Abstract

We report a functionality-switchable terahertz polarization converter based on an L-shaped planar metamaterial arranged on the graphene/hBN/Si/SiO2/Ag substrate. By dynamically controlling the chemical potential of the graphene sheet, we demonstrate a functional switch from a high-performance quarter-wave plate (ellipticity more than 0.97) to a high-performance half-wave plate (PCR>97%) within a working bandwidth from 4.80 THz to 5.10 THz. The physical mechanism of our proposed active terahertz device is well explained from both macroscopic and microscopic sides. This functionality-switchable terahertz polarization converter shows a compact structure and is convenient in fabrication and gate-voltage operation, which may be applied in practical terahertz imaging, detection, and communication.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  33. Y. Zhang, Y. Feng, B. Zhu, J. Zhao, and T. Jiang, “Switchable quarter-wave plate with graphene based metamaterial for broadband terahertz wave manipulation,” Opt. Express 23(21), 27230–27239 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  34. Y. Y. Ji, F. Fan, X. H. Wang, and S. J. Chang, “Broadband controllable terahertz quarter-wave plate based on graphene gratings with liquid crystals,” Opt. Express 26(10), 12852–12862 (2018).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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2018 (1)

2017 (12)

Y. Nakata, Y. Taira, T. Nakanishi, and F. Miyamaru, “Freestanding transparent terahertz half-wave plate using subwavelength cut-wire pairs,” Opt. Express 25(3), 2107–2114 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Xia, X. F. Jing, X. C. Gui, Y. Tian, and Z. Hong, “Broadband terahertz half-wave plate based on anisotropic polarization conversion metamaterials,” Opt. Mater. Express 7(3), 977–988 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Y. Ji, F. Fan, M. Chen, L. Yang, and S. J. Chang, “Terahertz artificial birefringence and tunable phase shifter based on dielectric metasurface with compound lattice,” Opt. Express 25(10), 11405–11413 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Jiang, X. Zhang, W. Zhang, S. Liang, H. Wu, L. Jiang, and X. Li, “Out-of-plane focusing and manipulation of terahertz beams based on a silicon/copper grating covered by monolayer graphene,” Opt. Express 25(14), 16867–16878 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Gao, W. Yang, W. Cao, M. Chen, Y. Jiang, X. Yu, and H. Li, “Bandwidth broadening of a graphene-based circular polarization converter by phase compensation,” Opt. Express 25(20), 23945–23954 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jiang, L. Wang, J. Wang, C. N. Akwuruoha, and W. Cao, “Ultra-wideband high-efficiency reflective linear-to-circular polarization converter based on metasurface at terahertz frequencies,” Opt. Express 25(22), 27616–27623 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Jiang, W. Y. Zhao, and Y. Y. Jiang, “Frequency-tunable and functionality-switchable polarization device using silicon strip array integrated with a graphene sheet,” Opt. Mater. Express 7(12), 4277–4285 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Zhao, X. Wang, J. He, J. Guo, J. Ye, Q. Kan, and Y. Zhang, “High-efficiency terahertz devices based on cross-polarization converter,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 17882 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. T. Xu, F. Fan, M. Chen, Y. Y. Ji, and S. J. Chang, “Terahertz polarization mode conversion in compound metasurface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(3), 031107 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. T. Xu, F. T. Hu, M. Chen, F. Fan, and S. J. Chang, “Broadband terahertz polarization converter and asymmetric transmission based on coupled dielectric-metal grating,” Ann. Phys. 529(10), 1700151 (2017).
[Crossref]

Z. Y. Xiao, H. L. Zou, X. X. Zheng, X. Y. Ling, and L. Wang, “A tunable reflective polarization converter based on hybrid metamaterial,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 49(12), 401 (2017).
[Crossref]

B. Vasić, D. C. Zografopoulos, G. Isić, R. Beccherelli, and R. Gajić, “Electrically tunable terahertz polarization converter based on overcoupled metal-isolator-metal metamaterials infiltrated with liquid crystals,” Nanotechnology 28(12), 124002 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (4)

X. Y. Yu, X. Gao, W. Qiao, L. L. Wen, and W. L. Yang, “Broadband tunable polarization converter realized by graphene-based metamaterial,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 28(21), 2399–2402 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. C. Wang, L. C. Zhang, Y. D. Gong, L. K. Jian, T. Venkatesan, C. W. Qiu, and M. H. Hong, “Multiband switchable terahertz quarter-wave plates via phase-change metasurfaces,” IEEE Photon. J. 8(1), 5500308 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Viti, J. Hu, D. Coquillat, A. Politano, C. Consejo, W. Knap, and M. S. Vitiello, “Heterostructured hBN-BP-hBN nanodetectors at terahertz frequencies,” Adv. Mater. 28(34), 7390–7396 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Mo, X. Wei, K. Wang, Y. Li, and J. Liu, “Ultrathin flexible terahertz polarization converter based on metasurfaces,” Opt. Express 24(12), 13621–13627 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (6)

D. Wang, Y. Gu, Y. Gong, C. W. Qiu, and M. Hong, “An ultrathin terahertz quarter-wave plate using planar babinet-inverted metasurface,” Opt. Express 23(9), 11114–11122 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Liu, S. Chen, Z. Li, H. Cheng, P. Yu, J. Li, and J. Tian, “Realization of broadband cross-polarization conversion in transmission mode in the terahertz region using a single-layer metasurface,” Opt. Lett. 40(13), 3185–3188 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zhang, Y. Feng, B. Zhu, J. Zhao, and T. Jiang, “Switchable quarter-wave plate with graphene based metamaterial for broadband terahertz wave manipulation,” Opt. Express 23(21), 27230–27239 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Wang, L. Zhang, Y. Gu, M. Q. Mehmood, Y. Gong, A. Srivastava, L. Jian, T. Venkatesan, C. W. Qiu, and M. Hong, “Switchable ultrathin quarter-wave plate in terahertz using active phase-change metasurface,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 15020 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. H. Fan, Y. Zhou, X. P. Ren, R. W. Peng, S. C. Jiang, D. H. Xu, X. Xiong, X. R. Huang, and M. Wang, “Freely tunable broadband polarization rotator for terahertz waves,” Adv. Mater. 27(7), 1201–1206 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. W. He, Z. W. Xie, S. Wang, X. K. Wang, Q. Kan, and Y. Zhang, “Terahertz polarization modulator based on metasurface,” J. Opt. 17(10), 105107 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (5)

I. F. Akyildiz, J. M. Jornet, and C. Han, “Terahertz band: Next frontier for wireless communications,” Phys. Commun. 12, 16–32 (2014).

L. Q. Cong, N. N. Xu, J. Q. Gu, R. Singh, J. G. Han, and W. L. Zhang, “Highly flexible broadband terahertz metamaterial quarter-wave plate,” Laser Photon. Rev. 8(4), 626–632 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. C. Jiang, X. Xiong, Y. S. Hu, Y. H. Hu, G. B. Ma, R. W. Peng, C. Sun, and M. Wang, “Controlling the Polarization state of light with a dispersion-free metastructure,” Phys. Rev. X 4(2), 021026 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhang, Y. Feng, B. Zhu, J. Zhao, and T. Jiang, “Graphene based tunable metamaterial absorber and polarization modulation in terahertz frequency,” Opt. Express 22(19), 22743–22752 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Wen and J. Zheng, “Broadband THz reflective polarization rotator by multiple plasmon resonances,” Opt. Express 22(23), 28292–28300 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (4)

B. Z. Xu, C. Q. Gu, Z. Li, and Z. Y. Niu, “A novel structure for tunable terahertz absorber based on graphene,” Opt. Express 21(20), 23803–23811 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Rahm, J. S. Li, and W. J. Padilla, “THz wave modulators: a brief review on different modulation techniques,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 34(1), 1–27 (2013).
[Crossref]

N. K. Grady, J. E. Heyes, D. R. Chowdhury, Y. Zeng, M. T. Reiten, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, D. A. R. Dalvit, and H. T. Chen, “Terahertz metamaterials for linear polarization conversion and anomalous refraction,” Science 340(6138), 1304–1307 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Q. Cong, W. Cao, X. Q. Zhang, Z. Tian, J. Q. Gu, R. Singh, J. G. Han, and W. L. Zhang, “A perfect metamaterial polarization rotator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(17), 171107 (2013).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

F. Sizov and A. Rogalski, “THz detectors,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 34(5), 278–347 (2010).
[Crossref]

T. Li, S. M. Wang, J. X. Cao, H. Liu, and S. N. Zhu, “Cavity-involved plasmonic metamaterial for optical polarization conversion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(26), 261113 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (4)

A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, H. Tao, D. V. Pilon, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Comparison of birefringent electric split-ring resonator and meanderline structures as quarter-wave plates at terahertz frequencies,” Opt. Express 17(1), 136–149 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. G. Peralta, E. I. Smirnova, A. K. Azad, H. T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, I. Brener, and J. F. O’Hara, “Metamaterials for THz polarimetric devices,” Opt. Express 17(2), 773–783 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Weis, O. Paul, C. Imhof, R. Beigang, and M. Rahm, “Strongly birefringent metamaterials as negative index terahertz wave plates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(17), 171104 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, M. J. Cich, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Taylor, “A metamaterial solid-state terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 148–151 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (3)

K. B. Cooper, R. J. Dengler, N. Llombart, T. Bryllert, G. Chattopadhyay, E. Schlecht, J. Gill, C. Lee, A. Skalare, I. Mehdi, and P. H. Siegel, “Penetrating 3-D imaging at 4-and 25-m range using a submillimeter-wave radar,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 56(12), 2771–2778 (2008).
[Crossref]

L. A. Falkovsky, “Optical properties of graphene,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 129, 012004 (2008).
[Crossref]

G. W. Hanson, “Dyadic Green’s functions and guided surface waves for a surface conductivity model of graphene,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(6), 064302 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

Y. Q. Cai, L. T. Zhang, Q. F. Zeng, L. F. Cheng, and Y. D. Xu, “Infrared reflectance spectrum of BN calculated from first principles,” Solid State Commun. 141(5), 262–266 (2007).
[Crossref]

L. Ozyuzer, A. E. Koshelev, C. Kurter, N. Gopalsami, Q. Li, M. Tachiki, K. Kadowaki, T. Yamamoto, H. Minami, H. Yamaguchi, T. Tachiki, K. E. Gray, W. K. Kwok, and U. Welp, “Emission of coherent THz radiation from superconductors,” Science 318(5854), 1291–1293 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, “THz imaging and sensing for security applications - explosives, weapons and drugs,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20(7), S266–S280 (2005).
[Crossref]

2002 (3)

B. Ferguson and X. C. Zhang, “Materials for terahertz science and technology,” Nat. Mater. 1(1), 26–33 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417(6885), 156–159 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. H. Siegel, “Terahertz technology,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 50(3), 910–928 (2002).
[Crossref]

Akwuruoha, C. N.

Akyildiz, I. F.

I. F. Akyildiz, J. M. Jornet, and C. Han, “Terahertz band: Next frontier for wireless communications,” Phys. Commun. 12, 16–32 (2014).

Averitt, R. D.

Azad, A. K.

N. K. Grady, J. E. Heyes, D. R. Chowdhury, Y. Zeng, M. T. Reiten, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, D. A. R. Dalvit, and H. T. Chen, “Terahertz metamaterials for linear polarization conversion and anomalous refraction,” Science 340(6138), 1304–1307 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, M. J. Cich, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Taylor, “A metamaterial solid-state terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 148–151 (2009).
[Crossref]

X. G. Peralta, E. I. Smirnova, A. K. Azad, H. T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, I. Brener, and J. F. O’Hara, “Metamaterials for THz polarimetric devices,” Opt. Express 17(2), 773–783 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barat, R.

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, “THz imaging and sensing for security applications - explosives, weapons and drugs,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20(7), S266–S280 (2005).
[Crossref]

Beccherelli, R.

B. Vasić, D. C. Zografopoulos, G. Isić, R. Beccherelli, and R. Gajić, “Electrically tunable terahertz polarization converter based on overcoupled metal-isolator-metal metamaterials infiltrated with liquid crystals,” Nanotechnology 28(12), 124002 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beere, H. E.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417(6885), 156–159 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beigang, R.

P. Weis, O. Paul, C. Imhof, R. Beigang, and M. Rahm, “Strongly birefringent metamaterials as negative index terahertz wave plates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(17), 171104 (2009).
[Crossref]

Beltram, F.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417(6885), 156–159 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brener, I.

Bryllert, T.

K. B. Cooper, R. J. Dengler, N. Llombart, T. Bryllert, G. Chattopadhyay, E. Schlecht, J. Gill, C. Lee, A. Skalare, I. Mehdi, and P. H. Siegel, “Penetrating 3-D imaging at 4-and 25-m range using a submillimeter-wave radar,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 56(12), 2771–2778 (2008).
[Crossref]

Cai, Y. Q.

Y. Q. Cai, L. T. Zhang, Q. F. Zeng, L. F. Cheng, and Y. D. Xu, “Infrared reflectance spectrum of BN calculated from first principles,” Solid State Commun. 141(5), 262–266 (2007).
[Crossref]

Cao, J. X.

T. Li, S. M. Wang, J. X. Cao, H. Liu, and S. N. Zhu, “Cavity-involved plasmonic metamaterial for optical polarization conversion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(26), 261113 (2010).
[Crossref]

Cao, W.

Chang, S. J.

Y. Y. Ji, F. Fan, X. H. Wang, and S. J. Chang, “Broadband controllable terahertz quarter-wave plate based on graphene gratings with liquid crystals,” Opt. Express 26(10), 12852–12862 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Y. Ji, F. Fan, M. Chen, L. Yang, and S. J. Chang, “Terahertz artificial birefringence and tunable phase shifter based on dielectric metasurface with compound lattice,” Opt. Express 25(10), 11405–11413 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. T. Xu, F. T. Hu, M. Chen, F. Fan, and S. J. Chang, “Broadband terahertz polarization converter and asymmetric transmission based on coupled dielectric-metal grating,” Ann. Phys. 529(10), 1700151 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. T. Xu, F. Fan, M. Chen, Y. Y. Ji, and S. J. Chang, “Terahertz polarization mode conversion in compound metasurface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(3), 031107 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chattopadhyay, G.

K. B. Cooper, R. J. Dengler, N. Llombart, T. Bryllert, G. Chattopadhyay, E. Schlecht, J. Gill, C. Lee, A. Skalare, I. Mehdi, and P. H. Siegel, “Penetrating 3-D imaging at 4-and 25-m range using a submillimeter-wave radar,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 56(12), 2771–2778 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chen, H. T.

N. K. Grady, J. E. Heyes, D. R. Chowdhury, Y. Zeng, M. T. Reiten, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, D. A. R. Dalvit, and H. T. Chen, “Terahertz metamaterials for linear polarization conversion and anomalous refraction,” Science 340(6138), 1304–1307 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, M. J. Cich, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Taylor, “A metamaterial solid-state terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 148–151 (2009).
[Crossref]

X. G. Peralta, E. I. Smirnova, A. K. Azad, H. T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, I. Brener, and J. F. O’Hara, “Metamaterials for THz polarimetric devices,” Opt. Express 17(2), 773–783 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, M.

S. T. Xu, F. Fan, M. Chen, Y. Y. Ji, and S. J. Chang, “Terahertz polarization mode conversion in compound metasurface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(3), 031107 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. T. Xu, F. T. Hu, M. Chen, F. Fan, and S. J. Chang, “Broadband terahertz polarization converter and asymmetric transmission based on coupled dielectric-metal grating,” Ann. Phys. 529(10), 1700151 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Y. Ji, F. Fan, M. Chen, L. Yang, and S. J. Chang, “Terahertz artificial birefringence and tunable phase shifter based on dielectric metasurface with compound lattice,” Opt. Express 25(10), 11405–11413 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Gao, W. Yang, W. Cao, M. Chen, Y. Jiang, X. Yu, and H. Li, “Bandwidth broadening of a graphene-based circular polarization converter by phase compensation,” Opt. Express 25(20), 23945–23954 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, S.

Cheng, H.

Cheng, L. F.

Y. Q. Cai, L. T. Zhang, Q. F. Zeng, L. F. Cheng, and Y. D. Xu, “Infrared reflectance spectrum of BN calculated from first principles,” Solid State Commun. 141(5), 262–266 (2007).
[Crossref]

Chowdhury, D. R.

N. K. Grady, J. E. Heyes, D. R. Chowdhury, Y. Zeng, M. T. Reiten, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, D. A. R. Dalvit, and H. T. Chen, “Terahertz metamaterials for linear polarization conversion and anomalous refraction,” Science 340(6138), 1304–1307 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cich, M. J.

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, M. J. Cich, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Taylor, “A metamaterial solid-state terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 148–151 (2009).
[Crossref]

Cong, L. Q.

L. Q. Cong, N. N. Xu, J. Q. Gu, R. Singh, J. G. Han, and W. L. Zhang, “Highly flexible broadband terahertz metamaterial quarter-wave plate,” Laser Photon. Rev. 8(4), 626–632 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Q. Cong, W. Cao, X. Q. Zhang, Z. Tian, J. Q. Gu, R. Singh, J. G. Han, and W. L. Zhang, “A perfect metamaterial polarization rotator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(17), 171107 (2013).
[Crossref]

Consejo, C.

L. Viti, J. Hu, D. Coquillat, A. Politano, C. Consejo, W. Knap, and M. S. Vitiello, “Heterostructured hBN-BP-hBN nanodetectors at terahertz frequencies,” Adv. Mater. 28(34), 7390–7396 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cooper, K. B.

K. B. Cooper, R. J. Dengler, N. Llombart, T. Bryllert, G. Chattopadhyay, E. Schlecht, J. Gill, C. Lee, A. Skalare, I. Mehdi, and P. H. Siegel, “Penetrating 3-D imaging at 4-and 25-m range using a submillimeter-wave radar,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 56(12), 2771–2778 (2008).
[Crossref]

Coquillat, D.

L. Viti, J. Hu, D. Coquillat, A. Politano, C. Consejo, W. Knap, and M. S. Vitiello, “Heterostructured hBN-BP-hBN nanodetectors at terahertz frequencies,” Adv. Mater. 28(34), 7390–7396 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dalvit, D. A. R.

N. K. Grady, J. E. Heyes, D. R. Chowdhury, Y. Zeng, M. T. Reiten, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, D. A. R. Dalvit, and H. T. Chen, “Terahertz metamaterials for linear polarization conversion and anomalous refraction,” Science 340(6138), 1304–1307 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Davies, A. G.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417(6885), 156–159 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dengler, R. J.

K. B. Cooper, R. J. Dengler, N. Llombart, T. Bryllert, G. Chattopadhyay, E. Schlecht, J. Gill, C. Lee, A. Skalare, I. Mehdi, and P. H. Siegel, “Penetrating 3-D imaging at 4-and 25-m range using a submillimeter-wave radar,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 56(12), 2771–2778 (2008).
[Crossref]

Falkovsky, L. A.

L. A. Falkovsky, “Optical properties of graphene,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 129, 012004 (2008).
[Crossref]

Fan, F.

Y. Y. Ji, F. Fan, X. H. Wang, and S. J. Chang, “Broadband controllable terahertz quarter-wave plate based on graphene gratings with liquid crystals,” Opt. Express 26(10), 12852–12862 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Y. Ji, F. Fan, M. Chen, L. Yang, and S. J. Chang, “Terahertz artificial birefringence and tunable phase shifter based on dielectric metasurface with compound lattice,” Opt. Express 25(10), 11405–11413 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. T. Xu, F. T. Hu, M. Chen, F. Fan, and S. J. Chang, “Broadband terahertz polarization converter and asymmetric transmission based on coupled dielectric-metal grating,” Ann. Phys. 529(10), 1700151 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. T. Xu, F. Fan, M. Chen, Y. Y. Ji, and S. J. Chang, “Terahertz polarization mode conversion in compound metasurface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(3), 031107 (2017).
[Crossref]

Fan, K.

Fan, R. H.

R. H. Fan, Y. Zhou, X. P. Ren, R. W. Peng, S. C. Jiang, D. H. Xu, X. Xiong, X. R. Huang, and M. Wang, “Freely tunable broadband polarization rotator for terahertz waves,” Adv. Mater. 27(7), 1201–1206 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Federici, J. F.

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, “THz imaging and sensing for security applications - explosives, weapons and drugs,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20(7), S266–S280 (2005).
[Crossref]

Feng, Y.

Ferguson, B.

B. Ferguson and X. C. Zhang, “Materials for terahertz science and technology,” Nat. Mater. 1(1), 26–33 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gajic, R.

B. Vasić, D. C. Zografopoulos, G. Isić, R. Beccherelli, and R. Gajić, “Electrically tunable terahertz polarization converter based on overcoupled metal-isolator-metal metamaterials infiltrated with liquid crystals,” Nanotechnology 28(12), 124002 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gao, X.

X. Gao, W. Yang, W. Cao, M. Chen, Y. Jiang, X. Yu, and H. Li, “Bandwidth broadening of a graphene-based circular polarization converter by phase compensation,” Opt. Express 25(20), 23945–23954 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Y. Yu, X. Gao, W. Qiao, L. L. Wen, and W. L. Yang, “Broadband tunable polarization converter realized by graphene-based metamaterial,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 28(21), 2399–2402 (2016).
[Crossref]

Gary, D.

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, “THz imaging and sensing for security applications - explosives, weapons and drugs,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20(7), S266–S280 (2005).
[Crossref]

Gill, J.

K. B. Cooper, R. J. Dengler, N. Llombart, T. Bryllert, G. Chattopadhyay, E. Schlecht, J. Gill, C. Lee, A. Skalare, I. Mehdi, and P. H. Siegel, “Penetrating 3-D imaging at 4-and 25-m range using a submillimeter-wave radar,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 56(12), 2771–2778 (2008).
[Crossref]

Gong, Y.

D. Wang, L. Zhang, Y. Gu, M. Q. Mehmood, Y. Gong, A. Srivastava, L. Jian, T. Venkatesan, C. W. Qiu, and M. Hong, “Switchable ultrathin quarter-wave plate in terahertz using active phase-change metasurface,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 15020 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Wang, Y. Gu, Y. Gong, C. W. Qiu, and M. Hong, “An ultrathin terahertz quarter-wave plate using planar babinet-inverted metasurface,” Opt. Express 23(9), 11114–11122 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gong, Y. D.

D. C. Wang, L. C. Zhang, Y. D. Gong, L. K. Jian, T. Venkatesan, C. W. Qiu, and M. H. Hong, “Multiband switchable terahertz quarter-wave plates via phase-change metasurfaces,” IEEE Photon. J. 8(1), 5500308 (2016).
[Crossref]

Gopalsami, N.

L. Ozyuzer, A. E. Koshelev, C. Kurter, N. Gopalsami, Q. Li, M. Tachiki, K. Kadowaki, T. Yamamoto, H. Minami, H. Yamaguchi, T. Tachiki, K. E. Gray, W. K. Kwok, and U. Welp, “Emission of coherent THz radiation from superconductors,” Science 318(5854), 1291–1293 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grady, N. K.

N. K. Grady, J. E. Heyes, D. R. Chowdhury, Y. Zeng, M. T. Reiten, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, D. A. R. Dalvit, and H. T. Chen, “Terahertz metamaterials for linear polarization conversion and anomalous refraction,” Science 340(6138), 1304–1307 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gray, K. E.

L. Ozyuzer, A. E. Koshelev, C. Kurter, N. Gopalsami, Q. Li, M. Tachiki, K. Kadowaki, T. Yamamoto, H. Minami, H. Yamaguchi, T. Tachiki, K. E. Gray, W. K. Kwok, and U. Welp, “Emission of coherent THz radiation from superconductors,” Science 318(5854), 1291–1293 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gu, C. Q.

Gu, J. Q.

L. Q. Cong, N. N. Xu, J. Q. Gu, R. Singh, J. G. Han, and W. L. Zhang, “Highly flexible broadband terahertz metamaterial quarter-wave plate,” Laser Photon. Rev. 8(4), 626–632 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Q. Cong, W. Cao, X. Q. Zhang, Z. Tian, J. Q. Gu, R. Singh, J. G. Han, and W. L. Zhang, “A perfect metamaterial polarization rotator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(17), 171107 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gu, Y.

D. Wang, Y. Gu, Y. Gong, C. W. Qiu, and M. Hong, “An ultrathin terahertz quarter-wave plate using planar babinet-inverted metasurface,” Opt. Express 23(9), 11114–11122 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Wang, L. Zhang, Y. Gu, M. Q. Mehmood, Y. Gong, A. Srivastava, L. Jian, T. Venkatesan, C. W. Qiu, and M. Hong, “Switchable ultrathin quarter-wave plate in terahertz using active phase-change metasurface,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 15020 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gui, X. C.

Guo, J.

H. Zhao, X. Wang, J. He, J. Guo, J. Ye, Q. Kan, and Y. Zhang, “High-efficiency terahertz devices based on cross-polarization converter,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 17882 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Han, C.

I. F. Akyildiz, J. M. Jornet, and C. Han, “Terahertz band: Next frontier for wireless communications,” Phys. Commun. 12, 16–32 (2014).

Han, J. G.

L. Q. Cong, N. N. Xu, J. Q. Gu, R. Singh, J. G. Han, and W. L. Zhang, “Highly flexible broadband terahertz metamaterial quarter-wave plate,” Laser Photon. Rev. 8(4), 626–632 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Q. Cong, W. Cao, X. Q. Zhang, Z. Tian, J. Q. Gu, R. Singh, J. G. Han, and W. L. Zhang, “A perfect metamaterial polarization rotator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(17), 171107 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hanson, G. W.

G. W. Hanson, “Dyadic Green’s functions and guided surface waves for a surface conductivity model of graphene,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(6), 064302 (2008).
[Crossref]

He, J.

H. Zhao, X. Wang, J. He, J. Guo, J. Ye, Q. Kan, and Y. Zhang, “High-efficiency terahertz devices based on cross-polarization converter,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 17882 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

He, J. W.

J. W. He, Z. W. Xie, S. Wang, X. K. Wang, Q. Kan, and Y. Zhang, “Terahertz polarization modulator based on metasurface,” J. Opt. 17(10), 105107 (2015).
[Crossref]

Heyes, J. E.

N. K. Grady, J. E. Heyes, D. R. Chowdhury, Y. Zeng, M. T. Reiten, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, D. A. R. Dalvit, and H. T. Chen, “Terahertz metamaterials for linear polarization conversion and anomalous refraction,” Science 340(6138), 1304–1307 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hong, M.

D. Wang, Y. Gu, Y. Gong, C. W. Qiu, and M. Hong, “An ultrathin terahertz quarter-wave plate using planar babinet-inverted metasurface,” Opt. Express 23(9), 11114–11122 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Wang, L. Zhang, Y. Gu, M. Q. Mehmood, Y. Gong, A. Srivastava, L. Jian, T. Venkatesan, C. W. Qiu, and M. Hong, “Switchable ultrathin quarter-wave plate in terahertz using active phase-change metasurface,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 15020 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hong, M. H.

D. C. Wang, L. C. Zhang, Y. D. Gong, L. K. Jian, T. Venkatesan, C. W. Qiu, and M. H. Hong, “Multiband switchable terahertz quarter-wave plates via phase-change metasurfaces,” IEEE Photon. J. 8(1), 5500308 (2016).
[Crossref]

Hong, Z.

Hu, F. T.

S. T. Xu, F. T. Hu, M. Chen, F. Fan, and S. J. Chang, “Broadband terahertz polarization converter and asymmetric transmission based on coupled dielectric-metal grating,” Ann. Phys. 529(10), 1700151 (2017).
[Crossref]

Hu, J.

L. Viti, J. Hu, D. Coquillat, A. Politano, C. Consejo, W. Knap, and M. S. Vitiello, “Heterostructured hBN-BP-hBN nanodetectors at terahertz frequencies,” Adv. Mater. 28(34), 7390–7396 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hu, Y. H.

S. C. Jiang, X. Xiong, Y. S. Hu, Y. H. Hu, G. B. Ma, R. W. Peng, C. Sun, and M. Wang, “Controlling the Polarization state of light with a dispersion-free metastructure,” Phys. Rev. X 4(2), 021026 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hu, Y. S.

S. C. Jiang, X. Xiong, Y. S. Hu, Y. H. Hu, G. B. Ma, R. W. Peng, C. Sun, and M. Wang, “Controlling the Polarization state of light with a dispersion-free metastructure,” Phys. Rev. X 4(2), 021026 (2014).
[Crossref]

Huang, F.

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, “THz imaging and sensing for security applications - explosives, weapons and drugs,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20(7), S266–S280 (2005).
[Crossref]

Huang, X. R.

R. H. Fan, Y. Zhou, X. P. Ren, R. W. Peng, S. C. Jiang, D. H. Xu, X. Xiong, X. R. Huang, and M. Wang, “Freely tunable broadband polarization rotator for terahertz waves,” Adv. Mater. 27(7), 1201–1206 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Imhof, C.

P. Weis, O. Paul, C. Imhof, R. Beigang, and M. Rahm, “Strongly birefringent metamaterials as negative index terahertz wave plates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(17), 171104 (2009).
[Crossref]

Iotti, R. C.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417(6885), 156–159 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Isic, G.

B. Vasić, D. C. Zografopoulos, G. Isić, R. Beccherelli, and R. Gajić, “Electrically tunable terahertz polarization converter based on overcoupled metal-isolator-metal metamaterials infiltrated with liquid crystals,” Nanotechnology 28(12), 124002 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ji, Y. Y.

Jian, L.

D. Wang, L. Zhang, Y. Gu, M. Q. Mehmood, Y. Gong, A. Srivastava, L. Jian, T. Venkatesan, C. W. Qiu, and M. Hong, “Switchable ultrathin quarter-wave plate in terahertz using active phase-change metasurface,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 15020 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jian, L. K.

D. C. Wang, L. C. Zhang, Y. D. Gong, L. K. Jian, T. Venkatesan, C. W. Qiu, and M. H. Hong, “Multiband switchable terahertz quarter-wave plates via phase-change metasurfaces,” IEEE Photon. J. 8(1), 5500308 (2016).
[Crossref]

Jiang, H.

Jiang, J.

Jiang, L.

Jiang, S. C.

R. H. Fan, Y. Zhou, X. P. Ren, R. W. Peng, S. C. Jiang, D. H. Xu, X. Xiong, X. R. Huang, and M. Wang, “Freely tunable broadband polarization rotator for terahertz waves,” Adv. Mater. 27(7), 1201–1206 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. C. Jiang, X. Xiong, Y. S. Hu, Y. H. Hu, G. B. Ma, R. W. Peng, C. Sun, and M. Wang, “Controlling the Polarization state of light with a dispersion-free metastructure,” Phys. Rev. X 4(2), 021026 (2014).
[Crossref]

Jiang, T.

Jiang, Y.

Jiang, Y. Y.

Jing, X. F.

Jornet, J. M.

I. F. Akyildiz, J. M. Jornet, and C. Han, “Terahertz band: Next frontier for wireless communications,” Phys. Commun. 12, 16–32 (2014).

Kadowaki, K.

L. Ozyuzer, A. E. Koshelev, C. Kurter, N. Gopalsami, Q. Li, M. Tachiki, K. Kadowaki, T. Yamamoto, H. Minami, H. Yamaguchi, T. Tachiki, K. E. Gray, W. K. Kwok, and U. Welp, “Emission of coherent THz radiation from superconductors,” Science 318(5854), 1291–1293 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kan, Q.

H. Zhao, X. Wang, J. He, J. Guo, J. Ye, Q. Kan, and Y. Zhang, “High-efficiency terahertz devices based on cross-polarization converter,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 17882 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. W. He, Z. W. Xie, S. Wang, X. K. Wang, Q. Kan, and Y. Zhang, “Terahertz polarization modulator based on metasurface,” J. Opt. 17(10), 105107 (2015).
[Crossref]

Knap, W.

L. Viti, J. Hu, D. Coquillat, A. Politano, C. Consejo, W. Knap, and M. S. Vitiello, “Heterostructured hBN-BP-hBN nanodetectors at terahertz frequencies,” Adv. Mater. 28(34), 7390–7396 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Köhler, R.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417(6885), 156–159 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Koshelev, A. E.

L. Ozyuzer, A. E. Koshelev, C. Kurter, N. Gopalsami, Q. Li, M. Tachiki, K. Kadowaki, T. Yamamoto, H. Minami, H. Yamaguchi, T. Tachiki, K. E. Gray, W. K. Kwok, and U. Welp, “Emission of coherent THz radiation from superconductors,” Science 318(5854), 1291–1293 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kurter, C.

L. Ozyuzer, A. E. Koshelev, C. Kurter, N. Gopalsami, Q. Li, M. Tachiki, K. Kadowaki, T. Yamamoto, H. Minami, H. Yamaguchi, T. Tachiki, K. E. Gray, W. K. Kwok, and U. Welp, “Emission of coherent THz radiation from superconductors,” Science 318(5854), 1291–1293 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kwok, W. K.

L. Ozyuzer, A. E. Koshelev, C. Kurter, N. Gopalsami, Q. Li, M. Tachiki, K. Kadowaki, T. Yamamoto, H. Minami, H. Yamaguchi, T. Tachiki, K. E. Gray, W. K. Kwok, and U. Welp, “Emission of coherent THz radiation from superconductors,” Science 318(5854), 1291–1293 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, C.

K. B. Cooper, R. J. Dengler, N. Llombart, T. Bryllert, G. Chattopadhyay, E. Schlecht, J. Gill, C. Lee, A. Skalare, I. Mehdi, and P. H. Siegel, “Penetrating 3-D imaging at 4-and 25-m range using a submillimeter-wave radar,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 56(12), 2771–2778 (2008).
[Crossref]

Li, H.

Li, J.

Li, J. S.

M. Rahm, J. S. Li, and W. J. Padilla, “THz wave modulators: a brief review on different modulation techniques,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 34(1), 1–27 (2013).
[Crossref]

Li, Q.

L. Ozyuzer, A. E. Koshelev, C. Kurter, N. Gopalsami, Q. Li, M. Tachiki, K. Kadowaki, T. Yamamoto, H. Minami, H. Yamaguchi, T. Tachiki, K. E. Gray, W. K. Kwok, and U. Welp, “Emission of coherent THz radiation from superconductors,” Science 318(5854), 1291–1293 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, T.

T. Li, S. M. Wang, J. X. Cao, H. Liu, and S. N. Zhu, “Cavity-involved plasmonic metamaterial for optical polarization conversion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(26), 261113 (2010).
[Crossref]

Li, X.

Li, Y.

Li, Z.

Liang, S.

Linfield, E. H.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417(6885), 156–159 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ling, X. Y.

Z. Y. Xiao, H. L. Zou, X. X. Zheng, X. Y. Ling, and L. Wang, “A tunable reflective polarization converter based on hybrid metamaterial,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 49(12), 401 (2017).
[Crossref]

Liu, H.

T. Li, S. M. Wang, J. X. Cao, H. Liu, and S. N. Zhu, “Cavity-involved plasmonic metamaterial for optical polarization conversion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(26), 261113 (2010).
[Crossref]

Liu, J.

Liu, W.

Llombart, N.

K. B. Cooper, R. J. Dengler, N. Llombart, T. Bryllert, G. Chattopadhyay, E. Schlecht, J. Gill, C. Lee, A. Skalare, I. Mehdi, and P. H. Siegel, “Penetrating 3-D imaging at 4-and 25-m range using a submillimeter-wave radar,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 56(12), 2771–2778 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ma, G. B.

S. C. Jiang, X. Xiong, Y. S. Hu, Y. H. Hu, G. B. Ma, R. W. Peng, C. Sun, and M. Wang, “Controlling the Polarization state of light with a dispersion-free metastructure,” Phys. Rev. X 4(2), 021026 (2014).
[Crossref]

Mehdi, I.

K. B. Cooper, R. J. Dengler, N. Llombart, T. Bryllert, G. Chattopadhyay, E. Schlecht, J. Gill, C. Lee, A. Skalare, I. Mehdi, and P. H. Siegel, “Penetrating 3-D imaging at 4-and 25-m range using a submillimeter-wave radar,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 56(12), 2771–2778 (2008).
[Crossref]

Mehmood, M. Q.

D. Wang, L. Zhang, Y. Gu, M. Q. Mehmood, Y. Gong, A. Srivastava, L. Jian, T. Venkatesan, C. W. Qiu, and M. Hong, “Switchable ultrathin quarter-wave plate in terahertz using active phase-change metasurface,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 15020 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Minami, H.

L. Ozyuzer, A. E. Koshelev, C. Kurter, N. Gopalsami, Q. Li, M. Tachiki, K. Kadowaki, T. Yamamoto, H. Minami, H. Yamaguchi, T. Tachiki, K. E. Gray, W. K. Kwok, and U. Welp, “Emission of coherent THz radiation from superconductors,” Science 318(5854), 1291–1293 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Miyamaru, F.

Mo, W.

Nakanishi, T.

Nakata, Y.

Niu, Z. Y.

O’Hara, J. F.

Oliveira, F.

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, “THz imaging and sensing for security applications - explosives, weapons and drugs,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20(7), S266–S280 (2005).
[Crossref]

Ozyuzer, L.

L. Ozyuzer, A. E. Koshelev, C. Kurter, N. Gopalsami, Q. Li, M. Tachiki, K. Kadowaki, T. Yamamoto, H. Minami, H. Yamaguchi, T. Tachiki, K. E. Gray, W. K. Kwok, and U. Welp, “Emission of coherent THz radiation from superconductors,” Science 318(5854), 1291–1293 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Padilla, W. J.

M. Rahm, J. S. Li, and W. J. Padilla, “THz wave modulators: a brief review on different modulation techniques,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 34(1), 1–27 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, M. J. Cich, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Taylor, “A metamaterial solid-state terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 148–151 (2009).
[Crossref]

Paul, O.

P. Weis, O. Paul, C. Imhof, R. Beigang, and M. Rahm, “Strongly birefringent metamaterials as negative index terahertz wave plates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(17), 171104 (2009).
[Crossref]

Peng, R. W.

R. H. Fan, Y. Zhou, X. P. Ren, R. W. Peng, S. C. Jiang, D. H. Xu, X. Xiong, X. R. Huang, and M. Wang, “Freely tunable broadband polarization rotator for terahertz waves,” Adv. Mater. 27(7), 1201–1206 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. C. Jiang, X. Xiong, Y. S. Hu, Y. H. Hu, G. B. Ma, R. W. Peng, C. Sun, and M. Wang, “Controlling the Polarization state of light with a dispersion-free metastructure,” Phys. Rev. X 4(2), 021026 (2014).
[Crossref]

Peralta, X. G.

Pilon, D. V.

Politano, A.

L. Viti, J. Hu, D. Coquillat, A. Politano, C. Consejo, W. Knap, and M. S. Vitiello, “Heterostructured hBN-BP-hBN nanodetectors at terahertz frequencies,” Adv. Mater. 28(34), 7390–7396 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Qiao, W.

X. Y. Yu, X. Gao, W. Qiao, L. L. Wen, and W. L. Yang, “Broadband tunable polarization converter realized by graphene-based metamaterial,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 28(21), 2399–2402 (2016).
[Crossref]

Qiu, C. W.

D. C. Wang, L. C. Zhang, Y. D. Gong, L. K. Jian, T. Venkatesan, C. W. Qiu, and M. H. Hong, “Multiband switchable terahertz quarter-wave plates via phase-change metasurfaces,” IEEE Photon. J. 8(1), 5500308 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Wang, Y. Gu, Y. Gong, C. W. Qiu, and M. Hong, “An ultrathin terahertz quarter-wave plate using planar babinet-inverted metasurface,” Opt. Express 23(9), 11114–11122 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Wang, L. Zhang, Y. Gu, M. Q. Mehmood, Y. Gong, A. Srivastava, L. Jian, T. Venkatesan, C. W. Qiu, and M. Hong, “Switchable ultrathin quarter-wave plate in terahertz using active phase-change metasurface,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 15020 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rahm, M.

M. Rahm, J. S. Li, and W. J. Padilla, “THz wave modulators: a brief review on different modulation techniques,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 34(1), 1–27 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Weis, O. Paul, C. Imhof, R. Beigang, and M. Rahm, “Strongly birefringent metamaterials as negative index terahertz wave plates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(17), 171104 (2009).
[Crossref]

Reiten, M. T.

N. K. Grady, J. E. Heyes, D. R. Chowdhury, Y. Zeng, M. T. Reiten, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, D. A. R. Dalvit, and H. T. Chen, “Terahertz metamaterials for linear polarization conversion and anomalous refraction,” Science 340(6138), 1304–1307 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ren, X. P.

R. H. Fan, Y. Zhou, X. P. Ren, R. W. Peng, S. C. Jiang, D. H. Xu, X. Xiong, X. R. Huang, and M. Wang, “Freely tunable broadband polarization rotator for terahertz waves,” Adv. Mater. 27(7), 1201–1206 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ritchie, D. A.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417(6885), 156–159 (2002).
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Rogalski, A.

F. Sizov and A. Rogalski, “THz detectors,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 34(5), 278–347 (2010).
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R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417(6885), 156–159 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schlecht, E.

K. B. Cooper, R. J. Dengler, N. Llombart, T. Bryllert, G. Chattopadhyay, E. Schlecht, J. Gill, C. Lee, A. Skalare, I. Mehdi, and P. H. Siegel, “Penetrating 3-D imaging at 4-and 25-m range using a submillimeter-wave radar,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 56(12), 2771–2778 (2008).
[Crossref]

Schulkin, B.

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, “THz imaging and sensing for security applications - explosives, weapons and drugs,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20(7), S266–S280 (2005).
[Crossref]

Siegel, P. H.

K. B. Cooper, R. J. Dengler, N. Llombart, T. Bryllert, G. Chattopadhyay, E. Schlecht, J. Gill, C. Lee, A. Skalare, I. Mehdi, and P. H. Siegel, “Penetrating 3-D imaging at 4-and 25-m range using a submillimeter-wave radar,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 56(12), 2771–2778 (2008).
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P. H. Siegel, “Terahertz technology,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 50(3), 910–928 (2002).
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Singh, R.

L. Q. Cong, N. N. Xu, J. Q. Gu, R. Singh, J. G. Han, and W. L. Zhang, “Highly flexible broadband terahertz metamaterial quarter-wave plate,” Laser Photon. Rev. 8(4), 626–632 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Q. Cong, W. Cao, X. Q. Zhang, Z. Tian, J. Q. Gu, R. Singh, J. G. Han, and W. L. Zhang, “A perfect metamaterial polarization rotator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(17), 171107 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sizov, F.

F. Sizov and A. Rogalski, “THz detectors,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 34(5), 278–347 (2010).
[Crossref]

Skalare, A.

K. B. Cooper, R. J. Dengler, N. Llombart, T. Bryllert, G. Chattopadhyay, E. Schlecht, J. Gill, C. Lee, A. Skalare, I. Mehdi, and P. H. Siegel, “Penetrating 3-D imaging at 4-and 25-m range using a submillimeter-wave radar,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 56(12), 2771–2778 (2008).
[Crossref]

Smirnova, E. I.

Srivastava, A.

D. Wang, L. Zhang, Y. Gu, M. Q. Mehmood, Y. Gong, A. Srivastava, L. Jian, T. Venkatesan, C. W. Qiu, and M. Hong, “Switchable ultrathin quarter-wave plate in terahertz using active phase-change metasurface,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 15020 (2015).
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Strikwerda, A. C.

Sun, C.

S. C. Jiang, X. Xiong, Y. S. Hu, Y. H. Hu, G. B. Ma, R. W. Peng, C. Sun, and M. Wang, “Controlling the Polarization state of light with a dispersion-free metastructure,” Phys. Rev. X 4(2), 021026 (2014).
[Crossref]

Tachiki, M.

L. Ozyuzer, A. E. Koshelev, C. Kurter, N. Gopalsami, Q. Li, M. Tachiki, K. Kadowaki, T. Yamamoto, H. Minami, H. Yamaguchi, T. Tachiki, K. E. Gray, W. K. Kwok, and U. Welp, “Emission of coherent THz radiation from superconductors,” Science 318(5854), 1291–1293 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tachiki, T.

L. Ozyuzer, A. E. Koshelev, C. Kurter, N. Gopalsami, Q. Li, M. Tachiki, K. Kadowaki, T. Yamamoto, H. Minami, H. Yamaguchi, T. Tachiki, K. E. Gray, W. K. Kwok, and U. Welp, “Emission of coherent THz radiation from superconductors,” Science 318(5854), 1291–1293 (2007).
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Taira, Y.

Tao, H.

Taylor, A. J.

N. K. Grady, J. E. Heyes, D. R. Chowdhury, Y. Zeng, M. T. Reiten, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, D. A. R. Dalvit, and H. T. Chen, “Terahertz metamaterials for linear polarization conversion and anomalous refraction,” Science 340(6138), 1304–1307 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, M. J. Cich, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Taylor, “A metamaterial solid-state terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 148–151 (2009).
[Crossref]

X. G. Peralta, E. I. Smirnova, A. K. Azad, H. T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, I. Brener, and J. F. O’Hara, “Metamaterials for THz polarimetric devices,” Opt. Express 17(2), 773–783 (2009).
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Tian, J.

Tian, Y.

Tian, Z.

L. Q. Cong, W. Cao, X. Q. Zhang, Z. Tian, J. Q. Gu, R. Singh, J. G. Han, and W. L. Zhang, “A perfect metamaterial polarization rotator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(17), 171107 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tredicucci, A.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417(6885), 156–159 (2002).
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Vasic, B.

B. Vasić, D. C. Zografopoulos, G. Isić, R. Beccherelli, and R. Gajić, “Electrically tunable terahertz polarization converter based on overcoupled metal-isolator-metal metamaterials infiltrated with liquid crystals,” Nanotechnology 28(12), 124002 (2017).
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Venkatesan, T.

D. C. Wang, L. C. Zhang, Y. D. Gong, L. K. Jian, T. Venkatesan, C. W. Qiu, and M. H. Hong, “Multiband switchable terahertz quarter-wave plates via phase-change metasurfaces,” IEEE Photon. J. 8(1), 5500308 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Wang, L. Zhang, Y. Gu, M. Q. Mehmood, Y. Gong, A. Srivastava, L. Jian, T. Venkatesan, C. W. Qiu, and M. Hong, “Switchable ultrathin quarter-wave plate in terahertz using active phase-change metasurface,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 15020 (2015).
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Viti, L.

L. Viti, J. Hu, D. Coquillat, A. Politano, C. Consejo, W. Knap, and M. S. Vitiello, “Heterostructured hBN-BP-hBN nanodetectors at terahertz frequencies,” Adv. Mater. 28(34), 7390–7396 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vitiello, M. S.

L. Viti, J. Hu, D. Coquillat, A. Politano, C. Consejo, W. Knap, and M. S. Vitiello, “Heterostructured hBN-BP-hBN nanodetectors at terahertz frequencies,” Adv. Mater. 28(34), 7390–7396 (2016).
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Wang, D.

D. Wang, L. Zhang, Y. Gu, M. Q. Mehmood, Y. Gong, A. Srivastava, L. Jian, T. Venkatesan, C. W. Qiu, and M. Hong, “Switchable ultrathin quarter-wave plate in terahertz using active phase-change metasurface,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 15020 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Wang, Y. Gu, Y. Gong, C. W. Qiu, and M. Hong, “An ultrathin terahertz quarter-wave plate using planar babinet-inverted metasurface,” Opt. Express 23(9), 11114–11122 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, D. C.

D. C. Wang, L. C. Zhang, Y. D. Gong, L. K. Jian, T. Venkatesan, C. W. Qiu, and M. H. Hong, “Multiband switchable terahertz quarter-wave plates via phase-change metasurfaces,” IEEE Photon. J. 8(1), 5500308 (2016).
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Wang, J.

Wang, K.

Wang, L.

Y. Jiang, L. Wang, J. Wang, C. N. Akwuruoha, and W. Cao, “Ultra-wideband high-efficiency reflective linear-to-circular polarization converter based on metasurface at terahertz frequencies,” Opt. Express 25(22), 27616–27623 (2017).
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Z. Y. Xiao, H. L. Zou, X. X. Zheng, X. Y. Ling, and L. Wang, “A tunable reflective polarization converter based on hybrid metamaterial,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 49(12), 401 (2017).
[Crossref]

Wang, M.

R. H. Fan, Y. Zhou, X. P. Ren, R. W. Peng, S. C. Jiang, D. H. Xu, X. Xiong, X. R. Huang, and M. Wang, “Freely tunable broadband polarization rotator for terahertz waves,” Adv. Mater. 27(7), 1201–1206 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. C. Jiang, X. Xiong, Y. S. Hu, Y. H. Hu, G. B. Ma, R. W. Peng, C. Sun, and M. Wang, “Controlling the Polarization state of light with a dispersion-free metastructure,” Phys. Rev. X 4(2), 021026 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wang, S.

J. W. He, Z. W. Xie, S. Wang, X. K. Wang, Q. Kan, and Y. Zhang, “Terahertz polarization modulator based on metasurface,” J. Opt. 17(10), 105107 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wang, S. M.

T. Li, S. M. Wang, J. X. Cao, H. Liu, and S. N. Zhu, “Cavity-involved plasmonic metamaterial for optical polarization conversion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(26), 261113 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wang, X.

H. Zhao, X. Wang, J. He, J. Guo, J. Ye, Q. Kan, and Y. Zhang, “High-efficiency terahertz devices based on cross-polarization converter,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 17882 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, X. H.

Wang, X. K.

J. W. He, Z. W. Xie, S. Wang, X. K. Wang, Q. Kan, and Y. Zhang, “Terahertz polarization modulator based on metasurface,” J. Opt. 17(10), 105107 (2015).
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Wei, X.

Weis, P.

P. Weis, O. Paul, C. Imhof, R. Beigang, and M. Rahm, “Strongly birefringent metamaterials as negative index terahertz wave plates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(17), 171104 (2009).
[Crossref]

Welp, U.

L. Ozyuzer, A. E. Koshelev, C. Kurter, N. Gopalsami, Q. Li, M. Tachiki, K. Kadowaki, T. Yamamoto, H. Minami, H. Yamaguchi, T. Tachiki, K. E. Gray, W. K. Kwok, and U. Welp, “Emission of coherent THz radiation from superconductors,” Science 318(5854), 1291–1293 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wen, L. L.

X. Y. Yu, X. Gao, W. Qiao, L. L. Wen, and W. L. Yang, “Broadband tunable polarization converter realized by graphene-based metamaterial,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 28(21), 2399–2402 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wen, X.

Wu, H.

Xia, R.

Xiao, Z. Y.

Z. Y. Xiao, H. L. Zou, X. X. Zheng, X. Y. Ling, and L. Wang, “A tunable reflective polarization converter based on hybrid metamaterial,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 49(12), 401 (2017).
[Crossref]

Xie, Z. W.

J. W. He, Z. W. Xie, S. Wang, X. K. Wang, Q. Kan, and Y. Zhang, “Terahertz polarization modulator based on metasurface,” J. Opt. 17(10), 105107 (2015).
[Crossref]

Xiong, X.

R. H. Fan, Y. Zhou, X. P. Ren, R. W. Peng, S. C. Jiang, D. H. Xu, X. Xiong, X. R. Huang, and M. Wang, “Freely tunable broadband polarization rotator for terahertz waves,” Adv. Mater. 27(7), 1201–1206 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. C. Jiang, X. Xiong, Y. S. Hu, Y. H. Hu, G. B. Ma, R. W. Peng, C. Sun, and M. Wang, “Controlling the Polarization state of light with a dispersion-free metastructure,” Phys. Rev. X 4(2), 021026 (2014).
[Crossref]

Xu, B. Z.

Xu, D. H.

R. H. Fan, Y. Zhou, X. P. Ren, R. W. Peng, S. C. Jiang, D. H. Xu, X. Xiong, X. R. Huang, and M. Wang, “Freely tunable broadband polarization rotator for terahertz waves,” Adv. Mater. 27(7), 1201–1206 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, N. N.

L. Q. Cong, N. N. Xu, J. Q. Gu, R. Singh, J. G. Han, and W. L. Zhang, “Highly flexible broadband terahertz metamaterial quarter-wave plate,” Laser Photon. Rev. 8(4), 626–632 (2014).
[Crossref]

Xu, S. T.

S. T. Xu, F. T. Hu, M. Chen, F. Fan, and S. J. Chang, “Broadband terahertz polarization converter and asymmetric transmission based on coupled dielectric-metal grating,” Ann. Phys. 529(10), 1700151 (2017).
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S. T. Xu, F. Fan, M. Chen, Y. Y. Ji, and S. J. Chang, “Terahertz polarization mode conversion in compound metasurface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(3), 031107 (2017).
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Xu, Y. D.

Y. Q. Cai, L. T. Zhang, Q. F. Zeng, L. F. Cheng, and Y. D. Xu, “Infrared reflectance spectrum of BN calculated from first principles,” Solid State Commun. 141(5), 262–266 (2007).
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Yamaguchi, H.

L. Ozyuzer, A. E. Koshelev, C. Kurter, N. Gopalsami, Q. Li, M. Tachiki, K. Kadowaki, T. Yamamoto, H. Minami, H. Yamaguchi, T. Tachiki, K. E. Gray, W. K. Kwok, and U. Welp, “Emission of coherent THz radiation from superconductors,” Science 318(5854), 1291–1293 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yamamoto, T.

L. Ozyuzer, A. E. Koshelev, C. Kurter, N. Gopalsami, Q. Li, M. Tachiki, K. Kadowaki, T. Yamamoto, H. Minami, H. Yamaguchi, T. Tachiki, K. E. Gray, W. K. Kwok, and U. Welp, “Emission of coherent THz radiation from superconductors,” Science 318(5854), 1291–1293 (2007).
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Yang, L.

Yang, W.

Yang, W. L.

X. Y. Yu, X. Gao, W. Qiao, L. L. Wen, and W. L. Yang, “Broadband tunable polarization converter realized by graphene-based metamaterial,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 28(21), 2399–2402 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ye, J.

H. Zhao, X. Wang, J. He, J. Guo, J. Ye, Q. Kan, and Y. Zhang, “High-efficiency terahertz devices based on cross-polarization converter,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 17882 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, P.

Yu, X.

Yu, X. Y.

X. Y. Yu, X. Gao, W. Qiao, L. L. Wen, and W. L. Yang, “Broadband tunable polarization converter realized by graphene-based metamaterial,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 28(21), 2399–2402 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zeng, Q. F.

Y. Q. Cai, L. T. Zhang, Q. F. Zeng, L. F. Cheng, and Y. D. Xu, “Infrared reflectance spectrum of BN calculated from first principles,” Solid State Commun. 141(5), 262–266 (2007).
[Crossref]

Zeng, Y.

N. K. Grady, J. E. Heyes, D. R. Chowdhury, Y. Zeng, M. T. Reiten, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, D. A. R. Dalvit, and H. T. Chen, “Terahertz metamaterials for linear polarization conversion and anomalous refraction,” Science 340(6138), 1304–1307 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, L.

D. Wang, L. Zhang, Y. Gu, M. Q. Mehmood, Y. Gong, A. Srivastava, L. Jian, T. Venkatesan, C. W. Qiu, and M. Hong, “Switchable ultrathin quarter-wave plate in terahertz using active phase-change metasurface,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 15020 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, L. C.

D. C. Wang, L. C. Zhang, Y. D. Gong, L. K. Jian, T. Venkatesan, C. W. Qiu, and M. H. Hong, “Multiband switchable terahertz quarter-wave plates via phase-change metasurfaces,” IEEE Photon. J. 8(1), 5500308 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhang, L. T.

Y. Q. Cai, L. T. Zhang, Q. F. Zeng, L. F. Cheng, and Y. D. Xu, “Infrared reflectance spectrum of BN calculated from first principles,” Solid State Commun. 141(5), 262–266 (2007).
[Crossref]

Zhang, W.

Zhang, W. L.

L. Q. Cong, N. N. Xu, J. Q. Gu, R. Singh, J. G. Han, and W. L. Zhang, “Highly flexible broadband terahertz metamaterial quarter-wave plate,” Laser Photon. Rev. 8(4), 626–632 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Q. Cong, W. Cao, X. Q. Zhang, Z. Tian, J. Q. Gu, R. Singh, J. G. Han, and W. L. Zhang, “A perfect metamaterial polarization rotator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(17), 171107 (2013).
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Zhang, X.

Zhang, X. C.

B. Ferguson and X. C. Zhang, “Materials for terahertz science and technology,” Nat. Mater. 1(1), 26–33 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, X. Q.

L. Q. Cong, W. Cao, X. Q. Zhang, Z. Tian, J. Q. Gu, R. Singh, J. G. Han, and W. L. Zhang, “A perfect metamaterial polarization rotator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(17), 171107 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y.

H. Zhao, X. Wang, J. He, J. Guo, J. Ye, Q. Kan, and Y. Zhang, “High-efficiency terahertz devices based on cross-polarization converter,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 17882 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. W. He, Z. W. Xie, S. Wang, X. K. Wang, Q. Kan, and Y. Zhang, “Terahertz polarization modulator based on metasurface,” J. Opt. 17(10), 105107 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhang, Y. Feng, B. Zhu, J. Zhao, and T. Jiang, “Switchable quarter-wave plate with graphene based metamaterial for broadband terahertz wave manipulation,” Opt. Express 23(21), 27230–27239 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zhang, Y. Feng, B. Zhu, J. Zhao, and T. Jiang, “Graphene based tunable metamaterial absorber and polarization modulation in terahertz frequency,” Opt. Express 22(19), 22743–22752 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, H.

H. Zhao, X. Wang, J. He, J. Guo, J. Ye, Q. Kan, and Y. Zhang, “High-efficiency terahertz devices based on cross-polarization converter,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 17882 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, J.

Zhao, W. Y.

Zheng, J.

Zheng, X. X.

Z. Y. Xiao, H. L. Zou, X. X. Zheng, X. Y. Ling, and L. Wang, “A tunable reflective polarization converter based on hybrid metamaterial,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 49(12), 401 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhou, Y.

R. H. Fan, Y. Zhou, X. P. Ren, R. W. Peng, S. C. Jiang, D. H. Xu, X. Xiong, X. R. Huang, and M. Wang, “Freely tunable broadband polarization rotator for terahertz waves,” Adv. Mater. 27(7), 1201–1206 (2015).
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Zhu, B.

Zhu, S. N.

T. Li, S. M. Wang, J. X. Cao, H. Liu, and S. N. Zhu, “Cavity-involved plasmonic metamaterial for optical polarization conversion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(26), 261113 (2010).
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Zimdars, D.

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, “THz imaging and sensing for security applications - explosives, weapons and drugs,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20(7), S266–S280 (2005).
[Crossref]

Zografopoulos, D. C.

B. Vasić, D. C. Zografopoulos, G. Isić, R. Beccherelli, and R. Gajić, “Electrically tunable terahertz polarization converter based on overcoupled metal-isolator-metal metamaterials infiltrated with liquid crystals,” Nanotechnology 28(12), 124002 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zou, H. L.

Z. Y. Xiao, H. L. Zou, X. X. Zheng, X. Y. Ling, and L. Wang, “A tunable reflective polarization converter based on hybrid metamaterial,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 49(12), 401 (2017).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater. (2)

R. H. Fan, Y. Zhou, X. P. Ren, R. W. Peng, S. C. Jiang, D. H. Xu, X. Xiong, X. R. Huang, and M. Wang, “Freely tunable broadband polarization rotator for terahertz waves,” Adv. Mater. 27(7), 1201–1206 (2015).
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L. Viti, J. Hu, D. Coquillat, A. Politano, C. Consejo, W. Knap, and M. S. Vitiello, “Heterostructured hBN-BP-hBN nanodetectors at terahertz frequencies,” Adv. Mater. 28(34), 7390–7396 (2016).
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Ann. Phys. (1)

S. T. Xu, F. T. Hu, M. Chen, F. Fan, and S. J. Chang, “Broadband terahertz polarization converter and asymmetric transmission based on coupled dielectric-metal grating,” Ann. Phys. 529(10), 1700151 (2017).
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Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

S. T. Xu, F. Fan, M. Chen, Y. Y. Ji, and S. J. Chang, “Terahertz polarization mode conversion in compound metasurface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(3), 031107 (2017).
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P. Weis, O. Paul, C. Imhof, R. Beigang, and M. Rahm, “Strongly birefringent metamaterials as negative index terahertz wave plates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(17), 171104 (2009).
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L. Q. Cong, W. Cao, X. Q. Zhang, Z. Tian, J. Q. Gu, R. Singh, J. G. Han, and W. L. Zhang, “A perfect metamaterial polarization rotator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(17), 171107 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Li, S. M. Wang, J. X. Cao, H. Liu, and S. N. Zhu, “Cavity-involved plasmonic metamaterial for optical polarization conversion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(26), 261113 (2010).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. J. (1)

D. C. Wang, L. C. Zhang, Y. D. Gong, L. K. Jian, T. Venkatesan, C. W. Qiu, and M. H. Hong, “Multiband switchable terahertz quarter-wave plates via phase-change metasurfaces,” IEEE Photon. J. 8(1), 5500308 (2016).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

X. Y. Yu, X. Gao, W. Qiao, L. L. Wen, and W. L. Yang, “Broadband tunable polarization converter realized by graphene-based metamaterial,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 28(21), 2399–2402 (2016).
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IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. (2)

K. B. Cooper, R. J. Dengler, N. Llombart, T. Bryllert, G. Chattopadhyay, E. Schlecht, J. Gill, C. Lee, A. Skalare, I. Mehdi, and P. H. Siegel, “Penetrating 3-D imaging at 4-and 25-m range using a submillimeter-wave radar,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 56(12), 2771–2778 (2008).
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J. W. He, Z. W. Xie, S. Wang, X. K. Wang, Q. Kan, and Y. Zhang, “Terahertz polarization modulator based on metasurface,” J. Opt. 17(10), 105107 (2015).
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L. A. Falkovsky, “Optical properties of graphene,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 129, 012004 (2008).
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Laser Photon. Rev. (1)

L. Q. Cong, N. N. Xu, J. Q. Gu, R. Singh, J. G. Han, and W. L. Zhang, “Highly flexible broadband terahertz metamaterial quarter-wave plate,” Laser Photon. Rev. 8(4), 626–632 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nanotechnology (1)

B. Vasić, D. C. Zografopoulos, G. Isić, R. Beccherelli, and R. Gajić, “Electrically tunable terahertz polarization converter based on overcoupled metal-isolator-metal metamaterials infiltrated with liquid crystals,” Nanotechnology 28(12), 124002 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater. (1)

B. Ferguson and X. C. Zhang, “Materials for terahertz science and technology,” Nat. Mater. 1(1), 26–33 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, M. J. Cich, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Taylor, “A metamaterial solid-state terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 148–151 (2009).
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Nature (1)

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417(6885), 156–159 (2002).
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Opt. Express (14)

W. Mo, X. Wei, K. Wang, Y. Li, and J. Liu, “Ultrathin flexible terahertz polarization converter based on metasurfaces,” Opt. Express 24(12), 13621–13627 (2016).
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X. Wen and J. Zheng, “Broadband THz reflective polarization rotator by multiple plasmon resonances,” Opt. Express 22(23), 28292–28300 (2014).
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Y. Nakata, Y. Taira, T. Nakanishi, and F. Miyamaru, “Freestanding transparent terahertz half-wave plate using subwavelength cut-wire pairs,” Opt. Express 25(3), 2107–2114 (2017).
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Y. Zhang, Y. Feng, B. Zhu, J. Zhao, and T. Jiang, “Graphene based tunable metamaterial absorber and polarization modulation in terahertz frequency,” Opt. Express 22(19), 22743–22752 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zhang, Y. Feng, B. Zhu, J. Zhao, and T. Jiang, “Switchable quarter-wave plate with graphene based metamaterial for broadband terahertz wave manipulation,” Opt. Express 23(21), 27230–27239 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Y. Ji, F. Fan, X. H. Wang, and S. J. Chang, “Broadband controllable terahertz quarter-wave plate based on graphene gratings with liquid crystals,” Opt. Express 26(10), 12852–12862 (2018).
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Y. Y. Ji, F. Fan, M. Chen, L. Yang, and S. J. Chang, “Terahertz artificial birefringence and tunable phase shifter based on dielectric metasurface with compound lattice,” Opt. Express 25(10), 11405–11413 (2017).
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D. Wang, Y. Gu, Y. Gong, C. W. Qiu, and M. Hong, “An ultrathin terahertz quarter-wave plate using planar babinet-inverted metasurface,” Opt. Express 23(9), 11114–11122 (2015).
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Y. Jiang, L. Wang, J. Wang, C. N. Akwuruoha, and W. Cao, “Ultra-wideband high-efficiency reflective linear-to-circular polarization converter based on metasurface at terahertz frequencies,” Opt. Express 25(22), 27616–27623 (2017).
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A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, H. Tao, D. V. Pilon, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Comparison of birefringent electric split-ring resonator and meanderline structures as quarter-wave plates at terahertz frequencies,” Opt. Express 17(1), 136–149 (2009).
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X. G. Peralta, E. I. Smirnova, A. K. Azad, H. T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, I. Brener, and J. F. O’Hara, “Metamaterials for THz polarimetric devices,” Opt. Express 17(2), 773–783 (2009).
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J. Jiang, X. Zhang, W. Zhang, S. Liang, H. Wu, L. Jiang, and X. Li, “Out-of-plane focusing and manipulation of terahertz beams based on a silicon/copper grating covered by monolayer graphene,” Opt. Express 25(14), 16867–16878 (2017).
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X. Gao, W. Yang, W. Cao, M. Chen, Y. Jiang, X. Yu, and H. Li, “Bandwidth broadening of a graphene-based circular polarization converter by phase compensation,” Opt. Express 25(20), 23945–23954 (2017).
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B. Z. Xu, C. Q. Gu, Z. Li, and Z. Y. Niu, “A novel structure for tunable terahertz absorber based on graphene,” Opt. Express 21(20), 23803–23811 (2013).
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Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Mater. Express (2)

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

Z. Y. Xiao, H. L. Zou, X. X. Zheng, X. Y. Ling, and L. Wang, “A tunable reflective polarization converter based on hybrid metamaterial,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 49(12), 401 (2017).
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I. F. Akyildiz, J. M. Jornet, and C. Han, “Terahertz band: Next frontier for wireless communications,” Phys. Commun. 12, 16–32 (2014).

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S. C. Jiang, X. Xiong, Y. S. Hu, Y. H. Hu, G. B. Ma, R. W. Peng, C. Sun, and M. Wang, “Controlling the Polarization state of light with a dispersion-free metastructure,” Phys. Rev. X 4(2), 021026 (2014).
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F. Sizov and A. Rogalski, “THz detectors,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 34(5), 278–347 (2010).
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H. Zhao, X. Wang, J. He, J. Guo, J. Ye, Q. Kan, and Y. Zhang, “High-efficiency terahertz devices based on cross-polarization converter,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 17882 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Wang, L. Zhang, Y. Gu, M. Q. Mehmood, Y. Gong, A. Srivastava, L. Jian, T. Venkatesan, C. W. Qiu, and M. Hong, “Switchable ultrathin quarter-wave plate in terahertz using active phase-change metasurface,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 15020 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science (2)

N. K. Grady, J. E. Heyes, D. R. Chowdhury, Y. Zeng, M. T. Reiten, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, D. A. R. Dalvit, and H. T. Chen, “Terahertz metamaterials for linear polarization conversion and anomalous refraction,” Science 340(6138), 1304–1307 (2013).
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L. Ozyuzer, A. E. Koshelev, C. Kurter, N. Gopalsami, Q. Li, M. Tachiki, K. Kadowaki, T. Yamamoto, H. Minami, H. Yamaguchi, T. Tachiki, K. E. Gray, W. K. Kwok, and U. Welp, “Emission of coherent THz radiation from superconductors,” Science 318(5854), 1291–1293 (2007).
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J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, “THz imaging and sensing for security applications - explosives, weapons and drugs,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20(7), S266–S280 (2005).
[Crossref]

Solid State Commun. (1)

Y. Q. Cai, L. T. Zhang, Q. F. Zeng, L. F. Cheng, and Y. D. Xu, “Infrared reflectance spectrum of BN calculated from first principles,” Solid State Commun. 141(5), 262–266 (2007).
[Crossref]

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S. A. Maier, Plasmonics: Fundamentals and Applications (Springer-Verlag, 2007).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Schematic of the terahertz tunable polarization converter based on a planar metamaterial integrated with a graphene sheet on the hBN/Si/SiO2/Ag substrate. (b) Unit cell of the planar metamaterial.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) and (b) Dependences of the amplitude ratio (a) and phase difference (b) between x and y polarization components in the reflected light on SiO2’s thickness. (c)-(e) Polarization separated reflection spectra (c), phase difference (d) and the ellipticity (e) at the thickness of 8.94 μm. rxx and ryx are reflectivity. Spatial distributions of |E|, Ex, and Ey in x-y [(f)-(h)], x-z [(i)-(k)], and y-z [(l)-(n)] planes at the central frequency of 4.95 THz when the chemical potential of graphene is zero. Sliced position of x-y plane is at the Au/graphene interface and sliced positions of x-z and y-z planes are represented by the dashed lines in (f).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a)-(d) Polarization separated reflection spectra when the chemical potential of graphene is 0.3 eV, 0.45 eV, 0.32 eV, and 0.36 eV, respectively.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) and (b) Linearity and polarization angle of half-wave plate when the chemical potential is 0.32 eV, 0.34 eV and 0.36 eV. Spatial distributions of |E|, Ex, and Ey in x-y [(c)-(e)], x-z [(f)-(h)], and y-z [(i)-(k)] planes at the central frequency of 4.98 THz when the chemical potential of graphene is 0.34 eV. Sliced position of x-y plane is at the Au/graphene interface and sliced positions of x-z and y-z planes are represented by the dashed lines in (c).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) and (b) Real and imaginary parts of graphene’s conductivity plotted as a function of frequency for different chemical potentials. (c) Phase difference of the half-wave plate when the chemical potential is 0.32 eV, 0.34 eV and 0.36 eV. (d) Real part of gold’s permittivity at different plasmon frequencies based on the Drude model ε(ω) = ε-ωp2/(ω2 + iωγ), where ε = 9.1 and γ is 1.07E14.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 A Comparison Between Our Polarization Converters and Reported Tunable and Functionality-Switchable Wave Plate Designs

Equations (7)

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σ( ω,Γ, μ c ,T )= σ intra ( ω,Γ, μ c ,T )+ σ inter ( ω,Γ, μ c ,T ),
σ intra ( ω,Γ, μ c ,T )= i e 2 k B T π 2 (ω+i2Γ) [ μ c k B T +2ln( exp( μ c k B T )+1 ) ],
σ inter ( ω,Γ, μ c ,T )= i e 2 4π 2 ln( 2| μ c |(ω+i2Γ) 2| μ c |+(ω+i2Γ) ),
E F = μ c ν f π ε r ε 0 V g e t s ,
ε xx = ε yy = ε r +i σ intra ( ω,Γ, μ c ,T ) ε 0 ωt and ε zz = ε r ,
E x = E 0 e j(ωt+ φ 0 ) ,
E y = κ yx E x = η yx e jΔφ E x ,

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