Abstract

Low noise and high repetition rate optical frequency combs are desirable for many applications, from timekeeping to precision spectroscopy. For example, gigahertz repetition rate sources greatly increase the acquisition speed of spectra in a dual-comb modality when compared to lower repetition rate sources, while still maintaining sufficient instantaneous resolution to resolve ro-vibrational signatures from molecules in a variety of conditions. In this paper, we present the stabilization and characterization of a turnkey commercial 1 GHz mode-locked laser that operates at telecom wavelengths (1.56 µm). Fiber amplification and spectral broadening result in high signal-to-noise ratio detection and stabilization of fceo with 438 mrad of residual phase noise (integrated from 102 to 107 Hz). Simultaneously, we stabilize the beatnote between the nearest comb mode and a cavity stabilized continuous-wave laser at 1.55 µm with 41 mrad of residual phase noise (integrated from 102 to 107 Hz). This robust, self-referenced comb system is built with off-the-shelf polarization-maintaining fiber components and will be useful for a wide range of low noise frequency comb applications that benefit from the increased repetition rate.

© 2020 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2020 (3)

M. Giunta, J. Yu, M. Lessing, M. Fischer, M. Lezius, X. Xie, G. Santarelli, Y. L. Coq, and R. Holzwarth, “Compact and ultrastable photonic microwave oscillator,” Opt. Lett. 45(5), 1140–1143 (2020).
[Crossref]

T. Nakamura, J. Davila-Rodriguez, H. Leopardi, J. A. Sherman, T. M. Fortier, X. Xie, J. C. Campbell, W. F. McGrew, X. Zhang, Y. S. Hassan, D. Nicolodi, K. Beloy, A. D. Ludlow, S. A. Diddams, and F. Quinlan, “Coherent optical clock down-conversion for microwave frequencies with 10-18 instability,” Science 368(6493), 889–892 (2020).
[Crossref]

A. J. Lind, A. Kowligy, H. Timmers, F. C. Cruz, N. Nader, M. C. Silfies, T. K. Allison, and S. A. Diddams, “Mid-Infrared Frequency Comb Generation and Spectroscopy with Few-Cycle Pulses and χ(2) Nonlinear Optics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 124(13), 133904 (2020).
[Crossref]

2019 (3)

2018 (3)

G. Ycas, F. R. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, I. Coddington, D. Herman, S. A. Diddams, and N. R. Newbury, “High-coherence mid-infrared dual-comb spectroscopy spanning 2.6 to 5.2 µm,” Nat. Photonics 12(4), 202–208 (2018).
[Crossref]

H. Timmers, A. Kowligy, A. Lind, F. C. Cruz, N. Nader, M. Silfies, G. Ycas, T. K. Allison, P. G. Schunemann, S. B. Papp, and S. A. Diddams, “Molecular fingerprinting with bright, broadband infrared frequency combs,” Optica 5(6), 727–732 (2018).
[Crossref]

V. Smolski, S. Vasilyev, I. Moskalev, M. Mirov, Q. Ru, A. Muraviev, P. Schunemann, S. Mirov, V. Gapontsev, and K. Vodopyanov, “Half-Watt average power femtosecond source spanning 3–8 µm based on subharmonic generation in GaAs,” Appl. Phys. B 124(6), 101 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (3)

2016 (4)

2015 (1)

2014 (2)

2013 (2)

T. Ideguchi, S. Holzner, B. Bernhardt, G. Guelachvili, N. Picqué, and T. W. Hänsch, “Coherent Raman spectro-imaging with laser frequency combs,” Nature 502(7471), 355–358 (2013).
[Crossref]

F. R. Giorgetta, W. C. Swann, L. C. Sinclair, E. Baumann, I. Coddington, and N. R. Newbury, “Optical two-way time and frequency transfer over free space,” Nat. Photonics 7(6), 434–438 (2013).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

2008 (5)

L.-J. Chen, A. J. Benedick, J. R. Birge, M. Y. Sander, and F. X. Kärtner, “Octave-spanning, dual-output 2.166 GHz Ti:sapphire laser,” Opt. Express 16(25), 20699–20705 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. Sell, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Huber, “Phase-locked generation and field-resolved detection of widely tunable terahertz pulses with amplitudes exceeding 100 MV/cm,” Opt. Lett. 33(23), 2767–2769 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. Sell, R. Scheu, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Huber, “Field-resolved detection of phase-locked infrared transients from a compact Er:fiber system tunable between 55 and 107 THz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(25), 251107 (2008).
[Crossref]

T. Rosenband, D. B. Hume, P. O. Schmidt, C. W. Chou, A. Brusch, L. Lorini, W. H. Oskay, R. E. Drullinger, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, W. C. Swann, N. R. Newbury, W. M. Itano, D. J. Wineland, and J. C. Bergquist, “Frequency Ratio of Al+ and Hg+ Single-Ion Optical Clocks; Metrology at the 17th Decimal Place,” Science 319(5871), 1808–1812 (2008).
[Crossref]

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, and N. R. Newbury, “Coherent Multiheterodyne Spectroscopy Using Stabilized Optical Frequency Combs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(1), 013902 (2008).
[Crossref]

2006 (5)

T. M. Fortier, A. Bartels, and S. A. Diddams, “Octave-spanning Ti:sapphire laser with a repetition rate >1 GHz for optical frequency measurements and comparisons,” Opt. Lett. 31(7), 1011–1013 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. L. Hall, “Nobel Lecture: Defining and measuring optical frequencies,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78(4), 1279–1295 (2006).
[Crossref]

T. W. Hänsch, “Nobel Lecture: Passion for precision,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78(4), 1297–1309 (2006).
[Crossref]

M. J. Thorpe, K. D. Moll, R. J. Jones, B. Safdi, and J. Ye, “Broadband Cavity Ringdown Spectroscopy for Sensitive and Rapid Molecular Detection,” Science 311(5767), 1595–1599 (2006).
[Crossref]

H. Inaba, Y. Daimon, F.-L. Hong, A. Onae, K. Minoshima, T. R. Schibli, H. Matsumoto, M. Hirano, T. Okuno, M. Onishi, and M. Nakazawa, “Long-term measurement of optical frequencies using a simple, robust and low-noise fiber based frequency comb,” Opt. Express 14(12), 5223 (2006).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

2001 (1)

S. A. Diddams, T. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, “An Optical Clock Based on a Single Trapped 199Hg+ Ion,” Science 293(5531), 825–828 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

M. E. Fermann, V. I. Kruglov, B. C. Thomsen, J. M. Dudley, and J. D. Harvey, “Self-Similar Propagation and Amplification of Parabolic Pulses in Optical Fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(26), 6010–6013 (2000).
[Crossref]

Alexandre, C.

X. Xie, R. Bouchand, D. Nicolodi, M. Giunta, W. Hänsel, M. Lezius, A. Joshi, S. Datta, C. Alexandre, M. Lours, P.-A. Tremblin, G. Santarelli, R. Holzwarth, and Y. Le Coq, “Photonic microwave signals with zeptosecond-level absolute timing noise,” Nat. Photonics 11(1), 44–47 (2017).
[Crossref]

Allison, T. K.

A. J. Lind, A. Kowligy, H. Timmers, F. C. Cruz, N. Nader, M. C. Silfies, T. K. Allison, and S. A. Diddams, “Mid-Infrared Frequency Comb Generation and Spectroscopy with Few-Cycle Pulses and χ(2) Nonlinear Optics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 124(13), 133904 (2020).
[Crossref]

H. Timmers, A. Kowligy, A. Lind, F. C. Cruz, N. Nader, M. Silfies, G. Ycas, T. K. Allison, P. G. Schunemann, S. B. Papp, and S. A. Diddams, “Molecular fingerprinting with bright, broadband infrared frequency combs,” Optica 5(6), 727–732 (2018).
[Crossref]

Anderson, T.

Bartels, A.

T. M. Fortier, A. Bartels, and S. A. Diddams, “Octave-spanning Ti:sapphire laser with a repetition rate >1 GHz for optical frequency measurements and comparisons,” Opt. Lett. 31(7), 1011–1013 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. A. Diddams, T. Udem, K. R. Vogel, C. W. Oates, E. A. Curtis, R. S. Windeler, A. Bartels, J. C. Bergquist, and L. W. Hollberg, “Compact femtosecond-laser-based optical clockwork,” in Laser Frequency Stabilization, Standards, Measurement, and Applications, vol. 4269 (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2001), pp. 77–83.

Baumann, E.

G. Ycas, F. R. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, I. Coddington, D. Herman, S. A. Diddams, and N. R. Newbury, “High-coherence mid-infrared dual-comb spectroscopy spanning 2.6 to 5.2 µm,” Nat. Photonics 12(4), 202–208 (2018).
[Crossref]

G. B. Rieker, F. R. Giorgetta, W. C. Swann, J. Kofler, A. M. Zolot, L. C. Sinclair, E. Baumann, C. Cromer, G. Petron, C. Sweeney, P. P. Tans, I. Coddington, and N. R. Newbury, “Frequency-comb-based remote sensing of greenhouse gases over kilometer air paths,” Optica 1(5), 290 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. R. Giorgetta, W. C. Swann, L. C. Sinclair, E. Baumann, I. Coddington, and N. R. Newbury, “Optical two-way time and frequency transfer over free space,” Nat. Photonics 7(6), 434–438 (2013).
[Crossref]

Beloy, K.

T. Nakamura, J. Davila-Rodriguez, H. Leopardi, J. A. Sherman, T. M. Fortier, X. Xie, J. C. Campbell, W. F. McGrew, X. Zhang, Y. S. Hassan, D. Nicolodi, K. Beloy, A. D. Ludlow, S. A. Diddams, and F. Quinlan, “Coherent optical clock down-conversion for microwave frequencies with 10-18 instability,” Science 368(6493), 889–892 (2020).
[Crossref]

Bender, C. F.

Benedick, A. J.

Bergquist, J. C.

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, “Generation of ultrastable microwaves via optical frequency division,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 425–429 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. Rosenband, D. B. Hume, P. O. Schmidt, C. W. Chou, A. Brusch, L. Lorini, W. H. Oskay, R. E. Drullinger, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, W. C. Swann, N. R. Newbury, W. M. Itano, D. J. Wineland, and J. C. Bergquist, “Frequency Ratio of Al+ and Hg+ Single-Ion Optical Clocks; Metrology at the 17th Decimal Place,” Science 319(5871), 1808–1812 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. A. Diddams, T. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, “An Optical Clock Based on a Single Trapped 199Hg+ Ion,” Science 293(5531), 825–828 (2001).
[Crossref]

S. A. Diddams, T. Udem, K. R. Vogel, C. W. Oates, E. A. Curtis, R. S. Windeler, A. Bartels, J. C. Bergquist, and L. W. Hollberg, “Compact femtosecond-laser-based optical clockwork,” in Laser Frequency Stabilization, Standards, Measurement, and Applications, vol. 4269 (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2001), pp. 77–83.

Bernhardt, B.

T. Ideguchi, S. Holzner, B. Bernhardt, G. Guelachvili, N. Picqué, and T. W. Hänsch, “Coherent Raman spectro-imaging with laser frequency combs,” Nature 502(7471), 355–358 (2013).
[Crossref]

Biegert, J.

A. S. Kowligy, H. Timmers, A. J. Lind, U. Elu, F. C. Cruz, P. G. Schunemann, J. Biegert, and S. A. Diddams, “Infrared electric field sampled frequency comb spectroscopy,” Sci. Adv. 5(6), eaaw8794 (2019).
[Crossref]

Birge, J. R.

Blakeslee, S.

Bouchand, R.

X. Xie, R. Bouchand, D. Nicolodi, M. Giunta, W. Hänsel, M. Lezius, A. Joshi, S. Datta, C. Alexandre, M. Lours, P.-A. Tremblin, G. Santarelli, R. Holzwarth, and Y. Le Coq, “Photonic microwave signals with zeptosecond-level absolute timing noise,” Nat. Photonics 11(1), 44–47 (2017).
[Crossref]

Brand, W.

Brochard, P.

Brusch, A.

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D. Chao, M. Y. Sander, G. Chang, J. L. Morse, J. A. Cox, G. S. Petrich, L. A. Kolodziejski, F. X. Kärtner, and E. P. Ippen, “Self-referenced Erbium fiber laser frequency comb at a GHz repetition rate,” in OFC/NFOEC, (2012), pp. 1–3.

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T. Rosenband, D. B. Hume, P. O. Schmidt, C. W. Chou, A. Brusch, L. Lorini, W. H. Oskay, R. E. Drullinger, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, W. C. Swann, N. R. Newbury, W. M. Itano, D. J. Wineland, and J. C. Bergquist, “Frequency Ratio of Al+ and Hg+ Single-Ion Optical Clocks; Metrology at the 17th Decimal Place,” Science 319(5871), 1808–1812 (2008).
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D. Chao, M. Y. Sander, G. Chang, J. L. Morse, J. A. Cox, G. S. Petrich, L. A. Kolodziejski, F. X. Kärtner, and E. P. Ippen, “Self-referenced Erbium fiber laser frequency comb at a GHz repetition rate,” in OFC/NFOEC, (2012), pp. 1–3.

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X. Xie, R. Bouchand, D. Nicolodi, M. Giunta, W. Hänsel, M. Lezius, A. Joshi, S. Datta, C. Alexandre, M. Lours, P.-A. Tremblin, G. Santarelli, R. Holzwarth, and Y. Le Coq, “Photonic microwave signals with zeptosecond-level absolute timing noise,” Nat. Photonics 11(1), 44–47 (2017).
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T. Nakamura, J. Davila-Rodriguez, H. Leopardi, J. A. Sherman, T. M. Fortier, X. Xie, J. C. Campbell, W. F. McGrew, X. Zhang, Y. S. Hassan, D. Nicolodi, K. Beloy, A. D. Ludlow, S. A. Diddams, and F. Quinlan, “Coherent optical clock down-conversion for microwave frequencies with 10-18 instability,” Science 368(6493), 889–892 (2020).
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A. J. Lind, A. Kowligy, H. Timmers, F. C. Cruz, N. Nader, M. C. Silfies, T. K. Allison, and S. A. Diddams, “Mid-Infrared Frequency Comb Generation and Spectroscopy with Few-Cycle Pulses and χ(2) Nonlinear Optics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 124(13), 133904 (2020).
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A. S. Kowligy, H. Timmers, A. J. Lind, U. Elu, F. C. Cruz, P. G. Schunemann, J. Biegert, and S. A. Diddams, “Infrared electric field sampled frequency comb spectroscopy,” Sci. Adv. 5(6), eaaw8794 (2019).
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G. Ycas, F. R. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, I. Coddington, D. Herman, S. A. Diddams, and N. R. Newbury, “High-coherence mid-infrared dual-comb spectroscopy spanning 2.6 to 5.2 µm,” Nat. Photonics 12(4), 202–208 (2018).
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H. Timmers, A. Kowligy, A. Lind, F. C. Cruz, N. Nader, M. Silfies, G. Ycas, T. K. Allison, P. G. Schunemann, S. B. Papp, and S. A. Diddams, “Molecular fingerprinting with bright, broadband infrared frequency combs,” Optica 5(6), 727–732 (2018).
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T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, “Generation of ultrastable microwaves via optical frequency division,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 425–429 (2011).
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T. Rosenband, D. B. Hume, P. O. Schmidt, C. W. Chou, A. Brusch, L. Lorini, W. H. Oskay, R. E. Drullinger, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, W. C. Swann, N. R. Newbury, W. M. Itano, D. J. Wineland, and J. C. Bergquist, “Frequency Ratio of Al+ and Hg+ Single-Ion Optical Clocks; Metrology at the 17th Decimal Place,” Science 319(5871), 1808–1812 (2008).
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T. M. Fortier, A. Bartels, and S. A. Diddams, “Octave-spanning Ti:sapphire laser with a repetition rate >1 GHz for optical frequency measurements and comparisons,” Opt. Lett. 31(7), 1011–1013 (2006).
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S. A. Diddams, T. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, “An Optical Clock Based on a Single Trapped 199Hg+ Ion,” Science 293(5531), 825–828 (2001).
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S. A. Diddams, T. Udem, K. R. Vogel, C. W. Oates, E. A. Curtis, R. S. Windeler, A. Bartels, J. C. Bergquist, and L. W. Hollberg, “Compact femtosecond-laser-based optical clockwork,” in Laser Frequency Stabilization, Standards, Measurement, and Applications, vol. 4269 (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2001), pp. 77–83.

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Dong, L.

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T. Rosenband, D. B. Hume, P. O. Schmidt, C. W. Chou, A. Brusch, L. Lorini, W. H. Oskay, R. E. Drullinger, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, W. C. Swann, N. R. Newbury, W. M. Itano, D. J. Wineland, and J. C. Bergquist, “Frequency Ratio of Al+ and Hg+ Single-Ion Optical Clocks; Metrology at the 17th Decimal Place,” Science 319(5871), 1808–1812 (2008).
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S. A. Diddams, T. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, “An Optical Clock Based on a Single Trapped 199Hg+ Ion,” Science 293(5531), 825–828 (2001).
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A. S. Kowligy, H. Timmers, A. J. Lind, U. Elu, F. C. Cruz, P. G. Schunemann, J. Biegert, and S. A. Diddams, “Infrared electric field sampled frequency comb spectroscopy,” Sci. Adv. 5(6), eaaw8794 (2019).
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M. E. Fermann, V. I. Kruglov, B. C. Thomsen, J. M. Dudley, and J. D. Harvey, “Self-Similar Propagation and Amplification of Parabolic Pulses in Optical Fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(26), 6010–6013 (2000).
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I. Hartl, H. A. Mckay, R. Thapa, B. K. Thomas, A. Ruehl, L. Dong, and M. E. Fermann, “Fully stabilized GHz Yb-fiber laser frequency comb,” in Advanced Solid-State Photonics (2009), paper MF9, (Optical Society of America, 2009), p. MF9.

K. F. Lee, P. G. Schunemann, and M. E. Fermann, “Milliwatt midinfrared from intrapulse difference frequency with a single erbium fiber laser,” in Nonlinear Frequency Generation and Conversion: Materials and Devices XIX, vol. 11264 (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2020), p. 1126404.

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T. Nakamura, J. Davila-Rodriguez, H. Leopardi, J. A. Sherman, T. M. Fortier, X. Xie, J. C. Campbell, W. F. McGrew, X. Zhang, Y. S. Hassan, D. Nicolodi, K. Beloy, A. D. Ludlow, S. A. Diddams, and F. Quinlan, “Coherent optical clock down-conversion for microwave frequencies with 10-18 instability,” Science 368(6493), 889–892 (2020).
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T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, “Generation of ultrastable microwaves via optical frequency division,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 425–429 (2011).
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T. Rosenband, D. B. Hume, P. O. Schmidt, C. W. Chou, A. Brusch, L. Lorini, W. H. Oskay, R. E. Drullinger, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, W. C. Swann, N. R. Newbury, W. M. Itano, D. J. Wineland, and J. C. Bergquist, “Frequency Ratio of Al+ and Hg+ Single-Ion Optical Clocks; Metrology at the 17th Decimal Place,” Science 319(5871), 1808–1812 (2008).
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T. M. Fortier, A. Bartels, and S. A. Diddams, “Octave-spanning Ti:sapphire laser with a repetition rate >1 GHz for optical frequency measurements and comparisons,” Opt. Lett. 31(7), 1011–1013 (2006).
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G. B. Rieker, F. R. Giorgetta, W. C. Swann, J. Kofler, A. M. Zolot, L. C. Sinclair, E. Baumann, C. Cromer, G. Petron, C. Sweeney, P. P. Tans, I. Coddington, and N. R. Newbury, “Frequency-comb-based remote sensing of greenhouse gases over kilometer air paths,” Optica 1(5), 290 (2014).
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F. R. Giorgetta, W. C. Swann, L. C. Sinclair, E. Baumann, I. Coddington, and N. R. Newbury, “Optical two-way time and frequency transfer over free space,” Nat. Photonics 7(6), 434–438 (2013).
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T. Ideguchi, S. Holzner, B. Bernhardt, G. Guelachvili, N. Picqué, and T. W. Hänsch, “Coherent Raman spectro-imaging with laser frequency combs,” Nature 502(7471), 355–358 (2013).
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T. Ideguchi, S. Holzner, B. Bernhardt, G. Guelachvili, N. Picqué, and T. W. Hänsch, “Coherent Raman spectro-imaging with laser frequency combs,” Nature 502(7471), 355–358 (2013).
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Hartl, I.

T. R. Schibli, K. Minoshima, F.-L. Hong, H. Inaba, A. Onae, H. Matsumoto, I. Hartl, and M. E. Fermann, “Frequency metrology with a turnkey all-fiber system,” Opt. Lett. 29(21), 2467–2469 (2004).
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I. Hartl, H. A. Mckay, R. Thapa, B. K. Thomas, A. Ruehl, L. Dong, and M. E. Fermann, “Fully stabilized GHz Yb-fiber laser frequency comb,” in Advanced Solid-State Photonics (2009), paper MF9, (Optical Society of America, 2009), p. MF9.

Harvey, J. D.

M. E. Fermann, V. I. Kruglov, B. C. Thomsen, J. M. Dudley, and J. D. Harvey, “Self-Similar Propagation and Amplification of Parabolic Pulses in Optical Fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(26), 6010–6013 (2000).
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Harvey, T.

Hassan, Y. S.

T. Nakamura, J. Davila-Rodriguez, H. Leopardi, J. A. Sherman, T. M. Fortier, X. Xie, J. C. Campbell, W. F. McGrew, X. Zhang, Y. S. Hassan, D. Nicolodi, K. Beloy, A. D. Ludlow, S. A. Diddams, and F. Quinlan, “Coherent optical clock down-conversion for microwave frequencies with 10-18 instability,” Science 368(6493), 889–892 (2020).
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Hati, A.

Hearty, F.

Hellmig, O.

Herman, D.

G. Ycas, F. R. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, I. Coddington, D. Herman, S. A. Diddams, and N. R. Newbury, “High-coherence mid-infrared dual-comb spectroscopy spanning 2.6 to 5.2 µm,” Nat. Photonics 12(4), 202–208 (2018).
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N. Hoghooghi, R. K. Cole, and G. B. Rieker, “11-µs Time-resolved, Continuous Dual-Comb Spectroscopy with Spectrally Filtered Mode-locked Frequency Combs,” arXiv:2005.13050 [physics] (2020).

Hollberg, L.

S. A. Diddams, T. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, “An Optical Clock Based on a Single Trapped 199Hg+ Ion,” Science 293(5531), 825–828 (2001).
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Hollberg, L. W.

S. A. Diddams, T. Udem, K. R. Vogel, C. W. Oates, E. A. Curtis, R. S. Windeler, A. Bartels, J. C. Bergquist, and L. W. Hollberg, “Compact femtosecond-laser-based optical clockwork,” in Laser Frequency Stabilization, Standards, Measurement, and Applications, vol. 4269 (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2001), pp. 77–83.

Holzner, S.

T. Ideguchi, S. Holzner, B. Bernhardt, G. Guelachvili, N. Picqué, and T. W. Hänsch, “Coherent Raman spectro-imaging with laser frequency combs,” Nature 502(7471), 355–358 (2013).
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T. Ideguchi, S. Holzner, B. Bernhardt, G. Guelachvili, N. Picqué, and T. W. Hänsch, “Coherent Raman spectro-imaging with laser frequency combs,” Nature 502(7471), 355–358 (2013).
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Ippen, E. P.

D. Chao, M. Y. Sander, G. Chang, J. L. Morse, J. A. Cox, G. S. Petrich, L. A. Kolodziejski, F. X. Kärtner, and E. P. Ippen, “Self-referenced Erbium fiber laser frequency comb at a GHz repetition rate,” in OFC/NFOEC, (2012), pp. 1–3.

Itano, W. M.

T. Rosenband, D. B. Hume, P. O. Schmidt, C. W. Chou, A. Brusch, L. Lorini, W. H. Oskay, R. E. Drullinger, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, W. C. Swann, N. R. Newbury, W. M. Itano, D. J. Wineland, and J. C. Bergquist, “Frequency Ratio of Al+ and Hg+ Single-Ion Optical Clocks; Metrology at the 17th Decimal Place,” Science 319(5871), 1808–1812 (2008).
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S. A. Diddams, T. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, “An Optical Clock Based on a Single Trapped 199Hg+ Ion,” Science 293(5531), 825–828 (2001).
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A. Sell, R. Scheu, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Huber, “Field-resolved detection of phase-locked infrared transients from a compact Er:fiber system tunable between 55 and 107 THz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(25), 251107 (2008).
[Crossref]

Sengstock, K.

Sherman, J. A.

T. Nakamura, J. Davila-Rodriguez, H. Leopardi, J. A. Sherman, T. M. Fortier, X. Xie, J. C. Campbell, W. F. McGrew, X. Zhang, Y. S. Hassan, D. Nicolodi, K. Beloy, A. D. Ludlow, S. A. Diddams, and F. Quinlan, “Coherent optical clock down-conversion for microwave frequencies with 10-18 instability,” Science 368(6493), 889–892 (2020).
[Crossref]

Shoji, T. D.

Sigurdsson, S.

Silfies, M.

Silfies, M. C.

A. J. Lind, A. Kowligy, H. Timmers, F. C. Cruz, N. Nader, M. C. Silfies, T. K. Allison, and S. A. Diddams, “Mid-Infrared Frequency Comb Generation and Spectroscopy with Few-Cycle Pulses and χ(2) Nonlinear Optics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 124(13), 133904 (2020).
[Crossref]

Silverman, K. L.

Sinclair, L. C.

Smolski, V.

V. Smolski, S. Vasilyev, I. Moskalev, M. Mirov, Q. Ru, A. Muraviev, P. Schunemann, S. Mirov, V. Gapontsev, and K. Vodopyanov, “Half-Watt average power femtosecond source spanning 3–8 µm based on subharmonic generation in GaAs,” Appl. Phys. B 124(6), 101 (2018).
[Crossref]

Srinivasan, K.

Stalnaker, J. E.

T. Rosenband, D. B. Hume, P. O. Schmidt, C. W. Chou, A. Brusch, L. Lorini, W. H. Oskay, R. E. Drullinger, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, W. C. Swann, N. R. Newbury, W. M. Itano, D. J. Wineland, and J. C. Bergquist, “Frequency Ratio of Al+ and Hg+ Single-Ion Optical Clocks; Metrology at the 17th Decimal Place,” Science 319(5871), 1808–1812 (2008).
[Crossref]

Stefansson, G.

Sterner, D. A.

Südmeyer, T.

Swann, W.

Swann, W. C.

G. B. Rieker, F. R. Giorgetta, W. C. Swann, J. Kofler, A. M. Zolot, L. C. Sinclair, E. Baumann, C. Cromer, G. Petron, C. Sweeney, P. P. Tans, I. Coddington, and N. R. Newbury, “Frequency-comb-based remote sensing of greenhouse gases over kilometer air paths,” Optica 1(5), 290 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. C. Sinclair, I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, G. B. Rieker, A. Hati, K. Iwakuni, and N. R. Newbury, “Operation of an optically coherent frequency comb outside the metrology lab,” Opt. Express 22(6), 6996–7006 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. R. Giorgetta, W. C. Swann, L. C. Sinclair, E. Baumann, I. Coddington, and N. R. Newbury, “Optical two-way time and frequency transfer over free space,” Nat. Photonics 7(6), 434–438 (2013).
[Crossref]

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, and N. R. Newbury, “Coherent Multiheterodyne Spectroscopy Using Stabilized Optical Frequency Combs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(1), 013902 (2008).
[Crossref]

T. Rosenband, D. B. Hume, P. O. Schmidt, C. W. Chou, A. Brusch, L. Lorini, W. H. Oskay, R. E. Drullinger, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, W. C. Swann, N. R. Newbury, W. M. Itano, D. J. Wineland, and J. C. Bergquist, “Frequency Ratio of Al+ and Hg+ Single-Ion Optical Clocks; Metrology at the 17th Decimal Place,” Science 319(5871), 1808–1812 (2008).
[Crossref]

Sweeney, C.

Tans, P. P.

Taylor, J.

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, “Generation of ultrastable microwaves via optical frequency division,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 425–429 (2011).
[Crossref]

Terrien, R.

Thaller, A.

Thapa, R.

I. Hartl, H. A. Mckay, R. Thapa, B. K. Thomas, A. Ruehl, L. Dong, and M. E. Fermann, “Fully stabilized GHz Yb-fiber laser frequency comb,” in Advanced Solid-State Photonics (2009), paper MF9, (Optical Society of America, 2009), p. MF9.

Thomas, B. K.

I. Hartl, H. A. Mckay, R. Thapa, B. K. Thomas, A. Ruehl, L. Dong, and M. E. Fermann, “Fully stabilized GHz Yb-fiber laser frequency comb,” in Advanced Solid-State Photonics (2009), paper MF9, (Optical Society of America, 2009), p. MF9.

Thomsen, B. C.

M. E. Fermann, V. I. Kruglov, B. C. Thomsen, J. M. Dudley, and J. D. Harvey, “Self-Similar Propagation and Amplification of Parabolic Pulses in Optical Fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(26), 6010–6013 (2000).
[Crossref]

Thorpe, M. J.

M. J. Thorpe, K. D. Moll, R. J. Jones, B. Safdi, and J. Ye, “Broadband Cavity Ringdown Spectroscopy for Sensitive and Rapid Molecular Detection,” Science 311(5767), 1595–1599 (2006).
[Crossref]

Timmers, H.

A. J. Lind, A. Kowligy, H. Timmers, F. C. Cruz, N. Nader, M. C. Silfies, T. K. Allison, and S. A. Diddams, “Mid-Infrared Frequency Comb Generation and Spectroscopy with Few-Cycle Pulses and χ(2) Nonlinear Optics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 124(13), 133904 (2020).
[Crossref]

A. S. Kowligy, H. Timmers, A. J. Lind, U. Elu, F. C. Cruz, P. G. Schunemann, J. Biegert, and S. A. Diddams, “Infrared electric field sampled frequency comb spectroscopy,” Sci. Adv. 5(6), eaaw8794 (2019).
[Crossref]

H. Timmers, A. Kowligy, A. Lind, F. C. Cruz, N. Nader, M. Silfies, G. Ycas, T. K. Allison, P. G. Schunemann, S. B. Papp, and S. A. Diddams, “Molecular fingerprinting with bright, broadband infrared frequency combs,” Optica 5(6), 727–732 (2018).
[Crossref]

Tremblin, P.-A.

X. Xie, R. Bouchand, D. Nicolodi, M. Giunta, W. Hänsel, M. Lezius, A. Joshi, S. Datta, C. Alexandre, M. Lours, P.-A. Tremblin, G. Santarelli, R. Holzwarth, and Y. Le Coq, “Photonic microwave signals with zeptosecond-level absolute timing noise,” Nat. Photonics 11(1), 44–47 (2017).
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Udem, T.

S. A. Diddams, T. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, “An Optical Clock Based on a Single Trapped 199Hg+ Ion,” Science 293(5531), 825–828 (2001).
[Crossref]

S. A. Diddams, T. Udem, K. R. Vogel, C. W. Oates, E. A. Curtis, R. S. Windeler, A. Bartels, J. C. Bergquist, and L. W. Hollberg, “Compact femtosecond-laser-based optical clockwork,” in Laser Frequency Stabilization, Standards, Measurement, and Applications, vol. 4269 (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2001), pp. 77–83.

Vasilyev, S.

V. Smolski, S. Vasilyev, I. Moskalev, M. Mirov, Q. Ru, A. Muraviev, P. Schunemann, S. Mirov, V. Gapontsev, and K. Vodopyanov, “Half-Watt average power femtosecond source spanning 3–8 µm based on subharmonic generation in GaAs,” Appl. Phys. B 124(6), 101 (2018).
[Crossref]

Vodopyanov, K.

V. Smolski, S. Vasilyev, I. Moskalev, M. Mirov, Q. Ru, A. Muraviev, P. Schunemann, S. Mirov, V. Gapontsev, and K. Vodopyanov, “Half-Watt average power femtosecond source spanning 3–8 µm based on subharmonic generation in GaAs,” Appl. Phys. B 124(6), 101 (2018).
[Crossref]

Vogel, K. R.

S. A. Diddams, T. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, “An Optical Clock Based on a Single Trapped 199Hg+ Ion,” Science 293(5531), 825–828 (2001).
[Crossref]

S. A. Diddams, T. Udem, K. R. Vogel, C. W. Oates, E. A. Curtis, R. S. Windeler, A. Bartels, J. C. Bergquist, and L. W. Hollberg, “Compact femtosecond-laser-based optical clockwork,” in Laser Frequency Stabilization, Standards, Measurement, and Applications, vol. 4269 (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2001), pp. 77–83.

Wicht, A.

Wilken, T.

Windeler, R. S.

S. A. Diddams, T. Udem, K. R. Vogel, C. W. Oates, E. A. Curtis, R. S. Windeler, A. Bartels, J. C. Bergquist, and L. W. Hollberg, “Compact femtosecond-laser-based optical clockwork,” in Laser Frequency Stabilization, Standards, Measurement, and Applications, vol. 4269 (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2001), pp. 77–83.

Windpassinger, P.

Wineland, D. J.

T. Rosenband, D. B. Hume, P. O. Schmidt, C. W. Chou, A. Brusch, L. Lorini, W. H. Oskay, R. E. Drullinger, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, W. C. Swann, N. R. Newbury, W. M. Itano, D. J. Wineland, and J. C. Bergquist, “Frequency Ratio of Al+ and Hg+ Single-Ion Optical Clocks; Metrology at the 17th Decimal Place,” Science 319(5871), 1808–1812 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. A. Diddams, T. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, “An Optical Clock Based on a Single Trapped 199Hg+ Ion,” Science 293(5531), 825–828 (2001).
[Crossref]

Wittwer, V. J.

Wolszczan, A.

Wright, J. T.

Wu, T.-H.

Xie, W.

Xie, X.

T. Nakamura, J. Davila-Rodriguez, H. Leopardi, J. A. Sherman, T. M. Fortier, X. Xie, J. C. Campbell, W. F. McGrew, X. Zhang, Y. S. Hassan, D. Nicolodi, K. Beloy, A. D. Ludlow, S. A. Diddams, and F. Quinlan, “Coherent optical clock down-conversion for microwave frequencies with 10-18 instability,” Science 368(6493), 889–892 (2020).
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M. Giunta, J. Yu, M. Lessing, M. Fischer, M. Lezius, X. Xie, G. Santarelli, Y. L. Coq, and R. Holzwarth, “Compact and ultrastable photonic microwave oscillator,” Opt. Lett. 45(5), 1140–1143 (2020).
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X. Xie, R. Bouchand, D. Nicolodi, M. Giunta, W. Hänsel, M. Lezius, A. Joshi, S. Datta, C. Alexandre, M. Lours, P.-A. Tremblin, G. Santarelli, R. Holzwarth, and Y. Le Coq, “Photonic microwave signals with zeptosecond-level absolute timing noise,” Nat. Photonics 11(1), 44–47 (2017).
[Crossref]

Ycas, G.

Ye, J.

M. J. Thorpe, K. D. Moll, R. J. Jones, B. Safdi, and J. Ye, “Broadband Cavity Ringdown Spectroscopy for Sensitive and Rapid Molecular Detection,” Science 311(5767), 1595–1599 (2006).
[Crossref]

Yu, J.

Zdanowicz, A.

Zhang, X.

T. Nakamura, J. Davila-Rodriguez, H. Leopardi, J. A. Sherman, T. M. Fortier, X. Xie, J. C. Campbell, W. F. McGrew, X. Zhang, Y. S. Hassan, D. Nicolodi, K. Beloy, A. D. Ludlow, S. A. Diddams, and F. Quinlan, “Coherent optical clock down-conversion for microwave frequencies with 10-18 instability,” Science 368(6493), 889–892 (2020).
[Crossref]

Zolot, A. M.

Appl. Phys. B (1)

V. Smolski, S. Vasilyev, I. Moskalev, M. Mirov, Q. Ru, A. Muraviev, P. Schunemann, S. Mirov, V. Gapontsev, and K. Vodopyanov, “Half-Watt average power femtosecond source spanning 3–8 µm based on subharmonic generation in GaAs,” Appl. Phys. B 124(6), 101 (2018).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

A. Sell, R. Scheu, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Huber, “Field-resolved detection of phase-locked infrared transients from a compact Er:fiber system tunable between 55 and 107 THz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(25), 251107 (2008).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (4)

G. Ycas, F. R. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, I. Coddington, D. Herman, S. A. Diddams, and N. R. Newbury, “High-coherence mid-infrared dual-comb spectroscopy spanning 2.6 to 5.2 µm,” Nat. Photonics 12(4), 202–208 (2018).
[Crossref]

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, “Generation of ultrastable microwaves via optical frequency division,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 425–429 (2011).
[Crossref]

X. Xie, R. Bouchand, D. Nicolodi, M. Giunta, W. Hänsel, M. Lezius, A. Joshi, S. Datta, C. Alexandre, M. Lours, P.-A. Tremblin, G. Santarelli, R. Holzwarth, and Y. Le Coq, “Photonic microwave signals with zeptosecond-level absolute timing noise,” Nat. Photonics 11(1), 44–47 (2017).
[Crossref]

F. R. Giorgetta, W. C. Swann, L. C. Sinclair, E. Baumann, I. Coddington, and N. R. Newbury, “Optical two-way time and frequency transfer over free space,” Nat. Photonics 7(6), 434–438 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

T. Ideguchi, S. Holzner, B. Bernhardt, G. Guelachvili, N. Picqué, and T. W. Hänsch, “Coherent Raman spectro-imaging with laser frequency combs,” Nature 502(7471), 355–358 (2013).
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Opt. Express (9)

L. C. Sinclair, I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, G. B. Rieker, A. Hati, K. Iwakuni, and N. R. Newbury, “Operation of an optically coherent frequency comb outside the metrology lab,” Opt. Express 22(6), 6996–7006 (2014).
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H. Inaba, Y. Daimon, F.-L. Hong, A. Onae, K. Minoshima, T. R. Schibli, H. Matsumoto, M. Hirano, T. Okuno, M. Onishi, and M. Nakazawa, “Long-term measurement of optical frequencies using a simple, robust and low-noise fiber based frequency comb,” Opt. Express 14(12), 5223 (2006).
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T.-H. Wu, K. Kieu, N. Peyghambarian, and R. J. Jones, “Low noise erbium fiber fs frequency comb based on a tapered-fiber carbon nanotube design,” Opt. Express 19(6), 5313–5318 (2011).
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A. J. Fleisher, D. A. Long, Z. D. Reed, J. T. Hodges, and D. F. Plusquellic, “Coherent cavity-enhanced dual-comb spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 24(10), 10424–10434 (2016).
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L.-J. Chen, A. J. Benedick, J. R. Birge, M. Y. Sander, and F. X. Kärtner, “Octave-spanning, dual-output 2.166 GHz Ti:sapphire laser,” Opt. Express 16(25), 20699–20705 (2008).
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S. Pekarek, T. Südmeyer, S. Lecomte, S. Kundermann, J. M. Dudley, and U. Keller, “Self-referenceable frequency comb from a gigahertz diode-pumped solid-state laser,” Opt. Express 19(17), 16491–16497 (2011).
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M. Endo, I. Ito, and Y. Kobayashi, “Direct 15-GHz mode-spacing optical frequency comb with a Kerr-lens mode-locked Yb:Y2O3 ceramic laser,” Opt. Express 23(2), 1276–1282 (2015).
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S. Hakobyan, V. J. Wittwer, P. Brochard, K. Gürel, S. Schilt, A. S. Mayer, U. Keller, and T. Südmeyer, “Full stabilization and characterization of an optical frequency comb from a diode-pumped solid-state laser with GHz repetition rate,” Opt. Express 25(17), 20437–20453 (2017).
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A. D. Draper, R. K. Cole, A. S. Makowiecki, J. Mohr, A. Zdanowicz, A. Marchese, N. Hoghooghi, and G. B. Rieker, “Broadband dual-frequency comb spectroscopy in a rapid compression machine,” Opt. Express 27(8), 10814–10825 (2019).
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Opt. Lett. (5)

Optica (6)

A. J. Metcalf, T. Anderson, C. F. Bender, S. Blakeslee, W. Brand, D. R. Carlson, W. D. Cochran, S. A. Diddams, M. Endl, C. Fredrick, S. Halverson, D. D. Hickstein, F. Hearty, J. Jennings, S. Kanodia, K. F. Kaplan, E. Levi, E. Lubar, S. Mahadevan, A. Monson, J. P. Ninan, C. Nitroy, S. Osterman, S. B. Papp, F. Quinlan, L. Ramsey, P. Robertson, A. Roy, C. Schwab, S. Sigurdsson, K. Srinivasan, G. Stefansson, D. A. Sterner, R. Terrien, A. Wolszczan, J. T. Wright, and G. Ycas, “Stellar spectroscopy in the near-infrared with a laser frequency comb,” Optica 6(2), 233–239 (2019).
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I. Coddington, N. Newbury, and W. Swann, “Dual-comb spectroscopy,” Optica 3(4), 414 (2016).
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G. B. Rieker, F. R. Giorgetta, W. C. Swann, J. Kofler, A. M. Zolot, L. C. Sinclair, E. Baumann, C. Cromer, G. Petron, C. Sweeney, P. P. Tans, I. Coddington, and N. R. Newbury, “Frequency-comb-based remote sensing of greenhouse gases over kilometer air paths,” Optica 1(5), 290 (2014).
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M. Lezius, T. Wilken, C. Deutsch, M. Giunta, O. Mandel, A. Thaller, V. Schkolnik, M. Schiemangk, A. Dinkelaker, A. Kohfeldt, A. Wicht, M. Krutzik, A. Peters, O. Hellmig, H. Duncker, K. Sengstock, P. Windpassinger, K. Lampmann, T. Hülsing, T. W. Hänsch, and R. Holzwarth, “Space-borne frequency comb metrology,” Optica 3(12), 1381–1387 (2016).
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H. Timmers, A. Kowligy, A. Lind, F. C. Cruz, N. Nader, M. Silfies, G. Ycas, T. K. Allison, P. G. Schunemann, S. B. Papp, and S. A. Diddams, “Molecular fingerprinting with bright, broadband infrared frequency combs,” Optica 5(6), 727–732 (2018).
[Crossref]

T. D. Shoji, W. Xie, K. L. Silverman, A. Feldman, T. Harvey, R. P. Mirin, and T. R. Schibli, “Ultra-low-noise monolithic mode-locked solid-state laser,” Optica 3(9), 995–998 (2016).
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Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

A. J. Lind, A. Kowligy, H. Timmers, F. C. Cruz, N. Nader, M. C. Silfies, T. K. Allison, and S. A. Diddams, “Mid-Infrared Frequency Comb Generation and Spectroscopy with Few-Cycle Pulses and χ(2) Nonlinear Optics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 124(13), 133904 (2020).
[Crossref]

M. E. Fermann, V. I. Kruglov, B. C. Thomsen, J. M. Dudley, and J. D. Harvey, “Self-Similar Propagation and Amplification of Parabolic Pulses in Optical Fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(26), 6010–6013 (2000).
[Crossref]

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, and N. R. Newbury, “Coherent Multiheterodyne Spectroscopy Using Stabilized Optical Frequency Combs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(1), 013902 (2008).
[Crossref]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (2)

J. L. Hall, “Nobel Lecture: Defining and measuring optical frequencies,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78(4), 1279–1295 (2006).
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T. W. Hänsch, “Nobel Lecture: Passion for precision,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78(4), 1297–1309 (2006).
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Sci. Adv. (1)

A. S. Kowligy, H. Timmers, A. J. Lind, U. Elu, F. C. Cruz, P. G. Schunemann, J. Biegert, and S. A. Diddams, “Infrared electric field sampled frequency comb spectroscopy,” Sci. Adv. 5(6), eaaw8794 (2019).
[Crossref]

Science (4)

M. J. Thorpe, K. D. Moll, R. J. Jones, B. Safdi, and J. Ye, “Broadband Cavity Ringdown Spectroscopy for Sensitive and Rapid Molecular Detection,” Science 311(5767), 1595–1599 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. A. Diddams, T. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, “An Optical Clock Based on a Single Trapped 199Hg+ Ion,” Science 293(5531), 825–828 (2001).
[Crossref]

T. Rosenband, D. B. Hume, P. O. Schmidt, C. W. Chou, A. Brusch, L. Lorini, W. H. Oskay, R. E. Drullinger, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, W. C. Swann, N. R. Newbury, W. M. Itano, D. J. Wineland, and J. C. Bergquist, “Frequency Ratio of Al+ and Hg+ Single-Ion Optical Clocks; Metrology at the 17th Decimal Place,” Science 319(5871), 1808–1812 (2008).
[Crossref]

T. Nakamura, J. Davila-Rodriguez, H. Leopardi, J. A. Sherman, T. M. Fortier, X. Xie, J. C. Campbell, W. F. McGrew, X. Zhang, Y. S. Hassan, D. Nicolodi, K. Beloy, A. D. Ludlow, S. A. Diddams, and F. Quinlan, “Coherent optical clock down-conversion for microwave frequencies with 10-18 instability,” Science 368(6493), 889–892 (2020).
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Other (6)

N. Hoghooghi, R. K. Cole, and G. B. Rieker, “11-µs Time-resolved, Continuous Dual-Comb Spectroscopy with Spectrally Filtered Mode-locked Frequency Combs,” arXiv:2005.13050 [physics] (2020).

S. A. Diddams, T. Udem, K. R. Vogel, C. W. Oates, E. A. Curtis, R. S. Windeler, A. Bartels, J. C. Bergquist, and L. W. Hollberg, “Compact femtosecond-laser-based optical clockwork,” in Laser Frequency Stabilization, Standards, Measurement, and Applications, vol. 4269 (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2001), pp. 77–83.

K. F. Lee, P. G. Schunemann, and M. E. Fermann, “Milliwatt midinfrared from intrapulse difference frequency with a single erbium fiber laser,” in Nonlinear Frequency Generation and Conversion: Materials and Devices XIX, vol. 11264 (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2020), p. 1126404.

I. Hartl, H. A. Mckay, R. Thapa, B. K. Thomas, A. Ruehl, L. Dong, and M. E. Fermann, “Fully stabilized GHz Yb-fiber laser frequency comb,” in Advanced Solid-State Photonics (2009), paper MF9, (Optical Society of America, 2009), p. MF9.

D. Chao, M. Y. Sander, G. Chang, J. L. Morse, J. A. Cox, G. S. Petrich, L. A. Kolodziejski, F. X. Kärtner, and E. P. Ippen, “Self-referenced Erbium fiber laser frequency comb at a GHz repetition rate,” in OFC/NFOEC, (2012), pp. 1–3.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a), Spectrum from the 1 GHz laser oscillator (black) and sech$^{2}$ fit (red dashed) showing an 11.6 nm full width at half maximum (FWHM) at 1563.0 nm. (b), RF spectrum of the output of a fast photodiode, showing clean harmonics of the fundamental 1 GHz repetition rate.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Experimental setup used for f$_{\textit {beat}}$ and f$_{\textit {ceo}}$ detection. After the turnkey oscillator, the pulses are amplified in a dispersion managed amplifier and spectrally broadened for f-to-2f measurement in periodically poled LiNbO$_3$ (PPLN). Both the 1 µm and 1.55 µm components are spectrally separated to allow for simultaneous locking of f$_{\textit {ceo}}$ and f$_{\textit {beat}}$.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a), Experimental second harmonic generation frequency resolved optical gating (SHG-FROG) measured at the output of the dispersion managed amplifier. (b), Reconstructed SHG-FROG with an error of 0.5%. (c), Temporal profile of the reconstructed pulse (inset: spectra from an optical spectrum analyzer (OSA) and FROG reconstruction). (d), Corresponding octave spanning spectrum and simulation results from the nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLSE) after broadening in HNLF.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a), RF spectrum from DC to 1.2 GHz showing f$_{\textit {ceo}}$, f$_{\textit {rep}}$-f$_{\textit {ceo}}$, and f$_{\textit {rep}}$ at 300 kHz RBW. (b), RF spectrum of f$_{\textit {ceo}}$ showing 40 dB SNR at 300 kHz RBW. (c), Solid lines: f$_{\textit {ceo}}$ phase noise power spectral density, dotted lines: integrated phase noise from high Fouier frequencies to DC (total: 438 mrad integrated from 10$^2$ to 10$^7$ Hz). (d), RF spectrum of f$_{\textit {ceo}}$ locked with 10 Hz RBW.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. (a), Solid lines: f$_{\textit {beat}}$ phase noise power spectral density, dotted lines: integrated phase noise from high Fourier frequencies to DC (total: 40.6 mrad integrated from 10$^2$ to 10$^7$ Hz). (b), RF spectrum of f$_{\textit {beat}}$ locked at 10 Hz RBW.

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