Abstract

In this paper, a universal LP01 to any LPlm mode converter structure is proposed based on a circular waveguide. As examples, nine mode converters from LP01 to LP02, LP03, LP04, LP05, LP06, LP07, LP11, LP21 and LP31 are designed. It is shown that an insertion loss of less than 3 dB is achieved over the entire C-band for all the mode converters. Furthermore, two mode (de)multiplexers based on directional couplers are demonstrated, showing an insertion loss less than 2.5 dB and a crosstalk less than −10 dB over the C-band.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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  1. I. P. Giles, R. Chen, and V. Garcia-Munoz, “Fiber based multiplexing and demultiplexing devices for few mode fiber space division multiplexed communications,” in Conference on Optical Fiber Communication, Technical Digest Series, 2014.
    [Crossref]
  2. J. A. Carpenter, B. J. Eggleton, and J. B. Schroeder, “LCOS Based Devices for Mode-division Multiplexing,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, 2015.
    [Crossref]
  3. H. Qiu, H. Yu, T. Hu, G. Jiang, H. Shao, P. Yu, J. Yang, and X. Jiang, “Silicon mode multi/demultiplexer based on multimode grating-assisted couplers,” Opt. Express 21(15), 17904–17911 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. J. Xing, Z. Li, X. Xiao, J. Yu, and Y. Yu, “Two-mode multiplexer and demultiplexer based on adiabatic couplers,” Opt. Lett. 38(17), 3468–3470 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. K. Saitoh, T. Uematsu, N. Hanzawa, Y. Ishizaka, K. Masumoto, T. Sakamoto, T. Matsui, K. Tsujikawa, and F. Yamamoto, “PLC-based LP11 mode rotator for mode-division multiplexing transmission,” Opt. Express 22(16), 19117–19130 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. N. Hanzawa, K. Saitoh, T. Sakamoto, T. Matsui, K. Tsujikawa, M. Koshiba, and F. Yamamoto, “Two-mode PLC-based mode multi/demultiplexer for mode and wavelength division multiplexed transmission,” Opt. Express 21(22), 25752–25760 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. H. Mellah, X. Zhang, and D. Shen, “Two-stage taper fiber-based mode converters between LP01 and LP0m,” in ICOCN 2015—14th International Conference on Optical Communications and Networks, Proceedings, 2015.
  8. H. Mellah, X. Zhang, and D. Shen, “LP01 to LP0m mode converters using all-fiber two-stage tapers,” Opt. Commun. 354, 148–153 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  9. H. Mellah, X. Zhang, and D. Shen, “Analysis of optical fiber-based LP(01) ↔ LP(02) mode converters for the O-, S-, and C-Band,” Appl. Opt. 54(17), 5568–5575 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. A. Li, X. Chen, A. Al Amin, J. Ye, and W. Shieh, “Space-division multiplexed high-speed superchannel transmission over few-mode fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(24), 3953–3964 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  11. C. P. Tsekrekos and D. Syvridis, “All-fiber broadband LP 02 mode converter for future wavelength and mode division multiplexing systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(18), 1638–1641 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  12. N. Riesen and J. D. Love, “Tapered velocity mode-selective couplers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(13), 2163–2169 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  13. N. Riesen, S. Gross, J. D. Love, and M. J. Withford, “Femtosecond direct-written integrated mode couplers,” Opt. Express 22(24), 29855–29861 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. S. Gross, N. Riesen, J. D. Love, and M. J. Withford, “Three-dimensional ultra-broadband integrated tapered mode multiplexers,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(5), L81–L85 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  15. D. Dai, “Silicon-based multi-channel mode (de)multiplexer for on-chip optical interconnects,” in Advanced Photonics for Communications, 2014.
  16. S. H. Chang, H. S. Chung, N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, K. J. Park, K. Kim, J. C. Lee, J. H. Lee, B. Y. Kim, and Y. K. Kim, “Mode division multiplexed optical transmission enabled by all-fiber mode multiplexer,” Opt. Express 22(12), 14229–14236 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. D. Dai, Y. Tang, and J. E. Bowers, “Mode conversion in tapered submicron silicon ridge optical waveguides,” Opt. Express 20(12), 13425–13439 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. K. Lai, S. G. Leon-Saval, A. Witkowska, W. J. Wadsworth, and T. A. Birks, “Wavelength-independent all-fiber mode converters,” Opt. Lett. 32(4), 328–330 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. M. Skorobogatiy, C. Anastassiou, S. Johnson, O. Weisberg, T. Engeness, S. Jacobs, R. Ahmad, and Y. Fink, “Quantitative characterization of higher-order mode converters in weakly multimoded fibers,” Opt. Express 11(22), 2838–2847 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. “RSoft,”. https://www.synopsys.com/optical-solutions/rsoft.html .
  21. H. Mellah, J.-P. Bérubé, R. Vallée, and X. Zhang, “Fabrication of a LP01 to LP02 mode converter embedded in bulk glass using femtosecond direct inscription,” Opt. Commun. 410, 475–478 (2018).
    [Crossref]

2018 (1)

H. Mellah, J.-P. Bérubé, R. Vallée, and X. Zhang, “Fabrication of a LP01 to LP02 mode converter embedded in bulk glass using femtosecond direct inscription,” Opt. Commun. 410, 475–478 (2018).
[Crossref]

2015 (2)

H. Mellah, X. Zhang, and D. Shen, “LP01 to LP0m mode converters using all-fiber two-stage tapers,” Opt. Commun. 354, 148–153 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Mellah, X. Zhang, and D. Shen, “Analysis of optical fiber-based LP(01) ↔ LP(02) mode converters for the O-, S-, and C-Band,” Appl. Opt. 54(17), 5568–5575 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (4)

2013 (4)

2012 (3)

2007 (1)

2003 (1)

Ahmad, R.

Al Amin, A.

Anastassiou, C.

Bérubé, J.-P.

H. Mellah, J.-P. Bérubé, R. Vallée, and X. Zhang, “Fabrication of a LP01 to LP02 mode converter embedded in bulk glass using femtosecond direct inscription,” Opt. Commun. 410, 475–478 (2018).
[Crossref]

Birks, T. A.

Bowers, J. E.

Carpenter, J. A.

J. A. Carpenter, B. J. Eggleton, and J. B. Schroeder, “LCOS Based Devices for Mode-division Multiplexing,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, 2015.
[Crossref]

Chang, S. H.

Chen, R.

I. P. Giles, R. Chen, and V. Garcia-Munoz, “Fiber based multiplexing and demultiplexing devices for few mode fiber space division multiplexed communications,” in Conference on Optical Fiber Communication, Technical Digest Series, 2014.
[Crossref]

Chen, X.

Chung, H. S.

Dai, D.

Eggleton, B. J.

J. A. Carpenter, B. J. Eggleton, and J. B. Schroeder, “LCOS Based Devices for Mode-division Multiplexing,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, 2015.
[Crossref]

Engeness, T.

Fink, Y.

Fontaine, N. K.

Garcia-Munoz, V.

I. P. Giles, R. Chen, and V. Garcia-Munoz, “Fiber based multiplexing and demultiplexing devices for few mode fiber space division multiplexed communications,” in Conference on Optical Fiber Communication, Technical Digest Series, 2014.
[Crossref]

Giles, I. P.

I. P. Giles, R. Chen, and V. Garcia-Munoz, “Fiber based multiplexing and demultiplexing devices for few mode fiber space division multiplexed communications,” in Conference on Optical Fiber Communication, Technical Digest Series, 2014.
[Crossref]

Gross, S.

S. Gross, N. Riesen, J. D. Love, and M. J. Withford, “Three-dimensional ultra-broadband integrated tapered mode multiplexers,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(5), L81–L85 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. Riesen, S. Gross, J. D. Love, and M. J. Withford, “Femtosecond direct-written integrated mode couplers,” Opt. Express 22(24), 29855–29861 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hanzawa, N.

Hu, T.

Ishizaka, Y.

Jacobs, S.

Jiang, G.

Jiang, X.

Johnson, S.

Kim, B. Y.

Kim, K.

Kim, Y. K.

Koshiba, M.

Lai, K.

Lee, J. C.

Lee, J. H.

Leon-Saval, S. G.

Li, A.

Li, Z.

Love, J. D.

Masumoto, K.

Matsui, T.

Mellah, H.

H. Mellah, J.-P. Bérubé, R. Vallée, and X. Zhang, “Fabrication of a LP01 to LP02 mode converter embedded in bulk glass using femtosecond direct inscription,” Opt. Commun. 410, 475–478 (2018).
[Crossref]

H. Mellah, X. Zhang, and D. Shen, “LP01 to LP0m mode converters using all-fiber two-stage tapers,” Opt. Commun. 354, 148–153 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Mellah, X. Zhang, and D. Shen, “Analysis of optical fiber-based LP(01) ↔ LP(02) mode converters for the O-, S-, and C-Band,” Appl. Opt. 54(17), 5568–5575 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, K. J.

Qiu, H.

Riesen, N.

Ryf, R.

Saitoh, K.

Sakamoto, T.

Schroeder, J. B.

J. A. Carpenter, B. J. Eggleton, and J. B. Schroeder, “LCOS Based Devices for Mode-division Multiplexing,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, 2015.
[Crossref]

Shao, H.

Shen, D.

H. Mellah, X. Zhang, and D. Shen, “LP01 to LP0m mode converters using all-fiber two-stage tapers,” Opt. Commun. 354, 148–153 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Mellah, X. Zhang, and D. Shen, “Analysis of optical fiber-based LP(01) ↔ LP(02) mode converters for the O-, S-, and C-Band,” Appl. Opt. 54(17), 5568–5575 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shieh, W.

Skorobogatiy, M.

Syvridis, D.

C. P. Tsekrekos and D. Syvridis, “All-fiber broadband LP 02 mode converter for future wavelength and mode division multiplexing systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(18), 1638–1641 (2012).
[Crossref]

Tang, Y.

Tsekrekos, C. P.

C. P. Tsekrekos and D. Syvridis, “All-fiber broadband LP 02 mode converter for future wavelength and mode division multiplexing systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(18), 1638–1641 (2012).
[Crossref]

Tsujikawa, K.

Uematsu, T.

Vallée, R.

H. Mellah, J.-P. Bérubé, R. Vallée, and X. Zhang, “Fabrication of a LP01 to LP02 mode converter embedded in bulk glass using femtosecond direct inscription,” Opt. Commun. 410, 475–478 (2018).
[Crossref]

Wadsworth, W. J.

Weisberg, O.

Withford, M. J.

S. Gross, N. Riesen, J. D. Love, and M. J. Withford, “Three-dimensional ultra-broadband integrated tapered mode multiplexers,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(5), L81–L85 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. Riesen, S. Gross, J. D. Love, and M. J. Withford, “Femtosecond direct-written integrated mode couplers,” Opt. Express 22(24), 29855–29861 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Witkowska, A.

Xiao, X.

Xing, J.

Yamamoto, F.

Yang, J.

Ye, J.

Yu, H.

Yu, J.

Yu, P.

Yu, Y.

Zhang, X.

H. Mellah, J.-P. Bérubé, R. Vallée, and X. Zhang, “Fabrication of a LP01 to LP02 mode converter embedded in bulk glass using femtosecond direct inscription,” Opt. Commun. 410, 475–478 (2018).
[Crossref]

H. Mellah, X. Zhang, and D. Shen, “LP01 to LP0m mode converters using all-fiber two-stage tapers,” Opt. Commun. 354, 148–153 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Mellah, X. Zhang, and D. Shen, “Analysis of optical fiber-based LP(01) ↔ LP(02) mode converters for the O-, S-, and C-Band,” Appl. Opt. 54(17), 5568–5575 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

C. P. Tsekrekos and D. Syvridis, “All-fiber broadband LP 02 mode converter for future wavelength and mode division multiplexing systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(18), 1638–1641 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

Laser Photonics Rev. (1)

S. Gross, N. Riesen, J. D. Love, and M. J. Withford, “Three-dimensional ultra-broadband integrated tapered mode multiplexers,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(5), L81–L85 (2014).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (2)

H. Mellah, X. Zhang, and D. Shen, “LP01 to LP0m mode converters using all-fiber two-stage tapers,” Opt. Commun. 354, 148–153 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Mellah, J.-P. Bérubé, R. Vallée, and X. Zhang, “Fabrication of a LP01 to LP02 mode converter embedded in bulk glass using femtosecond direct inscription,” Opt. Commun. 410, 475–478 (2018).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (7)

N. Riesen, S. Gross, J. D. Love, and M. J. Withford, “Femtosecond direct-written integrated mode couplers,” Opt. Express 22(24), 29855–29861 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. H. Chang, H. S. Chung, N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, K. J. Park, K. Kim, J. C. Lee, J. H. Lee, B. Y. Kim, and Y. K. Kim, “Mode division multiplexed optical transmission enabled by all-fiber mode multiplexer,” Opt. Express 22(12), 14229–14236 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Dai, Y. Tang, and J. E. Bowers, “Mode conversion in tapered submicron silicon ridge optical waveguides,” Opt. Express 20(12), 13425–13439 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Skorobogatiy, C. Anastassiou, S. Johnson, O. Weisberg, T. Engeness, S. Jacobs, R. Ahmad, and Y. Fink, “Quantitative characterization of higher-order mode converters in weakly multimoded fibers,” Opt. Express 11(22), 2838–2847 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Saitoh, T. Uematsu, N. Hanzawa, Y. Ishizaka, K. Masumoto, T. Sakamoto, T. Matsui, K. Tsujikawa, and F. Yamamoto, “PLC-based LP11 mode rotator for mode-division multiplexing transmission,” Opt. Express 22(16), 19117–19130 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Hanzawa, K. Saitoh, T. Sakamoto, T. Matsui, K. Tsujikawa, M. Koshiba, and F. Yamamoto, “Two-mode PLC-based mode multi/demultiplexer for mode and wavelength division multiplexed transmission,” Opt. Express 21(22), 25752–25760 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Qiu, H. Yu, T. Hu, G. Jiang, H. Shao, P. Yu, J. Yang, and X. Jiang, “Silicon mode multi/demultiplexer based on multimode grating-assisted couplers,” Opt. Express 21(15), 17904–17911 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Other (5)

“RSoft,”. https://www.synopsys.com/optical-solutions/rsoft.html .

D. Dai, “Silicon-based multi-channel mode (de)multiplexer for on-chip optical interconnects,” in Advanced Photonics for Communications, 2014.

I. P. Giles, R. Chen, and V. Garcia-Munoz, “Fiber based multiplexing and demultiplexing devices for few mode fiber space division multiplexed communications,” in Conference on Optical Fiber Communication, Technical Digest Series, 2014.
[Crossref]

J. A. Carpenter, B. J. Eggleton, and J. B. Schroeder, “LCOS Based Devices for Mode-division Multiplexing,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, 2015.
[Crossref]

H. Mellah, X. Zhang, and D. Shen, “Two-stage taper fiber-based mode converters between LP01 and LP0m,” in ICOCN 2015—14th International Conference on Optical Communications and Networks, Proceedings, 2015.

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Figures (15)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic diagram of the proposed LP01 to LPlm mode converter.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Intensity profile of LP0m modes (m = 1, 2, 3 and 4).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Intensity profile of some LPlm modes (l≠0).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Schematic of the proposed LP01 to LP0m mode converter.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Insertion Loss of the proposed LP01 to LP0m mode converters over a broadband. (b) Insertion Loss of the proposed LP01 to LP0m mode converters over the C-band.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) Extinction ratio of the proposed LP01 to LP0m mode converters over a broadband. (b) Extinction ratio of the proposed LP01 to LP0m mode converters over the C-band.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 LP01 to LP11, LP21 and LP31 mode converter structure.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 (a) Insertion loss of LP01 to LP11, LP21 and LP31 mode converter over a broadband. (b) Insertion loss of LP01 to LP11, LP21 and LP31 mode converter over the C-band.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 (a) Extinction ratio of LP01 to LP11, LP21 and LP31 mode converter over a broadband. (b) Extinction ratio of LP01 to LP11, LP21 and LP31 mode converter over the C-band.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 LP0m (m = 1…5) mode multiplexer from left to right, and opposite direction for demultiplexer.
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 (a) Insertion loss of LP0m (m = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5) modes at the output of the multiplexer. (b) Insertion loss of LP0m (m = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5) modes at the output of the demultiplexer.
Fig. 12
Fig. 12 (a) Crosstalk of LP0m (m = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5) modes at the output of the multiplexer. (b) Crosstalk of LP0m (m = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5) modes at the output of the demultiplexer.
Fig. 13
Fig. 13 LPlm (LP11, LP21 and LP31) mode (de)multiplexer.
Fig. 14
Fig. 14 (a): Insertion Loss over the C-Band for the LP11, LP21 and LP31 Multiplexer. (b) Insertion Loss over the C-Band for the LP11, LP21 and LP31 Demultiplexer.
Fig. 15
Fig. 15 (a) Cross Talk over the C-Band for the LP11, LP21 and LP31 Multiplexer. (b) Cross Talk over the C-Band for the LP11, LP21 and LP31 Demultiplexer.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 List of Symbol Definitions Used in Fig. 1

Tables Icon

Table 2 Optimal Parameters for the LP01 to LP0m Mode Converters (μm)

Equations (1)

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I L = 10 L o g 10 ( P L P 01 , i n P L P 0 m , o u t ) E R = 10 L o g 10 ( P L P 0 m , o u t P L P 01 , o u t )

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