Abstract

The multimode power splitter is a basic component in mode-division multiplexing systems. In this paper, we propose an ultra-broadband silicon multimode power splitter enabling arbitrary power splitting ratios. The proposed multimode splitter is designed based on a waveguide crossing with an obliquely embedded subwavelength grating (SWG) transflector. The incident multiple guided-modes can be split into two beams with low excess losses and low crosstalk by the SWG transflector where the thin-film interference effect happens. As an example, a silicon multimode power splitter is designed to work with the three lowest-order modes of TE polarization. Any desired splitting ratio ranging from 0% to 100% can be achieved by engineering the structural parameters of the SWG. Moreover, the desired splitting ratio can be very uniform over an extremely broad bandwidth of ≥ 415 nm, covering O-, E-, S-, C-, L- and U-bands. The intermodal crosstalk is < −20 dB for all the input modes in theory. To the best of our knowledge, the proposed structure is the first multimode power splitter enabling any desired power splitting ratios in all the optical communication bands.

© 2020 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2020 (1)

2019 (7)

H. Xu, D. Dai, and Y. Shi, “Ultra-broadband and ultra-compact on-chip silicon polarization beam splitter by using hetero-anisotropic metamaterials,” Laser Photonics Rev. 13(4), 1800349 (2019).
[Crossref]

H. Xu, D. Dai, and Y. Shi, “Anisotropic metamaterial-assisted all-silicon polarizer with 415-nm bandwidth,” Photonics Res. 7(12), 1432–1439 (2019).
[Crossref]

J. M. Luque-González, R. Halir, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, J. de-Oliva-Rubio, J. H. Schmid, P. Cheben, Í. Molina-Fernández, and A. Ortega-Moñux, “An ultracompact GRIN-lens-based spot size converter using subwavelength grating metamaterials,” Laser Photonics Rev. 13(11), 1900172 (2019).
[Crossref]

Z. Wang, T. Li, A. Soman, D. Mao, T. Kananen, and T. Gu, “On-chip wavefront shaping with dielectric metasurface,” Nat. Commun. 10(1), 3547 (2019).
[Crossref]

K. Chen, J. Yan, S. He, and L. Liu, “Broadband optical switch for multiple spatial modes based on a silicon densely packed waveguide array,” Opt. Lett. 44(4), 907–910 (2019).
[Crossref]

H. Xu and Y. Shi, “Subwavelength-grating-assisted silicon polarization rotator covering all optical communication bands,” Opt. Express 27(4), 5588–5597 (2019).
[Crossref]

T. Huang, Y. Xie, Y. Wu, Z. Cheng, S. Zeng, and P. S. Ping, “Compact polarization beam splitter assisted by subwavelength grating in triple-waveguide directional coupler,” Appl. Opt. 58(9), 2264–2268 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (12)

L. Han, B. P.-P. Kuo, N. Alic, and S. Radic, “Ultra-broadband multimode 3 dB optical power splitter using an adiabatic coupler and a Y-branch,” Opt. Express 26(11), 14800–14809 (2018).
[Crossref]

H. Xu and Y. Shi, “Flat-top CWDM (de)multiplexer based on MZI with bent directional couplers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 30(2), 169–172 (2018).
[Crossref]

P. Cheben, R. Halir, J. H. Schmid, H. A. Atwater, and D. R. Smith, “Subwavelength integrated photonics,” Nature 560(7720), 565–572 (2018).
[Crossref]

R. Halir, A. Ortega-Moñux, D. Benedikovic, G. Z. Mashanovich, G. J. Wangüemert-Pérez, J. H. Schmid, Í. Molina-Fernández, and P. Cheben, “Subwavelength-grating metamaterial structures for silicon photonic devices,” Proc. IEEE 106(12), 2144–2157 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. Dai, C. Li, S. Wang, H. Wu, Y. Shi, Z. Wu, S. Gao, T. Dai, H. Yu, and H.-K. Tsang, “10-channel mode (de)multiplexer with dual polarizations,” Laser Photonics Rev. 12(1), 1700109 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Li, D. Liu, and D. Dai, “Multimode silicon photonics,” Nanophotonics 8(2), 227–247 (2018).
[Crossref]

H. Xu and Y. Shi, “Ultra-sharp multi-mode waveguide bending assisted with metamaterial-based mode converters,” Laser Photonics Rev. 12(3), 1700240 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Li, Y. Zhou, J. Dong, X. Zhang, E. Cassan, J. Hou, C. Yang, S. Chen, D. Gao, and H. Chen, “Universal multimode waveguide crossing based on transformation optics,” Optica 5(12), 1549–1556 (2018).
[Crossref]

W. Chang, L. Lu, X. Ren, D. Li, Z. Pan, M. Cheng, D. Liu, and M. Zhang, “Ultracompact dual-mode waveguide crossing based on subwavelength multimode-interference couplers,” Photonics Res. 6(7), 660–665 (2018).
[Crossref]

H. Xu and Y. Shi, “Metamaterial-based Maxwell's fisheye lens for multimode waveguide crossing,” Laser Photonics Rev. 12(10), 1800094 (2018).
[Crossref]

Z. Pan, X. Xu, C.-J. Chung, H. Dalir, H. Yan, K. Chen, Y. Wang, B. Jia, and R. T. Chen, “High-speed modulator based on electro-optic polymer infiltrated subwavelength grating waveguide ring resonator,” Laser Photonics Rev. 12(6), 1700300 (2018).
[Crossref]

H. Xu, L. Liu, and Y. Shi, “Polarization-insensitive four-channel coarse wavelength-division (de)multiplexer based on Mach–Zehnder interferometers with bent directional couplers and polarization rotators,” Opt. Lett. 43(7), 1483–1486 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (10)

H. Xu and Y. Shi, “Ultra-compact polarization-independent directional couplers utilizing a subwavelength structure,” Opt. Lett. 42(24), 5202–5205 (2017).
[Crossref]

P. Sethi, A. Haldar, and S. K. Selvaraja, “Ultra-compact low-loss broadband waveguide taper in silicon-on-insulator,” Opt. Express 25(9), 10196–10203 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Chen, Z. Nong, J. Zhang, X. Cai, S. He, and L. Liu, “Multimode 3 dB Coupler Based on Symmetrically Coupled Waveguides for On-Chipbrk Mode Division Multiplexing,” J. Lightwave Technol. 35(19), 4260–4267 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhang, Y. He, Q. Zhu, C. Qiu, and Y. Su, “On-chip silicon photonic 2 × 2 mode- and polarization-selective switch with low inter-modal crosstalk,” Photonics Res. 5(5), 521–526 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Sun, Y. Yu, G. Chen, and X. Zhang, “Ultra-compact bent multimode silicon waveguide with ultralow inter-mode crosstalk,” Opt. Lett. 42(15), 3004–3007 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Wang, X. Feng, S. Gao, Y. Shi, T. Dai, H. Yu, H.-K. Tsang, and D. Dai, “On-chip reconfigurable optical add-drop multiplexer for hybrid wavelength/mode-division-multiplexing systems,” Opt. Lett. 42(14), 2802–2805 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Xu and Y. Shi, “Broadband nine-channel mode-division (de)multiplexer based on densely packed multimode waveguide arrays,” J. Lightwave Technol. 35(22), 4949–4953 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Xu and Y. Shi, “Ultra-broadband silicon polarization splitter-rotator based on the multi-mode waveguide,” Opt. Express 25(15), 18485–18491 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Xu and Y. Shi, “Ultra-compact and highly efficient polarization rotator utilizing multi-mode waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 42(4), 771–774 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. Huang, H. Yan, X. Xu, S. Chakravarty, N. Tang, H. Tian, and R. T. Chen, “Improving the detection limit for on-chip photonic sensors based on subwavelength grating racetrack resonators,” Opt. Express 25(9), 10527–10535 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (7)

2015 (3)

B. Stern, X. Zhu, C. P. Chen, L. D. Tzuang, J. Cardenas, K. Bergman, and M. Lipson, “On-chip mode-division multiplexing switch,” Optica 2(6), 530–535 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Halir, P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, A. Ortega-Moñux, C. Alonso-Ramos, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, D.-X. Xu, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, Í. Molina-Fernández, and S. Janz, “Waveguide sub-wavelength structures: a review of principles and applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(1), 25–49 (2015).
[Crossref]

V. Donzella, A. Sherwali, J. Flueckiger, S. M. Grist, S. T. Fard, and L. Chrostowski, “Design and fabrication of SOI micro-ring resonators based on sub-wavelength grating waveguides,” Opt. Express 23(4), 4791–4803 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

J. Wang, S. He, and D. Dai, “On-chip silicon 8-channel hybrid (de)multiplexer enabling simultaneous mode- and polarization-division- multiplexing,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(2), L18–L22 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Fu, T. Ye, W. Tang, and T. Chu, “Efficient adiabatic silicon-on-insulator waveguide taper,” Photonics Res. 2(3), A41–A44 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

J. Sun, E. Timurdogan, A. Yaacobi, E. S. Hosseini, and M. R. Watts, “Large-scale nanophotonic phased array,” Nature 493(7431), 195–199 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Dai, J. Wang, and Y. Shi, “Silicon mode (de)multiplexer enabling high capacity photonic networks-on-chip with a single-wavelength-carrier light,” Opt. Lett. 38(9), 1422–1424 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

L. H. Gabrielli, D. Liu, S. G. Johnson, and M. Lipson, “On-chip transformation optics for multimode waveguide bends,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 1217 (2012).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

2007 (1)

1996 (1)

Aers, G. C.

Alic, N.

Alonso-Ramos, C.

R. Halir, P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, A. Ortega-Moñux, C. Alonso-Ramos, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, D.-X. Xu, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, Í. Molina-Fernández, and S. Janz, “Waveguide sub-wavelength structures: a review of principles and applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(1), 25–49 (2015).
[Crossref]

Atwater, H. A.

P. Cheben, R. Halir, J. H. Schmid, H. A. Atwater, and D. R. Smith, “Subwavelength integrated photonics,” Nature 560(7720), 565–572 (2018).
[Crossref]

Baets, R.

Benedikovic, D.

R. Halir, A. Ortega-Moñux, D. Benedikovic, G. Z. Mashanovich, G. J. Wangüemert-Pérez, J. H. Schmid, Í. Molina-Fernández, and P. Cheben, “Subwavelength-grating metamaterial structures for silicon photonic devices,” Proc. IEEE 106(12), 2144–2157 (2018).
[Crossref]

Bergman, K.

Bock, P. J.

R. Halir, P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, A. Ortega-Moñux, C. Alonso-Ramos, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, D.-X. Xu, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, Í. Molina-Fernández, and S. Janz, “Waveguide sub-wavelength structures: a review of principles and applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(1), 25–49 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, A. Delâge, S. Janz, G. C. Aers, D.-X. Xu, A. Densmore, and T. J. Hall, “Subwavelength grating periodic structures in silicon-on-insulator: a new type of microphotonic waveguide,” Opt. Express 18(19), 20251–20262 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bogaerts, W.

Brimont, A.

Cai, X.

Cardenas, J.

Cassan, E.

Chakravarty, S.

Chang, W.

W. Chang, L. Lu, X. Ren, D. Li, Z. Pan, M. Cheng, D. Liu, and M. Zhang, “Ultracompact dual-mode waveguide crossing based on subwavelength multimode-interference couplers,” Photonics Res. 6(7), 660–665 (2018).
[Crossref]

Cheben, P.

J. M. Luque-González, R. Halir, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, J. de-Oliva-Rubio, J. H. Schmid, P. Cheben, Í. Molina-Fernández, and A. Ortega-Moñux, “An ultracompact GRIN-lens-based spot size converter using subwavelength grating metamaterials,” Laser Photonics Rev. 13(11), 1900172 (2019).
[Crossref]

R. Halir, A. Ortega-Moñux, D. Benedikovic, G. Z. Mashanovich, G. J. Wangüemert-Pérez, J. H. Schmid, Í. Molina-Fernández, and P. Cheben, “Subwavelength-grating metamaterial structures for silicon photonic devices,” Proc. IEEE 106(12), 2144–2157 (2018).
[Crossref]

P. Cheben, R. Halir, J. H. Schmid, H. A. Atwater, and D. R. Smith, “Subwavelength integrated photonics,” Nature 560(7720), 565–572 (2018).
[Crossref]

R. Halir, P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, A. Ortega-Moñux, C. Alonso-Ramos, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, D.-X. Xu, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, Í. Molina-Fernández, and S. Janz, “Waveguide sub-wavelength structures: a review of principles and applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(1), 25–49 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, A. Delâge, S. Janz, G. C. Aers, D.-X. Xu, A. Densmore, and T. J. Hall, “Subwavelength grating periodic structures in silicon-on-insulator: a new type of microphotonic waveguide,” Opt. Express 18(19), 20251–20262 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chen, C. P.

Chen, G.

Chen, H.

Chen, K.

Chen, R. T.

Z. Pan, X. Xu, C.-J. Chung, H. Dalir, H. Yan, K. Chen, Y. Wang, B. Jia, and R. T. Chen, “High-speed modulator based on electro-optic polymer infiltrated subwavelength grating waveguide ring resonator,” Laser Photonics Rev. 12(6), 1700300 (2018).
[Crossref]

L. Huang, H. Yan, X. Xu, S. Chakravarty, N. Tang, H. Tian, and R. T. Chen, “Improving the detection limit for on-chip photonic sensors based on subwavelength grating racetrack resonators,” Opt. Express 25(9), 10527–10535 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chen, S.

Cheng, M.

W. Chang, L. Lu, X. Ren, D. Li, Z. Pan, M. Cheng, D. Liu, and M. Zhang, “Ultracompact dual-mode waveguide crossing based on subwavelength multimode-interference couplers,” Photonics Res. 6(7), 660–665 (2018).
[Crossref]

Cheng, Z.

Cheung, K. C.

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J. Sun, E. Timurdogan, A. Yaacobi, E. S. Hosseini, and M. R. Watts, “Large-scale nanophotonic phased array,” Nature 493(7431), 195–199 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wu, H.

D. Dai, C. Li, S. Wang, H. Wu, Y. Shi, Z. Wu, S. Gao, T. Dai, H. Yu, and H.-K. Tsang, “10-channel mode (de)multiplexer with dual polarizations,” Laser Photonics Rev. 12(1), 1700109 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Wang, H. Wu, H.-K. Tsang, and D. Dai, “Monolithically integrated reconfigurable add-drop multiplexer for mode-division-multiplexing systems,” Opt. Lett. 41(22), 5298–5301 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wu, Y.

Wu, Z.

D. Dai, C. Li, S. Wang, H. Wu, Y. Shi, Z. Wu, S. Gao, T. Dai, H. Yu, and H.-K. Tsang, “10-channel mode (de)multiplexer with dual polarizations,” Laser Photonics Rev. 12(1), 1700109 (2018).
[Crossref]

Xie, Y.

Xu, D.-X.

R. Halir, P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, A. Ortega-Moñux, C. Alonso-Ramos, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, D.-X. Xu, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, Í. Molina-Fernández, and S. Janz, “Waveguide sub-wavelength structures: a review of principles and applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(1), 25–49 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, A. Delâge, S. Janz, G. C. Aers, D.-X. Xu, A. Densmore, and T. J. Hall, “Subwavelength grating periodic structures in silicon-on-insulator: a new type of microphotonic waveguide,” Opt. Express 18(19), 20251–20262 (2010).
[Crossref]

Xu, H.

H. Xu and Y. Shi, “Subwavelength-grating-assisted silicon polarization rotator covering all optical communication bands,” Opt. Express 27(4), 5588–5597 (2019).
[Crossref]

H. Xu, D. Dai, and Y. Shi, “Anisotropic metamaterial-assisted all-silicon polarizer with 415-nm bandwidth,” Photonics Res. 7(12), 1432–1439 (2019).
[Crossref]

H. Xu, D. Dai, and Y. Shi, “Ultra-broadband and ultra-compact on-chip silicon polarization beam splitter by using hetero-anisotropic metamaterials,” Laser Photonics Rev. 13(4), 1800349 (2019).
[Crossref]

H. Xu and Y. Shi, “Flat-top CWDM (de)multiplexer based on MZI with bent directional couplers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 30(2), 169–172 (2018).
[Crossref]

H. Xu, L. Liu, and Y. Shi, “Polarization-insensitive four-channel coarse wavelength-division (de)multiplexer based on Mach–Zehnder interferometers with bent directional couplers and polarization rotators,” Opt. Lett. 43(7), 1483–1486 (2018).
[Crossref]

H. Xu and Y. Shi, “Metamaterial-based Maxwell's fisheye lens for multimode waveguide crossing,” Laser Photonics Rev. 12(10), 1800094 (2018).
[Crossref]

H. Xu and Y. Shi, “Ultra-sharp multi-mode waveguide bending assisted with metamaterial-based mode converters,” Laser Photonics Rev. 12(3), 1700240 (2018).
[Crossref]

H. Xu and Y. Shi, “Ultra-broadband silicon polarization splitter-rotator based on the multi-mode waveguide,” Opt. Express 25(15), 18485–18491 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Xu and Y. Shi, “Broadband nine-channel mode-division (de)multiplexer based on densely packed multimode waveguide arrays,” J. Lightwave Technol. 35(22), 4949–4953 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Xu and Y. Shi, “Ultra-compact and highly efficient polarization rotator utilizing multi-mode waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 42(4), 771–774 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Xu and Y. Shi, “Ultra-compact polarization-independent directional couplers utilizing a subwavelength structure,” Opt. Lett. 42(24), 5202–5205 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Xu and Y. Shi, “Ultra-broadband dual-mode 3  dB power splitter based on a Y-junction assisted with mode converters,” Opt. Lett. 41(21), 5047–5050 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Xu and Y. Shi, “Dual-mode waveguide crossing utilizing taper-assisted multimode-interference couplers,” Opt. Lett. 41(22), 5381–5384 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Xu and Y. Shi, “Ultra-broadband 16-channel mode division (de)multiplexer utilizing densely packed bent waveguide arrays,” Opt. Lett. 41(20), 4815–4818 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Xu and Y. Shi, “Ultra-compact and broadband silicon polarization rotator,” in 2017 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Pacific Rim, (Optical Society of America, 2017), paper s1544.

Xu, X.

Z. Pan, X. Xu, C.-J. Chung, H. Dalir, H. Yan, K. Chen, Y. Wang, B. Jia, and R. T. Chen, “High-speed modulator based on electro-optic polymer infiltrated subwavelength grating waveguide ring resonator,” Laser Photonics Rev. 12(6), 1700300 (2018).
[Crossref]

L. Huang, H. Yan, X. Xu, S. Chakravarty, N. Tang, H. Tian, and R. T. Chen, “Improving the detection limit for on-chip photonic sensors based on subwavelength grating racetrack resonators,” Opt. Express 25(9), 10527–10535 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yaacobi, A.

J. Sun, E. Timurdogan, A. Yaacobi, E. S. Hosseini, and M. R. Watts, “Large-scale nanophotonic phased array,” Nature 493(7431), 195–199 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yan, H.

Z. Pan, X. Xu, C.-J. Chung, H. Dalir, H. Yan, K. Chen, Y. Wang, B. Jia, and R. T. Chen, “High-speed modulator based on electro-optic polymer infiltrated subwavelength grating waveguide ring resonator,” Laser Photonics Rev. 12(6), 1700300 (2018).
[Crossref]

L. Huang, H. Yan, X. Xu, S. Chakravarty, N. Tang, H. Tian, and R. T. Chen, “Improving the detection limit for on-chip photonic sensors based on subwavelength grating racetrack resonators,” Opt. Express 25(9), 10527–10535 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yan, J.

Yang, C.

Ye, M.

Y. Luo, Y. Yu, M. Ye, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Integrated dual-mode 3 dB power coupler based on tapered directional coupler,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 23516 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ye, T.

Y. Fu, T. Ye, W. Tang, and T. Chu, “Efficient adiabatic silicon-on-insulator waveguide taper,” Photonics Res. 2(3), A41–A44 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yeh, P.

Yu, H.

D. Dai, C. Li, S. Wang, H. Wu, Y. Shi, Z. Wu, S. Gao, T. Dai, H. Yu, and H.-K. Tsang, “10-channel mode (de)multiplexer with dual polarizations,” Laser Photonics Rev. 12(1), 1700109 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Wang, X. Feng, S. Gao, Y. Shi, T. Dai, H. Yu, H.-K. Tsang, and D. Dai, “On-chip reconfigurable optical add-drop multiplexer for hybrid wavelength/mode-division-multiplexing systems,” Opt. Lett. 42(14), 2802–2805 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yu, Y.

C. Sun, Y. Yu, G. Chen, and X. Zhang, “Ultra-compact bent multimode silicon waveguide with ultralow inter-mode crosstalk,” Opt. Lett. 42(15), 3004–3007 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Luo, Y. Yu, M. Ye, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Integrated dual-mode 3 dB power coupler based on tapered directional coupler,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 23516 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zanzi, A.

Zeng, S.

Zhang, G.

Zhang, J.

Zhang, M.

W. Chang, L. Lu, X. Ren, D. Li, Z. Pan, M. Cheng, D. Liu, and M. Zhang, “Ultracompact dual-mode waveguide crossing based on subwavelength multimode-interference couplers,” Photonics Res. 6(7), 660–665 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.

Zhang, Y.

Y. Zhang, Y. He, Q. Zhu, C. Qiu, and Y. Su, “On-chip silicon photonic 2 × 2 mode- and polarization-selective switch with low inter-modal crosstalk,” Photonics Res. 5(5), 521–526 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhou, Y.

Zhu, Q.

Y. Zhang, Y. He, Q. Zhu, C. Qiu, and Y. Su, “On-chip silicon photonic 2 × 2 mode- and polarization-selective switch with low inter-modal crosstalk,” Photonics Res. 5(5), 521–526 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhu, X.

Appl. Opt. (1)

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

H. Xu and Y. Shi, “Flat-top CWDM (de)multiplexer based on MZI with bent directional couplers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 30(2), 169–172 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

Laser Photonics Rev. (8)

R. Halir, P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, A. Ortega-Moñux, C. Alonso-Ramos, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, D.-X. Xu, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, Í. Molina-Fernández, and S. Janz, “Waveguide sub-wavelength structures: a review of principles and applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(1), 25–49 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. Pan, X. Xu, C.-J. Chung, H. Dalir, H. Yan, K. Chen, Y. Wang, B. Jia, and R. T. Chen, “High-speed modulator based on electro-optic polymer infiltrated subwavelength grating waveguide ring resonator,” Laser Photonics Rev. 12(6), 1700300 (2018).
[Crossref]

H. Xu, D. Dai, and Y. Shi, “Ultra-broadband and ultra-compact on-chip silicon polarization beam splitter by using hetero-anisotropic metamaterials,” Laser Photonics Rev. 13(4), 1800349 (2019).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, S. He, and D. Dai, “On-chip silicon 8-channel hybrid (de)multiplexer enabling simultaneous mode- and polarization-division- multiplexing,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(2), L18–L22 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Dai, C. Li, S. Wang, H. Wu, Y. Shi, Z. Wu, S. Gao, T. Dai, H. Yu, and H.-K. Tsang, “10-channel mode (de)multiplexer with dual polarizations,” Laser Photonics Rev. 12(1), 1700109 (2018).
[Crossref]

H. Xu and Y. Shi, “Ultra-sharp multi-mode waveguide bending assisted with metamaterial-based mode converters,” Laser Photonics Rev. 12(3), 1700240 (2018).
[Crossref]

H. Xu and Y. Shi, “Metamaterial-based Maxwell's fisheye lens for multimode waveguide crossing,” Laser Photonics Rev. 12(10), 1800094 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. M. Luque-González, R. Halir, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, J. de-Oliva-Rubio, J. H. Schmid, P. Cheben, Í. Molina-Fernández, and A. Ortega-Moñux, “An ultracompact GRIN-lens-based spot size converter using subwavelength grating metamaterials,” Laser Photonics Rev. 13(11), 1900172 (2019).
[Crossref]

Nanophotonics (1)

C. Li, D. Liu, and D. Dai, “Multimode silicon photonics,” Nanophotonics 8(2), 227–247 (2018).
[Crossref]

Nat. Commun. (2)

L. H. Gabrielli, D. Liu, S. G. Johnson, and M. Lipson, “On-chip transformation optics for multimode waveguide bends,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 1217 (2012).
[Crossref]

Z. Wang, T. Li, A. Soman, D. Mao, T. Kananen, and T. Gu, “On-chip wavefront shaping with dielectric metasurface,” Nat. Commun. 10(1), 3547 (2019).
[Crossref]

Nature (2)

P. Cheben, R. Halir, J. H. Schmid, H. A. Atwater, and D. R. Smith, “Subwavelength integrated photonics,” Nature 560(7720), 565–572 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Sun, E. Timurdogan, A. Yaacobi, E. S. Hosseini, and M. R. Watts, “Large-scale nanophotonic phased array,” Nature 493(7431), 195–199 (2013).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (8)

P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, A. Delâge, S. Janz, G. C. Aers, D.-X. Xu, A. Densmore, and T. J. Hall, “Subwavelength grating periodic structures in silicon-on-insulator: a new type of microphotonic waveguide,” Opt. Express 18(19), 20251–20262 (2010).
[Crossref]

V. Donzella, A. Sherwali, J. Flueckiger, S. M. Grist, S. T. Fard, and L. Chrostowski, “Design and fabrication of SOI micro-ring resonators based on sub-wavelength grating waveguides,” Opt. Express 23(4), 4791–4803 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Flueckiger, S. Schmidt, V. Donzella, A. Sherwali, D. M. Ratner, L. Chrostowski, and K. C. Cheung, “Sub-wavelength grating for enhanced ring resonator biosensor,” Opt. Express 24(14), 15672–15686 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Huang, H. Yan, X. Xu, S. Chakravarty, N. Tang, H. Tian, and R. T. Chen, “Improving the detection limit for on-chip photonic sensors based on subwavelength grating racetrack resonators,” Opt. Express 25(9), 10527–10535 (2017).
[Crossref]

P. Sethi, A. Haldar, and S. K. Selvaraja, “Ultra-compact low-loss broadband waveguide taper in silicon-on-insulator,” Opt. Express 25(9), 10196–10203 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Xu and Y. Shi, “Ultra-broadband silicon polarization splitter-rotator based on the multi-mode waveguide,” Opt. Express 25(15), 18485–18491 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. Han, B. P.-P. Kuo, N. Alic, and S. Radic, “Ultra-broadband multimode 3 dB optical power splitter using an adiabatic coupler and a Y-branch,” Opt. Express 26(11), 14800–14809 (2018).
[Crossref]

H. Xu and Y. Shi, “Subwavelength-grating-assisted silicon polarization rotator covering all optical communication bands,” Opt. Express 27(4), 5588–5597 (2019).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (15)

G. Zhang, H. R. Mojaver, A. Das, and O. Liboiron-Ladouceur, “Mode insensitive switch for on-chip interconnect mode division multiplexing systems,” Opt. Lett. 45(4), 811–814 (2020).
[Crossref]

A. Zanzi, A. Brimont, A. Griol, P. Sanchis, and J. Marti, “Compact and low-loss asymmetrical multimode interference splitter for power monitoring applications,” Opt. Lett. 41(2), 227–229 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. Chen, J. Yan, S. He, and L. Liu, “Broadband optical switch for multiple spatial modes based on a silicon densely packed waveguide array,” Opt. Lett. 44(4), 907–910 (2019).
[Crossref]

H. Xu and Y. Shi, “Ultra-compact polarization-independent directional couplers utilizing a subwavelength structure,” Opt. Lett. 42(24), 5202–5205 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Xu, L. Liu, and Y. Shi, “Polarization-insensitive four-channel coarse wavelength-division (de)multiplexer based on Mach–Zehnder interferometers with bent directional couplers and polarization rotators,” Opt. Lett. 43(7), 1483–1486 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Sun, Y. Yu, G. Chen, and X. Zhang, “Ultra-compact bent multimode silicon waveguide with ultralow inter-mode crosstalk,” Opt. Lett. 42(15), 3004–3007 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Wang, X. Feng, S. Gao, Y. Shi, T. Dai, H. Yu, H.-K. Tsang, and D. Dai, “On-chip reconfigurable optical add-drop multiplexer for hybrid wavelength/mode-division-multiplexing systems,” Opt. Lett. 42(14), 2802–2805 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Xu and Y. Shi, “Ultra-broadband 16-channel mode division (de)multiplexer utilizing densely packed bent waveguide arrays,” Opt. Lett. 41(20), 4815–4818 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Xu and Y. Shi, “Ultra-broadband dual-mode 3  dB power splitter based on a Y-junction assisted with mode converters,” Opt. Lett. 41(21), 5047–5050 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Wang, H. Wu, H.-K. Tsang, and D. Dai, “Monolithically integrated reconfigurable add-drop multiplexer for mode-division-multiplexing systems,” Opt. Lett. 41(22), 5298–5301 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Xu and Y. Shi, “Dual-mode waveguide crossing utilizing taper-assisted multimode-interference couplers,” Opt. Lett. 41(22), 5381–5384 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Xu and Y. Shi, “Ultra-compact and highly efficient polarization rotator utilizing multi-mode waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 42(4), 771–774 (2017).
[Crossref]

D. Dai, J. Wang, and Y. Shi, “Silicon mode (de)multiplexer enabling high capacity photonic networks-on-chip with a single-wavelength-carrier light,” Opt. Lett. 38(9), 1422–1424 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Gu and P. Yeh, “Form birefringence dispersion in periodic layered media,” Opt. Lett. 21(7), 504–506 (1996).
[Crossref]

W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Low-loss, low-cross-talk crossings for silicon-on-insulator nanophotonic waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 32(19), 2801–2803 (2007).
[Crossref]

Optica (2)

Photonics Res. (4)

Y. Fu, T. Ye, W. Tang, and T. Chu, “Efficient adiabatic silicon-on-insulator waveguide taper,” Photonics Res. 2(3), A41–A44 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Xu, D. Dai, and Y. Shi, “Anisotropic metamaterial-assisted all-silicon polarizer with 415-nm bandwidth,” Photonics Res. 7(12), 1432–1439 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhang, Y. He, Q. Zhu, C. Qiu, and Y. Su, “On-chip silicon photonic 2 × 2 mode- and polarization-selective switch with low inter-modal crosstalk,” Photonics Res. 5(5), 521–526 (2017).
[Crossref]

W. Chang, L. Lu, X. Ren, D. Li, Z. Pan, M. Cheng, D. Liu, and M. Zhang, “Ultracompact dual-mode waveguide crossing based on subwavelength multimode-interference couplers,” Photonics Res. 6(7), 660–665 (2018).
[Crossref]

Proc. IEEE (1)

R. Halir, A. Ortega-Moñux, D. Benedikovic, G. Z. Mashanovich, G. J. Wangüemert-Pérez, J. H. Schmid, Í. Molina-Fernández, and P. Cheben, “Subwavelength-grating metamaterial structures for silicon photonic devices,” Proc. IEEE 106(12), 2144–2157 (2018).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (1)

Y. Luo, Y. Yu, M. Ye, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Integrated dual-mode 3 dB power coupler based on tapered directional coupler,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 23516 (2016).
[Crossref]

Other (2)

H. Xu and Y. Shi, “Ultra-compact and broadband silicon polarization rotator,” in 2017 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Pacific Rim, (Optical Society of America, 2017), paper s1544.

H. A. Macleod, “Thin-film optical filters,” Adam Hilger Ltd, Bristol (1986).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) The 3D view and (b) top view of the proposed on-chip multimode power splitter with some key parameters labeled. (c) The enlarged top view of the SWG transflector with some key parameters labeled. The red arrow shows the optical axis orientation for the SWG. (d) The working principle for the SWG-based splitter. The SWG structure can be regarded as an effective-medium thin film, which partially reflects the input TE0-TE2 modes due to the thin-film interference effect, leading to the multimode splitting.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) The calculated effective indices neff for the TE0-TE2 modes in the multimode waveguide with varied w0. The dash line shows the effective index ns for the slab mode. (b) The calculated splitting ratio SR for the TE0-TE2 modes. The left column shows the calculated SR at 1.55-µm wavelength with varied fswg when wswg = 300 nm, 400 nm, 500 nm. The right column shows the calculated SR spectra with varied fswg and fixed wswg = 300 nm.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. The calculated light propagation profiles for the multimode power splitters optimized for 50:50 splitting (left column) and 90:10 splitting (right column).
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. The calculated transmittance spectra for (a) 50:50 splitting and (b) 90:10 splitting. The grey dash lines show the target power levels. The shaded regions show the intermodal crosstalk levels.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. (a) The top view of the multimode power splitter connected with the adiabatic tapers. (b) The calculated excess loss ELtp for the adiabatic taper with varied ltp. (c) The calculated light propagation profiles for the optimized adiabatic taper.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. The calculated transmittance spectra with w0 = 5 µm for (a) 50:50 splitting and (b) 90:10 splitting. The grey dash lines show the target power levels. The shaded regions show the intermodal crosstalk levels.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Performance comparison of several on-chip multimode power splitters.

Equations (9)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

S R = T 21 T 21 + T 31 = 2 r 2 ( 1 + cos δ ) 1 + r 4 + 2 r 2 cos δ .
n s w g 2 = n / / 2 n 2 / ( n / / 2 sin 2 θ + n 2 cos 2 θ ) ,
1 / n / / 2 = f s w g / n S i 2 + ( 1 f s w g ) / n S U 8 2 ,
n 2 = f s w g n S i 2 + ( 1 f s w g ) n S U 8 2 ,
δ = 2 k e f f w s w g cos θ ,
I M C 21 , T E i = 10 log 10 ( max { T 21 , T E j } )   i j ,
I M C 31 , T E i = 10 log 10 ( max { T 31 , T E j } )   i j ,
E L s p , T E i = 10 log 10 ( T 21 , T E i + T 31 , T E i ) ,
E L t p , T E i = 10 log 10 ( T t p , T E i ) ,

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