, and M. De Graef, “A new symmetrized solution for phase retrieval using the transport of intensity equation,” Micron 33(5), 411–416 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

D. S. Guzick, J. W. Overstreet, P. Factor-Litvak, C. K. Brazil, S. T. Nakajima, C. Coutifaris, S. A. Carson, P. Cisneros, M. P. Steinkampf, J. A. Hill, D. Xu, D. L. Vogel, and National Cooperative Reproductive Medicine Network, “Sperm morphology, motility, and concentration in fertile and infertile men,” N. Engl. J. Med. 345(19), 1388–1393 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

S. Bajt, A. Barty, K. A. Nugent, M. McCartney, M. Wall, and D. Paganin, “Quantitative phase-sensitive imaging in a transmission electron microscope,” Ultramicroscopy 83(1-2), 67–73 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

A. Berkovitz, F. Eltes, Y. Soffer, N. Zabludovsky, Y. Beyth, J. Farhi, D. Levran, and B. Bartoov, “ART success and in vivo sperm cell selection depend on the ultramorphological status of spermatozoa,” Andrologia 31(1), 1–8 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1998 (2)

D. Paganin and K. A. Nugent, “Noninterferometric phase imaging with partially coherent light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80(12), 2586–2589 (1998).
[Crossref]

A. Barty, K. A. Nugent, D. Paganin, and A. Roberts, “Quantitative optical phase microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 23(11), 817–819 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

C. Garrett, D. Y. Liu, and H. W. Baker, “Selectivity of the human sperm-zona pellucida binding process to sperm head morphometry,” Fertil. Steril. 67(2), 362–371 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

K. A. Nugent, T. E. Gureyev, D. J. Cookson, D. Paganin, and Z. Barnea, “Quantitative phase imaging using hard x rays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77(14), 2961–2964 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1992 (2)

G. Palermo, H. Joris, P. Devroey, and A. C. Van Steirteghem, “Pregnancies after intracytoplasmic injection of single spermatozoon into an oocyte,” Lancet 340(8810), 17–18 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Mashiach, B. Fisch, F. Eltes, Y. Tadir, J. Ovadia, and B. Bartoov, “The relationship between sperm ultrastructural features and fertilizing capacity in vitro,” Fertil. Steril. 57(5), 1052–1057 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1988 (1)

T. F. Kruger, A. A. Acosta, K. F. Simmons, R. J. Swanson, J. F. Matta, and S. Oehninger, “Predictive value of abnormal sperm morphology in in vitro fertilization,” Fertil. Steril. 49(1), 112–117 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1985 (1)

1984 (1)

N. Streibl, “Phase imaging by the transport equation of intensity,” Opt. Commun. 49(1), 6–10 (1984).
[Crossref]

1983 (1)

1942 (1)

F. Zernike, “Phase contrast, a new method for the microscopic observation of transparent Objects,” Physica 9(7), 686–698 (1942).
[Crossref]

Acosta, A. A.

T. F. Kruger, A. A. Acosta, K. F. Simmons, R. J. Swanson, J. F. Matta, and S. Oehninger, “Predictive value of abnormal sperm morphology in in vitro fertilization,” Fertil. Steril. 49(1), 112–117 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Allman, B.

K. Ishizuka and B. Allman, “Phase measurement of atomic resolution image using transport of intensity equation,” J. Electron Microsc. (Tokyo) 54(3), 191–197 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Allman, B. E.

C. J. Bellair, C. L. Curl, B. E. Allman, P. J. Harris, A. Roberts, L. M. D. Delbridge, and K. A. Nugent, “Quantitative phase amplitude microscopy IV: imaging thick specimens,” J. Microsc. 214(1), 62–69 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Asundi, A.

Badizadegan, K.

Bajt, S.

S. Bajt, A. Barty, K. A. Nugent, M. McCartney, M. Wall, and D. Paganin, “Quantitative phase-sensitive imaging in a transmission electron microscope,” Ultramicroscopy 83(1-2), 67–73 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baker, H. W.

C. Garrett, D. Y. Liu, and H. W. Baker, “Selectivity of the human sperm-zona pellucida binding process to sperm head morphometry,” Fertil. Steril. 67(2), 362–371 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Balberg, M.

M. Balberg, M. Levi, K. Kalinowski, I. Barnea, S. K. Mirsky, and N. T. Shaked, “Localized measurements of physical parameters within human sperm cells obtained with wide-field interferometry,” J. Biophotonics 10(10), 1305–1314 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Balduzzi, D.

G. Di Caprio, M. A. Gioffre, N. Saffioti, S. Grilli, P. Ferraro, R. Puglisi, D. Balduzzi, A. Galli, and G. Coppola, “Quantitative label-free animal sperm imaging by means of digital holographic microscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(4), 833–840 (2010).
[Crossref]

Band, G.

M. Haifler, P. Girshovitz, G. Band, G. Dardikman, I. Madjar, and N. T. Shaked, “Interferometric phase microscopy for label-free morphological evaluation of sperm cells,” Fertil. Steril. 104(1), 43–47 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barak, Y.

B. Bartoov, A. Berkovitz, F. Eltes, A. Kogosowski, Y. Menezo, and Y. Barak, “Real-time fine morphology of motile human sperm cells is associated with IVF-ICSI outcome,” J. Androl. 23(1), 1–8 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barbastathis, G.

Barnea, I.

M. Balberg, M. Levi, K. Kalinowski, I. Barnea, S. K. Mirsky, and N. T. Shaked, “Localized measurements of physical parameters within human sperm cells obtained with wide-field interferometry,” J. Biophotonics 10(10), 1305–1314 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barnea, Z.

K. A. Nugent, T. E. Gureyev, D. J. Cookson, D. Paganin, and Z. Barnea, “Quantitative phase imaging using hard x rays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77(14), 2961–2964 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barone-Nugent, E. D.

E. D. Barone-Nugent, A. Barty, and K. A. Nugent, “Quantitative phase-amplitude microscopy I: optical microscopy,” J. Microsc. 206(3), 194–203 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barratt, C. L. R.

C. L. R. Barratt, S. Mansell, C. Beaton, S. Tardif, and S. K. Oxenham, “Diagnostic tools in male infertility-the question of sperm dysfunction,” Asian J. Androl. 13(1), 53–58 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barrière, P.

T. Freour, A. Delvigne, and P. Barrière, “Evaluation of the male of the infertile couple,” J. Gynecol. Obstet. Biol. Reprod. (Paris) 39(8), S45–S52 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bartoov, B.

B. Bartoov, A. Berkovitz, F. Eltes, A. Kogosowski, Y. Menezo, and Y. Barak, “Real-time fine morphology of motile human sperm cells is associated with IVF-ICSI outcome,” J. Androl. 23(1), 1–8 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Berkovitz, F. Eltes, Y. Soffer, N. Zabludovsky, Y. Beyth, J. Farhi, D. Levran, and B. Bartoov, “ART success and in vivo sperm cell selection depend on the ultramorphological status of spermatozoa,” Andrologia 31(1), 1–8 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Mashiach, B. Fisch, F. Eltes, Y. Tadir, J. Ovadia, and B. Bartoov, “The relationship between sperm ultrastructural features and fertilizing capacity in vitro,” Fertil. Steril. 57(5), 1052–1057 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barty, A.

D. Paganin, A. Barty, P. J. McMahon, and K. A. Nugent, “Quantitative phase-amplitude microscopy. III. The effects of noise,” J. Microsc. 214(1), 51–61 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. D. Barone-Nugent, A. Barty, and K. A. Nugent, “Quantitative phase-amplitude microscopy I: optical microscopy,” J. Microsc. 206(3), 194–203 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Bajt, A. Barty, K. A. Nugent, M. McCartney, M. Wall, and D. Paganin, “Quantitative phase-sensitive imaging in a transmission electron microscope,” Ultramicroscopy 83(1-2), 67–73 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Barty, K. A. Nugent, D. Paganin, and A. Roberts, “Quantitative optical phase microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 23(11), 817–819 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baruffi, R. L. R.

J. G. Franco, A. L. Mauri, C. G. Petersen, F. C. Massaro, L. F. I. Silva, V. Felipe, M. Cavagna, A. Pontes, R. L. R. Baruffi, J. B. A. Oliveira, and L. D. Vagnini, “Large nuclear vacuoles are indicative of abnormal chromatin packaging in human spermatozoa,” Int. J. Androl. 35(1), 46–51 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. G. Franco, R. L. R. Baruffi, A. L. Mauri, C. G. Petersen, J. B. A. Oliveira, and L. Vagnini, “Significance of large nuclear vacuoles in human spermatozoa: implications for ICSI,” Reprod. Biomed. Online 17(1), 42–45 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beaton, C.

C. L. R. Barratt, S. Mansell, C. Beaton, S. Tardif, and S. K. Oxenham, “Diagnostic tools in male infertility-the question of sperm dysfunction,” Asian J. Androl. 13(1), 53–58 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bellair, C. J.

C. J. Bellair, C. L. Curl, B. E. Allman, P. J. Harris, A. Roberts, L. M. D. Delbridge, and K. A. Nugent, “Quantitative phase amplitude microscopy IV: imaging thick specimens,” J. Microsc. 214(1), 62–69 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Berkovitz, A.

B. Bartoov, A. Berkovitz, F. Eltes, A. Kogosowski, Y. Menezo, and Y. Barak, “Real-time fine morphology of motile human sperm cells is associated with IVF-ICSI outcome,” J. Androl. 23(1), 1–8 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Berkovitz, F. Eltes, Y. Soffer, N. Zabludovsky, Y. Beyth, J. Farhi, D. Levran, and B. Bartoov, “ART success and in vivo sperm cell selection depend on the ultramorphological status of spermatozoa,” Andrologia 31(1), 1–8 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beyth, Y.

A. Berkovitz, F. Eltes, Y. Soffer, N. Zabludovsky, Y. Beyth, J. Farhi, D. Levran, and B. Bartoov, “ART success and in vivo sperm cell selection depend on the ultramorphological status of spermatozoa,” Andrologia 31(1), 1–8 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bon, P.

Bosmans, E.

W. Ombelet, K. Deblaere, E. Bosmans, A. Cox, P. Jacobs, M. Janssen, and M. Nijs, “Semen quality and intrauterine insemination,” Reprod. Biomed. Online 7(4), 485–492 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brazil, C. K.

D. S. Guzick, J. W. Overstreet, P. Factor-Litvak, C. K. Brazil, S. T. Nakajima, C. Coutifaris, S. A. Carson, P. Cisneros, M. P. Steinkampf, J. A. Hill, D. Xu, D. L. Vogel, and National Cooperative Reproductive Medicine Network, “Sperm morphology, motility, and concentration in fertile and infertile men,” N. Engl. J. Med. 345(19), 1388–1393 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cai, W. J.

M. U. Daloglu, W. Luo, F. Shabbir, F. Lin, K. Kim, I. Lee, J. Q. Jiang, W. J. Cai, V. Ramesh, M. Y. Yu, and A. Ozcan, “Label-free 3D computational imaging of spermatozoon locomotion, head spin and flagellum beating over a large volume,” Light Sci. Appl. 7(1), 17121 (2018).
[Crossref]

Carson, S. A.

D. S. Guzick, J. W. Overstreet, P. Factor-Litvak, C. K. Brazil, S. T. Nakajima, C. Coutifaris, S. A. Carson, P. Cisneros, M. P. Steinkampf, J. A. Hill, D. Xu, D. L. Vogel, and National Cooperative Reproductive Medicine Network, “Sperm morphology, motility, and concentration in fertile and infertile men,” N. Engl. J. Med. 345(19), 1388–1393 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cavagna, M.

J. G. Franco, A. L. Mauri, C. G. Petersen, F. C. Massaro, L. F. I. Silva, V. Felipe, M. Cavagna, A. Pontes, R. L. R. Baruffi, J. B. A. Oliveira, and L. D. Vagnini, “Large nuclear vacuoles are indicative of abnormal chromatin packaging in human spermatozoa,” Int. J. Androl. 35(1), 46–51 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Centonze Frohlich, V.

V. Centonze Frohlich, “Phase contrast and differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy,” J. Vis. Exp. 17(17), e844 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, C. H.

Chen, C. W.

Chen, H. R.

Chen, Q.

Choi, J. H.

W. Lee, J. H. Choi, S. Ryu, D. Jung, J. Song, J. S. Lee, and C. Joo, “Color-coded LED microscopy for quantitative phase imaging: Implementation and application to sperm motility analysis,” Methods 136, 66–74 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choi, W.

Cisneros, P.

D. S. Guzick, J. W. Overstreet, P. Factor-Litvak, C. K. Brazil, S. T. Nakajima, C. Coutifaris, S. A. Carson, P. Cisneros, M. P. Steinkampf, J. A. Hill, D. Xu, D. L. Vogel, and National Cooperative Reproductive Medicine Network, “Sperm morphology, motility, and concentration in fertile and infertile men,” N. Engl. J. Med. 345(19), 1388–1393 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Claus, R. A.

Cookson, D. J.

K. A. Nugent, T. E. Gureyev, D. J. Cookson, D. Paganin, and Z. Barnea, “Quantitative phase imaging using hard x rays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77(14), 2961–2964 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Coppola, G.

G. Coppola, G. Di Caprio, M. Wilding, P. Ferraro, G. Esposito, L. Di Matteo, R. Dale, G. Coppola, and B. Dale, “Digital holographic microscopy for the evaluation of human sperm structure,” Zygote 22(4), 446–454 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Coppola, G. Di Caprio, M. Wilding, P. Ferraro, G. Esposito, L. Di Matteo, R. Dale, G. Coppola, and B. Dale, “Digital holographic microscopy for the evaluation of human sperm structure,” Zygote 22(4), 446–454 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Wilding, G. Coppola, L. di Matteo, A. Palagiano, E. Fusco, and B. Dale, “Intracytoplasmic injection of morphologically selected spermatozoa (IMSI) improves outcome after assisted reproduction by deselecting physiologically poor quality spermatozoa,” J. Assist. Reprod. Genet. 28(3), 253–262 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Di Caprio, M. A. Gioffre, N. Saffioti, S. Grilli, P. Ferraro, R. Puglisi, D. Balduzzi, A. Galli, and G. Coppola, “Quantitative label-free animal sperm imaging by means of digital holographic microscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(4), 833–840 (2010).
[Crossref]

Coutifaris, C.

D. S. Guzick, J. W. Overstreet, P. Factor-Litvak, C. K. Brazil, S. T. Nakajima, C. Coutifaris, S. A. Carson, P. Cisneros, M. P. Steinkampf, J. A. Hill, D. Xu, D. L. Vogel, and National Cooperative Reproductive Medicine Network, “Sperm morphology, motility, and concentration in fertile and infertile men,” N. Engl. J. Med. 345(19), 1388–1393 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cox, A.

W. Ombelet, K. Deblaere, E. Bosmans, A. Cox, P. Jacobs, M. Janssen, and M. Nijs, “Semen quality and intrauterine insemination,” Reprod. Biomed. Online 7(4), 485–492 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Crha, I.

I. Crha, J. Zakova, M. Huser, P. Ventruba, E. Lousova, and M. Pohanka, “Digital holographic microscopy in human sperm imaging,” J. Assist. Reprod. Genet. 28(8), 725–729 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Curl, C. L.

C. J. Bellair, C. L. Curl, B. E. Allman, P. J. Harris, A. Roberts, L. M. D. Delbridge, and K. A. Nugent, “Quantitative phase amplitude microscopy IV: imaging thick specimens,” J. Microsc. 214(1), 62–69 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dadoune, J. P.

J. P. Dadoune, “Expression of mammalian spermatozoal nucleoproteins,” Microsc. Res. Tech. 61(1), 56–75 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dale, B.

G. Coppola, G. Di Caprio, M. Wilding, P. Ferraro, G. Esposito, L. Di Matteo, R. Dale, G. Coppola, and B. Dale, “Digital holographic microscopy for the evaluation of human sperm structure,” Zygote 22(4), 446–454 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Wilding, G. Coppola, L. di Matteo, A. Palagiano, E. Fusco, and B. Dale, “Intracytoplasmic injection of morphologically selected spermatozoa (IMSI) improves outcome after assisted reproduction by deselecting physiologically poor quality spermatozoa,” J. Assist. Reprod. Genet. 28(3), 253–262 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dale, R.

G. Coppola, G. Di Caprio, M. Wilding, P. Ferraro, G. Esposito, L. Di Matteo, R. Dale, G. Coppola, and B. Dale, “Digital holographic microscopy for the evaluation of human sperm structure,” Zygote 22(4), 446–454 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Daloglu, M. U.

M. U. Daloglu, W. Luo, F. Shabbir, F. Lin, K. Kim, I. Lee, J. Q. Jiang, W. J. Cai, V. Ramesh, M. Y. Yu, and A. Ozcan, “Label-free 3D computational imaging of spermatozoon locomotion, head spin and flagellum beating over a large volume,” Light Sci. Appl. 7(1), 17121 (2018).
[Crossref]

Dardikman, G.

M. Haifler, P. Girshovitz, G. Band, G. Dardikman, I. Madjar, and N. T. Shaked, “Interferometric phase microscopy for label-free morphological evaluation of sperm cells,” Fertil. Steril. 104(1), 43–47 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dasari, R. R.

Dauwels, J.

De Graef, M.

V. V. Volkov, Y. Zhu, and M. De Graef, “A new symmetrized solution for phase retrieval using the transport of intensity equation,” Micron 33(5), 411–416 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Deblaere, K.

W. Ombelet, K. Deblaere, E. Bosmans, A. Cox, P. Jacobs, M. Janssen, and M. Nijs, “Semen quality and intrauterine insemination,” Reprod. Biomed. Online 7(4), 485–492 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Delbridge, L. M. D.

C. J. Bellair, C. L. Curl, B. E. Allman, P. J. Harris, A. Roberts, L. M. D. Delbridge, and K. A. Nugent, “Quantitative phase amplitude microscopy IV: imaging thick specimens,” J. Microsc. 214(1), 62–69 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Delvigne, A.

T. Freour, A. Delvigne, and P. Barrière, “Evaluation of the male of the infertile couple,” J. Gynecol. Obstet. Biol. Reprod. (Paris) 39(8), S45–S52 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Depeursinge, C.

Y. Park, C. Depeursinge, and G. Popescu, “Quantitative phase imaging in biomedicine,” Nat. Photonics 12(10), 578–589 (2018).
[Crossref]

Devroey, P.

G. Palermo, H. Joris, P. Devroey, and A. C. Van Steirteghem, “Pregnancies after intracytoplasmic injection of single spermatozoon into an oocyte,” Lancet 340(8810), 17–18 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Di Caprio, G.

G. Coppola, G. Di Caprio, M. Wilding, P. Ferraro, G. Esposito, L. Di Matteo, R. Dale, G. Coppola, and B. Dale, “Digital holographic microscopy for the evaluation of human sperm structure,” Zygote 22(4), 446–454 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Di Caprio, M. A. Gioffre, N. Saffioti, S. Grilli, P. Ferraro, R. Puglisi, D. Balduzzi, A. Galli, and G. Coppola, “Quantitative label-free animal sperm imaging by means of digital holographic microscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(4), 833–840 (2010).
[Crossref]

G. Di Caprio, “Quantitative label-free cell imaging by means of digital holographic microscopy: a roadmap for a complete characterization of biological samples,” (2011), unpublihsed.

Di Matteo, L.

G. Coppola, G. Di Caprio, M. Wilding, P. Ferraro, G. Esposito, L. Di Matteo, R. Dale, G. Coppola, and B. Dale, “Digital holographic microscopy for the evaluation of human sperm structure,” Zygote 22(4), 446–454 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Wilding, G. Coppola, L. di Matteo, A. Palagiano, E. Fusco, and B. Dale, “Intracytoplasmic injection of morphologically selected spermatozoa (IMSI) improves outcome after assisted reproduction by deselecting physiologically poor quality spermatozoa,” J. Assist. Reprod. Genet. 28(3), 253–262 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ding, H.

Eltes, F.

B. Bartoov, A. Berkovitz, F. Eltes, A. Kogosowski, Y. Menezo, and Y. Barak, “Real-time fine morphology of motile human sperm cells is associated with IVF-ICSI outcome,” J. Androl. 23(1), 1–8 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Berkovitz, F. Eltes, Y. Soffer, N. Zabludovsky, Y. Beyth, J. Farhi, D. Levran, and B. Bartoov, “ART success and in vivo sperm cell selection depend on the ultramorphological status of spermatozoa,” Andrologia 31(1), 1–8 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Mashiach, B. Fisch, F. Eltes, Y. Tadir, J. Ovadia, and B. Bartoov, “The relationship between sperm ultrastructural features and fertilizing capacity in vitro,” Fertil. Steril. 57(5), 1052–1057 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Esposito, G.

G. Coppola, G. Di Caprio, M. Wilding, P. Ferraro, G. Esposito, L. Di Matteo, R. Dale, G. Coppola, and B. Dale, “Digital holographic microscopy for the evaluation of human sperm structure,” Zygote 22(4), 446–454 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Factor-Litvak, P.

D. S. Guzick, J. W. Overstreet, P. Factor-Litvak, C. K. Brazil, S. T. Nakajima, C. Coutifaris, S. A. Carson, P. Cisneros, M. P. Steinkampf, J. A. Hill, D. Xu, D. L. Vogel, and National Cooperative Reproductive Medicine Network, “Sperm morphology, motility, and concentration in fertile and infertile men,” N. Engl. J. Med. 345(19), 1388–1393 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Falaggis, K.

Farhi, J.

A. Berkovitz, F. Eltes, Y. Soffer, N. Zabludovsky, Y. Beyth, J. Farhi, D. Levran, and B. Bartoov, “ART success and in vivo sperm cell selection depend on the ultramorphological status of spermatozoa,” Andrologia 31(1), 1–8 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Feld, M. S.

Felipe, V.

J. G. Franco, A. L. Mauri, C. G. Petersen, F. C. Massaro, L. F. I. Silva, V. Felipe, M. Cavagna, A. Pontes, R. L. R. Baruffi, J. B. A. Oliveira, and L. D. Vagnini, “Large nuclear vacuoles are indicative of abnormal chromatin packaging in human spermatozoa,” Int. J. Androl. 35(1), 46–51 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ferraro, P.

G. Coppola, G. Di Caprio, M. Wilding, P. Ferraro, G. Esposito, L. Di Matteo, R. Dale, G. Coppola, and B. Dale, “Digital holographic microscopy for the evaluation of human sperm structure,” Zygote 22(4), 446–454 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Di Caprio, M. A. Gioffre, N. Saffioti, S. Grilli, P. Ferraro, R. Puglisi, D. Balduzzi, A. Galli, and G. Coppola, “Quantitative label-free animal sperm imaging by means of digital holographic microscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(4), 833–840 (2010).
[Crossref]

Fisch, B.

R. Mashiach, B. Fisch, F. Eltes, Y. Tadir, J. Ovadia, and B. Bartoov, “The relationship between sperm ultrastructural features and fertilizing capacity in vitro,” Fertil. Steril. 57(5), 1052–1057 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Franco, J. G.

J. G. Franco, A. L. Mauri, C. G. Petersen, F. C. Massaro, L. F. I. Silva, V. Felipe, M. Cavagna, A. Pontes, R. L. R. Baruffi, J. B. A. Oliveira, and L. D. Vagnini, “Large nuclear vacuoles are indicative of abnormal chromatin packaging in human spermatozoa,” Int. J. Androl. 35(1), 46–51 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. G. Franco, R. L. R. Baruffi, A. L. Mauri, C. G. Petersen, J. B. A. Oliveira, and L. Vagnini, “Significance of large nuclear vacuoles in human spermatozoa: implications for ICSI,” Reprod. Biomed. Online 17(1), 42–45 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Freour, T.

T. Freour, A. Delvigne, and P. Barrière, “Evaluation of the male of the infertile couple,” J. Gynecol. Obstet. Biol. Reprod. (Paris) 39(8), S45–S52 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fusco, E.

M. Wilding, G. Coppola, L. di Matteo, A. Palagiano, E. Fusco, and B. Dale, “Intracytoplasmic injection of morphologically selected spermatozoa (IMSI) improves outcome after assisted reproduction by deselecting physiologically poor quality spermatozoa,” J. Assist. Reprod. Genet. 28(3), 253–262 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Galli, A.

G. Di Caprio, M. A. Gioffre, N. Saffioti, S. Grilli, P. Ferraro, R. Puglisi, D. Balduzzi, A. Galli, and G. Coppola, “Quantitative label-free animal sperm imaging by means of digital holographic microscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(4), 833–840 (2010).
[Crossref]

Garrett, C.

C. Garrett, D. Y. Liu, and H. W. Baker, “Selectivity of the human sperm-zona pellucida binding process to sperm head morphometry,” Fertil. Steril. 67(2), 362–371 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gillette, M. U.

Gioffre, M. A.

G. Di Caprio, M. A. Gioffre, N. Saffioti, S. Grilli, P. Ferraro, R. Puglisi, D. Balduzzi, A. Galli, and G. Coppola, “Quantitative label-free animal sperm imaging by means of digital holographic microscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(4), 833–840 (2010).
[Crossref]

Girshovitz, P.

M. Haifler, P. Girshovitz, G. Band, G. Dardikman, I. Madjar, and N. T. Shaked, “Interferometric phase microscopy for label-free morphological evaluation of sperm cells,” Fertil. Steril. 104(1), 43–47 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Goldstein, M.

J. D. Raman, C. F. Nobert, and M. Goldstein, “Increased incidence of testicular cancer in men presenting with infertility and abnormal semen analysis,” J. Urol. 174(5), 1819–1822 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Goy, A.

Grilli, S.

G. Di Caprio, M. A. Gioffre, N. Saffioti, S. Grilli, P. Ferraro, R. Puglisi, D. Balduzzi, A. Galli, and G. Coppola, “Quantitative label-free animal sperm imaging by means of digital holographic microscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(4), 833–840 (2010).
[Crossref]

Gureyev, T. E.

T. E. Gureyev, Ya. I. Nesterets, D. M. Paganin, A. Pogany, and S. W. Wilkins, “Linear algorithms for phase retrieval in the Fresnel region. 2. Partially coherent illumination,” Opt. Commun. 259(2), 569–580 (2006).
[Crossref]

K. A. Nugent, T. E. Gureyev, D. J. Cookson, D. Paganin, and Z. Barnea, “Quantitative phase imaging using hard x rays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77(14), 2961–2964 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guzick, D. S.

D. S. Guzick, J. W. Overstreet, P. Factor-Litvak, C. K. Brazil, S. T. Nakajima, C. Coutifaris, S. A. Carson, P. Cisneros, M. P. Steinkampf, J. A. Hill, D. Xu, D. L. Vogel, and National Cooperative Reproductive Medicine Network, “Sperm morphology, motility, and concentration in fertile and infertile men,” N. Engl. J. Med. 345(19), 1388–1393 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Haifler, M.

M. Haifler, P. Girshovitz, G. Band, G. Dardikman, I. Madjar, and N. T. Shaked, “Interferometric phase microscopy for label-free morphological evaluation of sperm cells,” Fertil. Steril. 104(1), 43–47 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Harris, P. J.

C. J. Bellair, C. L. Curl, B. E. Allman, P. J. Harris, A. Roberts, L. M. D. Delbridge, and K. A. Nugent, “Quantitative phase amplitude microscopy IV: imaging thick specimens,” J. Microsc. 214(1), 62–69 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hill, J. A.

D. S. Guzick, J. W. Overstreet, P. Factor-Litvak, C. K. Brazil, S. T. Nakajima, C. Coutifaris, S. A. Carson, P. Cisneros, M. P. Steinkampf, J. A. Hill, D. Xu, D. L. Vogel, and National Cooperative Reproductive Medicine Network, “Sperm morphology, motility, and concentration in fertile and infertile men,” N. Engl. J. Med. 345(19), 1388–1393 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hsieh, W. F.

Huser, M.

I. Crha, J. Zakova, M. Huser, P. Ventruba, E. Lousova, and M. Pohanka, “Digital holographic microscopy in human sperm imaging,” J. Assist. Reprod. Genet. 28(8), 725–729 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ikeda, T.

Ishizuka, K.

K. Ishizuka and B. Allman, “Phase measurement of atomic resolution image using transport of intensity equation,” J. Electron Microsc. (Tokyo) 54(3), 191–197 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jacobs, P.

W. Ombelet, K. Deblaere, E. Bosmans, A. Cox, P. Jacobs, M. Janssen, and M. Nijs, “Semen quality and intrauterine insemination,” Reprod. Biomed. Online 7(4), 485–492 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Janssen, M.

W. Ombelet, K. Deblaere, E. Bosmans, A. Cox, P. Jacobs, M. Janssen, and M. Nijs, “Semen quality and intrauterine insemination,” Reprod. Biomed. Online 7(4), 485–492 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jayaraman, V.

P. K. Poola, V. P. Pandiyan, V. Jayaraman, and R. John, “Quantitative label-free sperm imaging by means of transport of intensity,” Proc. SPIE 9718, 97180O (2016).

Jiang, J. Q.

M. U. Daloglu, W. Luo, F. Shabbir, F. Lin, K. Kim, I. Lee, J. Q. Jiang, W. J. Cai, V. Ramesh, M. Y. Yu, and A. Ozcan, “Label-free 3D computational imaging of spermatozoon locomotion, head spin and flagellum beating over a large volume,” Light Sci. Appl. 7(1), 17121 (2018).
[Crossref]

Jingshan, Z.

John, R.

P. K. Poola and R. John, “Label-free nanoscale characterization of red blood cell structure and dynamics using single-shot transport of intensity equation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(10), 1–7 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. K. Poola, V. P. Pandiyan, V. Jayaraman, and R. John, “Quantitative label-free sperm imaging by means of transport of intensity,” Proc. SPIE 9718, 97180O (2016).

V. P. Pandiyan, K. Khare, and R. John, “Quantitative phase imaging of live cells with near on-axis digital holographic microscopy using constrained optimization approach,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(10), 106003 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. P. Pandiyan and R. John, “Optofluidic bioimaging platform for quantitative phase imaging of lab on a chip devices using digital holographic microscopy,” Appl. Opt. 55(3), A54–A59 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. K. Poola, V. P. Pandiyan, and R. John, “Non-interferometric quantitative phase imaging of yeast cells,” Proc. SPIE 9792, 97920G (2015).
[Crossref]

Joo, C.

W. Lee, J. H. Choi, S. Ryu, D. Jung, J. Song, J. S. Lee, and C. Joo, “Color-coded LED microscopy for quantitative phase imaging: Implementation and application to sperm motility analysis,” Methods 136, 66–74 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Joris, H.

G. Palermo, H. Joris, P. Devroey, and A. C. Van Steirteghem, “Pregnancies after intracytoplasmic injection of single spermatozoon into an oocyte,” Lancet 340(8810), 17–18 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jung, D.

W. Lee, J. H. Choi, S. Ryu, D. Jung, J. Song, J. S. Lee, and C. Joo, “Color-coded LED microscopy for quantitative phase imaging: Implementation and application to sperm motility analysis,” Methods 136, 66–74 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kalinowski, K.

M. Balberg, M. Levi, K. Kalinowski, I. Barnea, S. K. Mirsky, and N. T. Shaked, “Localized measurements of physical parameters within human sperm cells obtained with wide-field interferometry,” J. Biophotonics 10(10), 1305–1314 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kamilov, U. S.

Kandel, M. E.

L. Liu, M. E. Kandel, M. Rubessa, S. Schreiber, M. B. Wheeler, and G. Popescu, “Topography and refractometry of sperm cells using spatial light interference microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 23(2), 1–6 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. H. Nguyen, M. E. Kandel, M. Rubessa, M. B. Wheeler, and G. Popescu, “Gradient light interference microscopy for 3D imaging of unlabeled specimens,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 210 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Khare, K.

V. P. Pandiyan, K. Khare, and R. John, “Quantitative phase imaging of live cells with near on-axis digital holographic microscopy using constrained optimization approach,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(10), 106003 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, K.

M. U. Daloglu, W. Luo, F. Shabbir, F. Lin, K. Kim, I. Lee, J. Q. Jiang, W. J. Cai, V. Ramesh, M. Y. Yu, and A. Ozcan, “Label-free 3D computational imaging of spermatozoon locomotion, head spin and flagellum beating over a large volume,” Light Sci. Appl. 7(1), 17121 (2018).
[Crossref]

Kim, T.

Kogosowski, A.

B. Bartoov, A. Berkovitz, F. Eltes, A. Kogosowski, Y. Menezo, and Y. Barak, “Real-time fine morphology of motile human sperm cells is associated with IVF-ICSI outcome,” J. Androl. 23(1), 1–8 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kozacki, T.

Kruger, T. F.

T. F. Kruger, A. A. Acosta, K. F. Simmons, R. J. Swanson, J. F. Matta, and S. Oehninger, “Predictive value of abnormal sperm morphology in in vitro fertilization,” Fertil. Steril. 49(1), 112–117 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, I.

M. U. Daloglu, W. Luo, F. Shabbir, F. Lin, K. Kim, I. Lee, J. Q. Jiang, W. J. Cai, V. Ramesh, M. Y. Yu, and A. Ozcan, “Label-free 3D computational imaging of spermatozoon locomotion, head spin and flagellum beating over a large volume,” Light Sci. Appl. 7(1), 17121 (2018).
[Crossref]

Lee, J. S.

W. Lee, J. H. Choi, S. Ryu, D. Jung, J. Song, J. S. Lee, and C. Joo, “Color-coded LED microscopy for quantitative phase imaging: Implementation and application to sperm motility analysis,” Methods 136, 66–74 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, W.

W. Lee, J. H. Choi, S. Ryu, D. Jung, J. Song, J. S. Lee, and C. Joo, “Color-coded LED microscopy for quantitative phase imaging: Implementation and application to sperm motility analysis,” Methods 136, 66–74 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Levi, M.

M. Balberg, M. Levi, K. Kalinowski, I. Barnea, S. K. Mirsky, and N. T. Shaked, “Localized measurements of physical parameters within human sperm cells obtained with wide-field interferometry,” J. Biophotonics 10(10), 1305–1314 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Levran, D.

A. Berkovitz, F. Eltes, Y. Soffer, N. Zabludovsky, Y. Beyth, J. Farhi, D. Levran, and B. Bartoov, “ART success and in vivo sperm cell selection depend on the ultramorphological status of spermatozoa,” Andrologia 31(1), 1–8 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, W. S.

Lin, F.

M. U. Daloglu, W. Luo, F. Shabbir, F. Lin, K. Kim, I. Lee, J. Q. Jiang, W. J. Cai, V. Ramesh, M. Y. Yu, and A. Ozcan, “Label-free 3D computational imaging of spermatozoon locomotion, head spin and flagellum beating over a large volume,” Light Sci. Appl. 7(1), 17121 (2018).
[Crossref]

Lin, K. F.

Liu, D. Y.

C. Garrett, D. Y. Liu, and H. W. Baker, “Selectivity of the human sperm-zona pellucida binding process to sperm head morphometry,” Fertil. Steril. 67(2), 362–371 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, L.

L. Liu, M. E. Kandel, M. Rubessa, S. Schreiber, M. B. Wheeler, and G. Popescu, “Topography and refractometry of sperm cells using spatial light interference microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 23(2), 1–6 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lousova, E.

I. Crha, J. Zakova, M. Huser, P. Ventruba, E. Lousova, and M. Pohanka, “Digital holographic microscopy in human sperm imaging,” J. Assist. Reprod. Genet. 28(8), 725–729 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lue, N.

Luo, W.

M. U. Daloglu, W. Luo, F. Shabbir, F. Lin, K. Kim, I. Lee, J. Q. Jiang, W. J. Cai, V. Ramesh, M. Y. Yu, and A. Ozcan, “Label-free 3D computational imaging of spermatozoon locomotion, head spin and flagellum beating over a large volume,” Light Sci. Appl. 7(1), 17121 (2018).
[Crossref]

Madjar, I.

M. Haifler, P. Girshovitz, G. Band, G. Dardikman, I. Madjar, and N. T. Shaked, “Interferometric phase microscopy for label-free morphological evaluation of sperm cells,” Fertil. Steril. 104(1), 43–47 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mansell, S.

C. L. R. Barratt, S. Mansell, C. Beaton, S. Tardif, and S. K. Oxenham, “Diagnostic tools in male infertility-the question of sperm dysfunction,” Asian J. Androl. 13(1), 53–58 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Martinez-Carranza, J.

Mashiach, R.

R. Mashiach, B. Fisch, F. Eltes, Y. Tadir, J. Ovadia, and B. Bartoov, “The relationship between sperm ultrastructural features and fertilizing capacity in vitro,” Fertil. Steril. 57(5), 1052–1057 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Massaro, F. C.

J. G. Franco, A. L. Mauri, C. G. Petersen, F. C. Massaro, L. F. I. Silva, V. Felipe, M. Cavagna, A. Pontes, R. L. R. Baruffi, J. B. A. Oliveira, and L. D. Vagnini, “Large nuclear vacuoles are indicative of abnormal chromatin packaging in human spermatozoa,” Int. J. Androl. 35(1), 46–51 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Matta, J. F.

T. F. Kruger, A. A. Acosta, K. F. Simmons, R. J. Swanson, J. F. Matta, and S. Oehninger, “Predictive value of abnormal sperm morphology in in vitro fertilization,” Fertil. Steril. 49(1), 112–117 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Maucort, G.

Mauri, A. L.

J. G. Franco, A. L. Mauri, C. G. Petersen, F. C. Massaro, L. F. I. Silva, V. Felipe, M. Cavagna, A. Pontes, R. L. R. Baruffi, J. B. A. Oliveira, and L. D. Vagnini, “Large nuclear vacuoles are indicative of abnormal chromatin packaging in human spermatozoa,” Int. J. Androl. 35(1), 46–51 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. G. Franco, R. L. R. Baruffi, A. L. Mauri, C. G. Petersen, J. B. A. Oliveira, and L. Vagnini, “Significance of large nuclear vacuoles in human spermatozoa: implications for ICSI,” Reprod. Biomed. Online 17(1), 42–45 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McCartney, M.

S. Bajt, A. Barty, K. A. Nugent, M. McCartney, M. Wall, and D. Paganin, “Quantitative phase-sensitive imaging in a transmission electron microscope,” Ultramicroscopy 83(1-2), 67–73 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McMahon, P. J.

D. Paganin, A. Barty, P. J. McMahon, and K. A. Nugent, “Quantitative phase-amplitude microscopy. III. The effects of noise,” J. Microsc. 214(1), 51–61 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Menezo, Y.

B. Bartoov, A. Berkovitz, F. Eltes, A. Kogosowski, Y. Menezo, and Y. Barak, “Real-time fine morphology of motile human sperm cells is associated with IVF-ICSI outcome,” J. Androl. 23(1), 1–8 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Millet, L.

Mir, M.

Mirsky, S. K.

M. Balberg, M. Levi, K. Kalinowski, I. Barnea, S. K. Mirsky, and N. T. Shaked, “Localized measurements of physical parameters within human sperm cells obtained with wide-field interferometry,” J. Biophotonics 10(10), 1305–1314 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Monneret, S.

Muschol, M.

M. Muschol, C. Wenders, and G. Wennemuth, “Four-dimensional analysis by high-speed holographic imaging reveals a chiral memory of sperm flagella,” PLoS One 13(6), e0199678 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nakajima, S. T.

D. S. Guzick, J. W. Overstreet, P. Factor-Litvak, C. K. Brazil, S. T. Nakajima, C. Coutifaris, S. A. Carson, P. Cisneros, M. P. Steinkampf, J. A. Hill, D. Xu, D. L. Vogel, and National Cooperative Reproductive Medicine Network, “Sperm morphology, motility, and concentration in fertile and infertile men,” N. Engl. J. Med. 345(19), 1388–1393 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nesterets, Ya. I.

T. E. Gureyev, Ya. I. Nesterets, D. M. Paganin, A. Pogany, and S. W. Wilkins, “Linear algorithms for phase retrieval in the Fresnel region. 2. Partially coherent illumination,” Opt. Commun. 259(2), 569–580 (2006).
[Crossref]

Nguyen, T. H.

T. H. Nguyen, M. E. Kandel, M. Rubessa, M. B. Wheeler, and G. Popescu, “Gradient light interference microscopy for 3D imaging of unlabeled specimens,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 210 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nijs, M.

W. Ombelet, K. Deblaere, E. Bosmans, A. Cox, P. Jacobs, M. Janssen, and M. Nijs, “Semen quality and intrauterine insemination,” Reprod. Biomed. Online 7(4), 485–492 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nobert, C. F.

J. D. Raman, C. F. Nobert, and M. Goldstein, “Increased incidence of testicular cancer in men presenting with infertility and abnormal semen analysis,” J. Urol. 174(5), 1819–1822 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nugent, K. A.

D. Paganin, A. Barty, P. J. McMahon, and K. A. Nugent, “Quantitative phase-amplitude microscopy. III. The effects of noise,” J. Microsc. 214(1), 51–61 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. J. Bellair, C. L. Curl, B. E. Allman, P. J. Harris, A. Roberts, L. M. D. Delbridge, and K. A. Nugent, “Quantitative phase amplitude microscopy IV: imaging thick specimens,” J. Microsc. 214(1), 62–69 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. D. Barone-Nugent, A. Barty, and K. A. Nugent, “Quantitative phase-amplitude microscopy I: optical microscopy,” J. Microsc. 206(3), 194–203 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Bajt, A. Barty, K. A. Nugent, M. McCartney, M. Wall, and D. Paganin, “Quantitative phase-sensitive imaging in a transmission electron microscope,” Ultramicroscopy 83(1-2), 67–73 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Paganin and K. A. Nugent, “Noninterferometric phase imaging with partially coherent light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80(12), 2586–2589 (1998).
[Crossref]

A. Barty, K. A. Nugent, D. Paganin, and A. Roberts, “Quantitative optical phase microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 23(11), 817–819 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. A. Nugent, T. E. Gureyev, D. J. Cookson, D. Paganin, and Z. Barnea, “Quantitative phase imaging using hard x rays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77(14), 2961–2964 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Oehninger, S.

T. F. Kruger, A. A. Acosta, K. F. Simmons, R. J. Swanson, J. F. Matta, and S. Oehninger, “Predictive value of abnormal sperm morphology in in vitro fertilization,” Fertil. Steril. 49(1), 112–117 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Oliveira, J. B. A.

J. G. Franco, A. L. Mauri, C. G. Petersen, F. C. Massaro, L. F. I. Silva, V. Felipe, M. Cavagna, A. Pontes, R. L. R. Baruffi, J. B. A. Oliveira, and L. D. Vagnini, “Large nuclear vacuoles are indicative of abnormal chromatin packaging in human spermatozoa,” Int. J. Androl. 35(1), 46–51 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. G. Franco, R. L. R. Baruffi, A. L. Mauri, C. G. Petersen, J. B. A. Oliveira, and L. Vagnini, “Significance of large nuclear vacuoles in human spermatozoa: implications for ICSI,” Reprod. Biomed. Online 17(1), 42–45 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ombelet, W.

W. Ombelet, K. Deblaere, E. Bosmans, A. Cox, P. Jacobs, M. Janssen, and M. Nijs, “Semen quality and intrauterine insemination,” Reprod. Biomed. Online 7(4), 485–492 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ovadia, J.

R. Mashiach, B. Fisch, F. Eltes, Y. Tadir, J. Ovadia, and B. Bartoov, “The relationship between sperm ultrastructural features and fertilizing capacity in vitro,” Fertil. Steril. 57(5), 1052–1057 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Overstreet, J. W.

D. S. Guzick, J. W. Overstreet, P. Factor-Litvak, C. K. Brazil, S. T. Nakajima, C. Coutifaris, S. A. Carson, P. Cisneros, M. P. Steinkampf, J. A. Hill, D. Xu, D. L. Vogel, and National Cooperative Reproductive Medicine Network, “Sperm morphology, motility, and concentration in fertile and infertile men,” N. Engl. J. Med. 345(19), 1388–1393 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Oxenham, S. K.

C. L. R. Barratt, S. Mansell, C. Beaton, S. Tardif, and S. K. Oxenham, “Diagnostic tools in male infertility-the question of sperm dysfunction,” Asian J. Androl. 13(1), 53–58 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ozcan, A.

M. U. Daloglu, W. Luo, F. Shabbir, F. Lin, K. Kim, I. Lee, J. Q. Jiang, W. J. Cai, V. Ramesh, M. Y. Yu, and A. Ozcan, “Label-free 3D computational imaging of spermatozoon locomotion, head spin and flagellum beating over a large volume,” Light Sci. Appl. 7(1), 17121 (2018).
[Crossref]

Paduch, D. A.

D. A. Paduch, “Testicular cancer and male infertility,” Curr. Opin. Urol. 16(6), 419–427 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Paganin, D.

D. Paganin, A. Barty, P. J. McMahon, and K. A. Nugent, “Quantitative phase-amplitude microscopy. III. The effects of noise,” J. Microsc. 214(1), 51–61 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Bajt, A. Barty, K. A. Nugent, M. McCartney, M. Wall, and D. Paganin, “Quantitative phase-sensitive imaging in a transmission electron microscope,” Ultramicroscopy 83(1-2), 67–73 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Paganin and K. A. Nugent, “Noninterferometric phase imaging with partially coherent light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80(12), 2586–2589 (1998).
[Crossref]

A. Barty, K. A. Nugent, D. Paganin, and A. Roberts, “Quantitative optical phase microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 23(11), 817–819 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. A. Nugent, T. E. Gureyev, D. J. Cookson, D. Paganin, and Z. Barnea, “Quantitative phase imaging using hard x rays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77(14), 2961–2964 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Paganin, D. M.

T. E. Gureyev, Ya. I. Nesterets, D. M. Paganin, A. Pogany, and S. W. Wilkins, “Linear algorithms for phase retrieval in the Fresnel region. 2. Partially coherent illumination,” Opt. Commun. 259(2), 569–580 (2006).
[Crossref]

Palagiano, A.

M. Wilding, G. Coppola, L. di Matteo, A. Palagiano, E. Fusco, and B. Dale, “Intracytoplasmic injection of morphologically selected spermatozoa (IMSI) improves outcome after assisted reproduction by deselecting physiologically poor quality spermatozoa,” J. Assist. Reprod. Genet. 28(3), 253–262 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Palermo, G.

G. Palermo, H. Joris, P. Devroey, and A. C. Van Steirteghem, “Pregnancies after intracytoplasmic injection of single spermatozoon into an oocyte,” Lancet 340(8810), 17–18 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pandiyan, V. P.

P. K. Poola, V. P. Pandiyan, V. Jayaraman, and R. John, “Quantitative label-free sperm imaging by means of transport of intensity,” Proc. SPIE 9718, 97180O (2016).

V. P. Pandiyan, K. Khare, and R. John, “Quantitative phase imaging of live cells with near on-axis digital holographic microscopy using constrained optimization approach,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(10), 106003 (2016).
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V. P. Pandiyan and R. John, “Optofluidic bioimaging platform for quantitative phase imaging of lab on a chip devices using digital holographic microscopy,” Appl. Opt. 55(3), A54–A59 (2016).
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P. K. Poola, V. P. Pandiyan, and R. John, “Non-interferometric quantitative phase imaging of yeast cells,” Proc. SPIE 9792, 97920G (2015).
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Papadopoulos, I. N.

Park, Y.

Y. Park, C. Depeursinge, and G. Popescu, “Quantitative phase imaging in biomedicine,” Nat. Photonics 12(10), 578–589 (2018).
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J. G. Franco, A. L. Mauri, C. G. Petersen, F. C. Massaro, L. F. I. Silva, V. Felipe, M. Cavagna, A. Pontes, R. L. R. Baruffi, J. B. A. Oliveira, and L. D. Vagnini, “Large nuclear vacuoles are indicative of abnormal chromatin packaging in human spermatozoa,” Int. J. Androl. 35(1), 46–51 (2012).
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J. G. Franco, R. L. R. Baruffi, A. L. Mauri, C. G. Petersen, J. B. A. Oliveira, and L. Vagnini, “Significance of large nuclear vacuoles in human spermatozoa: implications for ICSI,” Reprod. Biomed. Online 17(1), 42–45 (2008).
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Pogany, A.

T. E. Gureyev, Ya. I. Nesterets, D. M. Paganin, A. Pogany, and S. W. Wilkins, “Linear algorithms for phase retrieval in the Fresnel region. 2. Partially coherent illumination,” Opt. Commun. 259(2), 569–580 (2006).
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I. Crha, J. Zakova, M. Huser, P. Ventruba, E. Lousova, and M. Pohanka, “Digital holographic microscopy in human sperm imaging,” J. Assist. Reprod. Genet. 28(8), 725–729 (2011).
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Pontes, A.

J. G. Franco, A. L. Mauri, C. G. Petersen, F. C. Massaro, L. F. I. Silva, V. Felipe, M. Cavagna, A. Pontes, R. L. R. Baruffi, J. B. A. Oliveira, and L. D. Vagnini, “Large nuclear vacuoles are indicative of abnormal chromatin packaging in human spermatozoa,” Int. J. Androl. 35(1), 46–51 (2012).
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Poola, P. K.

P. K. Poola and R. John, “Label-free nanoscale characterization of red blood cell structure and dynamics using single-shot transport of intensity equation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(10), 1–7 (2017).
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P. K. Poola, V. P. Pandiyan, V. Jayaraman, and R. John, “Quantitative label-free sperm imaging by means of transport of intensity,” Proc. SPIE 9718, 97180O (2016).

P. K. Poola, V. P. Pandiyan, and R. John, “Non-interferometric quantitative phase imaging of yeast cells,” Proc. SPIE 9792, 97920G (2015).
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Popescu, G.

L. Liu, M. E. Kandel, M. Rubessa, S. Schreiber, M. B. Wheeler, and G. Popescu, “Topography and refractometry of sperm cells using spatial light interference microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 23(2), 1–6 (2018).
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Y. Park, C. Depeursinge, and G. Popescu, “Quantitative phase imaging in biomedicine,” Nat. Photonics 12(10), 578–589 (2018).
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T. H. Nguyen, M. E. Kandel, M. Rubessa, M. B. Wheeler, and G. Popescu, “Gradient light interference microscopy for 3D imaging of unlabeled specimens,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 210 (2017).
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T. Kim, S. Sridharan, and G. Popescu, “Gradient field microscopy of unstained specimens,” Opt. Express 20(6), 6737–6745 (2012).
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Z. Wang, L. Millet, M. Mir, H. Ding, S. Unarunotai, J. Rogers, M. U. Gillette, and G. Popescu, “Spatial light interference microscopy (SLIM),” Opt. Express 19(2), 1016–1026 (2011).
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N. Lue, W. Choi, G. Popescu, T. Ikeda, R. R. Dasari, K. Badizadegan, and M. S. Feld, “Quantitative phase imaging of live cells using fast Fourier phase microscopy,” Appl. Opt. 46(10), 1836–1842 (2007).
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J. D. Raman, C. F. Nobert, and M. Goldstein, “Increased incidence of testicular cancer in men presenting with infertility and abnormal semen analysis,” J. Urol. 174(5), 1819–1822 (2005).
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M. U. Daloglu, W. Luo, F. Shabbir, F. Lin, K. Kim, I. Lee, J. Q. Jiang, W. J. Cai, V. Ramesh, M. Y. Yu, and A. Ozcan, “Label-free 3D computational imaging of spermatozoon locomotion, head spin and flagellum beating over a large volume,” Light Sci. Appl. 7(1), 17121 (2018).
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C. J. Bellair, C. L. Curl, B. E. Allman, P. J. Harris, A. Roberts, L. M. D. Delbridge, and K. A. Nugent, “Quantitative phase amplitude microscopy IV: imaging thick specimens,” J. Microsc. 214(1), 62–69 (2004).
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Rogers, J.

Rubessa, M.

L. Liu, M. E. Kandel, M. Rubessa, S. Schreiber, M. B. Wheeler, and G. Popescu, “Topography and refractometry of sperm cells using spatial light interference microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 23(2), 1–6 (2018).
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T. H. Nguyen, M. E. Kandel, M. Rubessa, M. B. Wheeler, and G. Popescu, “Gradient light interference microscopy for 3D imaging of unlabeled specimens,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 210 (2017).
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Ryu, S.

W. Lee, J. H. Choi, S. Ryu, D. Jung, J. Song, J. S. Lee, and C. Joo, “Color-coded LED microscopy for quantitative phase imaging: Implementation and application to sperm motility analysis,” Methods 136, 66–74 (2018).
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Saffioti, N.

G. Di Caprio, M. A. Gioffre, N. Saffioti, S. Grilli, P. Ferraro, R. Puglisi, D. Balduzzi, A. Galli, and G. Coppola, “Quantitative label-free animal sperm imaging by means of digital holographic microscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(4), 833–840 (2010).
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L. Liu, M. E. Kandel, M. Rubessa, S. Schreiber, M. B. Wheeler, and G. Popescu, “Topography and refractometry of sperm cells using spatial light interference microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 23(2), 1–6 (2018).
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M. U. Daloglu, W. Luo, F. Shabbir, F. Lin, K. Kim, I. Lee, J. Q. Jiang, W. J. Cai, V. Ramesh, M. Y. Yu, and A. Ozcan, “Label-free 3D computational imaging of spermatozoon locomotion, head spin and flagellum beating over a large volume,” Light Sci. Appl. 7(1), 17121 (2018).
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M. Balberg, M. Levi, K. Kalinowski, I. Barnea, S. K. Mirsky, and N. T. Shaked, “Localized measurements of physical parameters within human sperm cells obtained with wide-field interferometry,” J. Biophotonics 10(10), 1305–1314 (2017).
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M. Haifler, P. Girshovitz, G. Band, G. Dardikman, I. Madjar, and N. T. Shaked, “Interferometric phase microscopy for label-free morphological evaluation of sperm cells,” Fertil. Steril. 104(1), 43–47 (2015).
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Silva, L. F. I.

J. G. Franco, A. L. Mauri, C. G. Petersen, F. C. Massaro, L. F. I. Silva, V. Felipe, M. Cavagna, A. Pontes, R. L. R. Baruffi, J. B. A. Oliveira, and L. D. Vagnini, “Large nuclear vacuoles are indicative of abnormal chromatin packaging in human spermatozoa,” Int. J. Androl. 35(1), 46–51 (2012).
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T. F. Kruger, A. A. Acosta, K. F. Simmons, R. J. Swanson, J. F. Matta, and S. Oehninger, “Predictive value of abnormal sperm morphology in in vitro fertilization,” Fertil. Steril. 49(1), 112–117 (1988).
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A. Berkovitz, F. Eltes, Y. Soffer, N. Zabludovsky, Y. Beyth, J. Farhi, D. Levran, and B. Bartoov, “ART success and in vivo sperm cell selection depend on the ultramorphological status of spermatozoa,” Andrologia 31(1), 1–8 (1999).
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Song, J.

W. Lee, J. H. Choi, S. Ryu, D. Jung, J. Song, J. S. Lee, and C. Joo, “Color-coded LED microscopy for quantitative phase imaging: Implementation and application to sperm motility analysis,” Methods 136, 66–74 (2018).
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Steinkampf, M. P.

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R. Mashiach, B. Fisch, F. Eltes, Y. Tadir, J. Ovadia, and B. Bartoov, “The relationship between sperm ultrastructural features and fertilizing capacity in vitro,” Fertil. Steril. 57(5), 1052–1057 (1992).
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C. L. R. Barratt, S. Mansell, C. Beaton, S. Tardif, and S. K. Oxenham, “Diagnostic tools in male infertility-the question of sperm dysfunction,” Asian J. Androl. 13(1), 53–58 (2011).
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Tsai, C. Y.

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J. G. Franco, R. L. R. Baruffi, A. L. Mauri, C. G. Petersen, J. B. A. Oliveira, and L. Vagnini, “Significance of large nuclear vacuoles in human spermatozoa: implications for ICSI,” Reprod. Biomed. Online 17(1), 42–45 (2008).
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J. G. Franco, A. L. Mauri, C. G. Petersen, F. C. Massaro, L. F. I. Silva, V. Felipe, M. Cavagna, A. Pontes, R. L. R. Baruffi, J. B. A. Oliveira, and L. D. Vagnini, “Large nuclear vacuoles are indicative of abnormal chromatin packaging in human spermatozoa,” Int. J. Androl. 35(1), 46–51 (2012).
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G. Palermo, H. Joris, P. Devroey, and A. C. Van Steirteghem, “Pregnancies after intracytoplasmic injection of single spermatozoon into an oocyte,” Lancet 340(8810), 17–18 (1992).
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I. Crha, J. Zakova, M. Huser, P. Ventruba, E. Lousova, and M. Pohanka, “Digital holographic microscopy in human sperm imaging,” J. Assist. Reprod. Genet. 28(8), 725–729 (2011).
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D. S. Guzick, J. W. Overstreet, P. Factor-Litvak, C. K. Brazil, S. T. Nakajima, C. Coutifaris, S. A. Carson, P. Cisneros, M. P. Steinkampf, J. A. Hill, D. Xu, D. L. Vogel, and National Cooperative Reproductive Medicine Network, “Sperm morphology, motility, and concentration in fertile and infertile men,” N. Engl. J. Med. 345(19), 1388–1393 (2001).
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V. V. Volkov, Y. Zhu, and M. De Graef, “A new symmetrized solution for phase retrieval using the transport of intensity equation,” Micron 33(5), 411–416 (2002).
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S. Bajt, A. Barty, K. A. Nugent, M. McCartney, M. Wall, and D. Paganin, “Quantitative phase-sensitive imaging in a transmission electron microscope,” Ultramicroscopy 83(1-2), 67–73 (2000).
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M. Muschol, C. Wenders, and G. Wennemuth, “Four-dimensional analysis by high-speed holographic imaging reveals a chiral memory of sperm flagella,” PLoS One 13(6), e0199678 (2018).
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L. Liu, M. E. Kandel, M. Rubessa, S. Schreiber, M. B. Wheeler, and G. Popescu, “Topography and refractometry of sperm cells using spatial light interference microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 23(2), 1–6 (2018).
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T. H. Nguyen, M. E. Kandel, M. Rubessa, M. B. Wheeler, and G. Popescu, “Gradient light interference microscopy for 3D imaging of unlabeled specimens,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 210 (2017).
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M. Wilding, G. Coppola, L. di Matteo, A. Palagiano, E. Fusco, and B. Dale, “Intracytoplasmic injection of morphologically selected spermatozoa (IMSI) improves outcome after assisted reproduction by deselecting physiologically poor quality spermatozoa,” J. Assist. Reprod. Genet. 28(3), 253–262 (2011).
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Wilkins, S. W.

T. E. Gureyev, Ya. I. Nesterets, D. M. Paganin, A. Pogany, and S. W. Wilkins, “Linear algorithms for phase retrieval in the Fresnel region. 2. Partially coherent illumination,” Opt. Commun. 259(2), 569–580 (2006).
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D. S. Guzick, J. W. Overstreet, P. Factor-Litvak, C. K. Brazil, S. T. Nakajima, C. Coutifaris, S. A. Carson, P. Cisneros, M. P. Steinkampf, J. A. Hill, D. Xu, D. L. Vogel, and National Cooperative Reproductive Medicine Network, “Sperm morphology, motility, and concentration in fertile and infertile men,” N. Engl. J. Med. 345(19), 1388–1393 (2001).
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Yu, M. Y.

M. U. Daloglu, W. Luo, F. Shabbir, F. Lin, K. Kim, I. Lee, J. Q. Jiang, W. J. Cai, V. Ramesh, M. Y. Yu, and A. Ozcan, “Label-free 3D computational imaging of spermatozoon locomotion, head spin and flagellum beating over a large volume,” Light Sci. Appl. 7(1), 17121 (2018).
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Yu, Y.

Zabludovsky, N.

A. Berkovitz, F. Eltes, Y. Soffer, N. Zabludovsky, Y. Beyth, J. Farhi, D. Levran, and B. Bartoov, “ART success and in vivo sperm cell selection depend on the ultramorphological status of spermatozoa,” Andrologia 31(1), 1–8 (1999).
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I. Crha, J. Zakova, M. Huser, P. Ventruba, E. Lousova, and M. Pohanka, “Digital holographic microscopy in human sperm imaging,” J. Assist. Reprod. Genet. 28(8), 725–729 (2011).
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V. V. Volkov, Y. Zhu, and M. De Graef, “A new symmetrized solution for phase retrieval using the transport of intensity equation,” Micron 33(5), 411–416 (2002).
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Zuo, C.

Andrologia (1)

A. Berkovitz, F. Eltes, Y. Soffer, N. Zabludovsky, Y. Beyth, J. Farhi, D. Levran, and B. Bartoov, “ART success and in vivo sperm cell selection depend on the ultramorphological status of spermatozoa,” Andrologia 31(1), 1–8 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Asian J. Androl. (1)

C. L. R. Barratt, S. Mansell, C. Beaton, S. Tardif, and S. K. Oxenham, “Diagnostic tools in male infertility-the question of sperm dysfunction,” Asian J. Androl. 13(1), 53–58 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Curr. Opin. Urol. (1)

D. A. Paduch, “Testicular cancer and male infertility,” Curr. Opin. Urol. 16(6), 419–427 (2006).
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Fertil. Steril. (4)

T. F. Kruger, A. A. Acosta, K. F. Simmons, R. J. Swanson, J. F. Matta, and S. Oehninger, “Predictive value of abnormal sperm morphology in in vitro fertilization,” Fertil. Steril. 49(1), 112–117 (1988).
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C. Garrett, D. Y. Liu, and H. W. Baker, “Selectivity of the human sperm-zona pellucida binding process to sperm head morphometry,” Fertil. Steril. 67(2), 362–371 (1997).
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M. Haifler, P. Girshovitz, G. Band, G. Dardikman, I. Madjar, and N. T. Shaked, “Interferometric phase microscopy for label-free morphological evaluation of sperm cells,” Fertil. Steril. 104(1), 43–47 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Mashiach, B. Fisch, F. Eltes, Y. Tadir, J. Ovadia, and B. Bartoov, “The relationship between sperm ultrastructural features and fertilizing capacity in vitro,” Fertil. Steril. 57(5), 1052–1057 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

G. Di Caprio, M. A. Gioffre, N. Saffioti, S. Grilli, P. Ferraro, R. Puglisi, D. Balduzzi, A. Galli, and G. Coppola, “Quantitative label-free animal sperm imaging by means of digital holographic microscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(4), 833–840 (2010).
[Crossref]

Int. J. Androl. (1)

J. G. Franco, A. L. Mauri, C. G. Petersen, F. C. Massaro, L. F. I. Silva, V. Felipe, M. Cavagna, A. Pontes, R. L. R. Baruffi, J. B. A. Oliveira, and L. D. Vagnini, “Large nuclear vacuoles are indicative of abnormal chromatin packaging in human spermatozoa,” Int. J. Androl. 35(1), 46–51 (2012).
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J. Androl. (1)

B. Bartoov, A. Berkovitz, F. Eltes, A. Kogosowski, Y. Menezo, and Y. Barak, “Real-time fine morphology of motile human sperm cells is associated with IVF-ICSI outcome,” J. Androl. 23(1), 1–8 (2002).
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J. Assist. Reprod. Genet. (2)

M. Wilding, G. Coppola, L. di Matteo, A. Palagiano, E. Fusco, and B. Dale, “Intracytoplasmic injection of morphologically selected spermatozoa (IMSI) improves outcome after assisted reproduction by deselecting physiologically poor quality spermatozoa,” J. Assist. Reprod. Genet. 28(3), 253–262 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Crha, J. Zakova, M. Huser, P. Ventruba, E. Lousova, and M. Pohanka, “Digital holographic microscopy in human sperm imaging,” J. Assist. Reprod. Genet. 28(8), 725–729 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (3)

P. K. Poola and R. John, “Label-free nanoscale characterization of red blood cell structure and dynamics using single-shot transport of intensity equation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(10), 1–7 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Liu, M. E. Kandel, M. Rubessa, S. Schreiber, M. B. Wheeler, and G. Popescu, “Topography and refractometry of sperm cells using spatial light interference microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 23(2), 1–6 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. P. Pandiyan, K. Khare, and R. John, “Quantitative phase imaging of live cells with near on-axis digital holographic microscopy using constrained optimization approach,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(10), 106003 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Biophotonics (1)

M. Balberg, M. Levi, K. Kalinowski, I. Barnea, S. K. Mirsky, and N. T. Shaked, “Localized measurements of physical parameters within human sperm cells obtained with wide-field interferometry,” J. Biophotonics 10(10), 1305–1314 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Electron Microsc. (Tokyo) (1)

K. Ishizuka and B. Allman, “Phase measurement of atomic resolution image using transport of intensity equation,” J. Electron Microsc. (Tokyo) 54(3), 191–197 (2005).
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J. Gynecol. Obstet. Biol. Reprod. (Paris) (1)

T. Freour, A. Delvigne, and P. Barrière, “Evaluation of the male of the infertile couple,” J. Gynecol. Obstet. Biol. Reprod. (Paris) 39(8), S45–S52 (2010).
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J. Microsc. (3)

E. D. Barone-Nugent, A. Barty, and K. A. Nugent, “Quantitative phase-amplitude microscopy I: optical microscopy,” J. Microsc. 206(3), 194–203 (2002).
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C. J. Bellair, C. L. Curl, B. E. Allman, P. J. Harris, A. Roberts, L. M. D. Delbridge, and K. A. Nugent, “Quantitative phase amplitude microscopy IV: imaging thick specimens,” J. Microsc. 214(1), 62–69 (2004).
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D. Paganin, A. Barty, P. J. McMahon, and K. A. Nugent, “Quantitative phase-amplitude microscopy. III. The effects of noise,” J. Microsc. 214(1), 51–61 (2004).
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J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Urol. (1)

J. D. Raman, C. F. Nobert, and M. Goldstein, “Increased incidence of testicular cancer in men presenting with infertility and abnormal semen analysis,” J. Urol. 174(5), 1819–1822 (2005).
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J. Vis. Exp. (1)

V. Centonze Frohlich, “Phase contrast and differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy,” J. Vis. Exp. 17(17), e844 (2008).
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Lancet (1)

G. Palermo, H. Joris, P. Devroey, and A. C. Van Steirteghem, “Pregnancies after intracytoplasmic injection of single spermatozoon into an oocyte,” Lancet 340(8810), 17–18 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Light Sci. Appl. (1)

M. U. Daloglu, W. Luo, F. Shabbir, F. Lin, K. Kim, I. Lee, J. Q. Jiang, W. J. Cai, V. Ramesh, M. Y. Yu, and A. Ozcan, “Label-free 3D computational imaging of spermatozoon locomotion, head spin and flagellum beating over a large volume,” Light Sci. Appl. 7(1), 17121 (2018).
[Crossref]

Methods (1)

W. Lee, J. H. Choi, S. Ryu, D. Jung, J. Song, J. S. Lee, and C. Joo, “Color-coded LED microscopy for quantitative phase imaging: Implementation and application to sperm motility analysis,” Methods 136, 66–74 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Micron (1)

V. V. Volkov, Y. Zhu, and M. De Graef, “A new symmetrized solution for phase retrieval using the transport of intensity equation,” Micron 33(5), 411–416 (2002).
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Microsc. Res. Tech. (1)

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Reconstruction of phase image of microbeads in brightfield mode. (a-c) Brightfield images captured using the experimental set-up. (a) Image with a defocus of + 1 μm (b) Image in focus (c) Image with a defocus of −1 μm (d) 1st derivative approximation (dI/dz) (e) Aberration-corrected phase image with the color bar showing thickness in μm (f) 3D view of the microspheres. (g) Corresponding line profile from the selected white box portion shown in fig. (e). (h) Plot of phase vs defocus distance for different phase targets with varied thickness (i) graph of actual value vs experimental thickness values for the standard phase target.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Reconstruction of phase image of sperms in brightfield mode. (a-c) Brightfield images captured using the experimental set-up. (a) Image with a defocus of + 1 μm (b) Image in focus (c) Image with a defocus of −1 μm (d) Reconstructed phase image (e) 2D phase image of sperm cells (f) Quantitative profile of a spermatozoon along the line AA’ and BB’ shown in fig. (e), (g) Quantitative profile of a spermatozoon along the line CC’ and DD’ shown in fig. (e).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Compartmentalized sperm images, the black marked region is the nucleus and the yellow marked region is the acrosomal region in the reconstructed phase image. (b) Hilbert Transform operation enhanced nucleus and acrosome region. The arrows show vacuoles on the nucleus as well as on the acrosome region of sperm.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Evaluated Spermatozoa Parameters

Equations (5)

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U( r ,z)= I( r ,z) exp(iφ( r ,z))
.(I( r ,z) φ( r ,z))= 2π λ dI( r ,z) dz
φ( r ,z )= 2 [ .[ 1 I( r ,z ) [ 2 ( 2π λ I( r ,z ) z ) ] ] ]
t(x,y,z)= λΔφ 2πΔn
φ A ( r )= i=j=0 i+j=N C ij x i y j